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1

The Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

2001-01-01

2

The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

1988-01-01

3

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

1990-11-02

4

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

1986-05-09

5

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

2003-05-01

6

The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in order to provide a factual basis for future policy decisions. There are two main issues: What actions can be taken to limit the health effects of the accident? And: What risk is still posed by the remains of the reactor in the sarcophagus? Assessing the health effects of radiation exposure due to the accident is very difficult. The doses received as a result of the accident are not well known and the complex relation between dose received and cancer induction is still not well understood. As a result, projections of future numbers of extra cancer cases depend on a number of assumptions and are at best crude estimates. Epidemiological investigations to detect health effects in populations, as opposed to effects in individuals, are complex and extremely difficult to conduct. It is difficult to find appropriate control groups for comparative purposes and to distinguish the influence of the studies themselves on the results. In addition, there has been a general deterioration in public health in the countries of the former Soviet Union since 1987. This general trend towards poorer health has been misinterpreted and misrepresented as being due to the Chernobyl accident. It has been asserted that up to tens of thousands of peoples 'have already died', implying that they were victims of the Chernobyl accident. However, the total death rate in 1990-1992 among 'liquidators' (emergency and recovery workers) did not exceed for that for the corresponding age group in the Russian Federation as a whole. The increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has been dramatic and, if it persists in members of the age group affected as they grow older over the coming decades, it may result in up to several thousand excess cases of thyroid cancer. The number of fatalities would be much lower than this, since treatment should be 90-95% successful if the thyroid cancer is diagnosed early. The affected people should therefore continue to be closely monitored throughout their lives. 24 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

1996-04-08

7

The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

1988-01-01

8

Appearing consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Chernobyl is the greatest world's tragedy after Chirosima. Global results of this tragedy is already being seen. They are the people who have received radiation dose. the first type of cancer 5 years after Chernobyl accident was the thyroid gland cancer, the reason of it, large quantities of radioactive iodine in the air, food products, milk of cattle and finally their collection in the thyroid gland cancer entering the human body. Period all of a sudden after 10 years completed the next latent type of cancer was leykoz. Giving rise to this type of cancer more sensitive to radiation of the body - a violation of the spinal brain function. After 20 years passing from the accident in the first generation one ill child must be born cause of undergoing to radiation father or mother from each three days in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

2011-11-01

9

Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid antibodies not associated with significant thyroid dysfunction. This finding is consistent with the short period of follow-up, but it is highly likely that these children will develop clinical thyroid autoimmune diseases in the future. Therefore, screening programmes for this at-risk population should focus, not only on the detection of thyroid nodules and cancer, but also on the development of thyroid autoimmune diseases. PMID:10626541

Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

1999-12-01

10

Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

1990-01-01

11

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

1997-01-01

12

Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminated regions are also discussed

1996-10-21

13

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report information about the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the radioactivity burdening of Greece from the radioactive releases of the accident are presented. The main characteristics of the RBMK-1000 reactor and the flow pattern of the radioactive cloud towards Greece are described, results of radioactivity measurements in Greece concerning the environment and the food chain are given, and some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are made. (J.K.)

1986-01-01

14

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

1986-01-01

15

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 ?Sv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

1993-01-01

16

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

1997-03-01

17

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m"-"2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 ?Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident

1997-01-01

18

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

2006-01-01

19

Elimination of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological consequences of reactor accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station is considered. The Chernobyl's release is compared with the estimated radioactivity having been produced by both the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapons testing programs, as well as with the TMI and the Windscale reactor accidents. The necessity of the Shelter's construction, as well as basic problems in designing the Shelter structure is discussed. At the time of the Shelter's construction, the radiation safety division was created to provide the safety of construction personnel. The organization and main tasks of this division is given in detail. The main stages of the Shelter construction is stated. Today's condition of the Shelter and nuclear fuel inside are also discussed. (author)

1992-03-18

20

Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

2009-10-02

 
 
 
 
21

Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)

1996-04-01

22

First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

1989-07-01

23

Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

1997-09-01

24

Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

2006-01-01

25

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

2004-01-01

26

Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

1998-03-01

27

Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

2012-09-01

28

Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

1993-01-01

29

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

1987-01-01

30

Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

2006-03-01

31

Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

1988-01-01

32

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (review)

2006-06-01

33

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish...

Gustaf Åhman; Birgitta Åhman; Axel Rydberg

1990-01-01

34

Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

2003-01-01

35

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

Gustaf Åhman

1990-09-01

36

Selected results of cytogenetic studies related to estimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selected results of cytogenetic studies of the Chernobyl accident consequences were summarised. Chromosomal aberrations were used as a method of bio-dosimetry for dose assessment in victims during the initial period after the Chernobyl accident. Good correlation between doses calculated based on chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics) and severity of acute radiation syndrome observed in clinic was found. Bio-dosimetry based on conventional cytogenetic technique (dicentrics) has been unsuccessful for various groups (rehabilitation workers, evacuees, inhabitants of contaminated areas) sampled long time after the Chernobyl accident. Possible reasons of the failure are analysed. Original results of multi-aberrant cell yield observed in different cohorts of the Chernobyl victims are presented. Problems related to the phenomena are discussed

2000-01-01

37

Reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant-Block 4. Effects, countermeasures and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The findings of the Summary Report on the Chernobyl accident issued by IAEA in September 1986 (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG): Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident. Safety Series No. 78-INSAG-1 Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sept. 1986) are updated, reviewing more recent publications providing more complete information on the events both within and outside the plant. The available information on the resulting radioactive pollution of agriculture and the food chain is discussed considering also the consequences for the future in comparison with the other sources of radioactivity in the environment. 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

1988-01-01

38

Chernobyl severe reactor accident. Accident causes, accident consequences and overcoming. Safeguards and disposal of the Chernobyl power plant; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report on the Chernobyl reactor accident covers the following topics; (1) the reactor accident: the Chernobyl reactor, sequence of accident events, background, state of the sarcophagus and the power plant site; (2) radiation exposure and consequences for human health: radioactivity release and wide ranging contamination, radiation exposure of affected groups of people, health consequences, impact on Germany; (3) lessons learned; (4) safeguarding and waste disposal of the decommissioned Chernobyl reactor.

NONE

2011-04-15

39

Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

2008-10-19

40

An accident with consequences. 25 years Chernobyl; Ein Unfall mit Folgen. 25 Jahre Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution covers questions to the institute for applied ecology in Freiburg concerning the following issues: situation in the institute following the information on the accident in Chernobyl, information for the public and German authorities, the radioactive cloud, the information chaos, the environmental consequences in Germany and the radiological impact on the population.

NONE

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Antioxidant therapy of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' organ of sight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antioxidant complex including flakumin, glutamic acid and sodium thiosulfate, has been used for treating pathologic changes in the organs of sight of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators. Its positive effect on a number of hormonal and immunology indices of blood and the visual acuity stabilization has been shown

1998-04-01

42

Medical aspects of Chernobyl power plant accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absence of experience in liquidation of consequences of largescale nuclear accidents, poorly argumented concepts of survival at contaminated territories, ungrounded rigig limitation measures contributed to formation of phychoemotional stress in the population of contaminated. The authors discuss factors promoting the development of stress states which negatively tell on health status. Nevertheless, the incidence of cardiovascular, and psychosomatic diseases is virtually the same in Russia. The authors emphasize that specialized medical care should be made better accessible for the population and specialized service be created

1994-01-01

43

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

44

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for people and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report recalls the accident scenario, discusses the dispersion of the radioactive plume, comments the contamination at the vicinity of the power station, discusses and comments data related to radioactive deposits in Europe and in France, comments available information regarding radioactive fallouts in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia (models have been used to assess radioactive deposits). It addresses the issue of food product contamination in these three countries (impact on farm products, on water streams and on forests), but also in France. It comments the health impacts, more particularly on the people who intervened on the site, but also on people who received medium doses. Thyroid cancer data are discussed for the three mainly concerned countries. Other pathologies and non-cancerous effects are also discussed. The mortality induced by the accident is commented. Effects in France are evoked as well as social and economic consequences in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The document provides several links to other documents for further and more detailed information

2006-01-01

45

Research and managing institutions in Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents temporal changes of the national organizations in managing the Chernobyl accident and its activities. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine started its activity from the first days after the accident. In 1990 a special executive body, the State committee of Chernobyl Affairs was established in Ukraine to manage the whole activity to overcome the Chernobyl problems. In 1991 it was rearranged into the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In 1996 a new Ministry of Ukraine on Emergences and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe(MEA) was founded on the basis of the Min. Chernobyl and Headquarters Staff of Civil Defence. The National Commission on Radiological Protection of Ukraine (NCRPU) belongs to the Parliament structure. NCRPU is responsible for approval of radiological safety standards and derived regulations. Very often the regulation approved are stricter than the international recommendations. There is an essential lack of attention within the Parliament to the activity of NCRPU. Ministry of Health is responsible for all kinds of medical care for the people suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. In order to provide permanent medical service, a nation-wide scheme has been worked out. Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine is the leading scientific institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The State scientific Center of Environmental Radio geochemistry was created in 1996 on the basis of the two departments of the Institute of Geochemistry. The Center was created in order to improve coordination and managing of scientific researches on the behavior of artificial and natural radionuclides and chemical substances in the environment etc.. The Chernobyl Scientific-Technical center for International Research was created in March,1996. The Ukrainian Scientific Hygienic Center of Ministry of Health was created in 1989 and included two institutions. The subjects, the direction of research works, organizations and key personnel are introduced on these institutes and centers with the major publication list. (Y. Tanaka)

Nasvit, O. [Institute of Hydrobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

1998-03-01

46

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (authors)

2006-11-13

47

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

1996-04-08

48

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After approval by the members of the Forum, this report is the result of that process

2005-09-06

49

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet union and measures taken to mitigate their impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of factual material on the levels of radioactive contamination of the environment in various regions of the Soviet Union, a forecast is given of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the Soviet population

50

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

1997-12-31

51

Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems for off-site emergency management (RODOS), etc

1996-03-18

52

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

1986-08-25

53

Epidemiological studies in Russia about the consequences of the Chernobyl APS accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The final purpose of all efforts to study and mitigate the consequences of the accident at the 4th reactor of the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS) is protection of health of the people who were more or less exposed to radiation action. This situation has not analogs in terms of scale and character. Certain experience was accumulated earlier through the studies of biological and medical effects of atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other radiation catastrophes, diagnostic and therapeutic application of radiation, and the control of health state of professionals in atomic industries. However, these experiences can be used just partially in the assessment and the forecast of possible negative after-effects of the Chernobyl accident for the present and future generations. The long-term irradiation of a lage number of population at low doses is to be considered the principal peculiarity of the Chernobyl accident. The medical activities are complicated significantly by the absence of verifiable individual dosimetric information, natural or forced migration of the population, insufficient development of radiation epidemiology, complicated social-economic situation in the country, and other factors which are inevitable at large-scaled catastrophes. Besides, many fundamental questions related to biological effects of action of low doses of ionizing radiation are still being studied. (J.P.N.)

Ryabzev, I.A. [Institute of Problem of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-03-01

54

Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs

1997-09-01

55

Prophylaxis of arteriosclerosis and myocardial infarction among participants of elimination consequences after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the examination of 415 patients being the participants of the Chernobyl accident response are presented. Examinations were performed for risk assessment of arteriosclerosis and myocardial infraction or insult. Elevated cholesterin levels or high risk of the development of consequences were revealed in 204 patients. These patients were exposed to the treatment with Pravastatine (Lipostat, USA) as well as Zokor preparation (USA). It is shown that the treatment with Lipostat is well endured by patients has no side effects and gives an effect in 70-80 % of cases

1999-01-01

56

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

Czakainski, Martin; Kinzelmann, Thomas; Pretzsch, Gunter; Wasgindt, Volker (comps.)

2007-06-15

57

Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the feeding of infants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the persisting and understandable fear of parents with regard to radioactivity in the food of their babies as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Commission on Nutrition of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kinderheilkunde (German Society of Pediatrics) and the Strahlenschutzkommission have published a statement. According to this statement, the maximum permissible level of radioactivity in commercial baby food has been fixed by the EC to be 370 Bq/kg. The dietetic food industry itself has fixed a maximum for its products which is only a tenth of the radioactivity level permitted by the EC directive. The milk powders for infants tested since the reactor accident contained no measurable radioactivity or only very low amounts of Cs 134 or Cs 137, correspondung to a maximum of 25 Bq/kg in the product. Late damage to health is not to be expected. (orig./ECB)

1987-01-01

58

The accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

1986-01-01

59

Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

1993-01-01

60

Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the 137Cs internal dose to the Japanese population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Japanese population are assessed, for the one-year period from May 1986, in terms of the internal dose due to 137Cs. First, the dose from 137Cs is assessed, for a group of healthy adult males, on the basis of their observed body burdens of 137Cs determined by whole body counting. The annual individual dose estimate thus obtained is 1.5 ?Sv, which is 6-15% and 3.7% respectively of the doses determined by whole body counting in UK and the Federal Republic of Germany. The temporal change in the average body burden is successfully explained here by a single-compartment model. Secondly, this latter model is used, along with the daily 137Cs intake data for each district in Japan, to calculate the dose for the whole of Japan. The estimates of the population dose and the average individual dose obtained are 148 man Sv, for the population of 120 million, and 1.24 ?Sv, respectively. Although comparatively small, these values nonetheless also include the residual contribution from past nuclear weapon tests. The average annual individual dose of 1.24 ?Sv corresponds to 0.7% of the dose from natural 40K in the body. Although whole body counting indicates that 137Cs burdens were still increasing as of May 1987, it is concluded that, in terms of radiocaesium, the effect of the Chernobyl reactor accident on Japan was negligible. (author)

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident.

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

1997-11-01

62

Agro-industrial sphere-radiological consequence of Chernobyl accident and major safety measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The early spring radionuclide fall as a consequence of Chernobyl accident caused air contamination of aerial part of agriculture crop - winter crops, natural and seeded permanent grasses. For other plants the soil and wind contamination are prevailing. After radionuclide fall most of them are concentrated in the soil upper layer. Radionuclide uptake depends on the ratio of their concentration in soils, that is varied due to the soil type. The soil development results in variation of radionuclide migration in the crop. In cattle production two main trends are the most significant: estimation of food contamination (primarily of milk and meat) and analysis of physiological state of animals near NPP. Organization and land-improvement measures permitting a stable agro-industrial functionaing on the contaminated territory are considered

1988-01-01

63

The radiological consequences in the USSR from the Chernobyl accident: Description of the scheme of implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After October 1989 the Government of the USSR requested the IAEA to organize an international assessment of the 'concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in these areas to safeguard the health of the population'. The IAEA responded positively to this request for special assistance. The IAEA is carried out an extensive international project involving over 100 experts who assessed the human health and environmental consequences in the affected areas of Byelorussia, the Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, and evaluate measures taken by Soviet authorities to protect the population and the environment

1990-09-17

64

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets; Les consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Fiches thematiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

NONE

2006-07-01

65

Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 210 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1994-01-01

66

Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-01-01

67

Application of natural adsorbents as decontamination agents for the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific foundations of using natural adsorbents as ion exchangers,filtering media and adagulants for water purification ase presented. The results showing the efficiency of practical application of natural adsorbents for the decontamination of water, clothes, machinery, construction materials, etc. during the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986-1987 are presented

1996-01-01

68

Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

2001-01-01

69

The consequences of the Chernobyl accident - the radioecological database Redac of the French-German initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The French-German Initiative for Chernobyl (FGI), implemented by IRSN and GRS from 1997 until the end of 2003, included the 'Project on the Radioecological Consequences of the Accident'. The most relevant fields of radioecology and post-accidental aspects have been studied, such as radionuclides transfers to plants, to animals, by surface runoff, in the aquatic environment and in the urban environment, wastes management and countermeasures. The main goal was to collect and harmonise, from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the highest possible amount of data and results on these different topics. These data have been verified, validated and organized in a common geo-referenced database REDAC (Radioecological Database After Chernobyl). For linking the different data, maps of initial and present contamination by {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr have been drawn up and relevant environmental non-radioactive data have been included. The operational database built will also allow the management of the wastes disposal sites. Countermeasures used after the accident for urban areas, natural and agricultural environment, have been described and classified. A methodology for evaluating their effectiveness has been developed. This database constitutes a tool for the development and validation of operational, assessment and explicative models. This allows the quantification and assessment of radionuclide transfer in the different compartments of ecosystems. So the main parameters influencing the transfers can be identified. REDAC should be completed by further investigations, for example on transuranic elements and extended to larger geographical zones. The database should also be combined with others provided by different organisations (IAEA, IRSN, UIR, ). (author)

Deville-Cavelin, G.; Biesold, H.; Chabanyuk, V. [Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN), Dir. of Environment and Intervention (DEI) - CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2004-07-01

70

The consequences of the Chernobyl accident - the radioecological database Redac of the French-German initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French-German Initiative for Chernobyl (FGI), implemented by IRSN and GRS from 1997 until the end of 2003, included the 'Project on the Radioecological Consequences of the Accident'. The most relevant fields of radioecology and post-accidental aspects have been studied, such as radionuclides transfers to plants, to animals, by surface runoff, in the aquatic environment and in the urban environment, wastes management and countermeasures. The main goal was to collect and harmonise, from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the highest possible amount of data and results on these different topics. These data have been verified, validated and organized in a common geo-referenced database REDAC (Radioecological Database After Chernobyl). For linking the different data, maps of initial and present contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr have been drawn up and relevant environmental non-radioactive data have been included. The operational database built will also allow the management of the wastes disposal sites. Countermeasures used after the accident for urban areas, natural and agricultural environment, have been described and classified. A methodology for evaluating their effectiveness has been developed. This database constitutes a tool for the development and validation of operational, assessment and explicative models. This allows the quantification and assessment of radionuclide transfer in the different compartments of ecosystems. So the main parameters influencing the transfers can be identified. REDAC should be completed by further investigations, for example on transuranic elements and extended to larger geographical zones. The database should also be combined with others provided by different organisations (IAEA, IRSN, UIR, ). (author)

2004-09-06

71

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

1987-01-01

72

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs.

Goldman, M.; Catlin, R.J.; Anspaugh, L.

1987-06-01

73

Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

1996-03-18

74

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within the

1986-04-26

75

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and measures taken to mitigate their impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of factual material on the levels of radioactive contamination of the environment in various regions of the Soviet Union, a forecast is given of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the Soviet population. The theoretical variation with time of the principal radiation factors is compared with their actual variation in the year following the accident. The analysis of a large amount of data on actual external and internal radiation doses to the public confirms the effectiveness and timeliness of the large scale measures taken in evacuating the population from a 30 km zone, in monitoring the radioactivity of agricultural produce and in providing the population with uncontaminated foodstuffs. A review is made of organizational aspects of a national epidemiological research programme to assess the possible late health effects on the Soviet population of the radioactivity released from the Chernobyl accident. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

1987-10-02

76

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems

1996-04-08

77

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarkog, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Arkhipov, N.P. [Scientific and Technical Centre of the RIA `Pripyat` (Ukraine); Johansson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

1996-07-01

78

The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident--findings from the International Atomic Energy Agency Study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In October 1989, more than 3 years after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, in the Ukraine, the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluate the medical and psychological health of residents living in areas identified as being contaminated with radioactive fallout. The IAEA designed and conducted a collaborative study to examine whether there were any measurable effects of exposure to the low levels of ...

1993-01-01

79

The radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH)

1986-01-01

80

Early aging predictors in liquidators: a sign of long term consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of biological aging in the persons, who took part in elimination of Chernobyl accident after effects during 1986-1987, 8-9 years after the accident wave studied. Different influence of the complex of harmful factors on the development of long-term after effects, aging rate in particular, in the liquidators of different passport age was revealed. Our study enabled us to determine the importance of the age of the person at the moment of exposure to harmful agents including small-dose ionizing radiation

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

1986-05-06

82

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, ... >> The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to co nsid

2008-02-01

83

Study on consequences of radioactive iodine pollution and iodine prophylaxis after Chernobyl accident in Cracow region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Program of investigations of effects of radiation and iodine prophylaxis undertaken after Chernobyl accident in Cracow region had to be modified due to goiter endemic in this region.These modifications included: 1) Division of the region into 3 areas (voivodeship Nowy Sacz, urban voivodeship Cracow and area of Kielce and Swietokrzyskie Mountains). 2) Study on iodine uptake in food and urinary secretion. 3) Examination of iodine level in drinking water, and an attempt of calculation of radiation dose absorbed by thyroid. Characterization of selected areas, principles of selection of study groups are presented as well as organisational details and methods of data collection. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

1991-01-01

84

Influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences to the animal kingdom. Chapter 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total regularities of ionizing irradiation effect on the living systems, as well as molecular, cell and tissues radiation effects, radiation effects on organism, population and ecosystem are shown. The results of monitoring of zoo plankton systems, state of populations of mass species of benthos invertebrates and fishes in water reservoirs in the Chernobyl accident zone are given. Disorders in hemolymph and changes in complexes of soil invertebrates, as well as changes of population structures of amphibians and reptiles living in radioactive contaminated zone are described. The state of model groups and forming of population structure of insects, birds and mammals were investigated. 19 tabs., 16 figs

1995-01-01

85

Chernobyl radiological data for accident consequence assessment. Behaviour in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this draft is presented the results of a first effort to summarize information related to the radionuclides behaviour in rural areas, in order to estimate pathway parameters to assess accident consequences. This topic encloses relevant aspects concerni...

A. Bottino A. Sacripanti

1989-01-01

86

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

1986-01-01

87

The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data of the air radioactivity collected in the period 26/4-25/5, 1986 after the Chernobyl accident are presented. In particular the network of the sampling stations and the analysis carried out are briefly described. The meteorological situation responsible for the long-range transport of the pollutants from the place of emission to our country is also shown

1987-01-01

88

Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

2004-10-01

89

The consequences of a serious nuclear reactor accident - Chernobyl; Die Folgen eines schweren Kernreaktorunfalls - Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of the radionuclides emitted from the Chernobyl reactor and their transport within the whole ecosystem of Germany is briefly explained. More exact measurements of the dose equivalent and of the I-131 and Cs 137 activity in cow milk were carried out in the region of Aachen. The consequences for small children and adults are assessed. (DG) [Deutsch] Der Transport der aus dem Tschernobyl-Reaktor emittierten Radionuklide und deren Transport im genannten Oekosystem des Bereichs der Bundesrepublik wird kurz erlaeutert. Genauere Messungen der Aequivalentdosis und der I-131- bzw. Cs-137-Aktivitaet in Kuhmilch erfolgten im Raum Aachen. Ihre Folgen wurden fuer Kleinkinder und Erwachsene abgeschaetzt. (DG)

Bonka, H. [Lehrgebiet Strahlenschutz in der Kerntechnik der Rheinisch Westfaelischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen (Germany)

1993-12-31

90

The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Greek marine environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sampling network was established around the Greek peninsula including the ordinary monitoring stations, as well as some new ones so that a good ecological and geomorphological coverage was succeeded. The artificial radionuclides of the fallout coming from Chernobyl were measured in fish, crustacea, algae, seagrass, plankton and sea urchins as representative marine organisms of each region. There was an immediate response of the organisms to the added pollutants in their environment evidenced by the rise of the concentrations of the artificial radionuclides, up to ten times in some cases concerning some long lived radionuclides measured before and after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Besides the physical and chemical factors of the environment, as well as the biological parameters of the organisms, the geomorphology and the weathering processing of the region seemed to have a considerable influence on the bioaccumulation of the radionuclides by the various organisms. All the above arguments concern the radioecological aspect while from the radiology point of view the contribution of the polluted seafood to the total dose received by the consumers was negligible in comparison with that via the terrestrial food webs. (H.F.)

1987-01-01

91

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident; Radiologische Folgen des Tschernobyl-Ungluecks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large areas of Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine have been highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The most affected areas are around Chernobyl and east of Gomel in Belarus, where part of the radioactive fallout came down with rain. The article maps the radioactive contamination through cesium 137 and iodine 131, and summarizes the immediate action taken at the time, as well as long-term remedial action for decontamination of soils. Data are given on the radiation exposure of the population, in particular doses to the thyroid, and prognoses on the incidence of thyroid cancer. (VHE) [Deutsch] Durch den Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl wurden groessere Flaechen von Belarus, Russland und der Ukraine stark radioaktiv kontaminiert. Besonders betroffen sind die Umgebung von Tschernobyl sowie die Gegend oestlich von Gomel (Belarus), wo die radioaktive Wolke teilweise ausregnete. Der Artikel beschreibt die Belastung mit Caesium 137 und Iod 131 sowie die ergriffenen Sofortmassnahmen und die langfristigen Massnahmen zur Dekontamination der betroffenen Boeden. Die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung, v.a. die Schilddruesendosen, werden beschrieben, fuer Schilddruesenkrebs werden Prognosen gegeben. (VHE)

Jacob, P.

1996-05-01

92

Radiocontamination patterns and possible health consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main hazard in the early phase after Chernobyl was radioiodine. Thyroid doses were esimated separately for (i) zones of strict control, (ii) most contaminated provinces (iii) the whole central European region of the USSR. Distinction was made between children under the age of 7 years at the time of the accident and the rest of the population. In the later phase the main concern is whole-body exposure to radiocaesium. Doses were calculated for the same areas and age groups as radioiodine. The following were considered: thyroid malignancies, leukaemia, other types of cancer, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. A stastistically significant excess over the spontaneous level is unlikely to be detectable for these effects, with the possible exception of thyroid disorders. The risk was greatly reduced by preventive measures, in particular lifetime doses have been restricted by establishment of a limit of 0.35 Sv. (author)

1990-01-01

93

The consequences of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of the Chernobyl IV Reactor its operation and safety system. The following issues are analyzed; 1: the errors of the operators that produced the accident in april 26, 1986; 2: the fallout caused by the first explosions, that has mainly incorporated I and Cs in the food chain; 3: the path of the Chernobyl cloud, its passing across the north and south of Europe, and the middle east; 4: measures to stop the accident, fire control, plant stabilization and recovery of the place; 5: a sarcophagus, a technical novelty, had to be built due to the difficulties of monitoring; 6: the problematic decontamination of the forested places, caused interesting programs to be developed. Afterwords the effects produced by high and low doses in the population, were studied. A group of experts, reached the conclusion that no corrective or improvement measures for the occidental safety mechanisms, were required. (M.E.L.)

1988-01-01

94

Legislation in Ukraine about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the status and consequences of the principal laws of Ukraine concerning the problem of the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Ukrainian authorities have been giving a series of the laws after February, 1991. The system of Chernobyl Laws in Ukraine reflects the rather good intention of the Ukrainian authorities to help the people who suffered from the Chernobyl catastrophe. The system of the Laws includes more than that justified by the scientific base, that is, the combined effect of radioactive exposure and factors of non-radioactive synergism. However, after the Soviet Union collapse, it was found that the Laws were overloaded with social payments and compensations. A number of changes and additions to the Laws caused political struggles. In this situation, the radiological aspect of the problems stepped aside. The radiological survey system in Ukraine provides necessary information on annual doses to the population in the contaminated areas. Despite of the clearly observed reduction of the doses, allocation on the categories of contaminated zones has not been reviewed since 1991. According to the monitoring data, the level of radiation doses of about 50 % of all settlements does not correspond to their present status. What is very important in the present situation is to stop compulsory resettlement. It is necessary to stop to pay compensations for contaminated food products, and introduce a system of benefit to those who produce pure products on contaminated areas. It is expected that on approval of the Ukrainian Parliament it will became a new basis for reviewing of the Chernobyl Laws. The Laws and regulations of Ukraine on radiation protection are on the way to meet international basic safety standards. But there is no experience in the world of dealing with the consequences of such a wide-scale radiation catastrophe. Taking into account the fact that a certain part of the Ukrainian population have to live permanently on the radioactively contaminated area, the contamination is not considered as an accidental, but rather as environmental factor like natural radioactivity. This thought provides somewhat different approach to setting acceptable levels of radionuclides in food stuffs and explains the difference in international recommendations. (Y. Tanaka)

Nasvit, O. [Institute of Hydrobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

1998-03-01

95

Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

1997-11-01

96

Environmental and health consequences in Japan due to the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive review was made on the results of national monitoring program for environmental radioactivity in Japan resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR. Period of monitoring efforts covered by the present review is from 30th of April 1986 to 31st of May 1987. A radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor initially arrived in Japan on 30th of April 1986 as indicated by the elevated level of 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activity in the total deposition on 30th of April and also by the increased 137Cs body burden noted on 1st of May. Almost all the radioactive nuclides detected in the European countries were also identified in Japan. For example, the observed nuclides were: 95Zr, 95Nb, 99mTc, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 111Ag, 125Sb, 127Sb, 129mTe, 131I, 132Te, 132I, 133I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce. Among the above radionuclides, the country average concentration was determined for 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs in various environmental materials such as air, fresh water, soil, milk, leafy and root vegetables, cereals, marine products and other foodstuffs. In contrast to the sharp decline of 131I which was negligible after a few months, 137Cs showed a tendency to maintain its activity in foodstuffs at an appreciable level one year later. Collective effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent to thyroid in Japanese population due to 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I were estimated to be around 590 man Sv and 4760 man Sv, respectively. Corresponding values for the per caput dose equivalent are 5 ?Sv for whole body and 40 ?Sv for thyroid, respectively. (author)

1988-01-01

97

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

2001-01-01

98

Conclusions from the consequences of the reactor accident of Chernobyl for Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to abate the possibility, and to diminish the consequences of a serious reactor accident, the following measures are proposed and explained: (1) Establishment of an international reactor safety conference. (2) Establishment of a law on precautionary radiological protection on a national level. (3) In Bavaria: Extension of the radioactivity monitoring network to cover the whole area of Bavaria, enhancement of the information systems, establishment of a permanent inter-ministerial coordination board, research activities. (TRV)

1987-01-01

99

Chernobyl accident management actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident Management Actions taken during the first days after the Chernobyl accident either proved ineffective or were not fulfilled as reported by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Meeting of Experts in Vienna in August 1986. Most significant to source-term analyses and estimates is that it is now believed that approximately 71% of the initial 190.3 tonne UO_2 fuel load was exposed to a high-temperature oxidizing environment because the core was neither covered with various materials thrown from helicopters to smother the fire nor was the core purged with (liquid) nitrogen. Both these actions were originally believed (on the basis of Soviet reports) to have effectively brought the crises to an end. These results seem to support earlier western far-field source term estimates that significantly more volatile radionuclides may have been released as a result of the accident than reported by the Soviets in August 1986. 46 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

1986-08-00

100

Prenatal diagnostics of congenital malformations, the most efficient way to decrease genetic consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term study of the prevalence of congenital malformations (CM) in the population of Belarus, carried out by Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, showed considerably increased, from 5.6% in 1980-1985 to 7.2% in 1986-1996, frequency of the anomalies found in embryos, increased number of malformations in induced abortuses and also the growth of CM in newborns, from 5 in 1983-1985 to 7.2 in 2001, in post-Chernobyl period. The highest raise was registered in the mostly contaminated with Cs-137 areas in the first post-Chernobyl years. There are various reasons for the observed increase, but they are still not clearly understood. Nutrition imbalance (deficit of vitamins, essential amino acids and soluble selenium), physoemotional stress, hormone imbalance, alcoholism and increased level of mutations due to additional exposure of the gonads of the residents of contaminated areas of the Republic can have some impact. Positive prevalence trend of multifactorial anomalies evidences multifactorial origin of the increased prevalence of embryonal anomalies. Both, increased prevalence of CM with great contribution of dominant mutations and the peak of Down's syndrome cases, recorded in January, 1987 with maximum in Gomel region, suggest mutation component. At present, the most efficient measures to prevent the birth of malformed children are prenatal diagnostics and vitamin supplement of the couples, who plan their pregnancy, and pregnant women in the first trimester. According to the conclusion, made by WHO experts, vitamin intake can considerably reduce many CM with multifactorial origin. Positive results can be achieved only if the problem is solved by the government, when vitamins are added to flour, cereals and bread. Prenatal diagnostics with subsequent termination of pregnancy, where incurable anomalies are found, contributes greatly to the reduction of the proportion of malformed newborns, irrespective of the factors, which caused the anomalies. Thus, in Belarus in the last 5 years about 500 pregnancies were terminated annually for genetic reasons. Over 100 pregnancies were terminated in Gomel region, which considerably reduced (by 1-3%) perinatal mortality, children's morbidity and disability. The number of children, born with the anomalies of the central nervous system, renal polycystosis and agenesis, omphalocele, reduction limb defects, is decreasing most considerably. The potentialities of prenatal diagnostics of CM are far from being used adequately in the Republic. With sufficient financing, present-day techniques allow prenatal diagnosing of 1000 cases instead of 600 diagnosed each year. The program will be productive, if prenatal biochemical screening and invasive prenatal procedures are financed regularly and interregional centres for prenatal diagnostics are created. These measures will not only reduce the proportion of children, born with congenital malformations, but increase the birth rate in Belarus, since the future mothers will not be scared to give birth to a malformed child, which is especially essential for the population exposed to radiation due to Chernobyl accident (authors)

2003-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

[Features of cardiovascular diseases in cleaners-up of consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station accident and in residents of territories polluted by radionuclides].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors discuss features of cardiovascular diseases in liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power station accident consequences and in residents of territories polluted with radionuclides, present recommendations on correction of risk factors leading to atherosclerosis--the main cause of cardiovascular complications. PMID:12194592

Babkin, A P; Choporov, O N; Kuralesin, N A

2002-01-01

102

Estimation of individual relative risk of malignancies on the data of cytogenetic examination of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident consequences liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation of increased cancerogenic risk groups on the basis of cytogenetic examination of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is proved. The frequency of pair fragments and chromatid aberrations has the most self descriptiveness at cohort stratification on groups of persons with oncological pathology and with out it

2003-01-01

103

Consequences of Chernobyl accident for Poland: Retrospective assessment after 10 years; Skutki katastrofy w Czarnobylu dla Polski: Ocena retrospektywna po 10 latach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The regional contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident has been presented. On this base the biological and medical consequences have been discussed. The neonatal mortality as well as cancer frequency for selected regional population in Poland have been analysed during the last decade. 10 figs, 20 tabs.

Jaskowski, J. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

1996-12-31

104

Radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for Lake ecosystems within 10 km exclusion zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1997-2005 we studied distribution and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am in the main components of the aquatic ecosystems within exclusion zone, defined as a roughly circular area of 30-km radius around the destroyed unit of the Chernobyl NPP. Our special attention was given to bottom sediments, water, seston, higher aquatic plants, molluscs and fish of lake ecosystems within inner (10-km) exclusion zone: Azbuchin Lake, Dalekoye Lake and Glubokoye Lake. The data analysis has shown that about 98-99% of 137Cs and more than 99% of transuranic elements of the total radionuclide content has deposited in the bottom sediments. The content of 90Sr in sediments of lakes, due to higher solubility, amounts to 89-95%. About 2-10% of radionuclides concentrated in water and only about 1% - in biota. In this percent a prevailing value for different radionuclides has the macro benthos species (especially bivalve molluscs) and higher aquatic plants. The average specific activity of radionuclides in fish tissue more than in 100 times exceeds a maximum permissible level for fish production in Ukraine. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts, living within littoral zone of the researched lakes, due to external irradiation and radionuclides incorporated in tissue was in a range from 0.2 to 3.4 Gy year-1. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within embankment territory on left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River with high density of radionuclide contamination (Dalekoye Lake and Glubokoye Lake). The numerous effects of irradiation on hydrobionts within the exclusion zone are revealed. Some of these effects required for the short period of time for their formation, however it is supposed that an increasing importance will be got by the remote consequences - genetic damages induced by a long-term irradiation. The molluscs embryos from Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake were characterised by the highest rate of chromosome aberration - about 20-25%, that in 10 times exceeds a spontaneous mutagenesis level for hydrobionts. The maximal rate of chromosome aberration in roots of higher aquatic plants (about 8%) has registered in Glubokoye Lake. In these lakes the high level of common reed damage by gall mites and by parasitic fungus has marked as well

2006-09-06

105

Simulation of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical and structural drawbacks of RBMK reactors that led to the accident at Chernobyl unit 4 are analyzed. They are as follows: positive void reactivity coefficient and defects in the design of the reactor core protection system, Contribution of each drawback to the accident development is assessed. It is shown that the drawback in the design of control rods triggered the accident

2011-01-01

106

Experience in using phytopreparation Regesan in patients with chronic laryngitis - participants in liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of using local phytopreparation Regesan in chronic atrophic laryngitis therapy in patients who participated in the Chernobyl accident aftermath are studied. Taking into account the absence of side effects and the presence of a positive therapeutic effect, the drug is recommended for use in a clinical otolaryngological practice.

2011-01-01

107

Malignant neoplasms morbidity tendencies between liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1986-2004)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the constantly increasing malignant tumors, the great interest towards the cancers induced by radiation appears. The analyze of such cancers is possible because of the detailed statistic data. 5965 Chernobyl clean-up workers were examined. In the years of 1986 - 2004 it was registered 128 cancers. 27,4 % - the cancers of pulmonary system; 26,9 % - the cancers of gastrointestinal system; 10,8 % - the cancers of blood and lymph system; 10,2 % - the lip and mouth cancers; 6,1% - the skin cancers. Among the clean-up workers who were worked in Chernobyl in the period of 1986-1987 years more often - the cancers skin, of blood and lymph system, the lip and mouth were detected. More often the cancers were detected in the age groups of 45-64 years with predomination of pulmonary and gastrointestinal system cancers, o in the age groups of 25-44 - with skin cancers, the cancers of blood and lymph system and the lip and mouth cancers. Comparing with Lithuanian men population the cancer predomination of Chernobyl clean-up workers is higher

2006-04-01

108

Cancer risk estimation in Belarussian children due to thyroid irradiation as a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid doses received by the juvenile population of Belarus following the Chernobyl accident ranged up to about 10 Gy. The thyroid cancer risk estimate recommended in NCRP Report No. 80 was used to predict the number of thyroid cancer cases among children during 1990-1992 in selected Belarussian regions and cities. The results obtained using this risk estimate show an excess of thyroid cancer cases being registered vs. the predicted cases. Thyroid cancer incidence rate among boys under investigation is higher than among girls in the postaccident period. The excess of the observed over the expected incidence in the general juvenile population is caused by the high thyroid cancer incidence rate among boys. These results, which can be considered part of the first stage of a thorough thyroid cancer risk estimation after the Chernobyl accident, demonstrate the critical need to complete these studies in depth. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

1996-07-01

109

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

1996-01-01

110

Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle consequence of Chernobyl accident, on the plan of the long term effects, is a very important increase of thyroid cancers frequency on children. The cause is certainly the very important thyroid contamination by radioactive iodine released in atmosphere during this accident. The excess in five years is about 500 cases for Belarus, Ukraine and Russia republics; the incidence has been multiplied by 50 in Belarus. These cancers, appeared in the great majority on children contaminated before they were five years old, are very invasive; local and regional extensions are important, metastasis are numerous. They are cured in an unperfect manner. It is impossible to tell what will be the future of this epidemic. It seems that children epidemic is going to decrease; the increase of adult epidemic is modest but it can become more serious. If stable iodine distribution had been correctly made, it is likely that the number of cases would have been lower. Iodine storages have been constituted in France, but distribution rules are not still defined. No augmentation of others cancers appeared especially for leukemia. 15 refs., 3 tabs

1995-06-01

111

[Features of a lipid spectrum and cerebral haemodynamics in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences of the senior age groups].  

Science.gov (United States)

41 liquidators of 40-70 years old who had worked in the Chernobyl accident area and 30 patients of the same age (control group) were examined. The lipid spectrum of blood and cerebral haemodynamics (Duplex ultrasound scanning of magisterial arteries of the head) were examined. The results indicate that influence of low radiation stimulates the aterogenic forms of dislipoproteinemia and accelerated atherogenesis. The conclusion is made about marked structural and functional changes in cerebral vascular system taking place under the influence of low radiation in patients of older age groups. PMID:21137223

Evstratova, L V; Ar'ev, A L; Azin, A L; Ovsiannikova, N A; Kozina, L S

2010-01-01

112

[The electrophysiological characteristic of the brain functional status in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

41 liquidators who had worked in the Chernobyl accident area were examined. All of them had nervous diseases. Both alpha-rhythms disorganization and increase of beta-activity were usually observed in brain cortex sensomotor areas of 41 liquidators as compared with 30 healthy individuals. The majority of patients were characterized by both enhanced reaction to light flashes rhythm assimilation and the decrease of nonspecific and skin-galvanic reactions to the light stimulus. The conclusion is made about the systemic CNS damage in liquidators as compared with healthy individuals. PMID:21033381

Evstratova, L V; Ar'ev, A L; Azin, A L; Ovsiannikova, N A; Kozina, L S

2010-01-01

113

Chernobyl accident sequence of events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chronology of the Chernobyl accident begins with the 1 a.m. reduction to half power on Friday, April 25, and reports significant events until all fires were extinguished at 5 a.m. on Saturday. Mathematical reconstruction derived some of the times. The sequence uses data from the Soviet report

1986-09-01

114

The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

2006-04-15

115

The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

2006-01-01

116

The Chernobyl accident - five years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

1991-01-01

117

Chernobyl and the consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure contains the texts of a broadcasting series with the following subjects: 1) Brighter than a thousand suns - what happened at Chernobyl; 2) Radical assault on the genetic material - the effect of radiation; 3) It's the dose that counts - slight radiation and human health; 4) Nuclear fallout - contamination levels of water, soil and air; 5) Safety against bombing - how safe are German nuclear power plants; 6) Practical advice for consumers. (HP)

1986-07-01

118

Chernobyl - the radioactive plume and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual report 1986 of the United Kingdom Meterological Office is presented. The contents of the report contains a paper entitled 'Chernobyl - the radioactive plume and its consequences'. The paper is an account of the incident from a meteorological viewpoint. The account includes a description of the following topics:- the accident, during the first few days, the plume over Europe, loss processes, the plume over Britain, depositions, and the relation between emission and deposition. (U.K.)

1987-01-01

119

Particularities of chronic diseases evolution in persons from the Republic of Moldova, who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper the results of chronic diseases evolution during the period of 1995-2010 for participants of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation are presented. The study group consisted of 800 male patients, Chisinau city residents, aged 43-63 years, and 200 healthy male control subjects of same age. In the study group 2197 cases of chronic diseases in 1995, 4338 - in 2010 were recorded. During this period, the number of cardiovascular diseases has increased three times, digestive system disorders - 2 times, diseases of musculoskeletal system - 4.7 times, and respiratory illnesses have tripled.

2011-01-01

120

Information-Analytic support of the programs of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident: gained experience and its future application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the initial stage of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the role of system-analytic and information support in the decision making process for protection of the population and rehabilitation of territories was. to a certain extent, underestimated. Starting from 1991, activity in system-analytic support was the part of the USSR (later on, Russian) stage programs. This activity covered three direction: development of the Central bank of the generalized data on the radiation catastrophes; development, implementation, and maintenance of the control informational system for the Federal bodies; computer-system integration

1996-03-18

 
 
 
 
121

Medical consequences for children population of survivors after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (12 years later)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl NPP accident is recognized as the global disaster. Wide amount of population including children was involved. According to the direct measurements results from 1986 the 40% of children population received thyroid irradiation doses from 0.3 to 2.0 Gy and 10% of them - over 2 Gy respectively. Cesium incorporation value calculated per irradiation dose not exceeded 0.5 rem in 97% of kids. Children examination was organized in 2 steps. Within 1. one various transient reactions of nervous system, skin, mucosa, blood formula were revealed. Within 2. one the complete medical examinations were carried out both with dosimetric control. ChNPP accident poly-factor nature was fixed. Wide amount of somatic pathology not related to radiation exposure dose was registered. 12 years after the accident as the result of wide-scale epidemiological study was found out that children population had been exposed to both acute (evacuated persons) and long-term chronic (contaminated territories residents) effect of radiation factor. The main health risk for children involved in nuclear disaster zone is connected with non-oncological blood and haemopoietic organs diseases, digestive system pathology and mental disorders. Parameters excess was revealed in group of persons with higher collective dose accumulated for 10-12 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rate growth is recognized as the radioinduced effect. 12 years after the accident is obvious that 'health detriment' for children population of ChNPP accident survivors is expressed in additional number of endocrine system diseases cases - 24%, blood and haemopoietic organs - 33%, digestive system - 24%, mental disorders - 52% respectively. (authors)

1998-10-11

122

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

1986-01-01

123

Fuenf Jahre nach Tschernobyl. (Chernobyl accident - five years later).  

Science.gov (United States)

At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate ...

K. Mueck

1991-01-01

124

Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

1988-07-01

125

The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, além de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O foco no câncer de tireóide, porém, distraiu a atenção de especialistas sobre outros possíveis efeitos. A resposta internacional ao acidente foi inadequada, descoordenada e injustificavelmente tranqüilizadora. Acurada avaliação sobre efeitos futuros nem sempre é possível por causa de uma certa dose de incertezas frente ao estágio atual dos debates sobre radiação. É essencial que investigações sobre efeitos e conseqüências do desastre possam ser socializadas e apoiadas por um longo período de tempo. Por causa das inadequadas respostas internacionais ao problema, a ONU deveria iniciar uma revisão independente a respeito das ações e responsabilidades das agências, com recomendações de como agir em futuros desastres. Isso deveria envolver cientistas independentes e não que atuassem em competição.

Keith Baverstock

2007-06-01

126

The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response / O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, alé [...] m de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O foco no câncer de tireóide, porém, distraiu a atenção de especialistas sobre outros possíveis efeitos. A resposta internacional ao acidente foi inadequada, descoordenada e injustificavelmente tranqüilizadora. Acurada avaliação sobre efeitos futuros nem sempre é possível por causa de uma certa dose de incertezas frente ao estágio atual dos debates sobre radiação. É essencial que investigações sobre efeitos e conseqüências do desastre possam ser socializadas e apoiadas por um longo período de tempo. Por causa das inadequadas respostas internacionais ao problema, a ONU deveria iniciar uma revisão independente a respeito das ações e responsabilidades das agências, com recomendações de como agir em futuros desastres. Isso deveria envolver cientistas independentes e não que atuassem em competição. Abstract in english Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and cons [...] ider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.

Keith, Baverstock; Dillwyn, Williams.

127

The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response / O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, alé [...] m de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O foco no câncer de tireóide, porém, distraiu a atenção de especialistas sobre outros possíveis efeitos. A resposta internacional ao acidente foi inadequada, descoordenada e injustificavelmente tranqüilizadora. Acurada avaliação sobre efeitos futuros nem sempre é possível por causa de uma certa dose de incertezas frente ao estágio atual dos debates sobre radiação. É essencial que investigações sobre efeitos e conseqüências do desastre possam ser socializadas e apoiadas por um longo período de tempo. Por causa das inadequadas respostas internacionais ao problema, a ONU deveria iniciar uma revisão independente a respeito das ações e responsabilidades das agências, com recomendações de como agir em futuros desastres. Isso deveria envolver cientistas independentes e não que atuassem em competição. Abstract in english Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and cons [...] ider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.

Keith, Baverstock; Dillwyn, Williams.

128

Investigation of internal dose received by the Hungarian population due to cesium radionuclides as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hungary was one of the countries affected by radioactive environmental contamination due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The total ground deposition of radionuclides showed a non-uniform distribution over the country. According to a nationwide survey the activity surface concentration varied within about an order of magnitude from place to place. The most characteristic local averages for 137Cs ranged from 1 to 5 kBq m-2. An extended internal contamination monitoring program was introduced by whole body counting very soon after the accident. The subjects to be measured systematically were selected from Budapest's residents representing both sexes and different age groups. The total number of subjects monitored regularly (control group) was 44. The representativity of the control group for adults was checked by comparing the results with those obtained for large number of subjects measured occasionally. The program was later extended also to other parts of Hungary by single reference measurements. Six weeks average monitoring interval was chosen for following the whole body activities due to 134Cs and 137Cs radionuclides, which are responsible for the long term internal dose received by the population. The results obtained for adults are presented

1988-01-01

129

Clinical observation of cerebrovascular diseases current in Chernobyl accident liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the clinical follow up study (1993-1997) of cerebrovascular diseases development in the Chernobyl accident liquidators are presented. The syndrome of autonomous nervous system dysfunction following to an exposure to the Chernobyl accident consequences factors promotes to fast development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. On the base of an analysis of the data obtained it was established that the primary diencephalic structures damage resulted in severe changes of different metabolic system, particularly in the cerebrovascular disorders development

1999-01-01

130

Study on the health and social consequences based on assessment of the irradiation of the Bulgarian population as a result of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Ionizing radiation is one of the well-established etiologic factors for induced malignant diseases. As a result of trans-boundary transfer of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident, Bulgaria, like other European countries, was contaminated and all consequences followed. Based on data for radiation background in Bulgaria in the first two months after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, assessment of thyroid gland exposure of different population groups was made. The thyroid gland exposure was determined by direct measurement of thyroid gland activity and indirect (computing) methods as well. Both methods show that children under school age are the group at highest dose burden. The average doses equal 10 mGy and vary from 7.5 to 20 mGy for direct measurement and indirect methods respectively, and the maximum doses range from 100 mGy to 96.5 mGy. The doses for other age groups are: average 3.2±1.5 mGy and maximum 25±10 mGy. The primary source of exposure is Iodine-131 and the other Iodine and Tellurium radionuclides have an insignificant impact. The main share in thyroid gland exposure has the consumption of milk, esp. sheep's milk, and green foliar vegetables. The contribution of inhaled Iodine and both internal and external exposure from other sources is up to 10-15%. An epidemiological case-control study was carried out according to thyroid gland doses received in regions of highest radioactive contamination. The thyroid cancer cases diagnosed in these regions were compared with cases in regions of lowest contamination for the period 1990-2003. The analysis was based on place of residence and diet (type and source of consumed milk and milk products) of cases during May-June 1986. The standardized incidence of thyroid cancer by sex and age in these regions was compared also. The difference in thyroid gland doses estimated by region are not related with thyroid cancer incidence Data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Discussed are results from different descriptive epidemiological studies on malignant diseases of lymph and haemopoietic system (especially lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia) and thyroid cancer incidence after the Chernobyl accident. The descriptive and analytical studies carried out since now provide evidence that there is no public health impact of the Chernobyl accident in the field of leukaemia and thyroid cancer in Bulgaria

2006-04-01

131

Reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

1990-06-30

132

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

2008-10-19

133

Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the major concerns after radiation exposure, do

2000-05-01

134

The causes of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

2001-01-01

135

Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of consequences of thyroid exposure of the Russian population following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early period after the Chernobyl accident, analysis of patterns of 131I exposure of the human thyroid showed that contaminated milk was the basic source of 131I intake among the inhabitants of Russia. The equipment and techniques used for measurement of the 131I content in the thyroids of these individuals are described in this work. A model of the 131I intake, taking into account protective actions, and a method of thyroid dose calculation are discussed. The mean thyroid dose and frequency distributions of the thyroid doses to inhabitants of towns and villages of the Bryansk, Tula and Orel regions of Russia are presented. The mean dose to the thyroids of children living in the villages was 2 to 5 times higher than the dose to adult thyroids; for children living in the towns, the mean dose was 1.5 to 12 times higher. The mean thyroid mass in adult inhabitants of the Bryansk region was 27 g, which exceeded the value for a standard man (20 g) and was taken into account in the dosimetric calculations. The technique for reconstructing the mean and individual thyroid doses was based on the correlation between thyroid dose and several parameters: Surface 137Cs activity in soil, dose rate in air in May of 1986, 131I content in local milk, milk consumption rate, and 134Cs + 137Cs content in the body. The collective thyroid dose to inhabitants of the most contaminated regions of Russia is estimated and a thyroid cancer rate prognosis is derived. The need for intensified medical care for the critical group - children of preschool age during 1986 - is based on a significant increase in the number of projected thyroid cancers and adenomas. 32 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

136

Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

Malko, M.V. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Radiation Problems of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Sosny (Belarus)

1998-03-01

137

Public responses to the Chernobyl accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl caught many European nations by surprise since most risk management institutions were unprepared for an accident of the magnitude and transnational character of Chernobyl. Although confusion and contradictory advice from these institutions dominated the risk management efforts in the early aftermath of the disaster, the dose savings achieved by protective actions were roughly proportional to the magnitude of the nuclear threat. The accident itself and the pol...

1990-01-01

138

CEC/CIS collaboration projects on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident preliminary results on the project dealing with strategies of decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1992, an agreement was signed between the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and the relevant Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine in order to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, through the implementation of a collaboration program involving the participation of about 200 CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) and EU (European Union) Institutes and Research Centers. In such a context, a collaboration project aiming at evaluating strategies of decontamination for the territories affected by the accident was launched. This project not only dealt with decontamination of agricultural soils, urban areas and forests but also included treatment of contaminated foodstuff. To date, the project comprised both experimental and theoretical activities. It is expected that the results of this project can be used for the development of practical strategies for decontaminating the relevant CIS territories, as well as for the definition of appropriate policies in the event of a future nuclear accident. Relying on a strong collaboration network which was progressively established between EU and CIS scientists, field experiments mainly dealt with decontamination of meadows using a turf harvester, and forests while producing valuable wood derivatives

1994-03-03

139

The hypothalomo-pituitary-adrenal system in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences: summing up the seven-year follow-up  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system was studied over time (1986-1993) in 500 liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences with external exposure dose of 250 mSv. The concentrations of hydrocortisone, ACTH, and ?-endorphine in the peripheral blood were radioimmunoassayed at rest and during functional loading. Glucocorticoids were measured in the urine by thin-layer chromatography. The number of glucocorticoid receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed by the radioreceptor method. Stable hypercorticalism in the presence of reduced ?-endorphine and increased ACTH levels was observed in the majority of examinees during the first years after the accident. Six years after the accident the above parameters were normal at rest, although during functional loading disorders in the reserve potential of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system were observed, which deteriorated its adaptation to changes int he environment. It is advisable to single out high risk groups of subjects with disadaptation disorders for regular check-ups among the liquidators. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

1996-01-01

140

The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially 137Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of 137Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of {sup 137}Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

2007-07-01

142

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of nine years of study of the 237 patients who suffered from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident are reported. Thirty-eight of these patients have died, 28 in the acute period in 1986, 5 in 1987-90 and 5 in 1992-93. The reasons for death show no clear tendencies. They include: gangrene of the lung, organic disease of the brain and spinal chord, hypoplasia of haematopoeisis, coronary heart disease, sarcoma and an automobile accident. Investigations have been carried out on an annual obligatory basis of the patients` haemopoietic, immune, nervous and endocrine systems. An analysis of the data is presented. Histograms are included showing the incidence of digestive tract, nervous system, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, the frequency and degree of disablement and serum prolactin concentration. The types of skin damage sustained by 39 of the patients are listed. (6 figures, 3 tables). (UK).

Bebeshko, V.G.

1995-12-31

143

Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so far. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

1996-01-01

144

The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

1997-10-14

145

Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental health problems like depression in Fukushima patients. (note)

2012-03-01

146

International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

2006-04-24

147

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

1987-01-01

148

Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

1987-01-01

149

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for ...

E. F. Konoplya I. V. Rolevich

1998-01-01

150

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

1991-01-28

151

The Chernobyl reactor accident - a non-accidential accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freedom and independence are reserved but for countries constantly succeeding in maintaining their energy supplies without the help of others. Due to the fact that the political decision makers of the Soviet Union, too, are aware of this truth there is more to the Chernobyl reactor accident than the mere effects of the fallout. The real consequences of the reactor accident had already been anticipated beforehand by the media of the Western world. With the voters already rattled the nuclear phaseout is constantly talked about in all political parties. Once again the law of action passes over to politicians instead of to technology and its responsible experts. Zischka proves this phenomenon in the behaviour towards Soviet reactions having been existed before and shows it to be going back to an old tradition: Already in the reign of the czar the Western neighbours were induced to react in an inadequate manner and thus excert a decisive influence on world politics. The emotional effect of Chernobyl dominates. Unless reason will gain the upper hand the dangers of this emotional effect may turn out to be uncontrollable. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

152

Clinical and encephalographic study of the dynamics of asthenic syndrome in persons involved in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article is devoted to the analysis of dynamics of asthenic syndrome and electro encephalography indicators during the 25 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Four stages of syndrome development were segregated. The clear correlation between the course of mental disorder and electro encephalography indicators was discovered. This made it possible to determine the intensity and weight of pathological processes and conduct the effective timely treatment. (authors)

2011-01-01

153

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for people and the environment; Les consequences de Tchernobyl pour l'homme et l'environnement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report recalls the accident scenario, discusses the dispersion of the radioactive plume, comments the contamination at the vicinity of the power station, discusses and comments data related to radioactive deposits in Europe and in France, comments available information regarding radioactive fallouts in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia (models have been used to assess radioactive deposits). It addresses the issue of food product contamination in these three countries (impact on farm products, on water streams and on forests), but also in France. It comments the health impacts, more particularly on the people who intervened on the site, but also on people who received medium doses. Thyroid cancer data are discussed for the three mainly concerned countries. Other pathologies and non-cancerous effects are also discussed. The mortality induced by the accident is commented. Effects in France are evoked as well as social and economic consequences in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The document provides several links to other documents for further and more detailed information

NONE

2006-07-01

154

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

1987-11-15

155

Neutron kinetics of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical reactor kinetic equations with six groups of delayed neutrons are not solved analytically. Here they are solved numerically with MATLAB and applied to the Chernobyl accident. The results are presented graphically. Now, 20 years after the accident it is important for today's and tomorrow's generations of nuclear engineers to learn not to design reactors with runaway characteristics which can cause an avalanche like power excursion. The Chernobyl type of reactor has a positive void coefficient, which means that when a part of the water is replaced by steam the power will increase. At the Chernobyl experiment the steam content in the coolant channels increased suddenly causing a catastrophic power excursion. The presented analyses gives details about the importance of the magnitude of the void coefficient. Also the delayed neutrons behaviour is described. (orig.)

2006-04-01

156

Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

1994-01-01

157

Multidimensional analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multidimensional analysis of the CHERNOBYL accident was carried out to identify the role of the design and operating features of the RMBK-1000 and thereby identify implications on other reactor concepts. The results show that assumptions regarding the pre-accident fuel burnup and flux distributions are major determinants of the size and shape of the power pulse, especially due to their influence on effective system void reactivity and on the amount, if any, of positive scram reactivity

1988-01-01

158

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different (in type and pattern) from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan (and doses received early after the accident are not well known). Predictions derived from studies of these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, although an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in persons exposed as children as a result of the Chernobyl accident was envisages, the extent of the increase was not foreseen. Only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential, therefore, that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if any increase in the incidence of cancers as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident, except for leukaemia among liquidators and thyroid cancer, is expected to be difficult to detect. Studies of selected populations and diseases are also needed in order to study observed or predicted effects; careful studies may in particular provide important information on the effect of exposure rate and exposure type in the low to medium dose range and on factors which may modify radiation effects. As such, they may have important consequences for the radiation protection of patients and the general population in the event of any future accidental exposure. 50 refs, 7 tabs

1996-04-08

159

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

1996-03-22

160

The Chernobyl accident and nuclear safety in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature and purpose of the Watt Committee on Energy is explained. Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in April 1986, the Watt Committee appointed a working group to study civil nuclear safety in the UK. This is the interim report of that working group. The report looks at the international aspects of the Chernobyl accident, the key aspects of the RBMK reactor design, then gives a description of the accident to find out why it happened. The consequences for the USSR and the UK, and the implications for the UK and the world at large are then considered. The aims of the final Watt Committee report, the designs and operational practices used in the nuclear power industry, especially in the UK, will be considered to contribute to the maximum attainable safety of these operations. (UK)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (author)

1988-01-01

162

The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

1988-01-01

163

Structure of the thyroid pathology in the radiation exposed areas of Leningrad region: late consequences of Chernobyl accident after 20 years  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the Chernobyl accident large areas of the USSR were contaminated with fallout, it has been proved that I{sup 131} caused higher incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Further observation for over 20 years showed retention of high annual prevalence of this pathology among the population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultimate result of the influence of I{sup 131} on the thyroid gland. The study included 454 women living in localities affected by the Chernobyl accident in April-May 1986 (case) and 909 women living in fallout-free localities (ICCIDD method). The incidence of malignant thyroid tumors among the inhabitants of the contaminated territories is higher than in the control area. This phenomenon can not be unambiguously attributed to radiation induced cancers, but requires further investigation, perhaps by the method of carrying out continuous and all-round prophylactic medical examination. High incidence of autoimmune changes can be considered to have been caused by the action of I{sup 131} and prophylactic supplement with stable iodine

Semenov, A.; Uspenskaya, A.; Bychenkova, E.; Chinchuk, I.; Novokshonov, K.; Chernikov, R.; Sleptsov, I.; Bubnov, A.; Fedotov, Y.; Makarin, V.; Karelina, Y. [Endocrinology, NWRMC FHSDA, ST-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

164

Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

1986-01-01

165

Medical consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of health deterioration in population of Ukraine affected after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The survived population division in groups, peculiarities of morbidity incidence and prevalence are described. The dynamics of some medical demography parameters are discussed concerning adults and paediatric population. The precise values of incidence and prevalence for the main classes of diseases are shown in comparison of 1995-1996 to 1987. (author)

1997-11-01

166

Environmental radioactivity measurements after the Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurements of the environmental radioactivity performed by the Radiation Protection Division of the CCR Ispra and by the Healt Physics Service of the CRE Saluggia ENEA on samples collected in the North-Western Italy after the Chernobyl accident are here reported. The general structure of the environmental laboratories; the choice of the samples and their collection are discussed in order to plan the actions and to make the measurements comparable

1987-01-01

167

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

1987-01-01

168

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of radiation protection is a fundamental outgrowth of peaceful and military applications of ionizing radiation and the use of nuclear energy. Scientific progress in radiation protection has not, however, been as dramatic as progress in other scientific endeavors, because many users of ionizing radiation have perceived that the major technical and institutional problems have already been solved. This misperception is not based on solid fact and is not shared by radiation protection professionals, who have a broader vision of both past achievements and problems remaining in this area. Experience gained as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident has highlighted new problems and demonstrated the urgency of finding better answers to some old questions. This paper addresses the future impact of the recent Chernobyl accident on the science of radiation protection. In summary, the accident demonstrated that particular emphasis should be directed toward: Improvement of dosimetric and health-effects models for predicting the consequences of exposure of the public to low doses of ionizing radiation. Development of optimized, realistic countermeasures and improvement in emergency preparedness. Education of the public, including students, scientists and politicians with regard to radiation protection issues. Development of advanced computer programs and radiation instruments for evaluating reactor accidents and their consequences. Transfer of learned concepts, methods and approaches to other scientific fields, such as environmental sciences, toxicology, pharmacology, etc

1988-01-01

169

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

1986-09-15

170

Cooperative research at JAERI on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. 1. Study on the measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after the nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement data obtained from 1992 mainly in 30 km distant areas from the accident reactor were analyzed and evaluated. On-site study included the radiation survey studies of wide range of areas with the spherical NaI(Tl) detector carried on the car and helicopter, studies on the accumulated dose in inhabitants and dose rate distribution of their residential settlements with the glass dosimeter and portable gamma dose-rate meter, experimental studies on the shielding effect of houses by simulation and studies on the characterization of environmental ?-ray field. These studies brought about developments of the method for rapid radiation survey in wide range of contaminated areas, of the evaluation method for estimated external exposure dose in residents, of the Monte Carlo arrangement method for evaluation of ?-ray doses and of analytical method for contaminated areas. Data were provided to organizations for measures of Ukraine and Belarus and would be also useful for possible urgent matters in future. (K.H.)

2001-12-01

171

Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

1993-04-01

172

Changes in the brain of subjects who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident consequences as shown by the data of radiodiagnosis (emission single-photon computer-aided scintigraphy, X-ray computer -aided and magnetic resonanse tomography)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the data of X-ray examinations of the brain in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Findings of X-ray methods of diagnosis permit a conclusion on a complex organic involvement of the brain in subjects who participated in liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident. The most typical are signs of the hypertensive hydricephalic syndrome with liquorodynamic disturbances and of the vascular encephalic syndrome with development of local postischemic malacia of the brain matter. 7 refs., 5 figs.,

1995-01-01

173

Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.)

1986-01-01

174

Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors, and fetal irradiation

2006-04-01

175

Internal contamination of some families after the Chernobyl accident 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl 1986. accident random internal contamination of measurements Belgrade and Kragujevac population, using Whole Body Counter (WBC) was performed. Some selected results, as a whole family member repetitive long time measurements, are in the paper presented. The parents of the malformation children born in period after Chernobyl accident are also measured. 4 refs.; 1 figs.; 5 tabs

1996-01-01

176

Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on (1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, (2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, (3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

Yasuda, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

1997-03-01

177

Radioactivity in rainwater following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rainfall is a widely-acknowledged vehicle for the removal and deposition at ground level of atmospheric-borne materials. The events following the Chernobyl accident demonstrated once again the importance of atmospheric conditions in dispersing, transporting and depositing pollutants. Much attention has been paid to the contamination of vegetation and food products, yet the quality of the contaminated rainwater has been overlooked. This paper reports and summarises the findings from Great Britain and Scandinavia and shows that the issue is far from simple or easily understood. (author)

1987-01-01

178

Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

1989-12-05

179

The Chernobyl accident impact in Bulgaria - a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is made of the papers presented at the Scientific Session of the National Centre for Radiobiology and Radiation protection (Sofia, BG) held in October 1992. They summarize the information about all possible consequences of the Chernobyl accident affecting the health of the Bulgarian population. The following topics are included: evaluation of radiation risk based on the radiation doses specified for the Bulgarian population including prenatal irradiation and inhalation of hot particles; analysis of oncological morbidity (general, of thyroid and of hemopoietic system); analysis of congenital malformations, registered in different hospitals during the first six years after the accident; directions for future epidemiologic studies; methodological and organizational problems in case of radiation accident. (A.B.)

1992-11-26

180

The Chernobyl accident is the greatest social ecological and technological catastrophe in a human history. Chapter 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lessons of the Chernobyl tragedy for mankind are shown. Ecological consequences of the accident are described. It is given the analysis of social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident - change of a mode of life of the people on the contaminated territories, a development post-catastrophe processes, a migration moods of the population, an aggravation of a demographic situation. Problems of an administrative activity on the contaminated territories are discussed and measures for decrease of the Chernobyl accident consequences are offered. 51 refs., 7 tabs

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Report regarding consequences of catastrophe in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 28 April 1986 the people rights as well as the valid law were violated in Poland. The public was informed with a delay about Chernobyl catastrophe. The remedial actions were delayed about 24 hours due to political reasons. The present state of radiation monitoring system in Poland is critized. The catastrophe consequences in environment are presented. The wholesome consequences are assessed. The list of nuclear power plants in neighbouring countries is enclosed. The basic parameters of the plants and their distances from Polish borders are given. (A.S.)

1991-12-01

182

Chernobyl accident: its causes, impacts and the lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident, its causes, impacts and the lessons learned from it are briefly reviewed from the viewpoint of nuclear safety and radiation protection, based on the recent studies and reports worldwide and on the information taken by the author during his visit to the site. The paper includes a short description of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the process of the accident, emergency actions and protection measures, health and environmental impacts, and its causes and lessons learned. To look at matters in the safety aspect, some defects of the design, such as the positive void reactivity coefficient, the insufficient reactivity margin, the exist of an area of increasing reactivity when the absorbing rods move downwards from the top, and the lack of an effective containment, are the essential causes bringing the accident to occur and breeding up catastrophic consequences. The coincidence of some extremely improbable incidents aroused by the operators is the blasting fuse which directly touched off the accident, and the most serious problem revealed is the defects in nuclear safety management in the former Soviet Union. The author holds that strengthening safety management and raising the safety culture level are the key to improve nuclear safety

1994-09-01

183

Dosimetric aspects of Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of total activity released in the accident and the doses received by the various groups of persons are summarised. For the entire evacuated population, average dose to the thyroid ranged from 70 mSv to adults and up to 1 Sv for children and the collective dose to the entire evacuated population is estimated to be 1300 person-Sv. The global collective committed dose is about 2% of the collective effective dose received from all nuclear weapon tests carried out in the atmosphere and 0.5% of the annual collective effective dose received from natural background radiation. The radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident on a global scale is considered to be very small. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

1996-01-01

184

Worldwide radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of the entire world population to radiation resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has been evaluated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The evaluation accounted for measurement results reported from 34 countries to establish the pattern of transfer during the first year after the accident; the report used fallout measurement experience to make a projection of doses to be received from continued exposure, primarily to 137Cs. On the basis of transfer factors derived from this information and of 137Cs deposition measured or estimated in all regions of the Northern Hemisphere, the collective effective dose equivalent commitment has been estimated. The result is 600,000 man.Sv, with 53% of this to be received in Europe and 36% in the USSR. (The two areas were measured separately.) (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

1989-10-16

185

Chernobyl, 12 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

1998-01-01

186

The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

1995-04-01

187

Radioactivity and radiation load. The Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Association of Radiation and Environmental Research (GSF) on June 6, 1986 held a seminar under the heading ''The Chernobyl reactor accident and the consequences''. Besides explanations regarding radioactivity and natural as well as civilization-dependent radiation load, there were approaches to the assessment of the consequences of the Chernobylsk reactor accident. For the period of 50 years to come the consecutive dose in the Munich area is put at several 100 mrem up to 1 rem per person - in addition to the natural dose of some 10000 mrem for the same period. The amount of the actual load for individual persons depends on age, way of life and alimentation habits. (orig./HSCH).

Koch, G.

1986-07-12

188

Medical consequences of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1945, more than 1.8 x 1021 Bq of artificial radionuclides have been released into the atmosphere. Approximately 2.04 x 1018B, i.e. approx. 0.11%, are the result of accidents at nuclear industrial facilities. This percentage is causing increased interest among researchers. This is due to the fact that in the wake of accidental release radionuclides become distributed unevenly across the Earth's surface, and the associated exposures, fluctuating from background level to several grays, an induce both stochastic and deterministic effects in the irradiated population. A comparative analysis of the medical consequences of the twentieth century's most serious nuclear events, namely the authorized dumping of high level radioactive waste into the river Techa in 1950, the explosion of a storage tank containing long lived radioactive waste in the Southern Urals in 1957, the fire at Sellafield in 1957 and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, has shown that when timely countermeasures are taken, the worst immediate and delayed medical consequences of an accident can be avoided. The consequences that have since been ascertained are a brief rise in the mortality rate during the first five years, with a dose in excess of 500 mSv; an increase in the incidence of leukaemia, with an absolute risk of up to 1.1. x 10-4 man·years/Gy; and increased mortality among children with external radiation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and internal doses of 99-190 mSv on the bone surfaces of neonates or 170-600 mSv on the bone surfaces of the mother. There is reliable evidence that, with external gamma radiation doses in excess of 520 mSv, the mortality rate for all malignant tumorous increases by 45-58% compared with the control level. There is also a significant increase in thyroid cancer frequency four to ten years after the incorporation of iodine isotopes by children aged up to 7 years, including an accumulation period in the womb. (author). 12 refs, 7 tabs

1995-10-01

189

Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

1997-09-01

190

Chernobyl, 17 after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

2003-01-01

191

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests gradually decreased during the 1970s, the national preparedness and analytical capacity in Norway gradually disintegrated as well. The Chernobyl accident was therefore met without any overall contingency preparedness plan. The affected governmental bodies and other institutions had to improvise their first steps, including information to the public, until necessary coordination had been established. A complicating factor was the change of government during the first days of May 1986, the reasons for this had however nothing to do with the reactor accident. A great deal of uncertainty prevailed about the accident and its consequences especially during the first days after the accident. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the Ministry of the Environment in May 1986 both appointed committees to report on the accident and its impacts and on a future preparedness system, although their terms of reference were not identical. A third committee was appointed in June by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs to report on the information crises in connection with the accident

192

Analysis of radioecological situation and health state of Ukrainian population contingents affected due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioecological situation is analysed at the Ukrainian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident on the basis of data of radioecological and dosimetric studies in 1987-1991 and medical consequences of the accident are assessed. Four categories of persons affected due to the Chernobyl accident are considered. Disease incidence in the above categories is retraced taking into account age, sex and obtained dose. 1 tab

1993-01-01

193

Dynamics of social-psychological consequences 10 years after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study has been carried out according to the long-term JSP2 in comparison with the results of data acquired by the authors in previous years in other programs in 1988-95 for more then 5 thousand people. In working out the strategy of post-catastrophe situation it is necessary to have a joint effort of the population and authority. The studies have showed that cooperation has not been achieved in this case. Hence, the effect of protective measures have been seriously decreased. Countermeasures taken after the catastrophe have had not only a positive, but in some cases a negative impact. The results of many previous studies as will as JSP2 program have shown serious social and psychological consequences of Chernobyl Accident. There is a constant year-to-year comprehension among population anxiety concerning their health. The main result of the study is that social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl Accident include nonradiological risks as seriously as the radiation risk.23

1996-03-18

194

Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident

1986-08-01

195

Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

196

The consequences of Chernobyl: What do we know 10 years after the accident?; Die Folgen von Tschernobyl: Was wissen wir 10 Jahre danach?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

22 scientists provide in 12 articles a survey about what is happening at Tchernobyl. This includes the situation today in the countries most affected of the former Soviet Union and in Germany, and also the consequences of the accident. There is given a detailed report about the measurement activities of the German Federal Republic and the project of GAST `scientists help the children of Tchernobyl`. The follows: A survey of epidemiological studies in Germany, a presentation of regulations and professional help as a consequence from the accident, and finally an evaluation of the media and their part in the proliferation of information. (orig.) [Deutsch] In 12 Artikeln geben 22 Wissenschaftler einen Ueberblick ueber das Geschehen in Tschernobyl, die derzeitige Stituation in den betroffenen Laendern der ehemaligen Sowjetunion und in Deutschland sowie ueber die Konsequenzen aus dem Unfall. Es werden ausfuehrlich die Messaktionen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und das GAS-Projekt `Wissenschaftler helfen Tschernobyl-Kindern` dargestellt. Einem Ueberblick ueber die epidemiologischen Studien in Deutschland folgt eine Darstellung von Regelungen und fachlichen Hilfen als Konsequenz aus dem Unfall und abschliessend eine Betrachtung ueber die Rolle der Medien bei der Aufarbeitung der Informationen. (orig.)

Bauchinger, M. [GSF, Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Bayer, A. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Biko, J. [Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany). Nuklearmedizin; Grosche, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Heinemann, G. [PreussenElektra AG, Tanklager Stadesand, Stade (Germany); Heinemann, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Hill, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Hille, R. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Hillebrandt, S. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Universtaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Karthein, R. [TUeV Rheinland e.V., Inst. fuer Kerntechnik und Strahlenschutz, Koeln (Germany); Kaul, A. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany); Mueller, W.U. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Universtaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Narrog, J. [Umweltministerium Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Paretzke, H.G. [GSF, Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Peters, H.P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Pfob, H. [Betriebsaerzlicher Dienst, Badenwerk AG, Karlsruhe (Germany); Reiners, C. [Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany). Nuklearmedizin; Sauermann, P.F.; Schnadt, H. [TUeV Rheinland e.V., Inst. fuer Kerntechnik und Strahlenschutz, Koeln (Germany); Streffer, C. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Universtaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Voigt, G.M. [GSF, Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Zitelsberger, H. [GSF, Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

1996-06-01

197

The German reactor safety and the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident has raised the alarm of many people making them fear both nuclear energy as such and nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. The majority, however proved to be ignorant of the totally different reactor design of the Soviet plant as well as of the extremely different safety philosphy. The philosophy, i.e. safety of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (and other Western countries) has reached a level which according to experts and common sense excludes a similar accident. In an interview Dr. Hans Frewer, member of the Kraftwerk Union management, voices his opinion on the different forms of a nuclear phaseout and points out the economic and ecological consequences. (orig./GL)

1986-01-01

198

Cancer effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, there is (apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence) no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers in general and of specific cancers (in particular breast cancer) have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. Both of these findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk, apart from thyroid cancer, is not proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Such an increase, however, is expected to be difficult to identify in the absence of careful large scale epidemiological studies with individual dose estimates. It should be noted that, given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused by even a small increase in the relative risk could be substantial, particularly in the future. At present, the prediction of the cancer burden related to radiation exposure. (author)

2008-03-01

199

Comprehensive analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standard computational methods have been used to make a preliminary analysis of the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics of the first two phases of the Chernobyl accident (initial positive reactivity generation and first Doppler transient). The most important results are discussed. These include the fact that it is impossible to define only one value of the reactor void coefficient. In the central channels (20% of the reactor volume) the effective coefficient is three times higher than the average, while the value is practically zero in the peripheral channels (40% of the reactor volume). The difference is due not only to the statically larger neutron worth of the central zone, but also to the dynamic instability of the radial flux distribution. The void increase in the central regions induces an increase of power and of the void in these regions, thus increasing the reactivity in an unexpected way. A design error in the scram rods (too short a graphite follower) can generate an undesired positive reactivity insertion while the first 1.25 m of the rods is being inserted. This effect can introduce from 0.5 to 1.2$ reactivity. The Doppler effect is the only one introducing negative feedback during a transient. The current model for the calculation of the effective fuel temperature must be reconsidered. A more sophisticated approach in needed to assess the rate of thermal and mechanical energy delivered during the explosion. For a self-consistent evaluation of the accident it is necessary to use two dimensional (R-Z) multigroup kinetics and dynamics models developed in the last ten years for the analysis of reactivity accidents in fast reactors. It is important to reach a proper understanding of the various mechanisms that caused the Chernobyl accident and for this purpose an interdepartmental group in ENEA is working on a comprehensive analysis using classical computational models and codes for thermal reactors. A new tool is being implemented: the code NADYP-Water, a new version of the two dimensional space-time code NADYP. International co-operation on the subject is desirable. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

1988-03-21

200

Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS; 10 Jahre nach der Tschernobyl-Katastrophe. Schilddruesenkrebs und andere Folgen fuer die Gesundheit in der GUS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zehn Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe im Atomkraftwerk Tschernobyl stellen in den betroffenen GUS-Republiken staatliche und internationale Organisationen betraechtliche gesundheitliche Auswirkungen in den verschiedenen Gruppen von Betroffenen fest. Eine dramatische, ueber 100fache Erhoehung von Schilddruesentumoren bei Kindern in Belarus ist durch papillaere Schilddruesenkarzinome verursacht, die durch aggressives und frueh metastasierendes Wachstumsverhalten auffallen. Die Zahl der Neuerkrankungen von Erwachsenen mit Schilddruesenkrebs lag 1995 bereits vierfach ueber dem Mittelwert vor 1986. Im Oblast Gomel hat sich von 1986 bis Ende 1995 die Zahl der Kinder mit Diabetes mellitus verdoppelt. Die inzwischen tatsaechlich aufgetretenen Faelle von Schilddruesenkrebs, insbesondere bei Kindern, uebertreffen die auf den ueblichen Annahmen zum Strahlenrisiko basierenden Prognosen bei weitem und deuten auf eine erhebliche Unterschaetzung des Strahlenrisikos und der Tschernobyl-Folgen hin. (orig.)

Lengfelder, E. [Strahlenbiologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Demidschik, E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule, Minsk (Belarus); Demidschik, J. [Lehrstuhl fuer Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule, Minsk (Belarus); Becker, K. [Inst. fuer Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany); Rabes, H. [Pathologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Birukowa, L. [Endokrinologisches Dispensaer und Schilddruesenzentrum, Gomel (Belarus)

1996-04-12

202

25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

2011-10-18

203

Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs.

Beebe, G. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

204

Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

1989-01-01

205

Results of liver puncture biopsy in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident with hepatic pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper provides review of data on study of liver damage under radiation impact. Liver structure in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences was studied. It is determined that in patients with hepatic pathology occurs, in the future, structural alterations from the side of the liver after being under conditions of low dose ionizing radiation impact. (author)

2005-09-06

206

Radioactivity in foods - Chernobyl and the consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident until the end of November radioactivity data obtained on more than 36.000 food samples were reported by the country-wide network of measuring stations. An evaluation of the data is presented, together with results obtained at the Federal Research Centre for Nutrition on various foods collected in the Karlsruhe area. While I-131 constituted the main fraction of ingested radioactivity in May, this radionuclide reached the limit of detection in most samples in July. Since June the uptake of radioactivity was essentially determined by Cs-137 and Cs-134. Analyses of total diet samples indicated that the maximal uptake of radiocesium occurred in August, with a daily ingestion of 7.8 Bq Cs-137 and 4 Bq Cs-134 per person. Until December a decline to 2.2 and 1 Bq, respectively, was observed. From the total diet uptake in the calendar year 1986 an effective equivalent dose of 1.8 mrem, 1.3 mrem, and 0.30 mrem due to Cs-137, Cs-134, and I-131, respectively, was estimated. (orig./MG)

1986-01-01

207

Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

1993-01-01

208

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

2006-01-01

209

Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

1987-01-01

210

Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. ...

Kulakov, V. I.; Sokur, T. N.; Volobuev, A. I.; Tzibulskaya, I. S.; Malisheva, V. A.; Zikin, B. I.; Ezova, L. C.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Bonartzev, P. D.; Speranskaya, N. V.; Tchesnokova, J. M.; Matveeva, N. K.; Kaliznuk, E. S.; Miturova, L. B.; Orlova, N. S.

1993-01-01

211

Resuspension in contaminated soils by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary of the CIEMAT contribution to the multinational project CHECIR-ECP 1 Contamination of surfaces by resuspended material. Ten research organisations participated in this study, six of them from european countries. The project is one of the sixteen projects carried out under an Agreement for International Collaboration on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, signed in June 1992 by the EC and representatives of the three affected republics, Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The work is addressed to the collection of experimental data in order to make dose estimations from the resuspension pathway. The experimental activities were carried out in several contaminated areas in the surrounding of the Chernobyl reactor site, under natural conditions (wind resuspension) and simulating human activities (agricultural and traffic). The main conclusion obtained was that, at the time of the project, the doses from resuspension are small, even for potential risk groups such as agricultural workers, in comparison with the doses from other exposure pathways. (Author)

1997-01-01

212

Three Mile Island, Bhopal and Chernobyl: causes and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1970's worldwide criticisms of nuclear power have been so strong that in many countries nuclear power has been outlawed. At Kyoto, scientists and politicians working together have designed a Protocol where the role of nuclear power in reducing CO2 emissions was completely ignored. One of the reasons for this, probably the most important one, is the general perception that nuclear power is unacceptably dangerous and that world can live without it. Both perceptions are, of course, incorrect. Some twenty years ago, as a physicist, not being part of 'nuclear establishment', I became interested in these two issues. Since then, as explained in a number of my publications, I have come to a firm conclusion that (a) nuclear power on the world scale is an essential energy source, whether we like it or not, and (b) that nuclear power is a very safe technology, probably the safest of all technologies the modem industrialized world has. To illustrate this last statement, in this paper I compare causes and consequences of two largest nuclear accidents, TMI and Chernobyl, with Bhopal accident, probably the largest accident that chemical technology has ever produced. (author)

2003-06-08

213

After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.)

1986-01-01

214

20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

2006-01-01

215

Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

1998-01-01

216

Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of country-wide measurements of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

1986-01-01

217

Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of "1"3"7Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium "1"3"7 in the U.K. (UK)

1987-01-01

218

Non-budgetary expenditure from fund 0615, item 68101 - compensatory payments in accordance with sec. 38(2) Atomic Energy Law, as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident - within the fiscal year 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the Minister of Finance agrees, according to section 38 subsection 2, to grant a further non-planned sum of up to 22 Mio. DM for claims of compensation. Expenses up to 200 million DM have already been granted. According to the recent development and the yet outstanding claims, total expenses of up to 222 million DM shall arise in this sector. (HSCH)

1986-08-21

219

Changed level of peripheral blood red cell total and membrane-bound catalase in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident and in residents pf a zone with increased radiation background  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and men permanently living in a zone with increased radiation background were examined 7.5 years after the accident. Use of tests characterizing the status of adaptation systems and defence reactions of the organism helped detect disorders in oxidative balance, to which the production of biooxidants by activated neutrophils and attenuated activity of blood catalase essentially contribute. The prooxidant shift results in injury to cell membranes manifested by the reduction of their enzyme-binding capacity. These shifts homeostasis disorders may create prerequisites for increase of morbidity of the examined populations due to disorders in the adaptation mechanisms

1996-01-01

220

The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

2008-11-15

222

Interview-survey of farmers. Experiences after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

71 farm households in contaminated areas of Sweden were interviewed at visits to farms, where measurements of the contamination of pastures and fields had been made. The aim of the survey was to find out what remedial actions had been taken by the farmers, what their appreciation of the information from authorities was, how the Chernobyl accident had affected their situation, and if they were prepared to take similar actions in case of a new accident. 15 refs

1994-01-01

223

Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident  

CERN Document Server

This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01

224

Economic and political energy aspects of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of nuclear power to total electrical power is approximately 15% worldwide, 25% in the European OECD countries, nearly 40% in Switzerland and in some countries even exceeds 50%. Abandoning nuclear power completely following the Chernobyl accident would cause serious problems not only for electrical power generation but also for the economy in general. (P.G.R.)

1986-09-20

225

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author).

Othman, I. (Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syria). Dept. of Protection and Safety)

1990-06-01

226

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

1986-01-01

227

Third annual Warren K. Sinclair keynote address: retrospective analysis of impacts of the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the >600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. An exception is a cohort of several hundred emergency workers who received high radiation doses and of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed to radioiodine at a young age and some increase of leukemia in the most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation. There was, however, an increase in psychological problems among the affected population, compounded by the social disruption that followed the break-up of the Soviet Union. Despite the unprecedented scale of the Chernobyl accident, its consequences on the health of people are far less severe than those of the atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Studying the consequences of the Chernobyl accident has made an invaluable scientific contribution to the development of nuclear safety, radioecology, radiation medicine and protection, and also the social sciences. The Chernobyl accident initiated the global nuclear and radiation safety regime. PMID:18049216

Balonov, Mikhail

2007-11-01

228

The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

1992-01-01

229

Management of Ultimate Risk of Nuclear Power Plants by Source Terms - Lessons Learned from the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition mechanisms of fuel particles and fission fragments during the initial phase of the Chernobyl accident. Through this study, it is now possible to generally reconstruct the radiological consequences by using a dispersion calculation technique, combined with the meteorological data at the time of the accident and land contamination densities of 137Cs measured and reported around the Chernobyl area. Although it is challenging to incorporate lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident into the source term issues, the author has already developed an example of safety goals by incorporating the radiological consequences of the accident. The example provides safety goals by specifying source term releases in a graded approach in combination with probabilities, i.e. risks. The author believes that the future source term specification should be directly linked with safety goals. (author)

2006-07-17

230

Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

1994-09-01

231

Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated characterize their relations with local authorities as satisfactorily, when 37,7% of the people are not satisfied by the level of such mutual relations. One can make a conclusion, that half of the population, residing on the affected territories, has adapted to conditions of residing in post-catastrophic-extreme situation. The seriousness of the social and psychological problems caused by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, their aggravation and deepening in conditions of the economic situation in general, require work focused on strengthening social and psychological assistance to the affected population. Qualified psychological support is necessary to the people to help them cope with the difficulties of adaptation, reorient themselves to the new image of life, to help in overcoming of the post-catastrophic stress condition. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out a complex of measures on social and psychological rehabilitation of the population, supporting the measures with the most focussed and personal character whenever possible. It is important to improve the activity of the centers of social and psychological rehabilitation, especially established together with UNESCO to assist people affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences

2000-02-13

232

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

Eisler, R.

2003-01-01

233

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

2006-09-03

234

Documents used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

1987-01-01

235

Documents, used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

1986-01-01

236

Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in contamination well beyond the borders of the USSR. The author notes the gaps in international mechanisms to cope with its effects. The principles of nuclear legislation, notably harmonization, are reviewed as are international nuclear agreements, recommendations etc to prevent such accidents. Problems of compensation for damage can only be settled under public international law since the USSR is a party to neither the Paris nor the Vienna Conventions, which demonstrates the need for a wider adherence to those Conventions. Since the accident, however, two international Conventions on assistance and notification were adopted under the auspices of IAEA, emphasizing the importance of international cooperation and its usefulness. The author concludes that such cooperation contributed to creating a relatively harmonized legal regime for nuclear activities which has evolved since Chernobyl and will continue to do so. (NEA)

1986-01-01

237

The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

1989-01-01

238

Cytogenetic study in children from zones affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus in lymphocytes with blockade of the cytokines were established in 58 children from three Ukrainian localities that suffered to different extent the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations have been established up to this moment in 2779 cells of 28 children from Ovruch, in 11 475 cells of 28 children from Pripiat and in 994 cells of 10 children from Kiev

1993-01-01

239

Environmental consequences of releases from nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the results of a four-year Nordic cooperation project (AKTU-200). The results have impact upon many facets of accident consequence assessment, ranging from new computational tools to recommendations concerning food preparation methods to be utilized in a fallout situation. Some of the subprojects have approached areas where little or no research has been performed previously, like the project on winter conditions, the project on the physico/chemical form of radionuclides in the Chernobyl fallout, and the project on resuspension. The conclusion from the first of these projects is that the impact of an accident or fallout situation occuring during winter may be considerable smaller than in a similar situation during summer conditions. The most important conclusion from the second of these projects is that bioavailability of radiocesium in soil is significantly lower than that of radiocesium in plant material taken up via the roots. In the third project is was found that the resuspension factor is several orders of magnitude lower than the values traditionally cited, and that resuspension is a local phenomenon in a majority of weather conditions. The development of large-scale testing of mitigating actions to prevent uptake of radiocesium in animals in a fallout situation is also one of the projects where new ground has been sucessfully broken. 189 refs., 89 figs., 55 tabs

1990-01-01

240

Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ?0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ?6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ?0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

2000-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

1997-09-01

242

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

1997-03-01

243

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

1997-03-01

244

Synthesis on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents and their consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first outlines and comments the differences between the BWR and PWR reactors: notably, BWRs used in Japan exhibit many defects the French PWRs do not have. Thus, a transposition of the Fukushima accident to a French nuclear power plant is not possible. As far as PWRs are concern, Three Mile Island remains the reference in terms of severe accident. On another hand, natural disasters in Japan have no equivalent in France. The author outlines the failures and inertia made by the actors in charge of nuclear issues and which resulted in the Fukushima accidents, just like in Chernobyl: they are therefore qualified of manmade disasters. He comments the various actions undertaken by engineers and technicians in Fukushima, and the consequences of the accident in terms of radioactive releases. He comments the present knowledge on biological effects of radiations with reference to past situations (Hiroshima, Chernobyl). He comments the health consequences of the Fukushima accident in relationship with radionuclide measurement. He also comments the health status of technicians working in the power plant, and finally proposes a brief overview of major problems which are still to be solved

2013-01-01

245

Chernobyl accident consequences: the unborn children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk of spontaneous abortion in 1-12 week gestation term among Kiev region women with desired pregnancy is considered. If cumulative dose of total irradiation among Kiev region women was more than 5.0 mSv, spontaneous abortion risk increased. Mother's age more than 34, smoking, chronic infections and sterility treatment in anamnesis also increased spontaneous abortion risk. The material well being does not influence spontaneous abortion risk among women

2003-06-03

246

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

1991-01-01

247

The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

1986-01-01

248

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

1992-01-01

249

Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

1998-12-01

250

Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

1986-01-01

251

Probability of double nuclear bursts in the Chernobyl reactivity accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discussions are made for potentially existing double nuclear bursts in a reactivity accident in reactors having positive void reactivity coefficients, with a typical example being taken from the Chernobyl accident case. A brief discussion is first made on the physics backgrounds of reactivity coefficient consisting of Doppler, void, and moderator temperature effects. Three dimensional spatial kinetic analyses are then made to study the case of the Chernobyl reactivity accident, where the emphasis is on the effect of uniform and non-uniform void generation in the core during the accident. The result with uniform void generation indicated that the reactor could have become quite unstable to induce an uncontrolled power surge. The initial local void, depending on its spatial area, would also result in an uncontrolled power surge with an initial local void expanding into the global core. In this case, some parts of the core quickly attained the fuel melting temperature, while the rest of the core remained well below it. Under such circumstances, there would be a good reasoning for the local initial core damage, leaving other part of the core uninfected and still ready for the second power surge. The speculating discussions have been tried to explain the background situations for the potential double nuclear bursts, and also for the two witnessed explosions given in the accident report(1). (author)

1987-10-01

252

Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

1998-06-01

253

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

1993-01-01

254

The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long. (from conclusion)

1996-01-01

255

9 years after the Chernobyl accident. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

9 years have elapsed after the tragic catastrophe on the Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP. One of the main problems in the situation with 'Ukrytie' shelter which was erected over the destroyed Unit, investigation of the amount and dislocation of nuclear fuel in it, transformation of 'Ukrytie' into ecologically safe system. Problems of contaminated territory around this Unit monitoring, medical and biological investigations of the influence of radiation on human health, remain urgent as well. These problems were discussed at the scientific conference which took place 20-21 April 1995 in the Institute for Nuclear Research in which staff members of this Institute, of ISTC ' Ukrytie ' and some other institutes of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine took part.Abstracts of papers reported at this conference are published in the Language in which they were presented. They are followed in alphabetical order of the first author names. The editing group is not responsible for the data which were reported by the authors

1995-04-20

256

Proceedings of the first part of a joint OECD(NEA)/CEC workshop on recent advances in reactor accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of the Joint Workshop, organised by the NEA, is focused on the progress achieved in the work of CSNI's GRECA (Group of Experts on Accident Consequences). The program is composed of the following papers. Session 1: characteristics of the Chernobyl release and fallout that affect transport and behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment; Chernobyl accident and hot particles in the fallout; radionuclides associated with colloids and particles in the Chernobyl fallout; source term in the Chernobyl accident; long range transport of radionuclides; parameters in consequence calculations for an urban area. Session 2: review of evaluations concerning radionuclide transfer to foodstuffs via plants in view of the data available after the Chernobyl accident; GRECA review of Chernobyl data on transfer to animal products; Chernobyl accident radiometric data (Cs-137 in fresh water fishes of north Italy lakes); distribution of Cs-137 in water sediment and fish in the Ijsselmeer (Netherlands); uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl accident; radioactivity of people in the nordic countries following the Chernobyl accident; preparations for an international study to evaluate long-range transport models against the Chernobyl accident

1988-01-25

257

Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bio-indicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru and 110Agm were detected in F vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of 137Cs varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northernmost locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg at the south east cost. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocaesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and 99Tc the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily caesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (authors)

1990-10-24

258

The atlas of cesium-137 contamination of Europe after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Atlas, which was compiled under the Joint Study Project (JSP6) of the CEC/CIS Collaborative Program on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, implemented into the European Commission's Radiation Protection Research Action, summarizes the results of numerous investigations undertaken throughout Europe to assess the ground contamination by cesium-137 following the Chernobyl accident. The Atlas incorporates about 100 color maps at a range of scales (1/200k - 1/10M) which characterize the contamination in Europe as a whole, within state boundaries and for zones where the contamination levels are above 40 kBq/m2 (? 2.0% of the European territory) and above 1480 kBq/m2 (? 0.03% of the European territory). Investigations have shown that around 6% of the European territory has been contaminated for more than 20 kBq/m2 after the Chernobyl accident. The total amount of deposited cesium-137 in Europe is 8*1016 Bq and distributed in the following manner: Belarus 33.5%, Russia 24%, Ukraine 20%, Sweden 4.4%, Finland 4.3%, Bulgaria 2.8%, Austria 2.7%, Norway 2.3%, Romania 2.0%, Germany 1.1%

1996-03-18

259

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

1991-01-01

260

Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Chernobyl accidenr of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer {Rangifer tarandus are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their wintet diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating ftom natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic.

Birgitta Åhman

1998-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

2006-11-01

262

Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

1997-09-01

263

Children's morbidity and mortality from hemoblastosis in Mogilev region before and after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The epidemiological analysis of Children's morbidity and mortality from hemoblastosis (leukemia, lymphoma) in Mogilev region before and after Chernobyl accident during three seven-years periods (before Chernobyl - 1979-1985, after Chernobyl - 1986-1992 and after Chernobyl - 1993-1999) granting age, gender and place of residence: city/village was presented. Results were analyzed as for the whole region as for each of the six most contaminated by radiation areas. (authors)

2006-01-01

264

Aspects of risk analysis application to estimation of nuclear accidents and tests consequences and intervention management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For assessment of accident consequences and a post-accident management a risk analysis methodology and data bank (BARD) with allowance for radiation and non-radiation risk causes should be developed and used. Aspects of these needs and developments are considered. Some illustrative results of health risk estimation made with BARD for the Bryansk region territory with relatively high radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident are presented

1996-03-18

265

Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

1995-11-20

266

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, a variety of measurements were performed to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. Gamma spectroscopy was used to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels. (author) 11 refs.; 9 figs

1988-07-01

267

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

1987-04-05

268

Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

1987-01-01

269

Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has supported two projects on the issue of remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The first one aimed at identifying and costing a set of additional countermeasures that would enable the reduction of the annual exposure of the inhabitants down to 1 mSv. The second one (still running) is developing a new rehabilitation approach based on the involvement of the local population in the decision taking process concerning the type of countermeasures to be applied (the ETHOS approach). (author)

2002-04-01

270

The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

1991-01-01

271

Frequency changes of inherited anomalies in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complex cytogenetic, embryologic and clinical studies of possible genetic consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for the population of Belarus have been carried out. They showed that groups of the population (pregnant women, fetuses, school children) had received biologically significant doses of radiation, as assessed by the registration of ring and dicentric chromosomes in blood lymphocytes. The study of more than 22,000 embryos and fetuses, and of 4090 neonates with compulsory registered congenital malformations, showed a considerable increase of anomalies of intrauterine origin since 1987. They correlated with the level of 137Cs contamination in the areas, but did not correlate with the preconception dose to the mother from the same radionuclide. Teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl pollution have not been conclusively idenitifed. The increase of embryonal anomalies was mainly due to the group of multifactorial defects, and to the anomalies with a large contribution from dominant mutations. The Down's syndrome incidence showed to increase. (Author)

1994-10-25

272

A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred. A corresponding effective deposition length for caesium, R-Cs, defined las the effective distance from Chernobyl to where the aerosols have been deposited, is found to be R-Cs approximate to 1000 km. From the observations of the regional variability of the Chernobyl fallout a simple probabilistic assessment method is proposed for the long-range radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

1999-01-01

273

Analysis of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A follow-up calculation was made on the accident based on the literature and accident reports published by the USSR. The analysis code system used had models peculiar to a pressure tube type reactor, of which the accuracy had been verified by the experimental facilities at the O-arai Engineering Center and the tests made at the 'Fugen' Nuclear Power Plant. The analysis data were prepared based on plant specifications and its operation history obtained from those published literature and accident reports. The analysis was composed of (1) a calculation of the nuclear and thermal-hydraulic characteristics, and the graphite heating and temperature distributions which were the basic data for the follow-up calculation of the accident, (2) an analysis of the plant behavior before the test started, using these basic characteristics, and (3) a follow-up calculation of the power increase which occurred after the test started. The analytical results were found to agree well with the data published by the USSR. It was confirmed from these analyses that the main factors causing the accident were the increased enthalpy at the core entrance caused by the test made at low power level and the increased void fraction due to reduced coolant flow rate, in addition to the nuclear characteristics and performance of the control system peculiar to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

274

Health Hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The most recent meeting in the Federal Republic of Germany reviewed the principal long-lived radionuclides emitted from the accident and concluded that 134Cs and 137Cs had the greatest potential for contributing to the human dose because they are still present, the dose will be delivered over a long term, and because of the accumulation in some edible plants and animal products. The observed contribution of radionuclides to the collective effective dose-equivalent in the first year is about 60-80% from ingestion, 30-40% from external irradiation, and 2-20% from inhalation

1988-01-01

275

137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure.

Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G. (GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany))

1992-11-01

276

Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of 137Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric dispersion. The L.A.D.A.S. were applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. The calculated concentration distributions were compared with the results of the other models of A.T.M.E.S. using statistical methods. The calculated results of L.A.D.A.S. showed a better agreement compared with the measured concentrations during the accident. The developed Lagrangian particle model for a long-range atmospheric dispersion will be provided as a basic tool to evaluate the atmospheric diffusion and the radiological dose assessment in the national emergency preparedness system in Korea. (N.C.)

2006-05-15

277

Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of {sup 137}Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric dispersion. The L.A.D.A.S. were applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. The calculated concentration distributions were compared with the results of the other models of A.T.M.E.S. using statistical methods. The calculated results of L.A.D.A.S. showed a better agreement compared with the measured concentrations during the accident. The developed Lagrangian particle model for a long-range atmospheric dispersion will be provided as a basic tool to evaluate the atmospheric diffusion and the radiological dose assessment in the national emergency preparedness system in Korea. (N.C.)

Suh, K.S.; Jeong, H.J.; Kim, E.H.; Hwang, W.T.; Han, M.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Nuclear Environmental Research Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

278

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-07-01

279

Radionuclide deposition and exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of air, water, and foodstuff samples, together with in situ gamma spectrometric measurements in the Federal Republic of Germany, have documented the deposition and exposure consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In some cases, exposure values are significantly higher than background levels. Data compiled for the period from the initial identification of excess atmospheric radioactivity to the present, represent a unique resource for testing and validating models of environmental transport and human exposure. These data will serve as the bases for future studies of organism response, both somatic and genetic, to nuclear radiation. They will also prove useful in suggesting modifications to environmental sampling and monitoring systems. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

1989-01-01

280

Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

1993-12-02

 
 
 
 
281

Ten years after: the legacy of the Chernobyl accident; Zehn Jahre danach: Das Erbe von Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to take the emotional edge out of debates about the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident, it is opportune to confront the sometimes completely exaggerated figures published by the mass media with the mere facts available to date. Recent, reliable information and data have confirmed that, put into relation with the psychologic, social and economic problems arising in the wake of the breakup of the Soviet Union, the radiological consequences of the reactor accident appear relatively mild. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Versachlichung der Diskussion um die Folgen des Tschernobyl-Unfalles ist es wuenschenswert, den oft voellig unsinnigen Zahlenangaben der Massenmedien die bisher bekannten Fakten gegenueberzustellen. Neueste serioese Daten bestaetigen neben relativ geringen radiologischen Konsequenzen erschreckende psycho-soziale und oekonomische Folgen im Umfeld der zerfallenden Sowjetunion und westlichen Medienhysterie. (orig.)

Becker, K. [Sektion Berlin-Brandenburg, Kerntechnische Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)

1996-01-29

282

Evaluation of special safety features of the SNR-300 in view of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of those characteristics, which decisively influenced the accident in the RMBK-1000 reactor, with the safety features of SNR-300 has been performed. The conclusions of this comparison are presented in the present report. The SNR-300 is characterized by a stable reactivity behaviour and good controllability, whereas RBMK-1000 has an instable behaviour and complex spatial dependencies in the core. Among other points, design deficiencies in the protection and emergency shutdown systems were responsible for the Chernobyl accident. The protection and scram systems of the SNR-300 are unquestionably superior to those of the RBMK-1000 with regard to redundancy, diversity, degree of automation, separation of operational and safety-relevant tasks, protection against inadmissible interventions, effectiveness and safety reserves. Therefore, excursion accidents can be classified as hypothetical for SNR-300. Due to elementary physical properties, possible energy releases during hypothetical excursions are substantially lower for SNR-300 and would be controlled by the design of the primary system and containment systems. No damage limiting measures are provided in the RBMK-100 for excursion accidents. Finally, exothermal processes augmented the consequences of the accident in the RBMK-1000 and the long-lasting graphite fire intensified the release of radioactivity. In the SNR-300, however, inertisation of the containment, the steel plate lining and the floor troughs ensure that activity enclosure inside the containment after leakage or hypothetical excursion accident is not endangered by exothermal reactions. Further safety aspects are presented in the report, which can be linked with the accident in Chernobyl. In summary, it is obvious that the disadvantageous physical and technical features of the RBMK-1000 do either not exist in the SNR-300 or are covered by the safety design

1987-01-01

283

The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

2006-01-01

284

Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and who lived in the catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Present state examinat...

Mayou, R.; Bryant, B.; Duthie, R.

1993-01-01

285

Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

1989-03-08

286

Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and thyroid cancer in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since August 1991, six surveys have been made on thyroid cancer in children in Ukraine and Belorussia. The results were compared with those for Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Children with thyroid cancer were characterized as having the following: (1) frequent occurrence of thyroid cancer; (2) extremely short latency period; (3) poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma; (4) frequent occurrence within the thyroid gland; (5) the association of fibrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, and proliferation of follicular epithelial cells; (6) frequent occurrence of sclerosing variant of papillary cancer associated with fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration, especially in heavily exposed areas. These findings were supposed to be attributable to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. No data has been available on infantile thyroid cancer in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors because of the following reasons: (1) acute death from acute radiation injury, leukemia and cancer other than thyroid cancer; (2) few survey on thyroid cancer during the first 10 years after exposure; (3) the lack of surgical data on thyroid cancer. In the case of Chernobyl survivors, there were few acute death cases; I-131 seemed to have damaged specifically the thyroid gland; heavily exposed areas corresponded to areas with low iodine intake; pediatric thyroid gland is sensitive to I-131, leading to the possibility that infantile thyroid cancer may have been induced by I-131. (N.K.)

1994-03-01

287

Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

1987-01-01

288

Radioactivity in fungi in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Caesium (137Cs and 134Cs) concentrations in higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Slovenia, north-west Yugoslavia, are reported following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention was paid to the Cortinariaceae, already known as Cs accumulators. The highest levels were found in Cortinarius armillatus, C. traganus (both inedible species) and Rozites caperata. The median concentration of sup(137,124)Cs in R. caperata from over 40 sampling sites was about 22 kBq/kg dry weight. High levels were also found in Xerocomus badius and Laccaria amethystina. From the 137Cs/134Cs ratios, which reflect the depth of the mycelium and the excess 137Cs from historic pre-Chernobyl fallout, it may be surmised that radiocaesium levels in certain species will probably increase further next year and subsequently as Cs migrates down the soil profile. In addition, sup(110m)Ag was found at concentrations up to 500 Bq/kg dry weight in certain species known to be Ag accumulators, particularly Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae. (author)

1988-01-01

289

Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

1990-01-01

290

Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our work with about 100 subjects resident in eastern Europe (mostly Poland) at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or traveling as tourists, /sup 131/I was readily detectable in the thyroid through mid-June, 1986, and was detectable in some subjects as late as early July, 9 to 10 weeks after the start of the accident. Among 42 subjects who were in eastern Europe on April 26, 1986, and in whom /sup 131/I was detectable, the median activity in the thyroid was 1.4 nCi at the time of measurement. When extrapolated back to April 26 using a single exponential retention function for the thyroid and an 8-day effective half-life, the median activity was 42 nCi. The frequency distribution resembled a lognormal distribution. The extrapolated activities lay between approximately 2 and 1200 nCi. The risk levels derived from these observations of internal radioactivity and my conservative dose projection assumptions are as much as 10 times less than the risk levels published in the lay press during the months following the accident. This underscores the importance of basing risk estimation for internal radioactivity on direct observations. 2 refs., 1 tab.

Schlenker, R.A.

1987-01-01

291

The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

1986-06-01

292

Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

2005-09-06

293

Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

1997-11-01

294

Statistical features of irradiation following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The actual levels and projected radiation doses to people living in the most contaminated areas following the Chernobyl accident have been studied. All results are based upon the application of the information system SDACHA, which includes integrated data on each of 6000 populated centres with deposition levels of 137Cs of 50 kBq.m-2 or above. The actual external and internal doses and projected doses for the strictly controlled areas (population 270,000) were specified on the basis of the data for 1989. This paper concerns the actual data and collective dose commitments in the most contaminated areas of Gomel, Mogilev, Kiev, Zhitomir and Bryansk regions. Probable variations of the collective dose commitment were estimated in relation to the scale of population relocation and demographic circumstances. The distributions and values of the lifetime collective dose commitment to the critical group of children born in 1980-89 have also been determined. (Author)

1990-04-02

295

The role of chemical reactions in the Chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that chemical reactions played an essential role in the Chernobyl accident at all of its stages. It is important that the reactor before the explosion was at maximal xenon poisoning, and its reactivity, apparently, was not destroyed by the explosion. The reactivity release due to decay of Xe-235 on the second day after the explosion led to a reactor power of 80-110 MW. Owing to this power, the chemical reactions of reduction of uranium, plutonium, and other metals at a temperature of about 2000°C occurred in the core. The yield of fission products thus sharply increased. Uranium and other metals flew down in the bottom water communications and rooms. After reduction of the uranium and its separation from the graphite, the chain reaction stopped, the temperature of the core decreased, and the activity yield stopped.

Grishanin, E. I.

2010-12-01

296

Concept of seasonality in the light of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seasonality could have a strong influence on the radiological impact of environmental radioactive contamination. Short-lived radionuclides (e.g., 131I) and those that mainly enter the food chain by direct contamination (e.g. 137Cs) are especially important in this context. In particular, the contamination of cereals is influenced by seasonality. For temperate latitudes it is generally true that radioactive contamination during winter, when the fields lie fallow and the domestic animals are stabled, will result in a significantly lower radiological impact than if a similar contamination were to take place in the summer shortly before harvesting. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was strongly influenced by seasonality. (author)

1992-03-01

297

Local radiation damage in the irradiated during Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some unusual forms of skin system damage are described in cases of local radiation damage in victims of the Chernobyl disaster. One phenomenon was skin erythema occurring 6 to 8 weeks following the accident in some irradiated persons. The original scope of damage of 25 to 30% of body surface generalized in 3 weeks to affect the whole body. One hypothetical explanation may be damage due to the effect of low level radionuclides or significantly slowed-down particles. Another unusual phenomena was side and crural erythema accompanied with oedema and strong pain in some patients. The primary cause of death in one patient with such damage was brain oedema similar to that in toxic shock following extensive burns. The therapy is outlined in the management of the said and other local radiation damage cases. (L.O.). 10 refs

1987-06-01

298

Radioactive contamination in Nijmegen rainwater after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident, rainwater was collected in the Nijmegen area during the first three weeks of May 1986. The radionuclides found in the water were "1"3"1I, "1"3"2Te, "1"3"2I, "1"4"0La, "1"3"4Cs, "1"3"7Cs and "1"0"3Ru. On the first rainy day, an activity concentration of 9 kBq l"-"1 was measured, with specific activities of 2.7 kBq l"-"1 for "1"3"1I and 2.3 kBq l"-"1 for each of "1"3"2Te and "1"3"2I. The total activity precipitated per square kilometer in this period was ? 55 GBq. Fresh spinach picked in Nijmegen on 7 May had an activity of 1.5 kBq kg"-"1. (Auth.)

1987-07-01

299

20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

2006-01-01

300

Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction. PMID:8907638

Voigt, G; Paretzke, H G

1996-02-01

302

Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction. (orig.)

1996-02-01

303

Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab.

Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

1987-01-01

304

Fifteen years of the cuban program, with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Cuban Chernobyl Program arrived to the 15th anniversary in March 2005. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. More than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program up to the moment, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric and biomedic research had been also carried out as part of the program. The most significant medical attention activities include the treatment of children with haematological disorders, including 120 leukaemia, bone marrow transplants, and the treatment of endocrine and cancer diseases. The dosimetric studies allow made a data base with information on internal 137Cs contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by 137Cs, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation in more than 8000 children. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences. This paper present a summary of the main results obtained in the program

2005-01-01

305

Testing of an accident consequence assessment model using field data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results obtained from the application of an accident consequence assessment model, OSCAAR to the Iput dose reconstruction scenario of BIOMASS and also to the Chernobyl 131I fallout scenario of EMRAS, both organized by International Atomic Energy Agency. The Iput Scenario deals with 137Cs contamination of the catchment basin and agricultural area in the Bryansk Region of Russia, which was heavily contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This exercise was used to test the chronic exposure pathway models in OSCAAR with actual measurements and to identify the most important sources of uncertainty with respect to each part of the assessment. The OSCAAR chronic exposure pathway models had some limitations but the refined model, COLINA almost successfully reconstructed the whole 10-year time course of 137Cs activity concentrations in most requested types of agricultural products and natural foodstuffs. The Plavsk scenario provides a good opportunity to test not only the food chain transfer model of 131I but also the method of assessing 131I thyroid burden. OSCAAR showed in general good capabilities for assessing the important 131I exposure pathways. (author)

2007-03-01

306

Legislative reactions of the European Community and its Member States after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives a survey on the enactment of regulations, directives and decisions of the European Communities after the Chernobyl accident as a basis for legislative measures of the EC-Member States. (orig./HP)

1989-01-01

307

The accident at Chernobyl Unit 4 in the Ukraine - April 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power generation occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station some 60 miles north of Kiev in the Ukraine. This paper describes the sequence of events that occurred and the consequences of the accident. There was extensive damage to the Unit 4 reactor and the building that housed it. Some 31 people died as a result of the accident, either directly or as a result of receiving lethal radiation doses. A significant release of fission products occurred, contaminating land around the station and requiring the evacuation of 135,000 people from their homes. The radioactive cloud generated over several days was carried by winds to all parts of Europe, where there was a varying degree of public concern. The contamination resulted in restrictions on the consumption of meat and vegetables. The latent health effects are, however, unlikely to be statistically significant when viewed against the normal mortality rate over the next 40 years. Although there were gross violations by the operators, the primary cause of the accident can be attributed to inherent design shortcomings in the RBMK reactor type, which is unique to the Soviet Union. The Russians have said that the accident is not possible in any commercial reactor operational outside the USSR

1988-01-01

308

Changes of radiological situation of Polish environment in 10 years period after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of natural and artificial radioisotopes in environment in Poland before and after Chernobyl accident was analyzed. The methods used in radiation monitoring in Poland and results of these measurements in the period 1986-1996 were presented. Since the Chernobyl accident changes of contamination of soils, southern Baltic sea water, other surface waters, deposits in Baltic sea, rivers and lakes in Poland were observed. Also concentration of radioisotopes in foodstuffs: mushrooms, fruits, meat, milk, eggs was described

1996-01-01

309

Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

1989-07-27

310

Resuspension of radioactive Caesium from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fallout over Sweden from the Chernobyl accident was heavier than in most countries outside of the USSR. The contamination in Sweden is also very uneven. There are areas with more than 200 kBq/m2 of 137Cs while other parts of Sweden have less than 300 Bq/m2. This has given a unique possibility to study the behaviour of radioactive material released from a nuclear power accident. This paper report four years of measurements of resuspended radioactive Caesium. It appear that the manner in which the radioactive material was deposited (by wet or dry deposition) is important for how much of the material will be available for resuspension. In areas with wet deposition the resuspension factor is smaller than in areas with dry deposition. But part of this difference is probably due to activity of non-local origin. There is a yearly cycle, with a peak in the spring preceding gradually decreasing resuspension values until a minimum is reached in the fall and winter. Overall, The resuspension factor, defined as the concentration in air (Bq/m3) divided by the totally deposited activity (Bq/m2), varies between 10-8 and 10-10m-1 with the higher values for areas with dry deposition. It has also been possible to deduce the resuspension factor in 1985 for fallout Caesium from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. It was found to be ? 3x10-10m-1. (au)

1991-01-01

311

Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

1987-01-26

312

Radioactivity levels in forests after the Chernobyl accident. What happens in berries, mushrooms and game?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the nuclear accident in Chernobyl occurred in april 1985, a cooperation was established between scientists at the National Defence Research Institute, FOA, and the Faculty of Forestry at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa, Sweden, to study uptake and redistribution in important food-chains of radioactive caesium ("1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs) deposited over forest ecosystems in the county of Vaesterbotten. As part of this cooperation recurrent sampling in vegetation, soil and water has been performed since 1986 at the Vindeln Experimental Forest about 60 km NW of Umeaa. In this report the changes in activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs in plants and fungi from 1986 to 2003 is described and discussed. Furthermore, results from these long-time series and from sampling annually (from one year prior to the Chernobyl accident until 1995) of moose meat during the autumn hunting season are also compared with predictions based on a radioecological model. Besides describing long-term trends in the material, another purpose with these series is to increase the knowledge about probable causes of the redistribution process during different periods after deposition - thereby providing increased reliability in identifying and assessing important radioecological consequences in different time-scales with focus on food-chains of particular interest to man

313

Assessment of Chernobyl health consequences under the influence of public and other interests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident on 26 April 1986 was the largest and most severe disaster in the history of civil nuclear technology involving radiation exposure and radioactive contamination of large areas in the NIS. Among the three countries Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, Belarus was mostly affected, because about 70% of the radioactive fallout was deposited on its territory. The radiation doses from various nuclides, to which the public as well as the liquidators were exposed during the first months, let expect serious health consequences for a large number of persons. During the first weeks after the accident, the authorities in Moscow released several orders of secrecy. Later, in July 1987 the order was given that acute and chronic diseases of liquidators, who were exposed to less than 50 rem, must not be attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation. In 1990, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Chernobyl Project, with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others, in order to investigate and assess the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics. 200 scientists from the West and 500 from USSR were sent by their governments to participate. Concerning the health impact, the IAEA team under its chairman professor F. Mettler from USA concluded in 1991 that there were no health disorders that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. IAEA favoured psychological stress and anxiety to be the cause of health disorders observed. This information was spread world wide. But in reality, at this time the number of thyroid cancer cases in children in Belarus was already 30 times higher than the average in the 10 years before Chernobyl. And IAEA and other international organizations did not want to take into account the findings and reports of Belarusian and Ukrainian scientists on the marked increase in thyroid cancers, BBC found out and published in 1996 an TV documentation that as far back as 1990 F. Mettler had analyzed in the USA the pathological slides of thyroid cancer of 20 Ukrainian children confirming the malignancy in all cases. But Mettler and his colleagues suppressed this fact and stated in their reports that there was none. As a result, international organizations and the UN did not s tart proper assistance programmes for t he people affected and valuable time was lost. A new report in 2000 by the UNSCEAR committee contained a evaluation of the consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl accident which concludes that there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure fourteen years after the accident, apart from a high level of (treatable, non-fatal) thyroid cancers in children. With this exception, the report states 'there is no scientific evidence of increases in over all cancer incidence or mortality or in non-malignant disorders that could be related to radiation exposure.' The statement of UNSCEAR ignores a large number of scientific publications on a several fold increase in thyroid cancers in adults, the large increase in non-malignant thyroid disorders and in other diseases. It should be noted that this UN committee does not consist of independently elected scientists, but only of those being sent as representatives of governments of the 21 nations, who have strong interest in the use of nuclear technology. And F. Mettler is still member of UNSCEAR and represents the interests of the US government. Two international research programmes on the health effects of Chernobyl are of special interest. In the Project 'International Cooperation for post Chernobyl NIS Thyroid Tissue, Nucleic Acid and Data Banks' the USA, the European Atomic Energy Community, Japan and WHO invited Belarus, Russia and Ukraine to form a collaborative research resource. In the description of the programme it is outlined that competition among scientific groups should be avoided, that the study of

2003-04-01

314

Chenge psychoneurological state in flyer-liquidators of the Chernobyl APS disaster consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

152 flyers, who took part in the Chernobyl NPP accident effect elimination, were examined in the period from 1986 up to 1988. The caracter of psychoneurological state in early (up to month) and delayed (up to 1-2 years) periods after work in the accident zone was determined. The dependence of stability to extremem factor effects on some personal and psychophysical peculiarities of flyers was studied. It was revealed that deviations in flyer psychoneurological sphere connected with effects of stressogenic factors on an organism during accident elimination and the information about radiation dose were observed in delayed period after the Chernobyl NPP accident

1993-02-01

315

Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

Brought online in 1978, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was considered a model plant throughout the USSR. Eight years later, that same plant experienced an explosion and meltdown that had disastrous consequences for local residents. This terrible incident caused serious damage to the global cause of establishing nuclear power as a viable alternative source of energy. This very thorough and well-designed site serves as an excellent gateway to information about the events surrounding that date, and more importantly, about the long-term effects of the event and the organizations that are intimately concerned with these affairs. The âÂÂFactsâ section is a good place to start, as it contains an overview of the incidents of 20 years ago, along with information about the consequences for the health of local residents and the environment. Another useful section is in the right-hand corner of the homepage provides news updates about projects, events, and meetings related to the events at Chernobyl. One of the most powerful areas of the site contains first-hand recollections about the events at Chernobyl, and it should not be missed. It is also worth noting that the site is available in Russian, German, and English.

316

North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

1987-01-01

317

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

2006-07-01

318

International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

1995-05-24

319

The level of "1"3"7Cs concentration in Greek soils one decade after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident was the greatest radioactive contamination of the biosphere including the soil cover. It is well known that a soil analysis is a principal systematic method to estimate the radioactivity level in the particular area since deposition pattern is determined by measuring activity in grass and soil. The aim of the present work is first to identify the level of the existing "1"3"7Cs contamination over Greece ten years after the Chernobyl accident. Secondly, a comparison between the 1986 "1"3"7Cs - distribution and the present measured one in more - less the same areas of Greece, has been attempted. The "4"0k (0.0118% of natural K) concentration in soils as ratio "1"3"7Cs/ "4"0k has been, examined, even this ratio is not as constant in biological systems as the ratio Sr/Ca

1997-09-01

320

The evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident by the help of the Hungarian Surveillance of Germinal Mutations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The germinal mutagenic consequences or radioactive fall-out deposition from the Chernobyl accident in Hungary was evaluated in the ongoing program on the population-based Hungarian Surveillance of Germinal Mutations. The surveillance is based on three groups of indicator conditions: 15 sentinel anomalies (indicators of germinal dominant gene mutations), Down syndrome (an indicator of germinal numerical and structural chromosomal mutations) and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities (indicators of germinal dominant gene and chromosomal mutations). Cases with indicator conditions were selected from the material of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. After the diagnostic accuracies were checked, familial and sporadic cases were separated and only the latter group was evaluated for evidence of new mutations. The analysis did not reveal any measurable germinal mutagenic effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary. (author)

1992-03-18

 
 
 
 
321

Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: "1"3"1I, "1"3"2Te, "1"3"4"+"1"3"7Cs, "1"0"3"+"1"0"6Ru, "1"1"0"m Ag and, to a lesser degree, "8"9Sr and "9"0Sr. Very quickly, "1"3"7Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of "1"3"7Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of "1"3"4"+"1"3"7Cs, "1"0"3"+"1"0"6Ru, "1"1"0"m Ag and "9"0Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is "1"3"7Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their "1"3"7Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of "1"3"7Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg"-"1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, "1"3"7Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

1989-01-01

322

Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiation pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been considered for a long time as a basic ecological danger source. Since the disaster at Chernobyl, a considerable number of the inhabited areas turned out to be situated on the territory contaminated with the radioactive substances. A risk value of the radiation-inducible affections is used in order to appraise the damage to the health of the population, residing in such regions, in other words - of the long term (stochastic) effects probability, among which malignant neoplasm represents the most serious danger. In many countries the systems of radiological protection and safety criteria are based on ecocentric approaches. Nevertheless the post-Chernobyl situation in the Republic of Belarus is continually producing a wide spectrum of hard questions of human health and social activity on contaminated territories. That is why present work is completely produced in the frameworks of anthropocentric approach. The radiation risk has been evaluated for a number of regions of Gomel areas and Mogilev region in accordance with the linear non-threshold model 'Dose-Effect'. A lifelong risk coefficient of the radiation-inducible cancers of 5% / Zv, offered by the ICRP, is used in the evaluations. The doses, used for the risk assessment, are taken from the Doses Catalogue-1992 of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Belarus, which contains the doses, referring to the years 1991-1992. Correspondingly, our evaluations determine potential cancers, conditioned by the radiation exposure during this period of time. Obtained evaluations do not take into account either the radiation-inducible cancers of the thyroid gland, or the leukemia cases, observed in the liquidators as a result of the radiation exposure in the year 1986. The work also contains an evaluation of the component, specific for the Chernobyl radiation risk, conditioned by the radiation dose, accumulated in the population of the regions under observation by the year 2004. The obtained results conform to the other authors' conclusions (Malko M.V., 2001, 2003). In the framework of the ICRP model it's shown that a maximum possible influence of the radiation contamination factor can't be a source of the actually registered carcinogenic risk. In this connection, an analysis of the ecological hazard non-radiation components is of importance. By now, the scientific community has achieved the understanding of the fact that a chemical pollution risk can be compared with a risk of the radiation contamination even in the regions mostly suffered from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Furthermore, under a combined influence of a complex of factors, there is a risk of a nonlinear enhancement of the adverse effects. In this connection, an urgent problem appeared consisting of the new approach elaboration on the evaluation of the technogenic environment contamination, under which an influence of different adverse factors would be expressed in comparable values, suitable for their comparative analysis. This problem solving refers first of all to the decision making optimization at the safety arrangements planning on the contaminated territories. (author)

2006-09-01

323

Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in EEC countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are presented of an evaluation of the impact of radioactive substances escaped during the Chernobyl accident, on the population in EEC countries. The results have been processed from data provided by all member countries and relate to the most dangerous radionuclides namely 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. The population was divided into three groups: one-year olds, 10 year olds and adults. Assessed were external whole-body irradiation by the radioactive cloud and material deposited on the body surface, and internal irradiation with regard to the human food chain. The irradiation of the thyroid was assessed separately. As for 131I, the most endangered group were the infants with the exception of Italy where 10 year olds were the most affected group. Values calculated for the individual countries are given of the effective dose equivalent for the first year, the dose equivalent for the thyroide, the dose commitment in the first year, the collective effective dose equivalent and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid gland. Measures taken to reduce the irradiation of the population (restrictions on distribution and consumption of milk, dairy products and leafy vegetables, feeding cattle with preserved feeds, etc.) reduced the collective dose equivalent by a mere 5% and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid by 26%. (E.S.). 3 tabs

1988-01-01

324

The state of health of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After Chernobyl NPP accident more than 3000 liquidators from Armenia suffered after effects. Since 1986 the Radiation Medicine Institute has conducted follow-up observations on more than 2000 of them. Pathologies of the nervous system are the most prominent. A marked number of patients presented with chronic non-specific lung disease and inflammatory conditions of the alimentary canal. Thyroid hormone analysis has shown that during the first year triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyropine levels of the liquidators have increased significantly, and continued to do so. Later, the two former declined but the thyrotropine level remained significantly high. Decrease in peripheral blood neutrophiles phagocyte activity has revealed cellular type immunodeficiency including decrease in blood serum complement activity and lowered resistance to infection. Lymphocyte chromosomal analysis revealed considerably increased levels of aberrations and there were defects in spermatogenesis. In the liquidators a clastogenic factor in serum led to aberration levels 2-5 times higher than in controls. The new antioxidant Tanakan was tested on volunteer liquidators and proved useful. The gradual transition from functional to organ pathology, in parallel with clastogenic factors, chromosomal aberrations and spermatogenesis defects requires long-term monitoring and new preventative and medicinal remedies. (Author)

1994-10-25

325

Inquiries from the public about the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of April, a few calls from members of public relating to the Chernobyl accident were starting to trickle through to the Board's headquarters at Chilton. On the 1st May, the travel trade gave out the Board's telephone number to its clients who wanted information and advice about travelling abroad, and the trickle suddenly became a flood. During the bank holiday weekend, reporting of the remnants of the radioactive release reaching Britain received considerable prominence in the media. By the 6th of May, the Board's 15 telephone lines had become clogged with requests for information, advice and/or reassurance and other lines had to be installed. By then, the media, companies, scientists from other organisations, local government officials and various other community representatives were all vying with members of the public to get through to the Board. The inquiries by telephone were answered by nominated Board staff: they ranged from requests for factual information about the levels of activity in air, milk, water, and so on, to simple requests for reassurance that all was well

1986-10-01

326

Abnahme der Strahlenexposition nach Tschernobyl. ( Decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident).  

Science.gov (United States)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiatio...

K. Mueck

1993-01-01

327

Results of a honey monitoring program in Italy after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Honey bees (Apis Mellifera) as bioindicators of environmental pollution have been studied for a long time to analyse their ability to detect air and water pollution. Bees forage over a large area (around 7Km2) and seem to act as biomagnifiers of the contamination of the environment. Honey bees and their products, mainly honey, were used in the U.S.A. during the seventies to monitor potential releases from nuclear waste disposal sites. Honey samples were examined to detect contaminated areas surrounding a nuclear facility at Cattaraugus Country (NY); the presence of radionuclides from fallout of nuclear weapon tests in honey samples was also investigated. As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive contamination spread all over the Italian soil allowed the analysis of the radioactivity transfer from the environment to honey

1988-01-01

328

Tumour markers in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late post-accident period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tumour markers (TM) are base plasma proteins with a carbohydrate component, produced by various types of tumor cells. 84 male liquidators aged from 30 to 50 y.o. were examined in the clinic of All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine in September 1994-April 1995. External irradiation exposure amongst liquidators varied from 2 to 30 sGr. TM concentration in serum and plasma were determined by conventional ELISA methods (CEA. AFP, CA19-9. PSA, NSE). The first (control) group was composed of liquidators with no GI tract pathology. The second group consisted of 28 liquidators with irradiation - induced cytogenetical disturbances in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The third group consisted included 28 liquidators with chronic GI tract diseases. In control group, levels of CA 19-9, CEA and AFP amounted to 4.7± 0.4 U/ml, 2.4± 0.8mg/ml, 2.1± 0.2 IU/ml, correspondingly. The CA 19-9 level has been shown to increase statistically significantly in the second (14.5±1.5 U/ml) and in the third group (17.8± 1.2 U/ml). A simultaneous elevation of CA 19-9 and CEA was found in 7.1% of the liquidators of the third group, the CA 19-9 level changes ranging from 63 to 708 U/ml. The mean value of PSA in all three groups remained within the discrimination concentration limits and amounted to 2.5± 0.4 U/ml. Concentration of NSE was equal to 29.9± 7.2 mg/ml in all three groups. Based on the data on frequencies of the tumour marker elevation, a group of 6 was selected.This group required a detailed dynamic examination because of the problem of remote consequences of the effect of complex factors of the Chernobyl Atomic Station accident upon its victims. (author)

1997-11-01

329

Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed ?-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

1996-03-18

330

Remediation strategies for rural territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present paper is to derive remediation strategies for rural settlements contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in which annual doses to a critical group still exceed 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data have been collected for 70 contaminated settlements. A dose model based on these data resulted in estimates that are on average close to and a bit less than the official dose estimates ('catalogue doses') published by the responsible Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. For eight remedial actions that can be applied on a large scale, effectiveness and costs have been assessed in light of their dependence on soil type, contamination level and on the degree of previous application of remedial actions. Remediation strategies were derived for each of the 70 settlements by choosing remedial actions with lowest costs per averted dose and with highest degree of acceptability among the farmers and local authorities until annual doses are assessed to fall below 1 mSv. The results were generalised to 11 contamination/internal-dose categories. The total numbers of rural inhabitants and privately owned cows in the three countries distributed over the categories were determined and predicted until the year 2015. Based on these data, costs and averted doses were derived for the whole affected population. The main results are (i) about 2000 Sv can be averted at relatively low costs, (ii) the emphasis on reducing external exposures should be increased, (iii) radical improvement of hay-land and meadows and application of Prussian blue to cows should be performed on a large scale if annual doses of 1 mSv are an aim to be achieved, (iv) additional remedial actions of importance are fertilising of potato fields, distribution of food monitors and restriction of mushroom consumption, and (v) for inhabitants of some settlements (in total about 8600) annual doses cannot be reduced below 1 mSv by the remedial actions considered. PMID:11446123

Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Firsakova, S K; Likhtarev, I A; Schotola, C; Alexakhin, R M; Zhuchenko, Y M; Kovgan, L; Sanzharova, N I; Ageyets, V

2001-01-01

331

Remediation strategies for rural territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present paper is to derive remediation strategies for rural settlements contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in which annual doses to a critical group still exceed 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data have been collected for 70 contaminated settlements. A dose model based on these data resulted in estimates that are on average close to and a bit less than the official dose estimates ('catalogue doses') published by the responsible Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. For eight remedial actions that can be applied on a large scale, effectiveness and costs have been assessed in light of their dependence on soil type, contamination level and on the degree of previous application of remedial actions. Remediation strategies were derived for each of the 70 settlements by choosing remedial actions with lowest costs per averted dose and with highest degree of acceptability among the farmers and local authorities until annual doses are assessed to fall below 1 mSv. The results were generalised to 11 contamination/internal-dose categories. The total numbers of rural inhabitants and privately owned cows in the three countries distributed over the categories were determined and predicted until the year 2015. Based on these data, costs and averted doses were derived for the whole affected population. The main results are (i) about 2000 Sv can be averted at relatively low costs, (ii) the emphasis on reducing external exposures should be increased, (iii) radical improvement of hay-land and meadows and application of Prussian blue to cows should be performed on a large scale if annual doses of 1 mSv are an aim to be achieved, (iv) additional remedial actions of importance are fertilising of potato fields, distribution of food monitors and restriction of mushroom consumption, and (v) for inhabitants of some settlements (in total about 8600) annual doses cannot be reduced below 1 mSv by the remedial actions considered

2001-01-01

332

Some geochemical and environmental aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide fallout on Byelorussia in the first days after the accident was mainly dependent on the mass movement of air and rain. In cities, fallout was confined to regions with intensive industrial dust emissions, as well as to river valleys, where degassing of deep-seated zones through faults occurred side by side with evaporation. Radionuclide washout from upland territories can be related to secondary processes. After 5 a, radioactivity near the surface of the Earth had decreased due to the decay of shortlived isotopes and penetration of radionuclides deeper into the soil, although the major part still occurs at a depth of 1-5 cm. Bogs, peat-bog soils, aquifers with fluctuating groundwater levels, variable pH-Eh conditions and a high-biological activity all contribute to radionuclide migration. A part of the radionuclides is gradually removed from eluvial landscapes and accumulated in subareal landscapes (e.g. lakes, oxbow-lakes, water-storage basins). The Chernobyl debris is represented by the following: ''hot'' particles, pseudocolloids, aerosols and gaseous compounds. Two zones can be distinguished around the reactor differing in the ratio of ''hot'' particles and condensate fallout. A very important role is assigned to biological processes and organic matter, which cause the destruction of ''hot'' particles, the formation or organometallic complexes, and water migration of nuclides. After 300 and more years, the distribution of radionuclides in the landscape will have been determined by weathering, erosion and sedimentation which strongly depend on climatic conditions. Side by side with a gradual decay of Cs and Sr, an appreciable accumulation of 241Am, which is very mobile in landscapes, should be expected due to decaying 241Pu. (Author)

1993-09-01

333

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

NONE

2006-03-15

334

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

2006-01-01

335

New analysis of the Chernobyl accident. The impact on health and the environment; Nouveau regard sur Tchernobyl. L'impact sur la sante et l'environnement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document deals with the impact of the Chernobyl accident first in ex-soviet republics, then in France and with its consequences on the nuclear safety. It is made up of 9 chapters: 1) the sanitary impacts in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, 2) other illnesses, 3) congenital malformations, 4) the impact on the environment and the today's situation, 5) radioactive fallout in France, 6) the irradiation of the French population, 7) is Chernobyl accident the cause of thyroid cancers?, 8) can a similar accident occur in France?, and 9) what consequences on nuclear safety. (A.C.)

Sorin, F

2006-03-15

336

Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 7Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for 7Be were 0.43 and 0.41 ?m with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of 134Cs, 137Cs and 7Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to 131I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides (140Ba, 140La 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb) and volatile radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, and 132Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 ?m were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. -- Highlights: • AMADs after the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents in the Czech Rep. were determined. • The mean value of AMADs of the monitored nuclides from the NPP Fukushima was 0.43 ?m. • Nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl fell into two categories – refractory and volatile. • The mean value of AMADs of volatile nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl was 0.51 ?m. • AMADs of volatile nucl. from the NPP Chernobyl were 3× smaller than of the refractory radionuclides

2013-12-01

337

Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children, after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the accident from Chernobyl, an important number of studies were focused on the effects of the accident but, nine years after the accident, we still don't know enough about its impact on public health and environment. A major problem after the Chernobyl accident was to asses the effects of the irradiation for different age groups, especially for children. Our group measured Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children of different ages (between 4 and 12 years), at different time intervals after the accident. From the intake data, a trend of the annually committed effective doses was deduced. The paper presents the dose values for different age groups, as well as the balance of the intake and excretion, given as the 'observed ratio'. (author)

1996-01-01

338

Fifteen years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen years has passed on this year since accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant had formed on April 26, 1986. From before or after the accident, the world experienced a number of changes. On August, 1986, USSR carried out a report on the accident at an international conference on the accident at Chernobyl held at Wien. Outlines of the report are described in a report of IAEA INSAG (INSAG-1). After then, various facts hidden in the USSR report at this time have appeared. Then, INSAG revised previous INSAG-1 and published INSAG-7 re-evaluated on technical meanings of the accident on 1992, which became so-called finished issue on technical analysis and evaluation on causes and progresses of the accident. To correctly understand lessons on the accident, it must be begun from correct understanding of its real facts. It is widely recognized that its actual and fundamental reason was slight or neglect on safety found at whole of nuclear development and applications in USSR and shorts of safety culture such as emptiness of technology and regulation brought by them, relaxation of working rule, and so on, which were only the largest lesson on the Chernobyl accident. (G.K.)

2002-02-01

339

Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

1997-09-01

340

ReSCA: decision support tool for remediation planning after the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioactive contamination of the environment following the Chernobyl accident still provide a substantial impact on the population of affected territories in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Reduction of population exposure can be achieved by performing remediation activities in these areas. Resulting from the IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects with these countries, the program ReSCA (Remediation Strategies after the Chernobyl Accident) has been developed to provide assistance to decision makers and to facilitate a selection of an optimized remediation strategy in rural settlements. The paper provides in-depth description of the program, its algorithm, and structure. PMID:21104262

Ulanovsky, A; Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Metabolism in tooth enamel and reliability of retrospective EPR dosimetry connected with Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the results of retrospective EPR dosimetry by tooth enamel are essentially determined by the fact that tooth enamel is the mineral of biological origin. The structure of tooth enamel, properties of radiation defects and the role of metabolism in tooth enamel are discussed. It is shown that at deep metamorphic modifications tooth enamel don't save information about its radiation history. The reliability and accuracy of retrospective EPR dosimetry are discussed. Because after Chernobyl accident have passed 10 years the application of tooth enamel for reconstruction of doses which are connected with Chernobyl accident need care and additional investigations

1996-03-18

342

Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

1994-01-01

343

The liability of the Federal Republic of Germany for consequences arising from nuclear accidents abroad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with the legal questions of indemnification claims for damage induced by nuclear accidents abroad. The indemnification claim according to section 38 AtG (= Atomic Energy Act) is discussed with a view to scope, purpose, facts, causality and enforcement; furthermore the responsibility for damage arising from the obligation for protection in view of foreign states and consequences for the liability by the state; the enforcement of indemnification claims under international law; the obligation to provide protection against the results of accidents; interventions by sovereign action in case of nuclear accidents abroad; the relation of indemnification claims among each other; the indemnification for reasons of equity for consequences deriving from the Chernobyl accident. (HSCH)

1986-10-01

344

Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses received by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 ?Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

2006-05-15

345

The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested. New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. (paper)

2013-03-01

346

Chernobyl accident one year later: Genetic damage and 137Cs accumulation in wild rodents in Rome, Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has stressed the importance of studying the consequences of insertion and accumulation of radioactive substances in the environment. The radioactive fallout reaced Rome in May 1986 (ENEA/DISP), 1986) and an investigation was started aimed at studying the effects of the exposure of wild populations to low doses. In order to assess the extent of the genetic damage and ascertain the existence of a relationship between environmental radioactivity and somatic and germinal damage, mutagenic tests were used on wild rodents. The results obtained through micronucleus test have shown a statistically significant increase of MPCEs/1000 PCEs in all the animals sampled during and after the Chernobyl fallout. The maximum of MPCEs, recorded during the fallout, was the highest obtained, even compared with the wild rodents sampled in other areas and in trapping performed before the Chernobyl accident. The increased mutagenic rate observed in the investigated populations confirms the efficacy of the micronucleus test and the use of wild populations as biological indicators. 34 refs.,1 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

1989-02-01

347

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been prepared by three WHO expert committees convened under auspices of the Chernobyl Forum's Expert Group 'Health' (EGH), and by WHO staff. It provides an updated assessment of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and follows a detailed report on this topic published by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR, 2000). The accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine on April 26, 1986 and released large amounts of radioactivity, primarily radioactive isotopes of caesium and iodine. These releases contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and other countries to a lesser extent, These releases exposed sizable populations to internal and external radiation doses. The Chernobyl accident caused the deaths of 30 power plant employees and firemen within a few days or weeks (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure). In addition, about 240,000 recovery operation workers (also called 'liquidators' or 'clean-up workers') were called upon in 1986 and 1987 to take part in major mitigation activities at the reactor and within the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor. Residual mitigation activities continued on a relatively large scale until 1990. All together, about 600,000 persons (civilian and military) have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (UNSCEAR, 2000). In addition, massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220,000 people from what are at this time three independent republics of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Vast territories of those three republics were contaminated to a substantial level. The population of those contaminated areas, from which no relocation was required, was about 5 million people. The present report focuses on the long-term health consequences of radiation exposures in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Cancer is currently thought to be the most consequential long-term stochastic effect of ionizing radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000), but, other non-malignant disease outcomes are also considered. To address the present status of information on these outcomes, the WHO, under the auspices of the Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened three separate meetings of experts in Geneva. The first of these meetings addressed thyroid disease and took place 1-3 December 2003, the second on leukemia and solid cancers other than thyroid cancer took place 5-7 April 2004, and the final meeting on non-cancer outcomes and health systems was convened 13-15 September 2004. The reports of each meeting were amalgamation into this report, which is structured as follows: Section 1 covers some general issues and reproduces the summary of the findings from the 2000 UNSCEAR report for convenience, since that report was the starting point for the current expert assessments, i.e., this assessment focused on new evidence available since that report. It also discusses various methodological issues regarding epidemiological studies, since epidemiology provides the primary tool for assessing health effects in human populations and the subsequent sections make broad use of such epidemiological studies. Dosimetry, which underpins all epidemiological studies of radiation and risk, is covered, in Section 2 with Chapter 4 being devoted to thyroid dosimetry and Chapter 5 to whole-body, bone marrow and other specific organ dosimetry. Sections 3 to 5 deal in turn with the various possible health outcomes of the Chernobyl accident including thyroid disorders, leukaemia and nonthyroid cancers, and non-cancer effects. In general, the approach has been to first summarize the current evidence relating to that outcome, in particular, focusing on new studies which have appeared since the UNSCEAR

348

Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

1990-10-01

349

Following the radiation accident in Fukushima. Consequences for information management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The differing perceptions of risk in Japan and Germany, the changing psychosocial factors since the Chernobyl event, and the problem of the lacking basic knowledge concerning radiation effects at the general population as well as partially in medical circles are discussed and conclusions are made regarding the information management and the medical management of radiation accidents. (orig.)

2012-01-01

350

Rehabilitation of soils and surface after a nuclear accident: Some techniques tried in the Chernobyl zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident, the major part of deposited radio nuclides remains in the 3 or 4 cm of the topsoil of abandoned fields in the chernobyl zone. The Decontaminating Vegetal Network allows a layer of few centimeters of the top soil to be removed with a turf harvester. The efficiency observed at Chernobyl was 97% for cesium-137 and strontium-90. After scraping the soil with the turf harvester, the bare soil must be covered and re-grown in order to prevent wind erosion of the sandy soil. A trial spraying of polyacrylamide on the soil was carried out. This technique seems promising. Trials of bio-decontamination of the removed turf using anaerobic degradation were also carried out. This experiment provided an opportunity to measure in real conditions the transfer of radionuclides in the Chernobyl zone

1993-09-05

351

Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.)

1994-01-01

352

Environmental study of radioactive caesium in Greek lake fish after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiological status of radiocaesium in the Greek environment until 1986 has been characterized by the impact of world-wide fallout. During 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in an average deposition of total caesium({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs) of {approx} 9 kBq m{sup -2} in Greece, while regional averages ranged within 3-45 kBq m{sup -2}. The radioactive contamination of the lake ecosystems is potentially a radiologically important consequence of the accident. The effects of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs introduced into a number of major Greek lake ecosystems has been evaluated in the present work by determination of their concentrations in various lake fish species during the years 1986, 1988 and 1989. Although the representative and predominant species typically differ from lake to lake, while the local deposition of caesium varies significantly, the bioaccumulation of caesium by the examined species seems to depend rather on the fish species than on the local environmental parameters. The time-dependence of the fish contamination has been used to evaluate the contribution of lake fish consumption to the total ingestion dose of the population. (author).

Kritidis, P.; Florou, H. [National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)

1995-12-31

353

Environmental study of radioactive caesium in Greek lake fish after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological status of radiocaesium in the Greek environment until 1986 has been characterized by the impact of world-wide fallout. During 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in an average deposition of total caesium(134Cs + 137Cs) of ? 9 kBq m-2 in Greece, while regional averages ranged within 3-45 kBq m-2. The radioactive contamination of the lake ecosystems is potentially a radiologically important consequence of the accident. The effects of 137Cs and 134Cs introduced into a number of major Greek lake ecosystems has been evaluated in the present work by determination of their concentrations in various lake fish species during the years 1986, 1988 and 1989. Although the representative and predominant species typically differ from lake to lake, while the local deposition of caesium varies significantly, the bioaccumulation of caesium by the examined species seems to depend rather on the fish species than on the local environmental parameters. The time-dependence of the fish contamination has been used to evaluate the contribution of lake fish consumption to the total ingestion dose of the population. (author)

1995-01-01

354

Consequences of Fukushima 11032011 - Radiological consequences from the nuclear accidents in Fukushima on 11 March 2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 11 March 2011 at 14.46 the strongest earthquake ever recorded in Japan struck the Pacific coast in front of Fukushima. The earthquake and the following tsunami damaged the nuclear power plants in Fukushima Dai-ichi to such an extent that the Japanese government declared the state of catastrophic accident with degree 7 according to the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). At Fukushima Dai-ichi there were 6 boiling water reactors (BWR), a storage pool for spent fuel assemblies and a dry cask storage. 12 km apart at Fukushima Dai-ni there were 4 more BWR. At the moment of the earthquake the reactors 1 to 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi, as well as the 4 reactors at Fukushima Dai-ni, were at full power, while the reactors 4 to 6 of Fukushima Dai-ichi were shut down for revision. From 12 March 2011 on, fairly large quantities of radioactive materials were released from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors with meaningful consequences on the population in the near neighbourhood. The irradiation from the radioactivity bearing clouds, the ingestion and inhalation, and the deposit of radioactive materials on the ground threatened the population. The inhabitants of large areas had to be evacuated. Furthermore, radioactive materials contaminated the drinking water, the sea water and finally the plants and animals, i.e. the food chain of the people living there. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) continuously proceeded with the evaluation of the situation in Japan and a specialists' team made a detailed analysis of the accident, with emphasis on the human and organisational factors and on the lessons learned from this. The present report describes the present knowledge about the radiological consequences of the accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on the population in the neighbourhood and on the staff at the power plant, until October 2011. First, the unrolling of the accident and its consequences on the plant site are analysed according to international criteria. Then the transport of radioactive materials out of the reactors 1 to 3 is described and evaluated. The continuous mean discharge rate of radioactive materials is estimated and the treatment of the contaminated water accumulated in the power plant is explained. Through pressure release from the reactor containment and hydrogen explosions in the reactor buildings the released fission products gave rise to high dose rates on the plant site. The staff engaged on the plant was submitted to radiation exposure, what strongly worsened the working conditions. Because of the high radioactive background, the dosimetric surveillance was difficult. What regards the radiation exposure of the population in the neighbourhood of the plant through the released radioactive materials, in the first phase of the accident most of the dose was delivered through the crossing radioactive clouds and the inhaled radioactive dust. In the next phase the radioactive materials deposited on the ground contributed to a long-dated dose through external irradiation. Radioactive materials, which either directly or indirectly arrived on fodder plants and on greens, represent another important source of dose through ingestion. Besides, radioactive materials came into the food chain from lakes, rivers and sea through fish and sea fruits. Delivery of radioactive materials to surface waters contaminated drink water reservoirs and so contributed to higher radiation exposure. The Japanese government took measures to reduce the radiation exposure. The report also describes the effects of the Fukushima accident for the Swiss population and gives information on the most important measures and consequences for Switzerland. Finally the Fukushima accident is compared to the one in Chernobyl concerning the effects on the population and the environment. The release of radioactive materials at Chernobyl was 5 to 10 times higher than it was at Fukushima, and they were conveyed to much larger areas

2011-03-11

355

Impact of radiation on the population during the first weeks and months after the Chernobyl accident and health state of the population 10 years later  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the unclear catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP ( Nuclear Power Plant) on the 26th of April 1986, the USSR government immediately took all measures to classify the fact of the accident itself and its consequences for the population and the environment. The USSR government released instructions marked with `top secret` to classify all data on the accident at the Chernobyl NPP, especially on those related to the health of the population that suffered from the accident. Then followed instructions by the USSR Ministry of Health and the USSR Ministry of Defence to classify irradiation doses accumulated by the population, liquidators (people that had been involved in liquidation of the accident consequences) and the military personnel. These regulations demanded that medical staffs should not make the diagnosis of `acute radiation syndrome` in the files of the military-liquidators and replace it by something else. The classified documents have not been accessible for many years. Only in 1991, when the Soviet Union was collapsing, the author of this material had managed to obtain secret protocols of the Operative Group of the Politic Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (the Communist Party of the Soviet Union). These protocols stated a number of persons were subject to irradiation and hospitalised during the first days after the Chernobyl accident. (author)

Yaroshinskaya, A. [Yaroshinskaya Charity Fund, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-03-01

356

The health consequences of Chernobyl - the cardiovascular system and the incorporation of Cs-137 radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographical note presents a book which highlights cardiovascular problems noticed in areas contaminated after the Chernobyl accident, more particularly myocardial structural anomalies in inhabitants of the Gomel region and in children living in contaminated areas. This book is based on 25 years of observations and proposes reliable data and information

2012-01-01

357

Chernobyl accident radiological after-effect in the USSR and measures to moderate them  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new experience and major safety measures to moderate Chernobyl accident radiological after effect are considered. High efficiency of iodine prophylactic, limitations to contaminate food onsumption and special agrotechnical measures are preventive actions decreasing the internal irradiation. Possibility of a wide-scale surface decontamination is pointed out. Advisability of zoning the contaminated area near the reactor accident and radiation monitoring is verified in practice. A need for safety standards for separate kinds of food is stated

1988-01-01

358

Cancer incidence in population of the Bryansk and Belgorod regions after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Descriptive analysis of 150,000 new cancer cases registered in 1980-2000 in the Bryansk and Belgorod Regions of Russia, radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident in different levels, has been carried out. Gender, age at diagnosis, demographic changes and other factors were taking into account. It was demonstrated, that the structure and dynamics of cancer incidence had similar features in two Regions after the accident. It is supposed that low dosed acted as promoters of carcinogenesis

2006-04-01

359

Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authoritative figures regarding the effect of the Chernobyl accident presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations

2005-09-05

360

Radiological heath effects of the Chernobyl accident: estimation of radiation risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, two population groups were primarily exposed to radiation emergency workers involved in mitigation of the accident consequences (liquidators) and residents of contaminated territories. A dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among residents exposed as children has been apparent since 1992. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about the existence of radiation-related health effects in liquidators (the average dose of external radiation about 100 mGy). We studied a cohort of 71.870 Russian-resident males engaged in recovery operations within the 30-km zone between 1986-1990 for whom individual external radiation dose estimates are available (the average dose 107 mGy). A total of 58 morphologically verified leukemia cases (ICD9 204-208) were identified in this cohort between 1986 and 1998. Of these, 16 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were excluded. Even though leukemia is known to be an early consequence of acute radiation exposure, various studies indicate that CLL rates do not increase with radiation exposure. We consider the relationship between leukemia incidence rate and absorbed radiation dose in analysis based on both external and internal comparisons. Both the external (SIR=2.5<0.001) and internal comparisons (RR=2.2, P=0.03) indicate significantly elevated risks in the 150-300 mGy dose group. The areas worst affected by the Chernobyl accident include the Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula and Oryol oblasts of Russia. According to the Russian Commission on Radiation Safety the thyroid doses due to exposure to incorporated ''131 I in the children population of the south-West areas of the Bryansk oblast is 200-500 mGy. The paper presents results of the radiogenic thyroid cancer risk analysis in the Bryansk region among girls of 0-17 years at the time of exposure. In this group a total of 144 cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed from 1991 to 2001, the mean thyroid dose being 80 mGy, the number of person-years in the period from 1991 to 2001 2034110. the excess relative risk per unit dose of 1 Gy (ERR{sub 1}gy) with 95% confidence interval has been estimated to be 9.1 (3.0, 23.3). The highest risk of developing thyroid cancer was established among girls of 0-4 years at the time of exposure living in the Bryansk oblast: for them the ERR{sub 1}Gy is 45.3(5.2, 9953.0). The results of epidemiological analysis obtained in the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry is of major practical significance for optimizing the health care services to the population exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. (Author) 15 refs.

Ivanov, V. K.; Tsyb, A. F.; Gorski, A. I.; Khait, S. E.; Maksiioutov, M. A.; Vlasov, O. K.

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Chernobyl, 16 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

2002-01-01

362

Soil contamination in Northern Austria as aftermath of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil contamination caused by the accident at Chernobyl was very uneven distributed in Austria. In late autumn 1986 soil samples from northern Austria were analysed in order to get to know the actual contamination in terms of figures. The extreme values for Cs-137 found were 962 and 73630 Bq/m2 respectively. 3 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

1988-01-01

363

Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities

1987-01-01

364

The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

1986-10-07

365

Radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in the environment of Chattia, a region of the FRG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The activity of various radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in air, water, grass, soil, milk and other samples in Chattia is followed as function of time from the end of april to the end of june. From the decrease in activity the ecological half-life of /sup 131/I and of /sup 137/Cs in various samples is evaluated and discussed.

Hoffmann, P.; Pilz, N.; Lieser, K.H.; Ilmstaedter, V.; Griesbach

1987-01-01

366

Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

1993-01-01

367

Ground deposition of long-lived gamma emitters in Poland from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activity composition was measured for the soil contaminated with the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Soil samples were collected at various areas of Poland. A map showing the "1"3"7Cs deposit distribution was drawn for the most contaminated southern part of Poland. 9 refs., 5 figs. (author)

1986-01-01

368

Time course of changes in the health of Chernobyl accident liquidators residing in the Moscow Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disease incidence, disability and mortality of persons participated in the Chernobyl accident response are analysed for Moscow Province residents. Results of medical examinations for 10 years were presented. It is shown that functional derangements are the main pathology at the first stage of prophylactic medical examination cardiovascular and oncological diseases are urgent at the second stage (after 1991) of medical examination

1997-01-01

369

Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included

1986-01-01

370

Mastered horror. Life in the Ukraine ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book, written in a journalistic style, reports on the visit of the author on her visit to the Ukraine 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. It is based on interviews with the affected population, with scientists (doctors, veterinarians, biologists, psychologists, ecologists), parliamentarians and representatives of the state administration. figs., refs

1996-01-01

371

Results of 20-years observations on health of Ukrainian children suffered from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: One of the most adverse medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident was worsening of health in the children's population. The decrease in a proportion of practically healthy children (from 27,5% in 1986-1987. up to 7,2% in 2004), the increase in a number of children with chronic diseases (from 8,4% in 1986-1987 up to 77,8% in 2004) are observed, and the quantity of children-invalids among victims in 4 times exceeds the average population level in the Ukraine. The most adverse shifts were marked in teenagers with high radiation doses of the thyroid gland and those irradiated in utero. Among them the part of practically healthy ones does not exceed 2,8%. The statistical data on a state of health in the suffered children's population, testify that during all the postaccident period the steady trend to growth of morbidity parameters (with 455,4% in 1987 up to 1383,45% in 2004) takes place. In its structure, diseases of the respiratory organs; of the nervous system; of digestive organs; of the skin and subcutaneous cellular tissue; infectious diseases; diseases of blood and organs of hematogenesis are the leading ones now. The significant negative influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences on the children's immune system is noted. In 82,5% from them (39,5% in the control, p<0,05) the immune disbalance that underlies in the basis of formation of many chronic diseases is registered. Some features of development of the somatic pathology, that is the polysystem, polyorgan character of diseases relapsing the course with relative resistance to therapy are determined. The increase in frequency of the combined diseases of a gastrointestinal tract and their 'rejuvenation' takes place - these diseases are diagnosed already at preschool age. The significantly more frequent morbidity of the respiratory organs (in 2,0 times), vegetovascular dysfunction (in 1,52 times), dismetabolic disorders and fibrotisation of the hepatic tissue (in 1,4 and 2,3 times), the number of eosinophilia (in 1,7 times) and lymphocytosis (in 2,5 times) was established in a subgroup of children with a collective dose of 9,4 hymen-Sv on the children's contingent who are constantly living in the zone of radionuclide contamination, subdivided on 2 dose subgroups with collective doses in the 1st subgroup - 2,6 and in 2nd subgroup - 9,4 hymen-Sv. The more significant changes on the part of immune parameters were marked in that dose subgroup. It has been established that irradiation of the thyroid gland and the central organs of fetal immunogenesis in a range of small doses, may cause disorders that are shown after birth by the growth disorders, disorders in the development, disorders in the immune system function, increase in frequency of stable damages in the chromosomal apparatus and increase in risk of the multifactorial pathology development. Children who have been born in the irradiated parents, also have a low level of health. It specify high parameters of general morbidity that are changing within the limits of 1134,9-1367,2% (in a total in the Ukraine 960,0-1200,3%) during the last 5 years. The part of practically healthy children among them is 2,56-9,2%, and an index of pathological affection - 5,43-5,97. The most express changes were observed in children who were born from liquidators with a dose of irradiation, more than 250 mSv. In these conditions the major problem is to develop the strategy and tactics for managing by risk of the development of somatic and genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for health safety of the present and the future generations

2006-04-01

372

Iarc-coordinated study of cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Making use of exposure estimates and observation on groups who have been followed up following radiation exposure, several national and international bodies have made predictions of the excess number of cancer cases which are expected to arise in Europe as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The general consensus has been that, for most European populations, the excess would be of a very small magnitude and unlikely to be detectable above background and that, consequently, implementation of special cancer studies could not be justified. Why, therefore, carriyng out this registry-based study. While wide use of cancer registries has been made in studying past trends in risk, this study probably represents the first situation where registries have undertaken to prospectively monitor future trends in relation to a specific exposure. As such, it provides a model for future co-operation among existing cancer registries in projects of this kind, and should serve to encourage the establishment of routine cancer registration where it does not yet exist

1987-01-01

373

H.R. 5121: a bill to require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to conduct a study of the nuclear power reactor accident at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, June 26, 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl Accident Study Act requires the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study the reactor accident at Chernobyl to determine the cause of the accident and measures taken to control it. The purposes of the study will be to develop data on the consequences of the accident, the containment structure, and similarities between the Chernobyl and US power reactor technology, and to evaluate evacuation procedures and emergency planning. The NRC will draw upon the expertise of former commissioners as well as those currently serving. Funding for the study shall not exceed $1.2 million

1986-01-01

374

Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

2006-07-01

375

Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

2006-03-24

376

Emergency planning practices and criteria in the OECD countries after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This critical review has been prepared at the request of the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH), on the basis of information collected from Member countries on their emergency planning practices and criteria, and on changes being considered as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. This information was officially provided to the Secretariat in response to a questionnaire. Other material has also been used, such as official papers describing national practices and reports presented at meetings organised by the NEA. In these cases the sources are given in the list of references. The information in this report reflects the situation in the Member countries at the end of 1987 and it might well be that additional changes were introduced in the emergency planning practices and criteria of several countries after the answers were sent to the Secretariat. It should also be noted that several of the questions were mainly relevant to nuclear power reactor operations. However, the basic philosophy for emergency planning is general, i.e. radiological criteria, emergency organisation, medical assistance, information to the public, etc., and applies in similar ways to different emergencies. Therefore, the information in the report should be valid for different types of radiological emergencies, although emphasis is placed in the report is on nuclear power reactor emergencies. For non-nuclear power Member countries the information refers mainly to plans to cope with other types of radiation emergencies, and to emergencies of a transboundary origin. Finally, the information covers only the off-site part of emergency planning, apart from some reflections in Chapter 1 on on-site emergency planning and the measures taken at nuclear facilities to prevent an accident or mitigate its consequences

1988-01-01

377

Cosyma a new programme package for accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives details of a new programme package for accident consequence assessment, prepared under the CEC's Maria programme (Methods for assessing the radiological impact of accidents) initiated in 1982 to review and build on the nuclear accident consequence assessment methods in use within the European Community

1991-01-01

378

The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

2002-04-01

379

Statistical processing of natality data for the Czech Republic before and after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All available data regarding natality in Czechoslovakia (or the Czech Republic) before and after the Chernobyl accident are summarized. Data from the databases of the Czech Statistical Office and of the State Office for Nuclear Safety were used to analyze natality and mortality of children in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination and the change in the sex ratio at time of birth that was observed in some areas in November of 1986. Although the change in the ratio of newborn boys-to-girls ratio was statistically significant, no direct relationship between that ratio and the level of contamination was found. Statistically significant changes in the sex ratio also occurred in Czechoslovakia (or in the Czech Republic) in the past, both before and after the accident. Furthermore, no statistically significant changes in the rate of stillbirths and multiple pregnancies were observed after the Chernobyl accident

2009-11-02

380

Estimation of health effects of long-term chronic exposure of the low level radiation among children exposed in consequence of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The low level dose effects have been studied for a long time within a framework of biological effects of radiation exposure. The estimation of the dose level of Ukrainian people who have been exposed in consequence of the Chernobyl accident allowed to consider that one of the critical populations which had been exposed to the low level radiation were children residing on the areas contaminated with radionuclides. The purpose of this work is - to reveal a regularity in morbidity and mortality of the critical populations having been exposed to long-term chronic exposure of the low level doses of radiation in consequences of the Chernobyl accident

1997-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

Concept and validation studies of the real-time reactor-accident consequences assessment model ECOSYS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated the urgent need for computer programs for real-time assessment of potential radiological consequences of major reactor accidents and for timely recommendations of useful and cost-efficient counter measures. During the past decade the dynamic radioecological program ECOSYS has been developed for nuclear accident consequence assessment with high resolution in space, time and exposure pathways. The Chernobyl reactor accident leading to relatively high contamination of Southern Germany provided excellent conditions for realistic validation studies of concept, sub-models and parameters of ECOSYS. To this purpose more than 7000 low level and in-situ gamma spectroscopy measurements were performed to study experimentally the behaviour of radionuclides in foodchains and in the urban environment and to compare the results to theoretical predictions of ECOSYS. The results show good agreement in the contamination levels of important food stuffs and in external exposure dose rates from a given surface contamination. Improvements were necessary in the assumptions regarding the food consumption habits which changed considerably - and in the functions describing the weathering off from urban and plant surfaces. The results of this validation study and the concept of the improved computerised model, which has subsequently been converted into a real-time code, are discussed in detail

1988-01-01