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Sample records for consequences chernobyl accident

  1. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  2. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The techniques currently used in off-site consequence modelling are applied to the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, the time dependent spread of radioactive material across the European continent is considered, followed by a preliminary assessment of the dosimetric impact (in terms of collective and mean individual doses) on the various countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The consequences of the accident in the USSR are also discussed. Finally, the likely implications of the Chernobyl event on research in the field of environmental consequence assessment are outlined. (author)

  3. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  4. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  5. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is

  6. Consequences and problems of the Chernobyl accident

    The data on epidemic situation in connection with the Chernobyl accident, based on the personal medical and dosimetric information on all the persons, subjected to radiation effect, and included in the Russian state medicodosimetric register, are presented. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident become the cause for origination of serious radiation injures by 134 persons (with lethal outcome by 37 patients) and also remote radiation stochastic effects by children (thyroid gland cancer) and by liquidators (thyroid gland leucosis and cancer). The permanent stress and other unfavorable factors conditioned aggravation of chronical and increase in somatic diseases and psychoneurotic disorders

  7. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  8. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  9. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  10. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  11. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  12. Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

  13. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

  14. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately

  15. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  16. Appearing consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Full text: Chernobyl is the greatest world's tragedy after Chirosima. Global results of this tragedy is already being seen. They are the people who have received radiation dose. the first type of cancer 5 years after Chernobyl accident was the thyroid gland cancer, the reason of it, large quantities of radioactive iodine in the air, food products, milk of cattle and finally their collection in the thyroid gland cancer entering the human body. Period all of a sudden after 10 years completed the next latent type of cancer was leykoz. Giving rise to this type of cancer more sensitive to radiation of the body - a violation of the spinal brain function. After 20 years passing from the accident in the first generation one ill child must be born cause of undergoing to radiation father or mother from each three days in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

  17. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  18. Medical demographic consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    A demographic study was made of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone around the nuclear power plant and of the population living in areas over which the radioactive cloud passed and over which the plume was formed. For the farmers evacuated from 11,655 homes in the Chernobyl region, 7,000 new houses, built in the Kiev region, had already been provided within 5 months of the accident, and by the summer of 1987 another 5,000 houses were available. A study of the resettlement of the population carried out a year after the accident showed that more than 60% of those evacuated continued to live in the regions from which the evacuation had taken place; about 5% were resettled in other republics, and 20% within their own republic. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  20. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 μSv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  1. Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe

    ,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by

  2. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  3. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria

    We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 μSv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

  4. Remote medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident in Armenia

    In result of global radio-ecological disaster at the Chernobyl NPP in Armenia there has appeared a great 'risk group' of persons, who had participated in liquidation of the accident consequences. The results of medical observation of this cohort carried out in dynamics in Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine and Burns during 25 years are brought in the work

  5. Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

  6. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m-2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 μSv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before

  7. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  8. The Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences

    Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986. (orig.)

  9. Consequences and experiences - ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    On 26 April 1986. the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the present borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.Material released into the atmosphere dispersed and eventually deposited back on the surface of the earth,were it was measurable over the whole northern hemisphere. Millions of people and all segments of life and economy have been affected by the accident. Radioactive contamination has reached several tens of MBq/m2 in the area of 30 km diameter around the reactor in 1986., and plants and animals have been exposed to short lived radionuclides up to external doses of several tens of Gy. In the early phase after the accident, 237 persons were suspected to have acute radiation syndrome as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, but diagnoses has been confirmed in 134 cases. In that phase 28 person have died as a consequence of exposure. There are significant non - related health disorders and symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and various psychosomatic disorders attributable to mental stress among the population in the region

  10. Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators

    The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

  11. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  12. Russian National Chernobyl Register as information and and analytical for Chernobyl accident medical consequences estimation

    The paper is devoted to using of the National Radiation and Epidemiology Register basic part, namely the Russian State Medical-Dosimetric Register of the people affected by the Chernobyl accident, to estimate the medical consequences of the accident. First part of article presents the common description and current state of Register. The estimation of medical consequences of the accident for clean-up workers is given in second part. The prognosis of radiation effects and definition of basic epidemiology factors to propose optimal medicalrehabilitation measures is discussed

  13. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: a review

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1996, the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant led to the release into the atmosphere of considerable quantities of radionuclides. Most contaminated regions were in the southern Belarus, northern Ukraine and Bryansk and Kaluga regions of Russia. Main population groups exposed to the radioactivity released during the accident were the personnel at the Chernobyl plant and the rescue teams present on-site during the first hours, the cleanup workers (numbering about 600000) who participated in the decontamination and cleaning operations in the 30 km zone around the site, the residents of the same zone who were evacuated (numbering about 115000) and the inhabitants of contaminated zones (≥1 Ci/km2). Dose and dose rate levels as well as exposure pathways differ from one population group to another. A review of scientific articles published in the international literature till 1998 has been carried out. Apart the 28 deaths due to acute radiation sickness which occurred in the personnel of the plant and rescue teams within several days or weeks after the accident, two main public health consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been observed. First an unprecedented epidemic of thyroid cancers was detected in children first in 1992 in Belarus then in the Ukraine and to a lesser extent in Bryansk region. The spontaneous incidence of these tumours was multiplied by 100 in most contaminated regions. Although the role of the accident in this epidemic is now recognised, questions are raised regarding the respective role of radioactive agents and other environmental or genetic factors, and its evolution in the future. Regarding other kinds of solid cancers and leukemia, no excess has been clearly demonstrated in the residents of contaminated areas nor in liquidators. Second, results of available epidemiological investigations show an increased risk of psychological distress in residents of highly contaminated areas

  14. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion

  15. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    Ginzburg, H.M.; Reis, E. (Health Resources and Services Administration, Rockville, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion.

  16. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals

  17. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  18. Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned

    The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

  19. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.

    Ginzburg, H M; Reis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to m...

  20. Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

  1. The radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for fish

    The estimate of dynamics of radionuclides concentration in muscles of some game-fish from Kiev reservoir and likes in Bryansk region for period after Chernobyl accident was carried out. The concentration of 137Cs in fish has not exceeded the admissible concentration (600 Bq/kg ww) since 1993. The exceptions are the cooling-pond of Chernobyl NPP and Kozlanovskoe Lake where the concentration of 137Cs in fish's muscles exceeded the admissible level more than 5-6 times even in 1995. It was concluded that chronic irradiation of game-fish in water bodies outside 30-km zone would not affect the volume of fishing

  2. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

  3. Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS

    The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

  4. The Chernobyl Accident 20 Years On: An Assessment of the Health Consequences and the International Response

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2006-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused widespread radioactive contamination and enormous concern. Twenty years later, the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a generally reassuring statement about the consequences. Accurate assessment of the consequences is important to the current debate on nuclear power. Objectives Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response ...

  5. The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''

    An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

  6. Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan

    Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

  7. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

  8. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  9. RADIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    V. G. Bebeshko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the position of a 25-years’ experience to overcome the health effects of Chernobyl the dynamics of the radiation environment, the first summarizing at the international level (1988, the results of completed research and practical monitoring are analyzed. Cohort of acute radiation syndrome (ARS survivors under medical observation at the S.I. "Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" is the largest. Within the 25 years the functional state of the major organs and body systems, and metabolic homeostasis for this category of persons were studied, a comprehensive assessment of their health, mental and physical performance were given, and risk factors and peculiarities of stochastic and non-stochastic pathology courses were identified, as well as a system of rehabilitation patients after ARS was developed. ARS survivors are suffering from chronic diseases of internal organs and systems (from 5-7 to 10-12 diagnoses at the same time. A correlation between acute radiation effects and specific HLA phenotypes were revealed. The dynamics of the immune system recovery after irradiation was studied. The role and prognostic value of telomere length and programmed cell death of lymphocytes in the formation of the cellular effects of ionizing radiation were determined for the first time. Differences between spontaneous and radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemias were found. Dose-dependent neuropsychiatric, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging deviations were identified after irradiation at doses above 0.3 Sv. It was shown that the lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers with doses 350 – 690 mGy can induce "the bystander effect" in the non-irradiated cells even after 19 years after exposure. The rates of cancer incidence and mortality of victims, the lessons and key problems to be solved in the third decade after the Chernobyl accident are considered.

  10. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  11. Accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences

    In the early morning of April 26, 1986, as the culmination of an almost incredible series of errors that began 24 hours earlier, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear complex, a so-called RBMK-1000 reactor, suffered the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. There was an uncontrolled nuclear excursion, release of a large amount of energy, possibly comparable to hundreds of pounds of TNT, blowing the top off the reactor. There was no containment, in the traditional American sense, so the roof of the building was blown out, an unprecedented amount of radioactivity was released to the biosphere, and a graphite fire was ignited, which burned for days. The radiation that was released spread through Eastern Europe (the world first learned of it through Swedish observations), bringing with it both official and unofficial protests that the Soviet Union had made no announcement of the radiation release until they were, in effect, caught. In fact, after a few days, the Soviets seemed to recognize that nuclear safety is a matter of international concern, and became quite open in their search for cooperation. They invited officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to visit the area and to fly over the plant, and agreed, in the end, to make a complete disclosure of the details of the accident at a special meeting of IAEA in Vienna, August 25 to 29, 1986. In preparation for that meeting they distributed a lengthy (400 pages) report on the event. This paper reviews this report

  12. Reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant-Block 4. Effects, countermeasures and consequences

    The findings of the Summary Report on the Chernobyl accident issued by IAEA in September 1986 (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG): Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident. Safety Series No. 78-INSAG-1 Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sept. 1986) are updated, reviewing more recent publications providing more complete information on the events both within and outside the plant. The available information on the resulting radioactive pollution of agriculture and the food chain is discussed considering also the consequences for the future in comparison with the other sources of radioactivity in the environment. 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2

    In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  14. One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  15. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  16. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  17. Radiation health consequences after the accident of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    The sources of divergences in health consequences assessment after Chernobyl accident have been discussed. The average data about the cancer incidence in Poland have been presented. On that background the frequency of thyroid cancer, being considered as a result of iodine radionuclides exposure after Chernobyl accident in May 1986, have been performed. The great geographic differences in cancer incidence have been underlined. The observed differences between the selected group of people of different age and sex have been also discussed. 14 refs, 11 tabs, 3 figs

  18. V.A. Baraboj. Chernobyl: ten years later. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    Review of the book - Chernobyl: ten years later. Medical consequences of radiation accidents (Kiev, Chernobylinterinform, 1996) by V.A. Baraboj - is presented. The book is based on experimental data obtained by author and available data of other scientists. It is shown that experiments on rats irradiation demonstrate the same combination of symptoms as persons participated in Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the dosimetric, genetic, phenotypic features of exposed persons. Contributions of chemical hazardous pollutants and psychoemotional stress to the general pattern were also accounted. The importance of the book for specialists and public is accentuated

  19. Consequences of Chernobyl accident for Poland: Retrospective assessment after 10 years

    The regional contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident has been presented. On this base the biological and medical consequences have been discussed. The neonatal mortality as well as cancer frequency for selected regional population in Poland have been analysed during the last decade. 10 figs, 20 tabs

  20. Level of health of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    During the period of 1986-1988 about 3,000 Moldova citizens took part in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences elimination. In this article the level of morbidity, disability and mortality among Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation participants is analyzed. As a result of analysis of medical documentation and statistical data was revealed that the sickness rate among disaster fighters 2,3 times higher than general sickness rate of the population in Moldova. Disability in this category is at average of 73 per cent as opposed to the overall index for the population of Moldova - 4,4%, this means it is 17 times higher. Mortality among the participants of the accident at Chernobyl NPP is 6 times higher of general data. The participants of the breakdown elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences are equal in their right with the participants and invalids of war and with the disabled workers. Medical and social security of this group is regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

  1. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  2. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  3. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  4. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response.

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry. PMID:17680126

  5. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  6. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

  7. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  9. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and

  10. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

    1997-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  11. Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'

    Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems for

  12. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  13. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences

    The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

  14. Experience with psychological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident

    The paper describes the image of radiation menance. Basic differences in image parameters are revealed for some population groups. The psychological levels of the image are regarded as psychological phenomena. Some specific psychological consequences of mental regression are outlined in the paper

  15. Epidemiological studies in Russia about the consequences of the Chernobyl APS accident

    Ryabzev, I.A. [Institute of Problem of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-03-01

    The final purpose of all efforts to study and mitigate the consequences of the accident at the 4th reactor of the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS) is protection of health of the people who were more or less exposed to radiation action. This situation has not analogs in terms of scale and character. Certain experience was accumulated earlier through the studies of biological and medical effects of atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other radiation catastrophes, diagnostic and therapeutic application of radiation, and the control of health state of professionals in atomic industries. However, these experiences can be used just partially in the assessment and the forecast of possible negative after-effects of the Chernobyl accident for the present and future generations. The long-term irradiation of a lage number of population at low doses is to be considered the principal peculiarity of the Chernobyl accident. The medical activities are complicated significantly by the absence of verifiable individual dosimetric information, natural or forced migration of the population, insufficient development of radiation epidemiology, complicated social-economic situation in the country, and other factors which are inevitable at large-scaled catastrophes. Besides, many fundamental questions related to biological effects of action of low doses of ionizing radiation are still being studied. (J.P.N.)

  16. Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs

  17. Functional status of thyroid of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators after 10 years after disaster

    Analysis of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' complaints is carried out and their clinical surveillance is conducted as well. Pronounced disorders of neuro-immune-endocrine system of the liquidators majority and ahill reflex latency half-period prolongation have been observed. By data of ultrasonic study the majority of examined ones have thyroid hyperplasia without features of chronic autoimmune inflammation and formation of adenomatous knots. Thyroid levels of hormone concentration are reduced. There is direct dependence between hormones levels and irradiation dose. The is concluded, that in delayed period after irradiation by low doses the hypo-function status of thyroid is observing

  18. Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Echocardiography was used for the study of prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in 839 liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (left ventricular myocardial mass 134 g/m2) was 10.3, 13.4 and 22.5 % in liquidators with normal blood pressure, borderline hypertension and hypertension, respectively. Liquidators with normal blood pressure had significantly greater left ventricular myocardial mass than normotensive men from general population while liquidators and non liquidators with hypertension had equal values of this parameter

  19. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987

    In the accident consequence assessment (ACA) area there is extensive cooperation between the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden), performed within the Nordic Safety Program, and partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, via the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. One of the 17 projects in the ACA-related program area is concerned with the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. This paper is limited to describing conditions in Norway. There are areas in Norway where the Chernobyl fallout is >100 kBq/m2, and the total amount of radiocesium deposited over Norway is estimated by the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene to be 6% of the radiocesium released from the reactor. The areas where ground concentrations are highest are mostly in sparsely populated mountain areas. These areas are, however, important in connection with several nutritional pathways, notably, sheep, goats, reindeer, and freshwater fish. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information on mitigating actions and economic consequences of the deposited radioactive materials to Norwegian agriculture in the 1986-87 and 1987-88 slaughtering periods

  20. Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the feeding of infants

    In view of the persisting and understandable fear of parents with regard to radioactivity in the food of their babies as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Commission on Nutrition of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kinderheilkunde (German Society of Pediatrics) and the Strahlenschutzkommission have published a statement. According to this statement, the maximum permissible level of radioactivity in commercial baby food has been fixed by the EC to be 370 Bq/kg. The dietetic food industry itself has fixed a maximum for its products which is only a tenth of the radioactivity level permitted by the EC directive. The milk powders for infants tested since the reactor accident contained no measurable radioactivity or only very low amounts of Cs 134 or Cs 137, correspondung to a maximum of 25 Bq/kg in the product. Late damage to health is not to be expected. (orig./ECB)

  1. General situation of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    Following the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident on April 26, 1986, epidemiological analyses of data point to impressive deterioration of the health of the people affected by radionuclide contamination in the environment. This deterioration of population health embraces a broad spectrum of diseases. Epidemiological prediction of the rate of thyroid cancer in children near Chernobyl seems strikingly compatible with a real increase. But there is a tendency to consider the morbidity augmentation as a result having been associated with the factors of non-radioactive origin (chemical compounds, heavy metals and mainly social-psychological syndrome development). The Chernobyl catastrophe has implied a heavy burden for Ukraine: pollution of air, water, soils and vegetation in all ecosystems, late radiological effects in the health of people, losses of arable land and forest, necessity of mass-evacuation from thousands of settlements in the contaminated regions, severe psychological shock for millions of people, and painful suffering of unexpected life tragedies. Eleven years after, this tragic event with its causes and consequence brings one to very important conclusions concerning moral aspects of human relations within the nuclear society, as well as interactions between the society and the environment. (J.P.N.)

  2. The accident of Chernobyl

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  3. Chernobyl accident

    The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

  4. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material

    The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

  5. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  6. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets; Les consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Fiches thematiques

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

  8. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  9. Agro-industrial sphere-radiological consequence of Chernobyl accident and major safety measures

    The early spring radionuclide fall as a consequence of Chernobyl accident caused air contamination of aerial part of agriculture crop - winter crops, natural and seeded permanent grasses. For other plants the soil and wind contamination are prevailing. After radionuclide fall most of them are concentrated in the soil upper layer. Radionuclide uptake depends on the ratio of their concentration in soils, that is varied due to the soil type. The soil development results in variation of radionuclide migration in the crop. In cattle production two main trends are the most significant: estimation of food contamination (primarily of milk and meat) and analysis of physiological state of animals near NPP. Organization and land-improvement measures permitting a stable agro-industrial functionaing on the contaminated territory are considered

  10. Introductory remarks by the Chairman. [Session 1: Environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Many scientists as well as representatives from UN organizations and governments of affected regions participated in the work of the Chernobyl Forum. Several meetings of the Forum were necessary to initiate the work and monitor the progress of the expert groups. Two expert groups formulated comprehensive reports - one on environmental issues, organized by the IAEA, and one on health issues, organized by the WHO. Experts from throughout the world were invited to contribute to these evaluations. The representatives of governments and the staff of international organizations then reviewed the results of these groups to be sure that the reviews were complete and the evaluations reasonable, so that they could serve as the basis for consensus agreements and effective recommendations for further dealing with the consequences of the accident

  11. The radiological consequences in the USSR from the Chernobyl accident: Description of the scheme of implementation

    After October 1989 the Government of the USSR requested the IAEA to organize an international assessment of the 'concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in these areas to safeguard the health of the population'. The IAEA responded positively to this request for special assistance. The IAEA is carried out an extensive international project involving over 100 experts who assessed the human health and environmental consequences in the affected areas of Byelorussia, the Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, and evaluate measures taken by Soviet authorities to protect the population and the environment

  12. Application of natural adsorbents as decontamination agents for the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    The scientific foundations of using natural adsorbents as ion exchangers,filtering media and adagulants for water purification ase presented. The results showing the efficiency of practical application of natural adsorbents for the decontamination of water, clothes, machinery, construction materials, etc. during the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986-1987 are presented

  13. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 210 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Knowledge resources on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in the INIS Database

    Literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains 19872 bibliographic records and 8400 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to 04/2005. A bibliometric study of these records was made to generate statistical summaries that characterise, in general terms, the intellectual content of the records and the nature of the records in terms of its major bibliographic attributes. Environmental aspects and human health constitute the two dominant subjects with a respective contribution of 49% and 38%. The rest is evenly divided among legal aspects, reactor safety and socio-economic impacts of the accident. The three countries that are most affected by the accident, namely Ukraine, Russian Federation and Belarus contributed 44% of the total input. 57% of the literature analysed are conference papers and reports while 25% are journal articles. Most of the documents were written in English (47%) and in Russian (36%). Seven percent of the publications were written in German. (author)

  16. Research activities about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident

    The 12th anniversary is coming soon of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the former USSR on April 26, 1986. Many issues are, however, still unresolved about the radiological impacts on the environment and people due to the Chernobyl accident. This report contains the results of an international collaborative project about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, carried out from November 1995 to October 1997 under the research grant of the Toyota foundation. Collaborative works were promoted along with the following 5 sub-themes: 1) General description of research activities in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the accident. 2) Investigation of the current situation of epidemiological studies about Chernobyl in each affected country. 3) Investigation of acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants evacuated soon after the accident from the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl NPS. 4) Overview of social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident in each affected country. 5) Preparation of special reports of interesting studies being carried out in each affected country. The 27 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

  18. Agroindustrial production sphere - radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident and the chief protective measures

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident, fallout of radionuclides has occurred on farm lands, and the contaminated production of the agroindustrial complex has become a source of additional irradiation of the population. The contribution of the irradiation associated with the consumption of locally produced food products was quite significant, and led to the implementation of protective measures in the agroindustrial production sphere. It should be noted that irradiation of people owing to the consumption of contaminated agricultural products is more easily regulated than external irradiation. For this reason, the decrease in the total dose load is largely determined by the possibilities of restricting the internal irradiation dose to the population from the consumption of food products. The paper discusses radiological conditions in the agroindustrial production sphere in the region of the accident; intake of radionuclides by agricultural plants through leaves; distribution and form of 137Cs in soils; uptake of radionuclides by plants from the soil, animal husbandry aspects of the migration of radionuclides and their biological action; and organizational measures of the USSR for mitigating the consequences

  19. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  20. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional

    Keith Baverstock; Dillwyn Williams

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed chi...

  1. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems

  2. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarkog, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Arkhipov, N.P. [Scientific and Technical Centre of the RIA `Pripyat` (Ukraine); Johansson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-07-01

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

  3. Diagnostics and medical treatment of multiple somatic pathology for liquidators of consequences of Chernobyl power plant accident

    States conditioned impacts of radiation, chemical and psychologic stresses and appeared by polyorgan combine somatic pathology are typical for liquidators of consequences of Chernobyl power plant accident and of 30-km zone. Minimizing of medicinal therapy, formation of purpose to active recovery, discharge-dietary therapy, organism satiation of vitamins and microelements, creation and progress of dynamic reserves are main principles therapy correction of these states

  4. Scientometric analysis of the means of scientific communication of the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear accident

    In this paper evaluation of the structure and trends in the development of the Ukrainian scientific communication tools on the medical consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident using bibliometric methods has been given. The main developers of methodical documents are allocated, the dynamics of the distribution of methodical references, information letters and innovations is estimated. The importance of scientific communications tools in dissemination and use of new medical knowledge is demonstrated

  5. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  6. The radioecological consequences of the Kyshtym and Chernobyl radiation accidents for forest ecosystems

    Following the Urals and Chernobyl accidents 60 to 90% of the radioactive fallout was retained by the above-ground part of forest stands. In the Urals the period for semi-removal of contamination from crowns ranged from 6 to 8 months, compared to around one month in the Chernobyl region - due to different seasonal conditions during the fallout period. The bulk of the dose burden in woody plants' critical organs built up over one to six months. The minimum lethal dose for pine tree needles in the Urals was around 50 Gy, and 25 Gy for the apical meristem; the corresponding figures for Chernobyl were 100 Gy and 25-30 Gy. At lower doses we observed morphological disturbances, reduced growth and suppressed reproductive capability in pines. The resistance to radioactive contamination of deciduous forest was 10-20 times greater than that of conifers. We studied the irradiation doses of the different groups of organisms living in the various forest storeys, and the effects of irradiation (changes in species composition, prevalence and productivity) in communities of herbaceous plants and soil invertebrates. Specific examples are given to highlight the secondary changes in these communities stemming from radiation damage in species sensitive to radioactive contamination. We studied the dynamics of dispersion and migration of the long-lived radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the various components of the biogeocenoses and in the network of geochemically interconnected forest landscapes, and their content in forestry produce. Some six to ten years after the deposition of radioactive fallout in forest ecosystems the radionuclides were more or less evenly spread throughout the soil-woody plant system. Thus, overall 90Sr content in the arboreal storey amounts to 1-2% in coniferous forests, and 5-10% in deciduous forests (Urals accident), while the corresponding figures for 137Cs (Chernobyl accident) are 2 to 3 times higher. (author)

  7. 10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS

    Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

  8. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  9. Accidents, risks and consequences

    Although the accident at Chernobyl can be considered as the worst accident in the world, it could have been worse. Other far worse situations are considered, such as a nuclear weapon hitting a nuclear reactor. Indeed the accident at Chernobyl is compared to a nuclear weapon. The consequences of Chernobyl in terms of radiation levels are discussed. Although it is believed that a similar accident could not occur in the United Kingdom, that possibility is considered. It is suggested that emergency plans should be made for just such an eventuality. Even if Chernobyl could not happen in the UK, the effects of accidents are international. The way in which nuclear reactor accidents happen is explored, taking the 1957 Windscale fire, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as examples. Reactor designs and accident scenarios are considered. The different reactor designs are listed. As well as the Chernobyl RBMK design it is suggested that the light water reactors also have undesirable features from the point of view of safety. (U.K.)

  10. First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine on the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The First International Conference of European Commission, Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine on the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident has been held in Minsk, 18-22 March 1996. During the Conference 84 lectures as well as 74 posters have been presented. The most important problems connected with general topic was: the radiation contaminations and their measurements; environmental aspects and between them; radionuclide migration and remedial actions in contaminated areas; healthy consequences with irradiated people curing and epidemiology; thyroid neoplasms in children; organization rescue actions during future radiation disasters

  11. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  12. The fallout in France of the Chernobyl accident. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences; Les retombees en France de l'accident de Tchernobyl. Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1999-07-01

    For the first time, the whole of scientific data available has been gathered and exploited thanks to the ASTRAL model, developed at the Institute of protection and nuclear safety, (IPSN). This model has allowed to explain the principal causes of land and food contamination, as well their potential consequences on the human being. This book has elaborated with the help of every organism that has made radioactivity measurements in environment and man and his feeding. The extent of information sources used in this work makes of it a reference work. It allows to estimate the impact, in France of the Chernobyl accident on each of us and to understand the transfer mechanisms of radioactivity in environment. (N.C.)

  13. Food monitoring for radioactivity concentrations after the Chernobyl accident: Consequences for the citizen

    Radioactively contaminated food accounts for most of the radiation exposure after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Hence, food low in radiation will allow to kerb exposure. Precautions include a general identification of radioactivity contents in food commodities by industry and trade as well as preferential supply of pregnant women, nursing mothers and young children with low-activity food. Such food would have an acceptable level of 10 Bq Cs 137/kg. Private precautions are needed for as long as the government fails to initiate corresponding measures. (DG)

  14. Study on consequences of radioactive iodine pollution and iodine prophylaxis after Chernobyl accident in Cracow region

    Program of investigations of effects of radiation and iodine prophylaxis undertaken after Chernobyl accident in Cracow region had to be modified due to goiter endemic in this region.These modifications included: 1) Division of the region into 3 areas (voivodeship Nowy Sacz, urban voivodeship Cracow and area of Kielce and Swietokrzyskie Mountains). 2) Study on iodine uptake in food and urinary secretion. 3) Examination of iodine level in drinking water, and an attempt of calculation of radiation dose absorbed by thyroid. Characterization of selected areas, principles of selection of study groups are presented as well as organisational details and methods of data collection. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

  15. The Chernobyl accident

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  16. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  17. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  18. The ecological consequences of transuranium elements realize on Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident

    The levels of radioactive contamination with transuranium elements (TUE) on territory of Belarus as a result of nuclear weapon tests and Chernobyl NPP accident have been assessed . The uniform contamination of soil with level of 53±17 Bq/m2 for Pu-239+240 was formed as a result of global precipitation after the nuclear weapon test. This value increased up to 1.1·105 Bq/m2 in South regions of Belarus and gradually decreased to level of global fall out on the North of the republic after Chernobyl NPP accident. The study of the atmosphere contamination with TUE in Republic of Belarus is being held since 1980 to now. The mechanism of radioactive air pollution from April, 1986 is determined by dust transfer from radioactive contaminated regions. The value of this transfer is influenced considerably by agricultural activities on contaminated territory, forest fires and other anthropogenic factors. The transfer coefficients in the soil-plant system have plant species dependence. The behavior of TUE in environment is discussed. (Authors)

  19. Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions

    Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

  20. INFLUENCE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES LIQUIDATORS

    E. M. Manoshkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study psychological status and influence of antihypertensive therapy (AHT on it in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP accident consequences liquidators, who suffer arterial hyper-tension (AH, with controlled treatment compared to the standard treatment in out-patient clinic. Material and methods. 81 liquidators with AH (all men were included into open compara-tive randomized study. Study duration was 12 months. Patients were randomized into main group (MG and control group (CG. Patients of MG received strictly regulated stepped AHT based on ACE inhibitor spirapril 6 mg daily (Quadropril®, Pliva-AVD, hypothiazide was added if necessary (12.5-25 mg daily and afterwards – atenolol (12.5-100 mg daily. In CG AHT and its correction was set by physician in polyclinic. Brief multifactor questionnaire for personality analysis was used to study psychological status. Results. 57 patients completed the study, 28 in MG and 29 in CG. In MG target blood pres-sure (BP levels were reached in 22 (78.6% patients, in CG – in 11 (38% patients (p<0.01. The main feature of psychological status of liquidators with AH was hypochondriac, depressive and anxious disorders. Controlled AHT made it possible to reach improvement in psychological status, i.e. growth of optimism and activity of patients, more often, than standard treatment in out-patient clinics. Increase in number of patients with pronounced anxious changes was observed in CG. Effi-ciency of AHT in liquidators with AH is connected with severity of depressive disturbances: in subgroups with inefficient treatment patients had the highest level of depression. In liquidators with AH, possessing neurotic disturbances, spirapril was efficient both as monotherapy, and in combina-tion with diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and beta-blocker atenolol. Conclusion. Controlled AHT in liquidators with AH has advantages over standard treatment in out-patient clinic and results in more frequent target BP level

  1. Epidemiological survey of the medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    The characteristics of the contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are defined, as a basis for epidemiological investigations. Due to loss of integrity of the nuclear fuel and thermal buoyancy from fire and nuclear heating, a large quantity of radioisotopes were released over a period of up to 16 days. The areas affected were very large, 37 million hectares in Ukraine alone. About 5 million persons were affected in one way or another, over 2 million of them in Ukraine. Registration and epidemiological follow-up in the former USSR and the three republics afterwards are presented with an emphasis on Ukraine. Considering the long incubation times for some of the expected illnesses and relatively low average doses, the difficulties of confirming significant effects become evident. For example leucosis morbidity among cleanup personnel within a 30 km zone around the accident was 3.4 per 100,000 before the accident and 7 per 100,000 afterwards. The question of the statistical significance of such numbers is discussed by the authors, in the context of confounding factors. For some of the observed effects it has already been established that stress and anxiety caused by the accident and living conditions in the affected areas are the principal cause rather than radiation. According to the authors, more detailed retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies are needed in the future, in order to clarify the causes of observed health effects

  2. Character of protective clothes contamination of the personnel participated in the efforts to eliminate the Chernobyl accident consequences

    The results of investigation of radioactive contamination of protective clothes made of cotton and mixed materials for personnel participated in elimination of the Chernobyl accident consequences are described. Radionuclide composition of clothes contamination before and after decontamination, as well as the values of decontamination coefficients, which are much lower than calculated ones, are presented. Clothes contamination is shown to be caused by difficulty soluble particles of irradiated uranium fuel. The contamination radionuclide composition changes a little as a result of decontamination: decrease only the total quantity of radionuclide substances, but contribution of every radionuclide remains unchanced. During decontamination particles of irradiated uranium fuel are removed from material without solution in the decontaminating solution

  3. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in the decade 1986-1995

    Although the distance from Chernobyl to Norway is about 2000 km, it is estimated that 3-5% of the radiocesium released from Chernobyl was deposited upon Norwegian territory. This was caused by an unfortunate (for Norway) and unusual combination of large initial thermal lift of the plume (which kept the materials airborne), wind direction (which brought the plume across Scandinavia), and precipitation (which led to strong deposition in parts of Norway and Sweden). The areas in which deposition took place in Norway to a large extent comprise natural environments (mountain plains and forest) which are important in an agricultural context. In 1986, large amounts of mutton, reindeer meat and goat's cheese exceeded the limits for radiocesium content set by the authorities. Some non-destructive countermeasures were implemented, but much of the meat was condemned. By the following year the authorities had implemented a large programme of countermeasures, and thereby managed drastically to reduce the amount of discarded food. In the present report, the cost of these countermeasures, as well as the cost of discarded foodstuff, is summarized for each of the ten years since the accident. Although ten years have passed, all the countermeasures are still required, even though there has been some decline in the size of the areas and the number of animals involved. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Radiocontamination patterns and possible health consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    The main hazard in the early phase after Chernobyl was radioiodine. Thyroid doses were esimated separately for (i) zones of strict control, (ii) most contaminated provinces (iii) the whole central European region of the USSR. Distinction was made between children under the age of 7 years at the time of the accident and the rest of the population. In the later phase the main concern is whole-body exposure to radiocaesium. Doses were calculated for the same areas and age groups as radioiodine. The following were considered: thyroid malignancies, leukaemia, other types of cancer, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. A stastistically significant excess over the spontaneous level is unlikely to be detectable for these effects, with the possible exception of thyroid disorders. The risk was greatly reduced by preventive measures, in particular lifetime doses have been restricted by establishment of a limit of 0.35 Sv. (author)

  5. Parameters of peroxidation and proteolysis in the organism of the liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences.

    Lykholat, E A; Chernaya, V I

    1999-01-01

    The specificity of lung irradiation caused by ionizing radiation is influence on mucous membranes of respiratory ways, alveolar epithelium and capillaries of a small circle of the blood circulation. Under diseases of bronchus-lung system the lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes activation is observed. The radiating influence strengthening effect. In results in imbalance aggravation in system "LPO-antioxidants", and long expressing of LPO intensification is the important mechanism of the inflammation chronization. The sharp increase of proteolytic activity and inhibitor activity decrease is found out in the patients-liquidators. Noticed imbalance results in the further change of permeability of membranes and correlates with an index of endoscopy inflammation changes and index of irreversible changes in lung tissue. Thus, the direct connection between LPO intensity and imbalance degree of proteinase-inhibitor system of blood at the patients with chronic bronchitic taking part in Chernobyl accident liquidation is revealed. PMID:10609329

  6. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: 20 years of experience

    The Chernobyl Forum was organized by the United Nations to examine the health and environmental effects of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station Unit Number 4. This paper is concerned with the environmental effects, including human exposure, as determined by the Expert Group on Environment. The accident on 26 April 1986 resulted in the release of a large amount of radioactive materials over a period of ten days. These materials were deposited throughout Europe (and to a minor extent throughout the remainder of the northern hemisphere) with the three more affected countries being Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The more important radionuclides from a human dosimetric standpoint were 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, with half-lives of 8 d, 2 a and 30 a, respectively. More than five million persons lived on territories in these three countries judged to be contaminated at >37 kBq/m2. Many countermeasures were employed to mitigate the effects of the accident, with the main focus being on urban and agricultural areas. The collective effective dose to the residents of the contaminated territories is estimated to be about 55 000 man Sv; the collective thyroid dose is estimated to be 1.6 x 106 man Gy. Effects on non-human biota were observed that ranged from minor to lethal; a notable effect was the killing of a pine forest near the accident site. The current increase in the number and diversity of species in the most contaminated area is due to the absence of human pressure. The current shelter over the damaged reactor was constructed under time pressure, and it has significant leakage or airborne radionuclides and inflow of rainwater. The immediate waste management practices were chaotic and remediation is needed. It is planned to build an NSC structure over the top of the existing structure and to eventually dismantle the damaged reactor. This will put additional pressure on waste management, including the need for a new site for geologic disposal of

  7. Chernobyl reactor accident

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  8. Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants

    Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

  9. Environmental and health consequences in Japan due to the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor plant

    A comprehensive review was made on the results of national monitoring program for environmental radioactivity in Japan resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR. Period of monitoring efforts covered by the present review is from 30th of April 1986 to 31st of May 1987. A radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor initially arrived in Japan on 30th of April 1986 as indicated by the elevated level of 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activity in the total deposition on 30th of April and also by the increased 137Cs body burden noted on 1st of May. Almost all the radioactive nuclides detected in the European countries were also identified in Japan. For example, the observed nuclides were: 95Zr, 95Nb, 99mTc, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 111Ag, 125Sb, 127Sb, 129mTe, 131I, 132Te, 132I, 133I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce. Among the above radionuclides, the country average concentration was determined for 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs in various environmental materials such as air, fresh water, soil, milk, leafy and root vegetables, cereals, marine products and other foodstuffs. In contrast to the sharp decline of 131I which was negligible after a few months, 137Cs showed a tendency to maintain its activity in foodstuffs at an appreciable level one year later. Collective effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent to thyroid in Japanese population due to 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I were estimated to be around 590 man Sv and 4760 man Sv, respectively. Corresponding values for the per caput dose equivalent are 5 μSv for whole body and 40 μSv for thyroid, respectively. (author)

  10. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

  11. The Chernobyl accident

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  12. Primary disability and its structure at liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences in post-Chernobyl period

    The primary disability in persons participated in Chernobyl catastrophe liquidation was studied for 1986-1987, for 1988 and for 1994-2000. The structure of the disease caused the primary disability of those persons was analyzed. The primary invalidity indices were determined to increase for certain nosologic forms such as for the blood circulation disease, malignant neoplasms, eye pathology (authors)

  13. Prenatal diagnostics of congenital malformations, the most efficient way to decrease genetic consequences of Chernobyl accident

    in the last 5 years about 500 pregnancies were terminated annually for genetic reasons. Over 100 pregnancies were terminated in Gomel region, which considerably reduced (by 1-3%) perinatal mortality, children's morbidity and disability. The number of children, born with the anomalies of the central nervous system, renal polycystosis and agenesis, omphalocele, reduction limb defects, is decreasing most considerably. The potentialities of prenatal diagnostics of CM are far from being used adequately in the Republic. With sufficient financing, present-day techniques allow prenatal diagnosing of 1000 cases instead of 600 diagnosed each year. The program will be productive, if prenatal biochemical screening and invasive prenatal procedures are financed regularly and interregional centres for prenatal diagnostics are created. These measures will not only reduce the proportion of children, born with congenital malformations, but increase the birth rate in Belarus, since the future mothers will not be scared to give birth to a malformed child, which is especially essential for the population exposed to radiation due to Chernobyl accident (authors)

  14. Chernobyl the health consequences

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

  15. Consequences of Chernobyl accident for Poland: Retrospective assessment after 10 years; Skutki katastrofy w Czarnobylu dla Polski: Ocena retrospektywna po 10 latach

    Jaskowski, J. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The regional contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident has been presented. On this base the biological and medical consequences have been discussed. The neonatal mortality as well as cancer frequency for selected regional population in Poland have been analysed during the last decade. 10 figs, 20 tabs.

  16. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident

    This summary is the results of the International Conference ''One decade after Chernobyl''. It includes topics on initial responses, radioactive releases, absorbed radiation doses and health effects, socio-economic impacts as well as safety of RBMK type reactors

  17. Current status and epidemiological research needs for achieving a better understanding of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

    Cardis, Elisabeth

    2007-11-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident, except for the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence. Increases in the incidence of cancers and other diseases have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting, and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts. Increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and cataracts have also been reported. These findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk--apart from thyroid cancer--is not the proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, and assuming that there is a linear, no-threshold dose-response relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of cancer in humans, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused could be substantial, particularly in the future. It is therefore essential to continue to use population registries to monitor trends in disease morbidity and mortality in the most contaminated areas, as well as among liquidators, in order to assess the public health impact of the accident. Studies of selected populations and diseases are also essential in order to study the real effect of the accident and compare it to predictions. Careful studies may in particular

  18. Radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for Lake ecosystems within 10 km exclusion zone

    During 1997-2005 we studied distribution and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am in the main components of the aquatic ecosystems within exclusion zone, defined as a roughly circular area of 30-km radius around the destroyed unit of the Chernobyl NPP. Our special attention was given to bottom sediments, water, seston, higher aquatic plants, molluscs and fish of lake ecosystems within inner (10-km) exclusion zone: Azbuchin Lake, Dalekoye Lake and Glubokoye Lake. The data analysis has shown that about 98-99% of 137Cs and more than 99% of transuranic elements of the total radionuclide content has deposited in the bottom sediments. The content of 90Sr in sediments of lakes, due to higher solubility, amounts to 89-95%. About 2-10% of radionuclides concentrated in water and only about 1% - in biota. In this percent a prevailing value for different radionuclides has the macro benthos species (especially bivalve molluscs) and higher aquatic plants. The average specific activity of radionuclides in fish tissue more than in 100 times exceeds a maximum permissible level for fish production in Ukraine. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts, living within littoral zone of the researched lakes, due to external irradiation and radionuclides incorporated in tissue was in a range from 0.2 to 3.4 Gy year-1. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within embankment territory on left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River with high density of radionuclide contamination (Dalekoye Lake and Glubokoye Lake). The numerous effects of irradiation on hydrobionts within the exclusion zone are revealed. Some of these effects required for the short period of time for their formation, however it is supposed that an increasing importance will be got by the remote consequences - genetic damages induced by a long-term irradiation. The molluscs embryos from Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake were characterised by the highest rate of chromosome aberration - about 20

  19. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  20. An experience of information support of the Russian federal programs of the overcoming of consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    Since 1992, by a number of paragraphs of the federal programs on overcoming consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP, the measures on informational-analytic support of the federal programs were provided. Within the framework of this activity for the solution of various aspects of Chernobyl's problem central bank of generalized data and numerous information systems were created. In the report the brief description of some of them is presented. In particular the databank on radioactive situation includes the information on 12 thousand settlements of Russia which have been exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident.The medico-demographic section of a databank includes information on death rate for the reasons for all subjects of Russian Federation since 1982 till the present time. The developed information systems are available to all participants of work on overcoming of consequences of the accident. There are given the examples of integral estimates in short- and long-term forecasts of development of a situation in territories suffered by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. (author)

  1. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine and problems with the sarcophagus

    The reactor accident in the Ukraine contaminated part of the territory with iodine 131, caesium 137, strontium 90, and plutonium 239 and 240. The zone surrounding the site of the accident was declared restricted area; more than 90 000 persons were evacuated. The paper reports on current conditions in the restricted area and prospects for this area as well as on the current state of, and problems with, the sarcophagus. The conversion of the sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system and the economic situation of the Ukraine pose great problems. (DG)

  2. Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences

    In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

  3. The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological

  4. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

  5. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  6. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  7. Metabolic syndrome X as a clinical outcome of hormonal changes on the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences (the problem analysis)

    An analysis of hormonal changes in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences, which promote the metabolic syndrome X development, was carried out on the base of clinical and experimental data. The system insulin-glucose, the mechanisms of insulinresistance and gyperinslinemia forming, the pathogenetical role of hyperinsulinemia interaction with others hormomes, some aspects of hormone - receptor interaction, an interconnection of hyperinsulinemia and vascular pathology, peculiarities of radiobiological stress as a non-classic adaptive reaction, which frequently resulting with a pathology, were discussed in the article

  8. Long-term therapy for polymorphic mental disorders in liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    V. N. Krasnov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a long-term comparative therapeutic study of a large cohort of more than 500 liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The patients were followed up (and periodically treated at hospital 5 years or more, usually 10—15 years. The study confirmed mainly the cerebrovascular nature of disorders following the pattern seen in moderate psychoorganic syndrome. Therapy with cerebroprotective agents having vascular vegetotropic properties could yield certain therapeutic results and, to some extent, preserve social functioning capacity in these patients.

  9. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  10. Information-Analytic support of the programs of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident: gained experience and its future application

    On the initial stage of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the role of system-analytic and information support in the decision making process for protection of the population and rehabilitation of territories was. to a certain extent, underestimated. Starting from 1991, activity in system-analytic support was the part of the USSR (later on, Russian) stage programs. This activity covered three direction: development of the Central bank of the generalized data on the radiation catastrophes; development, implementation, and maintenance of the control informational system for the Federal bodies; computer-system integration

  11. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  12. [Change in neutrophils in liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    Zhiliaev, E G; Grebeniuk, A N; Antushevich, A E; Legeza, V I; Smirnov, N A

    1998-02-01

    In result of own researches and analysis of the literature? the information about high sensitivity of neutrophils of peripheric blood to infringements of constancy of internal state of body, arising as reply to radiating influence, are received. Ionized radiation modulates greatly properties and functions of neutrophilic granulocytes, which are the most sensitive and high-modulated cells of non-specific resistance system. The changes of the functional-metabolic status of neutrophils in participants of liquidation of consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been saving during 10 years after influence of the extreme, including radiating, factors of failure. PMID:9567724

  13. Probable consequence of damage by radio-active iodine of thyroid gland in the period of the Chernobyl accident

    An important peculiarity of the Chernobyl catastrophe is the discharge into the atmosphere of tremendous amount of radioactive iodine and, as a result, selective damage of the thyroid in children from the affected areas. The most dangerous consequence is the thyroid cancer. The analysis of the situation when children's thyroids were subjected to irradiation shows that tumors can most frequently develop as late as 20-30 years after irradiation. There are reasons to believe that tumors are induced by low dose of irradiation. Refs. 31, figs. 3, tabs. 1

  14. Medical consequences for children population of survivors after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (12 years later)

    Chernobyl NPP accident is recognized as the global disaster. Wide amount of population including children was involved. According to the direct measurements results from 1986 the 40% of children population received thyroid irradiation doses from 0.3 to 2.0 Gy and 10% of them - over 2 Gy respectively. Cesium incorporation value calculated per irradiation dose not exceeded 0.5 rem in 97% of kids. Children examination was organized in 2 steps. Within 1. one various transient reactions of nervous system, skin, mucosa, blood formula were revealed. Within 2. one the complete medical examinations were carried out both with dosimetric control. ChNPP accident poly-factor nature was fixed. Wide amount of somatic pathology not related to radiation exposure dose was registered. 12 years after the accident as the result of wide-scale epidemiological study was found out that children population had been exposed to both acute (evacuated persons) and long-term chronic (contaminated territories residents) effect of radiation factor. The main health risk for children involved in nuclear disaster zone is connected with non-oncological blood and haemopoietic organs diseases, digestive system pathology and mental disorders. Parameters excess was revealed in group of persons with higher collective dose accumulated for 10-12 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rate growth is recognized as the radioinduced effect. 12 years after the accident is obvious that 'health detriment' for children population of ChNPP accident survivors is expressed in additional number of endocrine system diseases cases - 24%, blood and haemopoietic organs - 33%, digestive system - 24%, mental disorders - 52% respectively. (authors)

  15. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  16. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  17. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic

  18. Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident

    This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

  19. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  20. Study on the health and social consequences based on assessment of the irradiation of the Bulgarian population as a result of Chernobyl accident

    Full text: Ionizing radiation is one of the well-established etiologic factors for induced malignant diseases. As a result of trans-boundary transfer of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident, Bulgaria, like other European countries, was contaminated and all consequences followed. Based on data for radiation background in Bulgaria in the first two months after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, assessment of thyroid gland exposure of different population groups was made. The thyroid gland exposure was determined by direct measurement of thyroid gland activity and indirect (computing) methods as well. Both methods show that children under school age are the group at highest dose burden. The average doses equal 10 mGy and vary from 7.5 to 20 mGy for direct measurement and indirect methods respectively, and the maximum doses range from 100 mGy to 96.5 mGy. The doses for other age groups are: average 3.2±1.5 mGy and maximum 25±10 mGy. The primary source of exposure is Iodine-131 and the other Iodine and Tellurium radionuclides have an insignificant impact. The main share in thyroid gland exposure has the consumption of milk, esp. sheep's milk, and green foliar vegetables. The contribution of inhaled Iodine and both internal and external exposure from other sources is up to 10-15%. An epidemiological case-control study was carried out according to thyroid gland doses received in regions of highest radioactive contamination. The thyroid cancer cases diagnosed in these regions were compared with cases in regions of lowest contamination for the period 1990-2003. The analysis was based on place of residence and diet (type and source of consumed milk and milk products) of cases during May-June 1986. The standardized incidence of thyroid cancer by sex and age in these regions was compared also. The difference in thyroid gland doses estimated by region are not related with thyroid cancer incidence Data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression

  1. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  2. SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT OF THE MEDICAL SECTION OF THE STATE PROGRAM OF THE BELARUS REPUBLIC FOR THE OVERCOMING OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES

    A. V. Rozhko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A twenty-five year health follow-up of the affected population has shown that a properly structured State strategy on overcoming the consequences of disaster allow to maintain stable levels of morbidity and mortality. An important achievement in the system of medical help to the affected population is the organization of dynamic follow-up, as well as creating State Register of people exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident as a tool for solving scientific and practical problems. The results of scientific researches obtained in the SO “The Republican Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology” were the basis for one of the Council of Ministers Decree and two Decrees of the Ministry of Health. Significant changes have been made in the order of assigning the causation connection of disease (disability and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and objective criteria for the formation of high radiation risk groups.In a whole, the rate of oncological morbidity in the affected population remains at the average republican level, but for certain categories of the affected population, referred to groups of enhanced radiation risk, there has been detected the presence of excess morbidity of some forms of malignant neoplasms.

  3. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA)

  4. Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

  5. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  6. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  7. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results from the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Summary report from WHO 1995

    The main conclusions drawn from the investigations are that the Chernobyl accident caused psychosocial problems due to poor information just after the accident, and stresses and traumas inter alia due to forced relocation. A marked increase of thyroid cancer among children has been demonstrated. However, no significant increase in the frequency of leukemia has been observed., 2 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of consequences of thyroid exposure of the Russian population following the Chernobyl accident

    In the early period after the Chernobyl accident, analysis of patterns of 131I exposure of the human thyroid showed that contaminated milk was the basic source of 131I intake among the inhabitants of Russia. The equipment and techniques used for measurement of the 131I content in the thyroids of these individuals are described in this work. A model of the 131I intake, taking into account protective actions, and a method of thyroid dose calculation are discussed. The mean thyroid dose and frequency distributions of the thyroid doses to inhabitants of towns and villages of the Bryansk, Tula and Orel regions of Russia are presented. The mean dose to the thyroids of children living in the villages was 2 to 5 times higher than the dose to adult thyroids; for children living in the towns, the mean dose was 1.5 to 12 times higher. The mean thyroid mass in adult inhabitants of the Bryansk region was 27 g, which exceeded the value for a standard man (20 g) and was taken into account in the dosimetric calculations. The technique for reconstructing the mean and individual thyroid doses was based on the correlation between thyroid dose and several parameters: Surface 137Cs activity in soil, dose rate in air in May of 1986, 131I content in local milk, milk consumption rate, and 134Cs + 137Cs content in the body. The collective thyroid dose to inhabitants of the most contaminated regions of Russia is estimated and a thyroid cancer rate prognosis is derived. The need for intensified medical care for the critical group - children of preschool age during 1986 - is based on a significant increase in the number of projected thyroid cancers and adenomas. 32 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  9. CEC/CIS collaboration projects on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident preliminary results on the project dealing with strategies of decontamination

    In 1992, an agreement was signed between the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and the relevant Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine in order to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, through the implementation of a collaboration program involving the participation of about 200 CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) and EU (European Union) Institutes and Research Centers. In such a context, a collaboration project aiming at evaluating strategies of decontamination for the territories affected by the accident was launched. This project not only dealt with decontamination of agricultural soils, urban areas and forests but also included treatment of contaminated foodstuff. To date, the project comprised both experimental and theoretical activities. It is expected that the results of this project can be used for the development of practical strategies for decontaminating the relevant CIS territories, as well as for the definition of appropriate policies in the event of a future nuclear accident. Relying on a strong collaboration network which was progressively established between EU and CIS scientists, field experiments mainly dealt with decontamination of meadows using a turf harvester, and forests while producing valuable wood derivatives

  10. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. Informative report prepared on behalf of the IAEA meeting, Vienna, August 25-29, 1986. Pt. 1

    GRS has revised the German translation of part 1 of the report on the Chernobyl reactor accident. The translation is technically clear and intelligible and contains the current technical terms. The report comprises a description of RBMK-1000, a chronological description of the accident, the analysis of the accident, the causes of the accident, measures preventing the further development of the accident as well as measures controlling the radioactive contamination of the environment and the population. The report discusses immediate emergency measures improving the safety of RBMK-type nuclear power plants and deals with recommendations for nuclear safety engineering. (DG)

  11. Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident

    Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

  12. State institution 'Republican research centre of radiation medicine and human ecology': concept of development and its role in solution of medical problems of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    At present, the Centre is the head institution, which provides specific medical assistance to population affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. It also carries out research work defined by the State Program of the Republic of Belarus on liquidating consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe within the period of 2001-2005 and up to 2010, sub-items 'Medical Assistance and Recuperation, Mother and Child Care, Hereditary Illnesses' and 'Radiation Protection and Dosage Monitoring of Population'. The aim of the Concept of the development of the Centre is to maintain and promote the health of the people exposed to multicomponent and prolonged impact of irradiation after Chernobyl accident and other negative factors of the environment of anthropogenic and man-caused nature, by means of realization of scientifically-grounded measures on minimizing of direct and indirect losses of society due to morbidity and mortality decrease. The ecological situation in the Republic and necessity of liquidation of medical consequences of the Chernobyl disaster demand to conduct long-term dynamic monitoring of state of health of big cohorts of people. At present, this problem is solved by clinical examination of population affected by irradiation. This is the base of preventive activity directed to decrease medical consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. In the Republic of Belarus, clinical examination of suffering population is carried out at all levels - republican, regional, local, - in clinics. To monitor the state of health of the population and to obtain correct data of medico-biological consequences of the catastrophe, Belarus State Register of people exposed to irradiation due to Chernobyl accident, was established and is functioning. At present, State Register provides information supply of the conducted clinical examination. The concentration in one institution of functions of managing staff, quality control of clinical examination and scientific inspection of the State

  13. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  14. The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident

    The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

  15. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  16. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional

    Keith Baverstock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, além de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O

  17. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?

    Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  18. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  19. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  20. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  1. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  2. Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident

    The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

  3. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  4. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  5. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  6. Biological Effects 10 years after the Chernobyl NPS accident

    The radiological consequences of Chernobyl accident were analyzed. The mortality of infants in some towns in Poland was presented. The increase in the incidence of neoplasms, blood diseases and endocrine diseases infants was observed in 1986-1988. The increase in number of the Down syndrome during this time period was remarkable. Also the first notifications of neoplasms showed the trend to an increase

  7. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  8. Long-lasting alterations in the immune system of Chernobyl accident victims: manifestations, nature and possible consequences

    The hypothesis is formulated, which explains genesis of long-lasting disturbances in the immune system of the persons affected by factors of Chernobyl disaster. Immunological alterations which are displayed at the late time after action of radiation in doses 0.5 Gy or lower are not a result of direct damage of the cells of immune system by irradiation. Their development is more probably a result of appearance of some systemic conditions and factors in affected organism - such as hormonal disbalance and especially autoantibodies of different specificities, including those reactive with thymic epithelial cells. Refs. 60, refs. 5

  9. Blood picture alternations in persons after liquidating the consequences of the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station

    The results of haemogram examination in 90 men who worked in Chernobyl in 1986 are reported. In 58 cases alterations were found in red blood in the form of oxy phil norm o- and/or macrocytes and half moon erythrocytes. Ovalocytes, stomatocytes or acanthocytes were found in ten persons. White blood picture was characterized by relative lymphosytosis, but also by appearance of lymphoid and plasmatic cells, what may be interpreted as activation of immune response. The results of reexamination after six to twelve months in 25 men demonstrated increased frequency or deepening of alterations in blood picture. (author). 12 refs

  10. Colloid-chemical approach to the solution of urgent ecological problems connected with mitigation of Chernobyl accident consequences

    The results of the comprehensive investigations carried out by the Dumansky Institute of Colloid and Water Chemistry focused on resolving the urgent ecological problems caused by Chernobyl,disaster summarized. The effective methods to control the solidification terms of hardening lead containing compounds as well as the technique of fastening soil upper layers considered. The penetration proofing materials (compositions) were developed for using in constructing the proofing shields protecting rivers, lakes and fields from pernicious influence of radionuclides and other poisoning pollutions. The decontaminating compositions of solutions reducing the radioactive pollution of porous building materials to sanitary levels of clean zone were proposed

  11. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  12. Cytogenetic effects in children born to participants in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident consequences - Acute radiation syndrome survivors and children evacuated from Pripyat

    The cytogenetic study of 87 children was held. Age of involved kids ranged from 5 to 14 years old. The I-st study group was presented with 17 kids born in 1987-1988 from the Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) who survived the Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) of I-II severity degree in 1986. The II-nd study group was consisted from the 45 children born in 1983-1985 resident in town Pripyat with thyroid exposure doses from 65 to 616 sZv and total irradiation doses from 0.2 to 13.2 sZv. The 25 children born in 1983-1988 and resident in radiation situation - favourable region of Ukraine constituted the Control (III-rd) group. The aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations amount mainly due to chromatide type ones confidential increase compared to that in control was revealed among the children born from CACCP - ARS survivors. In children exposed to ionizing radiation during infant and early childhood age the aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations quantity was elevated also but due to both chromosomal (dicentrics and rings) and chromatide types. (author)

  13. [Immunological aspects of the study of contingents of population exposed to ionizing radiation effects as the consequence of the Chernobyl AES accident].

    Chumak, A A; Bazyka, D A; Tal'ko, V V; Minchenko, Zh N; Bezpalenko, A G; Beliaeva, N V; Gerasimenko, N K; Dmitrenko, E A; Konopleva, Iu L; Nefedova, R A

    1991-01-01

    The immune system was examined in those who participated in the liquidation of accident sequelae at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station and the population exposed to ionizing radiation. Alteration in surface antigenic markers of basic regulatory subpopulations of immunocompetent cells and metabolic changes are caused by radiation and co-existent somatic diseases. Typing for HLA antigens and proteins with a genetically determined phenotype revealed characteristic features of their distribution for the general population. PMID:1950153

  14. Latest report about health effects of the chernobyl accident

    After twenty years of Chernobyl accident, the international conference was hold in Kyiv, Ukraine, 24-26, April in 2006. During the conference WHO declares the paper named health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The report look back the nuclear accident in the history, and then recite conclusion about health effects of the Chernobyl accident, which from doses received from the Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer, non-thyroid solid cancer, leukemia, mortality, cataract and cardiovascular disease. The report is considered as milestone events in the studying of health effects of Chernobyl accident. (authors)

  15. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for people and the environment; Les consequences de Tchernobyl pour l'homme et l'environnement

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report recalls the accident scenario, discusses the dispersion of the radioactive plume, comments the contamination at the vicinity of the power station, discusses and comments data related to radioactive deposits in Europe and in France, comments available information regarding radioactive fallouts in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia (models have been used to assess radioactive deposits). It addresses the issue of food product contamination in these three countries (impact on farm products, on water streams and on forests), but also in France. It comments the health impacts, more particularly on the people who intervened on the site, but also on people who received medium doses. Thyroid cancer data are discussed for the three mainly concerned countries. Other pathologies and non-cancerous effects are also discussed. The mortality induced by the accident is commented. Effects in France are evoked as well as social and economic consequences in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The document provides several links to other documents for further and more detailed information

  16. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  17. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  19. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  20. WHO updating report on the WHO conference on ''Health consequences of the Chernobyl and other radiological accidents'', including results of the IPHECA Programme

    A wide range of health issues resulting from the Chernobyl accident and other radiation accidents was discussed at the Conference. Acute and delayed radiation effects (thyroid diseases, primary thyroid cancer, haemoblastosis, solid malignancies of various sites, etc.) were of high priority among the questions discussed. In addition to the plenary and main sessions there were parallel sessions, which included important subjects such ast the set-up of epidemiological and other registries, techniques of epidemiological registries, techniques of epidemiological studies, estimates of individual and population doses, specificity of the health status of the population and liquidators, as well as treatment and rehabilitation of those affected. Special attention was paid to the psycho-social effects of the accident. 3 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents

    The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (author)

  2. Root causes of the Chernobyl accident: hindsight through years

    The objective of the article was not to evaluate the status of nuclear safety in this country. We wished to raise another question analysing the Chernobyl accident occurred in April 1986 is not the end in itself and the analysis must not be retrospective. The objective is to draw the normal for nuclear safety nowadays and in the future in order to prevent the very possibility of another accident entailing severe radiological consequences. In our opinion, discussions on any details of physical and thermohydraulic processes occurred in April 1986 can and even must be the matter of due consideration. There are all the reasons to state that no due conclusions were drawn in Ukraine further to the analysis of the Chernobyl accident causes

  3. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  4. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search

  5. Psychological consequences of nuclear and radiological accidents: Delayed neuropsychiatric effects of the acute radiation sickness following Chernobyl. Chapter 2

    The neuropsychiatric consequences of accidental irradiation to ARS patients have been monitored to the present on the basis of one in-patient medical examination per year. All ARS patients are hospitalized in the Radiation Pathology Department of the Institute for Clinical Radiology, RCRM, Kiev. The data on the neuropsychiatric aftermath of ARS presented hereafter were based on two research designs: 1) prospective follow-up study (1987-2001), and 2) cross-sectional study with parallel groups (1996-1998). The principles of the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders include complexity, stability and succession between stages (clinical, ambulatory-polyclinic, ambulatory and sanatorium treatment). Basic treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychological therapy. Neuropharmacology includes vasoactive and nootropic drugs, neuroprotectors, antidepressants (predominantly, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors - SSRIs) and atypical antipsychotic (if necessary). The correction of mental disorders is carried out at syndromological level. It is worth mentioning the importance of out-patient methods of treatment and rehabilitation [Nyagu A.I. et al., 1998, Nyagu A.I. et al., 1999

  6. Thyroid carcinomas induced by Chernobyl nuclear accident

    The Chernobyl nuclear station accident is the unprecedented catastrophic accident in human nuclear industry with a large of quantity of radioactive nucleons resulting in contamination in many countries of the northern Hemisphere. After almost 20 years studying, it is approved that Belarus is the most serious affected country by the accident. Especially thyroid carcinomas in the people exposed to radioactive fall-out is considered to be the only one late radiation effect. RET gene in the happening of thyroid carcinomas is being paid close attention at present

  7. The Chernobyl accident: bibliography of the science literature

    Information about the scientific publications in 1986-1995 on the problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented in the book. A significant, unique actual material about results of radiation influence on men, animals, vegetative world and other components of an environment is collected to the present of time. Radiation dozes are determined and combined influence of the both radiation and chemical factors is investigated, clinical epidemiological and genetic estimation of a condition of health of the population is given. Agriculture technologies for conditions of radioactive contamination are developed and used. Normative base for both decontamination works and radioactive wastes storage is created. These and other problems are reflected in the publications described in the collection. The following sections are available: Radiobiology and radioecology (1445 refs.); Radiation medicine (703 refs.); Agriculture radiology (194 refs.); Decontamination and radioactive wastes storage (86 refs.); Economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident (36 refs.); Social and psychological problems (39 refs.)

  8. Childhood leukaemia in Romania and the Chernobyl accident

    Following the WHO recommendations, we focused our study on short-term consequence of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia. The present study was designed to show whether the frequency of leukaemia has increased during the time period following the nuclear accident. We studied the frequency of childhood leukaemia, its geographical distribution in Romania, and the possible changes of this distribution after the Chernobyl accident. For the period before the accident (1981-1985), the distribution of the cumulative mortality from leukaemia is shown. The mortality for the entire country was 13.54/100,000 for all age-groups (14.92 for the 0-4 years old age group, 15.68 for the 5-9, and 10.13 for 10-14). After the Chernobyl accident, the geographical distribution of cumulative mortality from childhood leukaemia has somewhat changed. The rate for the entire country was 13.24/100,000 (13.72 for 0-4 years old, 16.64 for 5-9 years old, and 9.83 for 10-14 years old). Four districts showed a greater increase of the mortality rate. The age distribution of the mortality in these districts during the two time periods, is shown. (author)

  9. Structure of the thyroid pathology in the radiation exposed areas of Leningrad region: late consequences of Chernobyl accident after 20 years

    Semenov, A.; Uspenskaya, A.; Bychenkova, E.; Chinchuk, I.; Novokshonov, K.; Chernikov, R.; Sleptsov, I.; Bubnov, A.; Fedotov, Y.; Makarin, V.; Karelina, Y. [Endocrinology, NWRMC FHSDA, ST-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident large areas of the USSR were contaminated with fallout, it has been proved that I{sup 131} caused higher incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Further observation for over 20 years showed retention of high annual prevalence of this pathology among the population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultimate result of the influence of I{sup 131} on the thyroid gland. The study included 454 women living in localities affected by the Chernobyl accident in April-May 1986 (case) and 909 women living in fallout-free localities (ICCIDD method). The incidence of malignant thyroid tumors among the inhabitants of the contaminated territories is higher than in the control area. This phenomenon can not be unambiguously attributed to radiation induced cancers, but requires further investigation, perhaps by the method of carrying out continuous and all-round prophylactic medical examination. High incidence of autoimmune changes can be considered to have been caused by the action of I{sup 131} and prophylactic supplement with stable iodine

  10. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of the people; development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases at various categories of victims; development and introduction in practice of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of effective preventive means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; optimization of system of measures for health saving of the having suffered population and development of ways of increase of its efficiency

  11. [Comparative characteristic of some parameters of the surfactant pulmonary system in children-residents of radioactive contaminated territories and children born to participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences].

    Parkhomenko, V M; Kolpakov, I Ie; Briuzhina, T S; Shumeĭko, V M

    2008-01-01

    The study of lipid fat acid content in condensate of expired air with the help of the gas liquid chromatography revealed the increased sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in a large measure of increased content of arachidonic and linolic PUFA in children-residents of radioactive contaminated territories in comparison with children born by participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences. It is evidence of more active processes of lipid peroxidation and shift of the balance of fatty acids to the side of omega-6 family. PMID:19253733

  12. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    Cardis, E; Hatch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection.

  13. Radiation medicine in an assessment of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    The Chernobyl accident does not have equal in the world. Acute radiation sickness was a clear deterministic radiation effect as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The conclusion that the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence among persons irradiated at childhood as a result of the Chernobyl accident is of radiogenic nature and practically irrelevant to the effect of directed epidemiological screening of this pathology can be accepted. The first results testify to increase of some types of malignant neoplasms that should be verified. Main registered effects are the neuropsychiatric disorders, endocrine diseases, cardiovascular pathology, diseases of digestive tract and bronco-pulmonary system, immune and haematological disorders. The social-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are today the priority problem. Controversial conclusions concerning health effects of the Chernobyl accident testify to an acuteness of a situation with definition of radiation effects even now, and the actuality of the prolongation of studies in this area

  14. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  16. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

  17. Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria

    In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

  18. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  19. Cooperative research at JAERI on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. 1. Study on the measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after the nuclear accident

    Measurement data obtained from 1992 mainly in 30 km distant areas from the accident reactor were analyzed and evaluated. On-site study included the radiation survey studies of wide range of areas with the spherical NaI(Tl) detector carried on the car and helicopter, studies on the accumulated dose in inhabitants and dose rate distribution of their residential settlements with the glass dosimeter and portable gamma dose-rate meter, experimental studies on the shielding effect of houses by simulation and studies on the characterization of environmental γ-ray field. These studies brought about developments of the method for rapid radiation survey in wide range of contaminated areas, of the evaluation method for estimated external exposure dose in residents, of the Monte Carlo arrangement method for evaluation of γ-ray doses and of analytical method for contaminated areas. Data were provided to organizations for measures of Ukraine and Belarus and would be also useful for possible urgent matters in future. (K.H.)

  20. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 6

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control

  1. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 6

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control. (authors)

  2. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  3. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  4. Environmental consequences of Chernobyl in Western Europe

    The accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 spread radioactive contamination throughout Europe. Using measurements of activity concentrations in the air, on the ground and in a range of foods, estimates of the doses received by the populations of western Europe have been made. For the European Community (EC) countries, the average individual effective doses accruing from the first year following the accident are estimated to range from less than a microsievert in Portugal to a few hundred microsieverts in the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and Greece. Elsewhere in western Europe, similar average individual effective doses have been estimated, up to a value of about 700 μSv for Austria. These values can be compared with the average effective dose of about 2000 μSv which the populations of western Europe receive each year from natural radiation. The restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals by a factor of two in some countries. Throughout the EC, however, countermeasures are estimated to have reduced the collective effective dose by about 5%. The health impact on western Europe from the accident at Chernobyl can be assessed from the collective effective doses and the collective thyroid doses estimated together with the appropriate risk factors. For the EC the collective effective dose estimate is about 80,000 man Sv; considering western Europe as a whole the collective dose would be a few tens of percent higher. Using the risk factor recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the theoretical number of extra cancers predicted in western Europe due to the Chernobyl accident is of the order of 1000. This can be compared with the number of fatalities which would be expected over the next fifty years in western Europe as a result of radiation from natural sources, which is over half a million. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident

    Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was

  6. Children thyroid carcinoma and Chernobyl accident

    In Nuclear medicine diagnostic department of Kaunas Medical University Clinics 22 children (6-16 years of age), ill with thyroid carcinoma were examined. Bas ing on the data of Kaunas Medical University Clinic the incidence of children thyroid carcinoma did not increase after Chernobyl accident. Ratio of boys and girls was 4.5:1. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was detected in 15 (68.2%)children, mixed carcinoma - 4 (18.2%), nondiferenciated -3 (13.6%) children. First stage of cancer was detected only in one patient (4.5%), second -16 (72.7%), third - 3 (13.6%), fourth stage - 2 (9.1%) patients. (author)

  7. Changes in the brain of subjects who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident consequences as shown by the data of radiodiagnosis (emission single-photon computer-aided scintigraphy, X-ray computer -aided and magnetic resonanse tomography)

    Presents the data of X-ray examinations of the brain in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Findings of X-ray methods of diagnosis permit a conclusion on a complex organic involvement of the brain in subjects who participated in liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident. The most typical are signs of the hypertensive hydricephalic syndrome with liquorodynamic disturbances and of the vascular encephalic syndrome with development of local postischemic malacia of the brain matter. 7 refs., 5 figs.,

  8. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  9. Chernobyl

    The Chernobyl reactor accident provoked a wave of public discussion about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and particularly so in the Federal Republic of Germany. The article in hand discusses some consequences as can be assessed so far, although information on the causes and the course of the accident still is very incomplete. From the information available so far, the possible sequence of events is described. The safety engineering and design of Federal German reactor types is compared with the reactor type installed at Chernobyl, with the result that the Soviet type never would have been licensed in the FRG. The fallout, i.e. the resulting radiation exposure of the population, is expected to remain within the limits of the natural radioactivity; the political effects and possible consequences with regard to further commitments for the advancement of the fast breeder reactor line and the reprocessing of spent fuel are discussed. (orig./RB)

  10. The Chernobyl accident--an epidemiological perspective.

    Cardis, E; Hatch, M

    2011-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to the exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer-particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes-that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with the risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer end points. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers ('liquidators') have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other haematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including the establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation. PMID:21396807

  11. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    Since 1945, more than 1.8 x 1021 Bq of artificial radionuclides have been released into the atmosphere. Approximately 2.04 x 1018B, i.e. approx. 0.11%, are the result of accidents at nuclear industrial facilities. This percentage is causing increased interest among researchers. This is due to the fact that in the wake of accidental release radionuclides become distributed unevenly across the Earth's surface, and the associated exposures, fluctuating from background level to several grays, an induce both stochastic and deterministic effects in the irradiated population. A comparative analysis of the medical consequences of the twentieth century's most serious nuclear events, namely the authorized dumping of high level radioactive waste into the river Techa in 1950, the explosion of a storage tank containing long lived radioactive waste in the Southern Urals in 1957, the fire at Sellafield in 1957 and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, has shown that when timely countermeasures are taken, the worst immediate and delayed medical consequences of an accident can be avoided. The consequences that have since been ascertained are a brief rise in the mortality rate during the first five years, with a dose in excess of 500 mSv; an increase in the incidence of leukaemia, with an absolute risk of up to 1.1. x 10-4 man·years/Gy; and increased mortality among children with external radiation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and internal doses of 99-190 mSv on the bone surfaces of neonates or 170-600 mSv on the bone surfaces of the mother. There is reliable evidence that, with external gamma radiation doses in excess of 520 mSv, the mortality rate for all malignant tumorous increases by 45-58% compared with the control level. There is also a significant increase in thyroid cancer frequency four to ten years after the incorporation of iodine isotopes by children aged up to 7 years, including an accumulation period in the womb. (author). 12 refs, 7 tabs

  12. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view

    Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  13. A first assessment of the psychic and social effects of the Chernobyl accident

    A synthesis has been made of a series of surveys carried out in Ukraine in 1992 and 1993 on the psychic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident, within the framework of the ''Evaluation programme of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident'' of the Commission of the European communities. The main results demonstrate the strength of the post-accident dynamics of the accident, more than 7 years later. Some 3 millions people were directly affected in their everyday life by the post-accident management which resulted in many perverse effects on the social and psychic levels. Economically, each year, financing of the post-accident management system requires nearly 1/6 of the Ukraine budget. Politically speaking, Chernobyl is still a major stake for the various actors of the institutional transition process underway since the disappearance of the soviet system. The article shows the systemic complexity of the local situation and the many explanatory factors (physical, sanitary, political, cultural, historical) at the origin of the post-accident dynamics. A systemic modelling of the interactions between these factors is presented. It makes it possible to better define the contributions of both accident and post-accident stages to the process that has led to the present situation. It shows out the close connections between the different accident stages and the need, from the very beginning of an accident, to take into account the mid-and long-term consequences arising from the accident management. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  14. Global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Radioactive material was deposited throughout the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986. On the basis of a large amount of environmental data and new integrated dose assessment and risk models, the collective dose commitment to the approximately 3 billion inhabitants is calculated to be 930,000 person-gray, with 97% in the western Soviet Union and Europe. The best estimates for the lifetime expectation of fatal radiogenic cancer would increase the risk from 0 to 0.02% in Europe and 0 to 0.003% in the Northern Hemisphere. By means of an integration of the environmental data, it is estimated that approximately 100 petabecquerels of cesium-137 (1 PBq = 10(15) Bq) were released during and subsequent to the accident

  15. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  16. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima; 30 Jahre Leben mit Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre Leben mit Fukushima. Gesundheitliche Folgen der Atomkatastrophen von Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Claussen, Angelika; Rosen, Alex

    2016-02-15

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  17. Accidents, probabilities and consequences

    Following brief discussion of the safety of wind-driven power plants and solar power plants, some aspects of the safety of fast breeder and thermonuclear power plants are presented. It is pointed out that no safety evaluation of breeders comparable to the Rasmussen investigation has been carried out and that discussion of the safety aspects of thermonuclear power is only just begun. Finally, as an illustration of the varying interpretations of risk and safety analyses, four examples are given of predicted probabilities and consequences in Copenhagen of the maximum credible accident at the Barsebaeck plant, under the most unfavourable meterological conditions. These are made by the Environment Commission, Risoe Research Establishment, REO (a pro-nuclear group) and OOA (an anti-nuclear group), and vary by a factor of over 1000. (JIW)

  18. Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria

    First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.)

  19. The Chernobyl accident is the greatest social ecological and technological catastrophe in a human history. Chapter 4

    The lessons of the Chernobyl tragedy for mankind are shown. Ecological consequences of the accident are described. It is given the analysis of social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident - change of a mode of life of the people on the contaminated territories, a development post-catastrophe processes, a migration moods of the population, an aggravation of a demographic situation. Problems of an administrative activity on the contaminated territories are discussed and measures for decrease of the Chernobyl accident consequences are offered. 51 refs., 7 tabs

  20. Dosimetric and biomedical studies conducted in Cuba of children from areas of the former USSR affected by the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Children from ares affected by the Chernobyl accident have been receiving medical care in Cuba since 1990. The dosimetric and biomedical studies made include: measurement of 137Cs body content; internal, external, thyroid and total dose estimation; evaluation of the overall health condition and behaviour of hameatological, endocrinological, biochemical and cytogenetic indicators. Measurements of body activity and dose estimation have been performed on altogether 4506 children. Of this total, 69.3% of the children were from the Ukraine, 22.5% from Russia and 8.1% from Belarus. Assessments of overall health conditions, haematological and thyroid indicators have been made covering 3016 children from 421 Ukrainian townships, taking into account the body measurements of 137Cs and the surface contamination of the locations where the children come from. The biochemical indicator used (nucleic acid concentration in leucocytes) was assessed in five groups comprising some 445 children from areas where the level of surface contamination varied. Chromosome and micronuclei aberration rates were established in 28 children from Pripyat, 21 living in Kiev and 20 in Ovruch

  1. The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident

    The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

  2. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AND HEALTH (TWO POINTS OF VIEW

    V. M. Shubik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents two alternative points of view on the relationship of health malfunctions after the Chernobyl accident with radiation effect or with the factors of non-radiation nature (social, stress, nutrition peculiarities, etc.. An analysis of literature data and results of author’s own research of radiosensitive indicators of immunity condition, having essential value for the immediate and long term consequences of radiation effect was done. Possible correlation between health malfunctions of the population living in the regions, contaminated by the radionuclides, and combined effect of radiation and factors of non-radiation nature is shown.

  3. The Chernobyl active phase: why the ''official view'' is wrong [Chernobyl accident

    The results of a new investigation into the active phase of the Chernobyl accident are summarised. This phase is defined as the period from the initial destruction of the core to the puzzling and very sharp drop in environmental radionuclide release about nine days later. The research was carried out at Chernobyl over 18 months in cooperation with scientists living there. Its objective was to examine the reliability of the official Soviet presentation at the IAEA post-accident review conference in August 1986. In order to reconstruct the events, four new spheres of information were brought together: a reappraisal of the effectiveness of the accident management actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident; a description of the remains of the reactor building and the solidified corium; results of radiochemical analyses of the melted fuel; and an analysis of radioisotope release dynamics. An alternative explanation for the bathtub shaped release curve has been arrived at and a rough release estimate made which confirms suspicions that the amount of radioactivity released into the environment was greater than that officially reported. (UK)

  4. Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident.

    Bell, J N B; Shaw, G

    2005-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental

  5. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  6. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  7. The human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. A strategy for recovery. A report commissioned by UNDP and UNICEF with the support of UN-OCHA and WHO. Final - 25.01.02

    This Report contains the findings of a study conducted into the human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident fifteen years after the explosion. The Mission explored the health, socio-economic and environmental effects of the accident and the events that followed. The Report contains an analysis of the current situation and the prospects for the future, focusing on aspects that are significant for the well-being of the people and communities directly affected. The affected population - those exposed to radioactive fallout, remaining in the affected areas, or forced to relocate - continue to face disproportionate suffering in terms of health, social conditions, and economic opportunity. Hundreds of thousands of people have been evacuated from the most severely affected areas. Many have found it difficult to adapt and continue to face serious psychological, economic and social problems. The process of evacuation has now virtually ceased and only a small number of people continue to live in the most polluted areas. However, some tens of thousands remain in areas polluted to a level of between 15 and 40 curies per square kilometre. The accident has also had a continuing impact on the opportunities and well-being of a much wider circle of the inhabitants of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, through the negative image that it has created for large areas of these countries. It has imposed a heavy burden on the national budgets through the cost of clean-up, compensation and recovery. Ukraine, in addition, has had to carry much of the cost of closing and making safe the Chernobyl complex as well as the opportunity cost of the lost electrical output from the reactors concerned. These commitments have diverted resources away from other priorities, such as health, education and investment, at a time of profound economic crisis

  8. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  9. Unbudgeted expenditure in chapter 1602, unbudgeted title 68112-2/3 of indemnification to be paid by the Federal Government to contribute to the compensation to be paid according to the General Guideline on Compensation for Losses as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Information by the Federal German Minister of Finance, approval of DM 125 mill. as an unbudgeted expensure, to be used for compensation of losses as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Two thirds of the payments to be borne by the Federal Government, and one third by the Land government carrying through the compensation procedure. (HSCH)

  10. Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident

    The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

  11. The Chernobyl accident - impact on Western Europe

    The implications of the Chernobyl accident are outlined. For the USSR, 135,000 people had to be moved. Farming in these regions will cause difficult problems in the future. The contamination of 131I caused great problems in Western Europe the first month after the accident. The excess dose the first year after the accident was generally below 2 mSv. Over a 50-year period an increase over background of less than 1% is predicted. It is not possible to state if this irradiation has any health impact. Great problems were caused for the population in northern Scandinavia because of the reliance on reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. Very few Lapps will, however, reach an effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv during 1986/1987. This is less than the natural background effective dose equivalent during a year for the average Swede. Therefore, the greatest problem seems to be the difficulty for the Lapps to sell their reindeer meat and lake fish. 40 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

  12. Impact on London of the Chernobyl accident

    The radiation levels in London following the Chernobyl accident have been measured and are reported. The sampling programme of atmospheric dusts, water and milk is detailed. A few other items, eg food and ships arriving at Tilbury and Sheerness were also tested. The counting techniques are given. The results show that at its peak the additional activity contributed by the inhalation of the debris probably increased the radiation dose to an individual in London by about 40% of the natural dose for that period. The increased activity in milk gave rise to an additional dose and may continue to do so. However, the radioactive debris from the fallout was much less in London than other parts of the UK. (U.K.)

  13. Health protection measures after the Chernobyl accident

    The article describes the nutritional measures introduced to protect health after the Chernobyl accident, and the associated costs. The toal value of the reindeer meat, mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approx. NOK 250 million. The measures cost approx. NOK 60 million. The resulting reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 manSv. In 1988, mutton/lamb and goat meat valued at approx. NOK 310 million was saved from contamination by similar measures, which cost approx. NOK 50 million. The resulting dose level reduction was approx. 200 manSv. The relationship (cost/benefit ratio) between the overall cost of the measures taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food and the dose level reduction achieved was acceptable. 11 refs

  14. Public relations and the Chernobyl accident

    In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

  15. 17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference

    The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems

  16. The Chernobyl accident ten years later

    On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

  17. Chernobyl, 17 after

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  18. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  19. Dynamics of social-psychological consequences 10 years after Chernobyl

    The study has been carried out according to the long-term JSP2 in comparison with the results of data acquired by the authors in previous years in other programs in 1988-95 for more then 5 thousand people. In working out the strategy of post-catastrophe situation it is necessary to have a joint effort of the population and authority. The studies have showed that cooperation has not been achieved in this case. Hence, the effect of protective measures have been seriously decreased. Countermeasures taken after the catastrophe have had not only a positive, but in some cases a negative impact. The results of many previous studies as will as JSP2 program have shown serious social and psychological consequences of Chernobyl Accident. There is a constant year-to-year comprehension among population anxiety concerning their health. The main result of the study is that social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl Accident include nonradiological risks as seriously as the radiation risk.23

  20. Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident

    About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

  1. INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF IMPACTS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: THE CHERNOBYL FORUM (2003–2005 AND UNSCEAR (2005–2008

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiological consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP were recently revisited by the UN Chernobyl Forum (2003-2005 and UNSCEAR (2005-2008. For the first time environmental impacts were considered in detail, including radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic environments, application and effectiveness of countermeasures and effects on biota. Updated dosimetric data were presented for more than half a million of emergency and recovery operation workers, about 100 million inhabitants of the three most affected countries, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and for 500 million inhabitants of other European countries. Several hundred of the emergency workers received high radiation doses; of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Children at the time of the accident, who drank milk with high levels of radioactive iodine, received high doses to the thyroid. Since early 1990s there was the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among them. Also in 1990s there was some increase of leukaemia in most exposed workers. The UN Chernobyl Forum concluded that severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem. The vast majority of the population need not live in fear of serious health consequences from the Chernobyl accident.

  2. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10

  3. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  4. Radioactive iodine-131 over Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident

    Two weeks after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, a substantial increase in radioactivity above normal background levels was observed in various samples taken in Taiwan, which is 7600 km from Chernobyl. The 131I concentrations in grass, rainwater, and milk were monitored continuously in succeeding weeks and correlations with weather conditions are discussed. Levels of radiation fallout over Taiwan due to the Chernobyl accident are much lower than the response levels recommended by local authorities and pose no danger to the public. (author)

  5. Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident

    In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

  6. Thirty years after the Chernobyl accident: What lessons have we learnt?

    Beresford, N A; Fesenko, S; Konoplev, A; Skuterud, L; Smith, J T; Voigt, G

    2016-06-01

    April 2016 sees the 30(th) anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. As a consequence of the accident populations were relocated in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine and remedial measures were put in place to reduce the entry of contaminants (primarily (134+137)Cs) into the human food chain in a number of countries throughout Europe. Remedial measures are still today in place in a number of countries, and areas of the former Soviet Union remain abandoned. The Chernobyl accident led to a large resurgence in radioecological studies both to aid remediation and to be able to make future predictions on the post-accident situation, but, also in recognition that more knowledge was required to cope with future accidents. In this paper we discuss, what in the authors' opinions, were the advances made in radioecology as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The areas we identified as being significantly advanced following Chernobyl were: the importance of semi-natural ecosystems in human dose formation; the characterisation and environmental behaviour of 'hot particles'; the development and application of countermeasures; the "fixation" and long term bioavailability of radiocaesium and; the effects of radiation on plants and animals. PMID:27018344

  7. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  8. Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?

    The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG)

  9. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  10. Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

  11. The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the problem of estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of natural and agricultural ecological systems

    Heavy radiation accidents cause long-term low-dose biota irradiation on large territories. In this situation of great importance is a correct estimation of danger of low-dose irradiation. Approaches now in use to assess the genetic consequences of irradiation are based on linear extrapolation of biological effects induced by high and medium doses to the region of low doses. However, models based on the linear non threshold hypothesis lack strong biological justification and come into conflict with the experimental data available. Our experiments with agricultural crops aimed at studying regularities in the induction cytogenetic damages using test-systems have demonstrated that the form of the dose-effect curve in the domain of low exposure values shows a pronounced linearity and the presence of a dose-independent region. A comparison of the experimentally revealed form of the empirical curve with results obtained for other objects (human lymphocytes, fibroblasts of Chinese hamster, seedlings of horse beans, etc.) allows a conclusion to be made that the relationship between the yield of radiation induced cytogenetic disturbances and dose is non-linear and universal in character, varying for different objects only in dose values at which changes in the relationship nature occur. So, the observed genetic effects in the region of low doses result from peculiarities in the cellular response to weak external action rather than damaging impact of ionising radiation or other factors of physical or chemical nature

  12. Chernobyl and consequences for the Soviet agriculture

    The region within a radius of 30 km around the Chernobyl reactor was declared a safety zone, from where people and livestock were evacuated. In this zone agricultural activities were stopped temporarily. The losses to Soviet agriculture are surprinsingly low, the reason being that in the Soviet Union radioactivity hazards are rated differently than in western countries. The Soviet radiation protection standards for man are accordingly. They allow a total body burden of 500 mrem a year, and a thyroid burden for children of 30 mrem. It is obvious that the authorities keep the quantitative losses for agriculture down. Of greater consequence could be the qualitative losses in so far as the soil of a large area will be contaminated on a long-term basis, radioactive contaminated crops have been and will continue to be harvested and fed, and contaminated food is and will be eaten. (orig./HSCH)

  13. Chernobyl accident and health: end of first tenth anniversary

    Materials on medical and social-psychological aspects, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Comparative evaluation of the morbidity cases, frequency of tumor formation, mortality among the accident liquidators and the public of various age in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation is given

  14. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based

  15. Accident consequence assessment code development

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  16. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    Kulakov, V. I.; Sokur, T. N.; Volobuev, A. I.; Tzibulskaya, I. S.; Malisheva, V. A.; Zikin, B. I.; Ezova, L. C.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Bonartzev, P. D.; Speranskaya, N. V.; Tchesnokova, J. M.; Matveeva, N. K.; Kaliznuk, E. S.; Miturova, L. B.; Orlova, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. ...

  17. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.)

  18. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  19. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  20. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  1. 20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report

    In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

  2. Changed level of peripheral blood red cell total and membrane-bound catalase in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident and in residents pf a zone with increased radiation background

    Liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and men permanently living in a zone with increased radiation background were examined 7.5 years after the accident. Use of tests characterizing the status of adaptation systems and defence reactions of the organism helped detect disorders in oxidative balance, to which the production of biooxidants by activated neutrophils and attenuated activity of blood catalase essentially contribute. The prooxidant shift results in injury to cell membranes manifested by the reduction of their enzyme-binding capacity. These shifts homeostasis disorders may create prerequisites for increase of morbidity of the examined populations due to disorders in the adaptation mechanisms

  3. Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident

    This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

  4. Health consequences of nuclear accidents

    The author first outlines that no exposure of mankind to environmental risks has been as exhaustively and continuously studied as that resulting from ionizing radiations. Apart from lethal effects, he describes non lethal cell lesions which are induced in tissues: mutations and modifications of gene expressions, either directly under the effect of radiation, or by water hydrolysis, or indirectly through a biochemical response to these initial events. Then, the author evokes the controversy about Chernobyl: according to scientists, there is no relationship between the health degradation (human morbidity and mortality) and fallouts whereas activist groups state that there is. The author then evokes that the WHO and the IAEA were accused to lie about the issue of victims and health consequences. He outlines that UNSCEAR reports are a reference for radio-biologists, and that the 2011 report confirmed the conclusions of the 2006 report. He comments some published data, notably those on the acute irradiation syndrome (ARS), on carcinogenic effects (essentially thyroid cancers for children, as there is no clear nor admitted relationship for other forms of cancer), on other pathologies. Finally, the author briefly discusses the issue of crisis management, the information about Fukushima, and the issue of Chernobyl fallouts in France

  5. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of 137Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of 137Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs

  6. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG)

  7. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  8. The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

  9. Interview-survey of farmers. Experiences after the Chernobyl accident

    71 farm households in contaminated areas of Sweden were interviewed at visits to farms, where measurements of the contamination of pastures and fields had been made. The aim of the survey was to find out what remedial actions had been taken by the farmers, what their appreciation of the information from authorities was, how the Chernobyl accident had affected their situation, and if they were prepared to take similar actions in case of a new accident. 15 refs

  10. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  11. Lessons of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Insensitivity of radiation without measuring apparatus and health outcome observed in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are major sources that make people fear the possible late effects of radiation exposure attributable to nuclear power plant accident. However, the health conditions of people in the last 20 years around Chernobyl indicated the necessity to review the risk assessment suggesting that effects of radiation exposure may considerably be different between the atomic bombing and nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  12. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  13. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria

    The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author)

  14. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    Kouts, H.

    1986-09-24

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  15. [Nuclear-power-plant accidents: thyroid cancer incidence and radiation-related health effects from the Chernobyl accident].

    Schlumberger, Martin; Le Guen, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, enormous amounts of radioisotopes were released in the atmosphere and have contaminated surrounding populations in the absence of rapid protective countermeasures. The highest radiation doses were delivered to the thyroid gland, and the only direct consequence of radiation exposure observed among contaminated population is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among subjects who were children in 1986 and who lived at that time in Belarus, Ukraine or Russia. PMID:22920877

  16. The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?

    The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

  17. Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident

    The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated

  18. Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident

    The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

  19. Cancer following the Chernobyl nuclear accident: what we have learned

    Full text: Twenty years later, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Ukraine remains the largest of its kind. Ukraine and Belarus in particular were heavily contaminated, principally with radioiodine which concentrate in the thyroid gland. Before Chernobyl, little was known about, the risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed to radioiodine as children, although there were some reports based on exposed adults. A number of epidemiologic studies have since been conducted to evaluate populations in Chernobyl-exposed areas. These have provided valuable information about the risks of Iodine-131 to children. I will summarize these studies and the lessons the international scientific and medical community have learned from this research on Chernobyl. Finally, I will describe progress with a seminal project: the Belarus-American Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases following the Chernobyl Accident. This collaborative effort has involved screening a cohort of approximately 12,000 individuals exposed as young persons at two year intervals for three consecutive cycles. This is the first study, cohort in design, to be based on individual, measured doses and thus can provide the best quantitative estimate of the dose-response relationship between Iodine-131 and risk of thyroid cancer

  20. Psychological consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation. Lessons of Chernobyl

    From the results of a survey among the population in areas of the former Soviet Union (Gomel region) which were affected by the nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl it appears that fear for radiation can have a negative impact on the public health. The results of the survey can help governments to deal with the psychological effects of disasters. 3 refs

  1. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; YAMASHITA, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thy...

  2. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  3. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the

  4. Environmental consequences of releases from nuclear accidents

    The report presents the results of a four-year Nordic cooperation project (AKTU-200). The results have impact upon many facets of accident consequence assessment, ranging from new computational tools to recommendations concerning food preparation methods to be utilized in a fallout situation. Some of the subprojects have approached areas where little or no research has been performed previously, like the project on winter conditions, the project on the physico/chemical form of radionuclides in the Chernobyl fallout, and the project on resuspension. The conclusion from the first of these projects is that the impact of an accident or fallout situation occuring during winter may be considerable smaller than in a similar situation during summer conditions. The most important conclusion from the second of these projects is that bioavailability of radiocesium in soil is significantly lower than that of radiocesium in plant material taken up via the roots. In the third project is was found that the resuspension factor is several orders of magnitude lower than the values traditionally cited, and that resuspension is a local phenomenon in a majority of weather conditions. The development of large-scale testing of mitigating actions to prevent uptake of radiocesium in animals in a fallout situation is also one of the projects where new ground has been sucessfully broken. 189 refs., 89 figs., 55 tabs

  5. Documents, used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 1

    In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

  6. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  7. Contribution of Chernobyl accident to human contamination with strontium-90

    The Romanian surveys performed after the Chernobyl accident pointed out the environmental and diet contamination with 90 Sr at levels of one-two orders of magnitude higher than prior to the accident. Given the 90 Sr osteo-tropism we have been interested in its accumulation in the human teeth and bone. The search on 90 Sr accumulation in human teeth evidenced concentrations of 10.8 - 330 mBq/g Ca in milk teeth of young children born during 1986 - 1987 subsequent to Chernobyl. These values were 10-600 times higher than those obtained for permanent or deciduous teeth of all the other age groups or of the same age group born before Chernobyl. There was more 90 Sr activity concentration in ribs than in femur. The highest values of 90 Sr content (mBq/g Ca) were of 75-122 in ribs and 74-120 in femur for 7-10 years old group. These individuals were 0-3 years old during the period of greatest deposition. This age is by far the most critical years due to the heaviest uptake. Smaller concentration values were recorded for the age group older than 55, respectively of 3-20 in ribs and 3.3-10.2 in femur. Our data suggest that the Chernobyl accident did not lead to the increase of 90 Sr accumulation in adults. From the collective equivalent doses of 1500 manSv for bone surfaces and 680 manSv for active red marrow, a potential number of 4 radiation-induced fatal cancers in the studied population (5,2 mil.inh) has been estimated as attributable to Chernobyl accident

  8. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  9. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ≥0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ≥6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ≥0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  10. Sexual and psychological aspects of health status of men who participated in the Chernobyl accident aftermath

    The paper deals with results of a ten years medical follow-up of 188 men aged 21 to 55 years who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences. Survey of patients included physical examination, echography of urogenital organs, semen and prostatic secretions analysis, bacterial inoculation of prostate secretion, hormone studies, sexological questionnaire. Sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 38 % of men. It was found that sexual dysfunction occur against the background of neurotic disorders that accompany vegetative dysfunctions.

  11. Cesium-137 urinary excretion by northeastern (Pordenone) Italian people following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    To estimate the radiological consequences in humans due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident (5 May 1986), we have determined both the 137Cs concentration in food and the 137Cs daily urinary excretion on 198 residents of the Pordenone area. The resulting experimental data have been compared with those estimated from the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 10A model (ICRP 1971) using a suitable dietary intake, and they were found to be in reasonable agreement

  12. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  14. Retrospective dosimetry of Iodine-131 exposures using Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 inventories in soils--A critical evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in parts of Northern Ukraine.

    Michel, R; Daraoui, A; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Romantschuk, L D; Alfimov, V; Synal, H-A

    2015-12-01

    The radiation exposure of thyroid glands due to (131)I as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident was investigated retrospectively based on (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in soils in Northern Ukraine. To this end, soil samples from 60 settlements were investigated for (129)I, (127)I, and (137)Cs by AMS, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry, respectively. Sampling was performed between 2004 und 2007. In those parts of Northern Ukraine investigated here the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories are well correlated, the variability of the individual (129)I/(137)Cs ratios being, however, high. Both the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in the individual 5 samples for each settlement allowed estimating the uncertainties of the inventories due to the variability of the radionuclide deposition and consequently of the retrospective dosimetry. Thyroid equivalent doses were calculated from the (129)I and the (137)Cs inventories using aggregated dose coefficients for 5-year old and 10-year-old children as well as for adults. The highest thyroid equivalent doses (calculated from (129)I inventories) were calculated for Wladimirowka with 30 Gy for 5-years-old children and 7 Gy for adults. In 35 settlements of contamination zone II the geometric mean of the thyroid equivalent doses was 2.0 Gy for 5-years-old children with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.0. For adults the geometric mean was 0.47 Gy also with a GSD of 3.0. In more than 25 settlements of contamination zone III the geometric means were 0.82 Gy for 5-years old children with a GSD of 1.8 and 0.21 Gy for adults (GSD 1.8). For 45 settlements, the results of the retrospective dosimetry could be compared with thyroid equivalent doses calculated using time-integrated (131)I activities of thyroids which were measured in 1986. Thus, a critical evaluation of the results was possible which demonstrated the general feasibility of the method, but also the associated uncertainties and limitations. PMID:26254721

  15. Validation and verification of accident consequence assessment models

    Homma, T.; Togawa, O. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Arkhipov, A.N. [Chernobyl Science and Technology Centre for International Research (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    An accident consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, primarily designed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for use in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear reactors in Japan, was applied to use for siting, emergency planning, and development of design criteria, and in the comparative risk studies of different energy systems. After verifying the code system through the international code comparison organized by CEC and OECD/NEA, the validation and improvements of the individual models and the verification of the whole OSCAAR code system were made. The cooperative research between Chernobyl Science and Technology Center for International Research (CHESCIR) and JAERI provided a valuable opportunity to test the performance of the accident consequence assessment models by comparing the model predictions with data obtained in the Chernobyl accidents. The predictive capabilities of OSCAAR were demonstrated using the accident source term and meteorological data for estimating the early exposure to the public occurred during and shortly after plume passage. The calculations indicated that ground-shine dose and inhalation dose, particularly from large nonvolatile particulates were the main contributors in the early stage of the accident. (S. Ohno)

  16. Revisiting Chernobyl accident:what were the causes?

    It is generally stated, particularly in the West, that the Chernobyl accident was the result of a specific Soviet political and economic system, and that such an accident could not happen in the Western reactors. The reality is much more complicated. A careful examination of events that lead to the accident reveals that there were several different factors contributing to it. If any one of these factors were absent, there would have been no accident, or it would have been only a minor incident. Three of these factors were related to the reactor design, two to the preparation of the experiment, three to the judgment of the operators, judgments made under pressure and in a hurry, and at least one to the management..The management factor is perhaps the most controversial and interesting. One popular interpretation is that the accident was the result of excessive bureaucracy and individual irresponsibility. Some examples of mismanagement in other areas of human activity are quoted in this paper. They illustrate that similar mistakes occur quite frequently all around us, not only in the Soviet Union. The overall analysis of the Chernobyl accident confirms what scientists and engineers have known for a long time. It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to develop a new technology without making mistakes, some of which may be fatal. (author)

  17. The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors

    In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

  18. Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident

    The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological

  19. Aerial contamination agroecosystems following the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    The regularities of the aerial contamination of agricultural ecosystems are described in the early period after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The aerial contamination is shown to be caused by the development of the above-ground biomass of plants and fallout characteristics. A specific coefficient of primary retention varied between 0.7 and 1.89 for 131In and between 0.46 and 1.2 m2 kg-1 for 137Cs. The first half-life period varies from 9.7 to 13.4 days. The second period varies from 46.2 to 52.2 days. It has been found that parameters of aerial contamination from the Chernobyl accident well correlate with the results of observation in the period of global fallout

  20. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  1. Infant leukaemia after the Chernobyl accident; and reply

    In a correspondence concerning the incidence of infant leukemia in Germany and Greece, a disagreement is aired over the possible link between increased incidence and the fallout from Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented to demonstrate that observations made in Germany show no link between in utero exposure to ionising radiation from the fallout and increased infant leukemia. This conflicts with the findings published earlier by other researchers working on observations made in Greece. These researchers defend their initial conclusions. (UK)

  2. Infant leukaemia after the Chernobyl accident; and reply

    Michaelis, J.; Kaletsch, U. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation; Burkart, W.; Grosche, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Petridou, E.; Trichopoulos, D. [Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, Boston, MA (United States); Dessypris, N.; Flytzani, V.; Haidas, S.; Kalmanti, M.; Koliouskas, D.; Kosmidis, H.; Piperopoulou, F.; Tzortzatou, F.

    1997-05-15

    In a correspondence concerning the incidence of infant leukemia in Germany and Greece, a disagreement is aired over the possible link between increased incidence and the fallout from Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented to demonstrate that observations made in Germany show no link between in utero exposure to ionising radiation from the fallout and increased infant leukemia. This conflicts with the findings published earlier by other researchers working on observations made in Greece. These researchers defend their initial conclusions. (UK).

  3. The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects

    After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

  4. Duodenal ulcer course in patients participated in Chernobyl accident response

    80 participants of Chernobyl accident response having duodenal ulcer exacerbation were examined. Their disease was the result of internal irradiation (due to ingestion of short-living radioisotopes) as well as other emergency factors. Data characterizing the specific course of duodenal ulcer in patients were presented. Conclusion was made on the expediency of microbiological and cytogenetic investigations with simultaneous assessment of the indices of somatic mutagenesis

  5. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  6. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  7. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  8. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  9. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  10. Health effects after the Chernobyl accident in Bulgaria: review of studies

    Full text: The current analysis is designed to address concern about possible health effects in Bulgaria following the Chernobyl accident (CA). The results of descriptive studies are analyzed for the period 1981-1996 and 1981-2003 on malignant diseases of lymph and haemopoietic system and thyroid cancer (TC) respectively. Analyses of the risk of TC in consequence of CA for analytical studies are based on detailed thyroid gland's dose of exposure. Comparative investigations are based on number of patients with surgery operation. Discussed are the results of studies among children received prenatal radiation exposure at the time of the CA. Overall, in none of the studies doesn't prove a significant increase in the malignant diseases of the hemopoietic system incidence as well as in leukemia that could be attributed to the Chernobyl accident. No increase in the leukemia incidence among children was registered. The descriptive and analytical studies reviewed doesn't prove CA as a risk factor for TC incidence. The number of congenital anomalies did not show a statistically significant increase in relation to the nuclear accident. It doesn't prove any influence of CA upon development of the chosen children's groups learning abilities. Exposure of Bulgarian population after the Chernobyl accident is not a risk factor increased incidence rate in oncohematological diseases and TC in our country

  11. Chernobyl accident consequences: the unborn children

    The risk of spontaneous abortion in 1-12 week gestation term among Kiev region women with desired pregnancy is considered. If cumulative dose of total irradiation among Kiev region women was more than 5.0 mSv, spontaneous abortion risk increased. Mother's age more than 34, smoking, chronic infections and sterility treatment in anamnesis also increased spontaneous abortion risk. The material well being does not influence spontaneous abortion risk among women

  12. Social psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    A state of internal social psychological discomfort of the children and teenagers living on the contaminated territories is revealed. It is stipulated not only by radioactive contamination of regions, but by a level of work of the authorities too. A social psychological state of the population on the contaminated territories depends in a greater degree from both the social economic factors and the level of information about a real degree of a radiating risk, than from ecological and radioecological factors. In this connection in work with the children on the contaminated territories the social psychological aid should have a priority

  13. Chernobyl in the French mass media 14 years after the accident

    The author presents how the mass media have dealt with the fourteenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Nowadays Chernobyl epitomizes the hazards of nuclear energy. Public opinion has become extremely sensitive to topics concerning human health. This sensitivity is due to previous important affairs such as the scandal of the tainted blood, the mad cow disease or the syndrome of the Balkan war. Most media have broadened the debate to the sanitary impact of nuclear activities. The hyper-mediatization of the legal case of a man prosecuting the French state for no having taken adequate measures when the radioactive cloud spread over France, has given the feeling that French authorities have always wrongly minimized the consequences of the accident. (A.C.)

  14. Signs of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles affected by the Chernobyl accident

    The content of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen was investigated to evaluate the possible appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles living in the areas of Kaluga region affected by the Chernobyl accident. The percentage of positive sera varied from 4.8% to 1.2% over seven years. There is a significant difference in the frequency of antibody appearance between persons affected by radioactive iodine and those not affected. A greater quantity of the positive sera was recorded in the area with highest level of radioactive contamination. It is suggested that the elevated rate of autoimmune thyroiditis signs in children and juveniles is one of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

  15. The level of 137Cs concentration in Greek soils one decade after the Chernobyl accident

    One of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident was the greatest radioactive contamination of the biosphere including the soil cover. It is well known that a soil analysis is a principal systematic method to estimate the radioactivity level in the particular area since deposition pattern is determined by measuring activity in grass and soil. The aim of the present work is first to identify the level of the existing 137Cs contamination over Greece ten years after the Chernobyl accident. Secondly, a comparison between the 1986 137Cs - distribution and the present measured one in more - less the same areas of Greece, has been attempted. The 40k (0.0118% of natural K) concentration in soils as ratio 137Cs/ 40k has been, examined, even this ratio is not as constant in biological systems as the ratio Sr/Ca

  16. Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG)

  17. Belorussian population health state following the Chernobyl accident

    Environmental radioactivity peculiarities at the Belarussian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident are analysed. Main risk systems for human health and trends of potential pathology formation are determined. Growth in the disease incidence in adults and especially in children is marked. It covers thyroid cancer (due to 131I intake in the early period of the accident), chronic neoplasms in hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, immune system, digestive system, cardiovascular and neuromental diseases. Attention is paid to the genetic radiation effects, pregnancy and delivery pathology. 2 tabs

  18. Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident with regard to Thailand

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986, in which large amounts of radioactive material were released into the environment, was the most serious accident that occurred in connection with the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation. The radiation levels from released radionuclides were highest in the immediate vicinity of the reactor, in the western part of the former Soviet Union and in the European countries. In other parts of the world, radionuclide contamination was due not only to external radiation but also to ingestion of contaminated food, mainly milk products. 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  20. Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident

    Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

  1. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  2. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    The Chernobyl accident of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their winter diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic

  3. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    Tabachny, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends.

  4. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends

  5. Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'

    The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting

  6. Diastolic left ventricular function in patients with mild and moderate hypertension - liquidators of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station accident

    Diastolic left ventricular function was studied by doppler-echocardiography in 25 healthy persons (control group) and 50 patients with mild and moderate hypertension including 28 liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences. Patients with hypertension including liquidators had such manifestations of diastolic left ventricular dysfunction. These manifestations were more pronounced in liquidators who also had greater left ventricular myocardial mass

  7. Proceedings of the first part of a joint OECD(NEA)/CEC workshop on recent advances in reactor accident consequence assessment

    The first part of the Joint Workshop, organised by the NEA, is focused on the progress achieved in the work of CSNI's GRECA (Group of Experts on Accident Consequences). The program is composed of the following papers. Session 1: characteristics of the Chernobyl release and fallout that affect transport and behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment; Chernobyl accident and hot particles in the fallout; radionuclides associated with colloids and particles in the Chernobyl fallout; source term in the Chernobyl accident; long range transport of radionuclides; parameters in consequence calculations for an urban area. Session 2: review of evaluations concerning radionuclide transfer to foodstuffs via plants in view of the data available after the Chernobyl accident; GRECA review of Chernobyl data on transfer to animal products; Chernobyl accident radiometric data (Cs-137 in fresh water fishes of north Italy lakes); distribution of Cs-137 in water sediment and fish in the Ijsselmeer (Netherlands); uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl accident; radioactivity of people in the nordic countries following the Chernobyl accident; preparations for an international study to evaluate long-range transport models against the Chernobyl accident

  8. Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

  9. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

  10. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time

  11. Genital endometriosis rate dynamics before and after Chernobyl accident

    The necessity of endometriosis dynamics evaluation is caused by worse ecological situation on the area of Belarus. Genital endometriosis frequency was studied considering the outcomes of surgeries fulfilled in hospitals of Gomel, Mogilev and Vitebsk in 1981-1995. At this time 1254 women underwent an operation and 19% of patients (235 persons) were operated before the Chernobyl accident. In the first 5 years after the accident endometriosis frequency increased nearly 2 times. The next 5 years (1991-1995) the number of operated patients was 565, i.e. 45% from the whole number. Uterus was extirpated or amputated in 898 patients, ovaries at both sides were removed in 36 ones. As the analysis showed the endometriosis frequency grew in 2,5 times for last 15 years, the most significant increase of this pathology was observed during the first five years after the accident

  12. Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident

    The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

  13. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    Birgitta Åhman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accidenr of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer {Rangifer tarandus are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their wintet diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating ftom natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic.

  14. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  15. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which

  16. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident (131I, 140Ba /140La, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Nb, 95Zr, 137Cs and 134Cs). They accumulate the long-living 90Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than 137Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of 137Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of 137Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of 137Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more 137Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of 137Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by 137Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi

  17. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131I, 129Tem, and 110Agm and lowest for radiocesium and 140Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km2 (15 Ci/km2). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident

    The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

  20. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  1. Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer

    Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

  2. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident

    Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

  3. Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has supported two projects on the issue of remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The first one aimed at identifying and costing a set of additional countermeasures that would enable the reduction of the annual exposure of the inhabitants down to 1 mSv. The second one (still running) is developing a new rehabilitation approach based on the involvement of the local population in the decision taking process concerning the type of countermeasures to be applied (the ETHOS approach). (author)

  4. Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Chernobyl

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  6. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  7. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 μSv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 μSv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 μSv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  8. Transgenic plants are sensitive bioindicators of nuclear pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident

    Kovalchuk, I.; Kovalchuk, O. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy (Ukraine)]|[Friedrich Miescher Inst., Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research (Ukraine); Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Inst., Basel (Switzerland)

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate the genetic consequences of radioactive contamination originating from the Nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl on indigenous populations of plants and animals, it is essential to determine the rates of accumulating genetic changes in chronically irradiated populations. An increase in germline mutation rates in humans living close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site, and a two- to tenfold increase in germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl have been reported. Little is known, however, about the effects of chronic irradiation on plant genomes. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks in DNA, which are repaired via illegitimate or homologous recombination. The authors make use of Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying a {beta}-glucuronidase marker gene as a recombination substrate to monitor genetic alterations in plant populations, which are caused by nuclear pollution of the environment around Chernobyl. A significant increase in somatic intrachromosomal recombination frequencies was observed at nuclear pollution levels from 0.1--900 Ci/km{sup 2}, consistent with an increase in chromosomal aberrations. This bioindicator may serve as a convenient and ethically acceptable alternative to animal systems.

  9. Transgenic plants are sensitive bioindicators of nuclear pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident

    To evaluate the genetic consequences of radioactive contamination originating from the Nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl on indigenous populations of plants and animals, it is essential to determine the rates of accumulating genetic changes in chronically irradiated populations. An increase in germline mutation rates in humans living close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site, and a two- to tenfold increase in germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl have been reported. Little is known, however, about the effects of chronic irradiation on plant genomes. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks in DNA, which are repaired via illegitimate or homologous recombination. The authors make use of Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying a β-glucuronidase marker gene as a recombination substrate to monitor genetic alterations in plant populations, which are caused by nuclear pollution of the environment around Chernobyl. A significant increase in somatic intrachromosomal recombination frequencies was observed at nuclear pollution levels from 0.1--900 Ci/km2, consistent with an increase in chromosomal aberrations. This bioindicator may serve as a convenient and ethically acceptable alternative to animal systems

  10. Frequency changes of inherited anomalies in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    Complex cytogenetic, embryologic and clinical studies of possible genetic consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for the population of Belarus have been carried out. They showed that groups of the population (pregnant women, fetuses, school children) had received biologically significant doses of radiation, as assessed by the registration of ring and dicentric chromosomes in blood lymphocytes. The study of more than 22,000 embryos and fetuses, and of 4090 neonates with compulsory registered congenital malformations, showed a considerable increase of anomalies of intrauterine origin since 1987. They correlated with the level of 137Cs contamination in the areas, but did not correlate with the preconception dose to the mother from the same radionuclide. Teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl pollution have not been conclusively idenitifed. The increase of embryonal anomalies was mainly due to the group of multifactorial defects, and to the anomalies with a large contribution from dominant mutations. The Down's syndrome incidence showed to increase. (Author)

  11. Statistical evaluation of internal contamination data in the man following the Chernobyl accident

    The main implications of the general interest derived from the statistical analysis of the internal human contamination data obtained by ENEA-PAS with Whole Body Counter mesurements performed in Bologna in consequence of the Chernobyl accident are presented. In particular the trend with time of the individual body activity of members of a homogeneous group, the variability of individual contamination in ralation to the mean contamination, the statistical distribution of the data, the significance of mean values concerning small, homogeneous groups of subjects, the difference between subjects of different sex and its trend with time, are examined. Finally, the substantial independence of the individual committed dose equivalent evaluation due to the Chernobyl contamination on the Whole from the hypothesized values of the metabolic parameters is pointed out when the evaluation is performed on the basis of direct measurements with a Whole Body Counter

  12. HYSPLIT's Capability for Radiological Aerial Monitoring in Nuclear Emergencies: Model Validation and Assessment on the Chernobyl Accident

    Jung, Gunhyo; Kim, Juyoul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyeongki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The Chernobyl accident took place on 25 April 1986 in Ukraine. Consequently large amount of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The release was a widespread distribution of radioactivity throughout the northern hemisphere, mainly across Europe. A total of 31 persons died as a consequence of the accident, and about 140 persons suffered various degrees of radiation sickness and health impairment in the acute health impact. The possible increase of cancer incidence has been a real and significant increase of carcinomas of the thyroid among the children living in the contaminated regions as the late health effects. Recently, a variety of atmospheric dispersion models have been developed and used around the world. Among them, HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model developed by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)/ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) is being widely used. To verify the HYSPLIT model for radiological aerial monitoring in nuclear emergencies, a case study on the Chernobyl accident is performed.

  13. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established Safety Culture, the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  14. Analysis of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Pt. 2

    Of the six items of improvement measures including a future improvement measure announced by the USSR regarding the accident of Chernobyl nuclear power plant No. 4 reactor, the three items having exercised large influence over the plant behavior at the accident were analyzed by WIMS-ATR, EUREKA-2 and other calculational codes, and technically evaluated. As a result the following have been made clear: (1) If 80 manual control rods are inserted 1.2 m deep from the core upper end, any accident can be prevented by further inserting them at a 0.4 m/s speed, even under such power increase conditions as in this accident. (2) If the additional 80 manual control rods are inserted into the reactor, the coolant void reactivity coefficient can be improved from 2x10-4 Δk/k/% void to 1.4x10-4 Δk/k/% void. Further if the coefficient is less than 1.5x10-4 Δk/k/% void, the power increase speed will slow down much more and similar accidents can fully be prevented by means of the currently designed control rods of the shut-down system. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of 137Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric dispersion

  16. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  17. Radioactive contamination characteristics in China following Chernobyl accident

    In the aftermath of Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the Environmental Radiation Surveillance Network of Ministry of Public Health of China has done monitoring on environmental samples to determine the contamination levels of radioactivity. Radionuclides, such as I-131, I-132, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Te-132, were found on surface of airplanes, which flew in domestic airlines between May 1-3, that means the radionuclides from Chernobyl accident already reached high altitude atmosphere over China, but the concentration was much lower than that in Europe. During the period of May 2-15, in most stations, radionuclides were found in different environmental samples, such as air, milk, vegetables, rain water, river and lake water, and sheep thyroid. Radioactivity levels of samples were higher in north part of China than in south. The amounts of radionuclides in all samples were well below the derived air concentrations and derived intake concentrations specified in the National Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection. Thus, the public need not to take any precautions for the purpose of radiation protection

  18. Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident

    The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

  19. The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures

    This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

  20. Evaluation of special safety features of the SNR-300 in view of the Chernobyl accident

    A comparison of those characteristics, which decisively influenced the accident in the RMBK-1000 reactor, with the safety features of SNR-300 has been performed. The conclusions of this comparison are presented in the present report. The SNR-300 is characterized by a stable reactivity behaviour and good controllability, whereas RBMK-1000 has an instable behaviour and complex spatial dependencies in the core. Among other points, design deficiencies in the protection and emergency shutdown systems were responsible for the Chernobyl accident. The protection and scram systems of the SNR-300 are unquestionably superior to those of the RBMK-1000 with regard to redundancy, diversity, degree of automation, separation of operational and safety-relevant tasks, protection against inadmissible interventions, effectiveness and safety reserves. Therefore, excursion accidents can be classified as hypothetical for SNR-300. Due to elementary physical properties, possible energy releases during hypothetical excursions are substantially lower for SNR-300 and would be controlled by the design of the primary system and containment systems. No damage limiting measures are provided in the RBMK-100 for excursion accidents. Finally, exothermal processes augmented the consequences of the accident in the RBMK-1000 and the long-lasting graphite fire intensified the release of radioactivity. In the SNR-300, however, inertisation of the containment, the steel plate lining and the floor troughs ensure that activity enclosure inside the containment after leakage or hypothetical excursion accident is not endangered by exothermal reactions. Further safety aspects are presented in the report, which can be linked with the accident in Chernobyl. In summary, it is obvious that the disadvantageous physical and technical features of the RBMK-1000 do either not exist in the SNR-300 or are covered by the safety design

  1. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster and its consequences for thyroid

    The effectiveness of profilactic action consisting in iodine solution intake for children in Poland has been assessed. The population exposition to radioactive iodine in air after the accident has been discussed as well as its consequences for thyroid

  2. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  3. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  4. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents.

    Mayou, R; Bryant, B.; Duthie, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and who lived in the catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Present state examinat...

  5. Activities of the central authorities in 1990-1991 on the Chernobyl accident response and social defence of it's victims. Long-term programs on the Chernobyl accident response

    Chapter presents the information on the approved All-Union Programs to eliminate the long-term consequences of the CNPP accident and on problems linked with the social protection of the victims. Three stages of the activity to overcome the consequences of the accident are studied: 1-st period - 1986; 2-nd period - 1987-1989; third period (reconstruction) -1990-1995 and subsequent years. Attention is focused on the All-Union section of the State Union and Republic Program to protect the USSR population against the effects of the Chernobyl NPP in 1991-1995 and during the period up to 2000

  6. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL during the year following the Chernobyl accident

    The accident which destroyed Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986 provided the world's scientists with an opportunity, unique in recent years, to study many of the processes which follow the release of large quantities of radioactivity into the atmosphere. BNL undertook a wide ranging programme of environmental measurements after the accident, the immediate aim being to supply HM Government with data to help assess the radiological consequences to the UK population. As it became clear that the UK dose commitment was relatively low, the thrust of the measurements began to be concentrated on airborne radioactivity and the movement of nuclides in the grass-soil system. The aim of these studies was to assess dispersion and diffusion of radioactivity in these particular compartments of the environment. The measurements have continued over the twelve month period since the Chernobyl accident. This report aims to disseminate the year's data and to offer some initial interpretations of the trends. (U.K.)

  7. Measures introduced in Norway after the Chernobyl accident. A cost benefit analysis

    In the paper, the measures introduced in Norway to alleviate the adverse effects of the Chernobyl accident, and their economic consequences, are discussed. During the three years after the accident almost 20-30% of the sheep and 30-40% of the reindeer each year had activity levels above the action limits. Activity levels above the action limits were also found in goats, cattle and wild freshwater fish. Three main approaches were used in Norway in order to reduce the potential health risk after the Chernobyl accident: decreasing uptake from soil to vegetation and from fodder to animals, lowering unacceptable activity levels in animals by special feeding programmes, and reducing human intake by food condemnation and dietary advice. The total value of mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approximately 230 million Norwegian kroner (NOK) (US $33 million). The cost of the measures was approximately NOK 40 million ($5.7 million). In 1987, the total reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 man.Sv. In 1988, mutton, lamb and goat meat valued at approximately NOK 290 million ($41 million) was saved from condemnation by similar measures, which cost approximately NOK 60 million ($8,5 million). The resulting dose level reduction was approximately 200 man.Sv. The degree to which resources were used during 1987 and 1988 would appear to be justified in light of the reduction in radiation dose achieved. (author). 13 refs, 1 tab

  8. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

  9. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

  10. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2

    The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  11. A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred. A corr...... method is proposed for the long-range radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred. A...

  12. Retroactive epidemiological study of the consequences of the Chernobyl cloud for the populations of Corsica - Synthesis

    After a brief presentation of the knowledge on health consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Europe (quantities of iodine-131 deposited in different countries, evolution of thyroid cancers and evolution of cancer diagnosis programs), this report examines the relationship between the variations of thyroidal pathologies and the level of exposure to the Chernobyl cloud. The methodology and peculiarities of this study are discussed. The main results obtained for women and men in Europe are briefly presented in terms of occurrence of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis and thyroid cancers. Then, the report addresses the specific case of Corsica: methodology and peculiarities (structural and circumstances-related limitations), discussion of the results obtained from endocrinology medical files, discussion with respect to pathologies (hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis and thyroid cancers). A distinction is made between mountain and seaside territories. The next part addresses the consequences the Chernobyl cloud fallouts for children in terms of thyroidal pathologies, of cohorts of children born in 1986 and in 1989, of acute leukaemia, and of prenatal mortality due to congenital malformations

  13. Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident

    The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

  14. Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and thyroid cancer in children

    Since August 1991, six surveys have been made on thyroid cancer in children in Ukraine and Belorussia. The results were compared with those for Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Children with thyroid cancer were characterized as having the following: (1) frequent occurrence of thyroid cancer; (2) extremely short latency period; (3) poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma; (4) frequent occurrence within the thyroid gland; (5) the association of fibrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, and proliferation of follicular epithelial cells; (6) frequent occurrence of sclerosing variant of papillary cancer associated with fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration, especially in heavily exposed areas. These findings were supposed to be attributable to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. No data has been available on infantile thyroid cancer in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors because of the following reasons: (1) acute death from acute radiation injury, leukemia and cancer other than thyroid cancer; (2) few survey on thyroid cancer during the first 10 years after exposure; (3) the lack of surgical data on thyroid cancer. In the case of Chernobyl survivors, there were few acute death cases; I-131 seemed to have damaged specifically the thyroid gland; heavily exposed areas corresponded to areas with low iodine intake; pediatric thyroid gland is sensitive to I-131, leading to the possibility that infantile thyroid cancer may have been induced by I-131. (N.K.)

  15. Radioactivity in fungi in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, following the Chernobyl accident

    Caesium (137Cs and 134Cs) concentrations in higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Slovenia, north-west Yugoslavia, are reported following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention was paid to the Cortinariaceae, already known as Cs accumulators. The highest levels were found in Cortinarius armillatus, C. traganus (both inedible species) and Rozites caperata. The median concentration of sup(137,124)Cs in R. caperata from over 40 sampling sites was about 22 kBq/kg dry weight. High levels were also found in Xerocomus badius and Laccaria amethystina. From the 137Cs/134Cs ratios, which reflect the depth of the mycelium and the excess 137Cs from historic pre-Chernobyl fallout, it may be surmised that radiocaesium levels in certain species will probably increase further next year and subsequently as Cs migrates down the soil profile. In addition, sup(110m)Ag was found at concentrations up to 500 Bq/kg dry weight in certain species known to be Ag accumulators, particularly Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae. (author)

  16. Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident

    The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

  17. Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident

    Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

  18. The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world

    After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

  19. Dose estimates in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Estimates have been made of the maximum individual doses and the collective doses in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Based on the measured data of ground deposition and radionuclide concentrations in air, raw milk, milk on sale and leafy vegetables, the doses from some significant radionuclides were calculated for 5 typical exposure pathways; cloudshine, groundshine, inhalation, ingestion of milk and leafy vegetables. The maximum effective dose equivalents for hypothetical individuals were calculated to be 1.8 mrem for adults, 3.7 mrem for children and 6.0 mrem for infants. The collective effective dose equivalent in Japan was estimated to be 5.8 x 104 man · rem; 0.50 mrem of the average dose per capita. (author)

  20. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  1. The radiological situation in south Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl a radioactive cloud reached Bavaria on April 30th 1986 inducing activities in the air of 52 Bq iodine 131/m3 and 10 Bq cesium 137/m3 (measured in Munich on April 30th between 10am and 2pm). Further on, significant amounts of ruthenium 103, tellurium 132, iodine 132, iodine 133 and cesium 134 were found. Especially in the southern region of Bavaria the majority of the radioactivity in the air was washed out by heavy thundershowers and deposited on the ground. The local deposition was closely linked with the local precipitation rate between April 30th and May 2nd. The deposition of cesium 137 in Bavaria varied from less than 6000 to more than 40000 Bq/m2. This radioactive contamination of the environment adds a further radioactive exposure to man. The three major exposure pathways, direct radiation, inhalation, and ingestion, will be considered in this paper

  2. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  3. The Chernobyl – Thirty Years After The Post – Accidental Radiological – Hygienic and Medical Consequences

    G. G. Onishchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the Chernobyl NPP accident more than 200 thousand square kilometers of the European territories were contaminated by Cs-137 in the amount of above 37 kBq/m2 (1 Ci/km2 . Belorussia, Russia and Ukraine amount up to 70% of this entire affected area. More than 600 000 people were engaged in the accidental cleanup operations, 340000 were evacuated or relocated within 1986-1991. The early stage evacuation efficacy is confirmed by the absence of acute radiation syndrome among the population and by the prevented collective dose which amounts to no less than 10 000 man/Sv. The effective measure to reduce the internal radiation dose to the population at the early accidental stage was introduction of maximum tentative permissive levels of radionuclide content in the foodstuffs.Among the identified post -accident medical consequences of the Chernobyl is the radiation syndrome found in 134 emergency cleanup workers within the first 24 hours of the accident’s development. Out of that number, 28 people died within the first four months, 19 people died before 2006. The accident’s liquidators developed radiation -induced leukemia ( the attributive risk value is 45-60% . People exposed to high radiation doses display the statistically significant 18% morbidity increase of all types of solid cancers at the doses above 150 mSv. There is the statistically significant information indicating the increased amount of thyroid cancer morbidity among those who were just children and teenagers at the time of the accident. The adverse psychological consequences are accounted for not just the fear of overexposure but also for the disturbance of the habitual lifestyle especially mindful of the forced relocation.The longterm protection measures, radionuclide decay and selfcleaning of the contaminated areas resulted in the drastic reduction of the population dose in the radioactively contaminated territories. In 2015, only in some settlements of the Briansk

  4. Transplantation of bone marrow in victims of the Chernobyl accident

    Bone marrow transplants were carried out in 13 patients suffering from acute irradiation sickness after the Chernobyl accident. Only blood relations of the patients were used as donors. The number of bone marrow cells transplanted must be at least 2x108 per kilogram of recipient weight. The experience of the present bone marrow transplants has shown defects in clinical methods of early diagnosis (during the first 7-10 days after exposure) of acute radiation injuries to the skin, intestine and lungs which are incompatible with survival. Another problem with bone marrow transplants for patients suffering from acute radiation sickness is to determine to what extent the depression of marrow activity is irreversible. Spontaneous regeneration of myelopoiesis was observed 22-30 days after exposure in patients who had received doses of 7-9 Gy. A lapse of this order before the onset regeneration is therefore, in principle, compatible with survival under the conditions of modern support therapy. Thus, the belief that prolonged acute radiation pancytopenia which is incompatible with survival starts already at doses of 5-6 Gy is evidently incorrect, at least for the relatively low exposure dose rates experienced by this group of victims. The results of bone marrow transplants in victims of the Chernobyl accident suggest that, in future, the following rules should be observed in transplanting human bone marrow to victims of acute radiation sickness: (1) Only HLA-identical transplants should be carried out; and (2) HLA-identical bone marrow transplants should be carried out only in patients who have received whole body doses of gamma radiation of 9.0 Gy or more. (author). 1 tab

  5. Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems

    The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: 131I, 132Te, 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and, to a lesser degree, 89Sr and 90Sr. Very quickly, 137Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of 137Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and 90Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is 137Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their 137Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of 137Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg-1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, 137Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

  6. Radionuclide concentration from peat burning after the Chernobyl accident

    We have studied the radionuclide concentrations in byproducts and releases from a 30 MW peat-burning power plant in central Sweden. The plant is located in an area that received high levels of radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl accident. After the accident at Chernobyl, the plant carried out a test run before the beginning of the normal running season. Samples of peat and ash were collected during a 2 month period and were studied in order to ascertain whether radiation protection was necessary for workers handling the peat and byproducts. In spite of the high ground contamination of radionuclides (20-80 kBq/M2) of the peat, the radionuclide concentration in the peat was only about 1 kBq/kg (and half of this one year later). This is due to the process in which the top 50 cm layer of peat is continously mixed and turned over. Samples of fly ash from different parts of the plant, analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy, were found to have activity concentrations of 10-50 kBq/kg Cs-137, while the activity concentrations of bottom ash was 4-10 kBq/kg. During the winter of 1984-85 the average level of Cs-137 in the flyash was 340 Bq/kg. Condensed water from the chimney did not contain any measurable amounts of Cs-137. Emission measurements of the gases in the chimney gave rather high activity concentrations of Cs-137. The maximum value of 70 kBq/kg was probably due to the ease with which caesium escapes during heating. No special radiation steps were found to be necessary

  7. Report of the Land Berlin: The Chernobyl reactor accident and its effects on Berlin

    This report presents in detail the activities of the Berlin Senate administrations for the protection of the population after the reactor accident and outlines the consequences that have already resulted or are still to be expected for the people and the environment in Berlin. The radiation control guidelines and the provided instruments enabled the Berlin Senate to encounter the sudden accident with a fast and unbureaucratic crisis management. The special geopolitical situation of Berlin made it possible to set up a comprehensive control and measuring program for imported food. This report shows that all the measures required in connection with Chernobyl were taken by the Berlin Senate and that there is an effective precautionary program. (orig./HSCH)

  8. Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

  9. Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction. (orig.)

  10. 20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine

    The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

  11. Summary report on the post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident

    After an Executive Summary which gives an overview of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, the first section of the main INSAG report presents the understanding of INSAG members of the causes of the accident, concluding that it was the result of a remarkable range of human errors and violation of operating rules, in combination with specific reactor features which compounded and amplified the effects of the errors and led to the reactivity excursion. The second section presents the problem of radionuclide release from the damaged reactor, showing that there was an initial intense release associated with the destructive events in the accident, then the release rates fell over the next few days up to 7x1016 Bq/d five days after the accident initiation, and at that point the release rates began to increase and reached about 3x1017 Bq/d nine days after the accident initiation. There was then a drop in the radionuclide release to 4x1013 Bq/d and the release rates have continued to decline since that time. The next section describes the accident management at the site, fire-fighting, cleanup of the site and the entombment of the damaged unit. In the fourth section the radiation protection aspects of the accident, the radionuclide transfer through the environment, the exposure of members of the public pointing to the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137 which entered the food-chains, the on-site and off-site emergency response, the decontamination and the health effects including both the early non-stochastic effects and the late stochastic ones are presented. Safety issues to be pursued in order to derive whatever safety lessons can be learned from the Chernobyl accident are considered in Section V. The next two sections present INSAG's observations, conclusions and recommendations based on the lessons learned so far from the accident and ranging from reactor operation to radiation protection and international co-operation in nuclear safety. Finally the

  12. Leukaemia and lymphoma in Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    Full text: As it was known Belarus is the country mostly affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The content of incorporated Cs-137 in tissues and Sr-90 in bones of exposed people of Belarus has increased several times. Long - live bone marrow doses per person was expected as: 8.8 mSv in Belarus, 2,8 mSv in Ukraine and 1,0 mSv in Russia. That why it was believed that one of the adverse effects of the Chernobyl radiation would be the increase of leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rates among the population (first of all among the children) of Belarus. Registration of leukaemia and lymphoma has been compulsory in Belarus since 1988 by the special training team at the Research Institute of Haematology. The information includes the name and address of the patients, age, date and place of diagnosis, ICD-number of the diagnosis, and diagnostic method (biopsy, autopsy, myelogram, immunohistochemical method used ect.). It was established that before the Chernobyl accident (1979 - 1985 ) the incidence rates of the child leukaemia was 4,16+0,22; after the accident: in 1986-1992 - 4,35 = 0,08; in 1993-2001 - 3,35 = 0,18 per 100.000 children, aged 0-14 years. Among the adult population of Belarus (aged 15-90) during the periods of 1979-85, 1986 - 92, and 1993 - 1999 correspondingly: 2,8, 3,24 and 2,94%ooo (p<0,05); for Chll and Chml - 6,10; 8,12 and 8,21%ooo; for MM - 1,44; 1,86 and 2,30%ooo; for lymphomas - 2,84; 4,07; 5,22%ooo; for HL - 3,11; 3,46 and 3,18%ooo. So, we found no suggestion an increase in risk of child leukaemia after Chernobyl. It's hardly possible to attribute child leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rate only to the level of the radionuclide contamination territory. At the same time, some preliminary our date allow to anticipate that the incidence rates correlate rather with levels of chemical pollution in the atmosphere and its compounds. Adults demonstrate a more significant increase of hemoblastoses morbidity after Chernobyl disaster in comparison with children

  13. Fifteen years of the cuban program, with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    The Cuban Chernobyl Program arrived to the 15th anniversary in March 2005. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. More than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program up to the moment, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric and biomedic research had been also carried out as part of the program. The most significant medical attention activities include the treatment of children with haematological disorders, including 120 leukaemia, bone marrow transplants, and the treatment of endocrine and cancer diseases. The dosimetric studies allow made a data base with information on internal 137Cs contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by 137Cs, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation in more than 8000 children. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences. This paper present a summary of the main results obtained in the program

  14. Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2

    The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe. 3 figs

  15. NGU's follow-up after the Chernobyl accident and their utilitarian value in future preparedness

    The report describes how the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) organized and made public its fallout survey after the Chernobyl accident. NGU's view on their future share in Norwegian radiation protection preparedness and monitoring is expressed

  16. A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

  17. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary pathology in the participants of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident response

    Epidemiologic examination of the participants of the Chernobyl accident response is performed. Fact of acute effect of the Chernobyl aerosol inhalation on respiratory organs is found. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary diseases in participants of accident response is almost 2 times higher than that in reference group. Further program of investigations includes the hospital stage and the preventive measures at prehospital stage under ambulatory conditions. Assessments of the efficiency of performed treatment - prophylactic measures and their economic benefit are made

  18. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  19. Core-melting accidents in Chernobyl and Harrisburg

    This publication deals with the essences of the reactor accident in Chernobylsk and the conclusions to be drawn from these with regard to reactor safety. Therein the technical differences between the reactor types in the West and the East play an important role. Also attention is spent to the now generally accepted philosophy that by simplification and making use of proven technologies, a further deminishing of the risks can be achieved step by step. In ch.'s 2 and 4 the origin and course of the accidents in respectively Chernobylsk and Harrisburg are analyzed; in the analysis of the Chernobylsk accident also date have been used which were provided by the Sovjet-Union, supplied with results of studies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In ch. 3 this information is compared with the insights which have grown at KEMA about these on the base of reactor physical and thermohydraulic considerations and of computer calculations reproducing the course of the accident. An important question is if, and if so: to which extent, an accident such as the one in Chernobylsk also can take place in the West. In order to answer that question as accurate as possible the consequences of core meltings accidents and the risk for such an accident taking place are pursued. In ch. 6 the legal frameworks are indicated by which the risk may be limited and by which eventually yet occurring damage may be arranged. Ch. 7 finally deals with the lessons which the accidents in Chernobylsk and Harrisburg have learnt us and with the possible consequences of these for the further application of nuclear power in the Netherlands. (H.W.). 105 refs.; 42 figs.; 17 refs

  20. Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

  1. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  2. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  3. Radioactivity levels in forests after the Chernobyl accident. What happens in berries, mushrooms and game?

    When the nuclear accident in Chernobyl occurred in april 1985, a cooperation was established between scientists at the National Defence Research Institute, FOA, and the Faculty of Forestry at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa, Sweden, to study uptake and redistribution in important food-chains of radioactive caesium (134Cs and 137Cs) deposited over forest ecosystems in the county of Vaesterbotten. As part of this cooperation recurrent sampling in vegetation, soil and water has been performed since 1986 at the Vindeln Experimental Forest about 60 km NW of Umeaa. In this report the changes in activity concentration of 137Cs in plants and fungi from 1986 to 2003 is described and discussed. Furthermore, results from these long-time series and from sampling annually (from one year prior to the Chernobyl accident until 1995) of moose meat during the autumn hunting season are also compared with predictions based on a radioecological model. Besides describing long-term trends in the material, another purpose with these series is to increase the knowledge about probable causes of the redistribution process during different periods after deposition - thereby providing increased reliability in identifying and assessing important radioecological consequences in different time-scales with focus on food-chains of particular interest to man

  4. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    The purpose of researches is study of a condition of population health and its dynamics, as well as development of new methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases. Along with significant growth of the morbidity rate by thyroid cancer, the growth tendencies of preleucosis condition, cancers of lungs, mammary glands, urinary bladder, kidneys etc. were detected. The new clinical and laboratory methods of differential diagnostics of thyroid pathology, directed on detection of diseases at an early stage are developed. The new methods of surgical treatment of thyroid diseases are introduced. For practical use the methods of diagnostics and treatment of diseases of a liver, stomach and duodenum, secondary immuno deficits at the having suffered population, psychosomatic conditions at the liquidators are created. A number of preparations, biologically active connections, food additives is received; their complex medical biological estimation is carried out and the recommendations for use and manufacture are developed. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident

  5. North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident

    A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

  6. Measures taken to improve the safety of nuclear power plants in the USSR after the Chernobyl accident

    The Soviet delegation to the IAEA experts' meeting (August 25-29, 1986) presented information on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and its consequences. Using data obtained through August 1, 1986, this information contained the results of an investigation into the causes of the accident as well as a description and preliminary analysis of the effectiveness of the immediate steps taken to limit and eliminate its consequences. Subsequent efforts were channeled in the following directions: (1) Continuing operations to eliminate the accident's consequences including: (a) completing the design and construction of a protective cover (sarcophagus) to reliably protect the environment from radioactivity and the introduction of radioactive matter from the destroyed unit; (b) further decontamination of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site and inhabited areas within the affected zone; and (c) carrying out required sanitary and medical measures to ensure the safety of the population and to protect their health. (2) Development and implementation of longitudinal studies of the long-term consequences of the accident. (3) Development of introduction of measures to increase the safety of working nuclear power stations. (4) Examination of plans for the future development of the nuclear power industry and prospects for increasing its safety level, including: conceptual development of a new generation of nuclear reactors; and expansion of scientific investigation into all aspects of safety assessment and safety assurance in the nuclear power industry. The present report examines the progress of studies along these lines and the conclusions which have been drawn

  7. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    berries with caesium-137 also exceeds the permissible level (160 Bq/kg nearly 5-fold, and about 43% of samples don’t correspond to it. Obtained results have demonstrated that long after the Chernobyl NPP accident (30 years the main part of population internal exposure is caused by consumption of wild- growing mushrooms and berries. In the recent years, milk consumption does not play a considerable role in forming of internal dose any more. Conclusion: in 30 years since Chernobyl NPP accident in the Kaluga region radiation and environment conditions have considerably improved on the territories with radionuclides contamination. However, problems remain. The major task for mitigation of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences is comprehensive radiation, social and economic rehabilitation of the contaminated territories.

  8. Features of respiratory organs diseases in participants of the Chernobyl accident response, program of their treatment and rehabilitation

    The results of examination of 100 persons being residents of the Vladimir and Ryazan' regions who participated in the Chernobyl accident response are discussed. The conclusion is made that chronic bronchopulmonary pathology in participants of the Chernobyl accident response takes place 10 years later the accident. The program of treatment-prophylactic measures for response participants is developed. Efficiency of this program is shown

  9. The Chernobyl accident and the Spanish nuclear power plants. Technical report

    On the morning of April 26, 1986, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ukraine, USSR) suffered an accident of the greatest magnitude among those which have taken place in nuclear energy installations employed for peaceful uses. The accident reached a degree of severity unknown up to now in nuclear energy generating plants, both with respect to the loss of human lives and the effects caused to the neighboring population (as well as to other nations within a wide radius of radioactivity dispersal), and also with respect to the damage caused in the nuclear plant itself. In the light of the anxiety created internationally, the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy prepared a report (1), based on the conclusions of the Governmental Commission entrusted to study the causes of the accident, which was presented at the international meeting of experts held at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) headquarters in Vienna from August 25 to 29, 1986. The present technical report has been prepared by the Spanish nuclear power plants within the framework of UNIDAD ELECTRICA, S.A. (UNESA) - the Association of Spanish electric utilities - in collaboration with EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS, S.A. The report reflects the utilities' analyses of the causes and consequences of the accident and, based on similarities and differences with Spanish plants under construction and in operation, intends to: a. Evaluate the possibility of an accident with similar consequences occurring in a Spanish plant b. Identify possible design and operation modifications indicated by the lessons learned from this accident

  10. Chernobyl in the French mass media 14 years after the accident; Tchernobyl dans la presse francaise 14 ans apres

    Anon

    2001-02-01

    The author presents how the mass media have dealt with the fourteenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Nowadays Chernobyl epitomizes the hazards of nuclear energy. Public opinion has become extremely sensitive to topics concerning human health. This sensitivity is due to previous important affairs such as the scandal of the tainted blood, the mad cow disease or the syndrome of the Balkan war. Most media have broadened the debate to the sanitary impact of nuclear activities. The hyper-mediatization of the legal case of a man prosecuting the French state for no having taken adequate measures when the radioactive cloud spread over France, has given the feeling that French authorities have always wrongly minimized the consequences of the accident. (A.C.)

  11. The evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident by the help of the Hungarian Surveillance of Germinal Mutations

    The germinal mutagenic consequences or radioactive fall-out deposition from the Chernobyl accident in Hungary was evaluated in the ongoing program on the population-based Hungarian Surveillance of Germinal Mutations. The surveillance is based on three groups of indicator conditions: 15 sentinel anomalies (indicators of germinal dominant gene mutations), Down syndrome (an indicator of germinal numerical and structural chromosomal mutations) and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities (indicators of germinal dominant gene and chromosomal mutations). Cases with indicator conditions were selected from the material of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. After the diagnostic accuracies were checked, familial and sporadic cases were separated and only the latter group was evaluated for evidence of new mutations. The analysis did not reveal any measurable germinal mutagenic effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary. (author)

  12. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: Development of a consensus view

    In August 1986, scientists from the former Soviet Union provided the nuclear safety community with an impressively detailed account of what was then known about the Chernobyl accident. This included assessments of the magnitudes, rates, and compositions of radionuclide releases during the ten days following initiation of the accident. A summary report based on the Soviet report, the oral presentations, and the discussions with scientists from various countries was issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency shortly thereafter. Ten years have elapsed since the reactor accident at Chernobyl. A great deal more data is now available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for about ten days. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved our understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the pecularities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability of the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  13. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the

  14. Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    under observation by the year 2004. The obtained results conform to the other authors' conclusions (Malko M.V., 2001, 2003). In the framework of the ICRP model it's shown that a maximum possible influence of the radiation contamination factor can't be a source of the actually registered carcinogenic risk. In this connection, an analysis of the ecological hazard non-radiation components is of importance. By now, the scientific community has achieved the understanding of the fact that a chemical pollution risk can be compared with a risk of the radiation contamination even in the regions mostly suffered from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Furthermore, under a combined influence of a complex of factors, there is a risk of a nonlinear enhancement of the adverse effects. In this connection, an urgent problem appeared consisting of the new approach elaboration on the evaluation of the technogenic environment contamination, under which an influence of different adverse factors would be expressed in comparable values, suitable for their comparative analysis. This problem solving refers first of all to the decision making optimization at the safety arrangements planning on the contaminated territories. (author)

  15. Radiological attacks and accidents. Medical consequences

    Probability of the occurrence of radiological attacks appears to be elevated after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11 in 2001. There are a lot of scenarios of radiological attack: simple radiological device, radiological disperse device (RDD or dirty bomb), attacks against nuclear reactor, improvised nuclear device, and nuclear weapons. Of these, RDD attack is the most probable scenario, because it can be easily made and can generate enormous psychological and economic damages. Radiological incidents are occurring to and fro in the world, including several cases of theft to nuclear facilities and unsuccessful terrorist attacks against them. Recently, a former Russian spy has allegedly been killed using polonium-210. In addition, serious radiological accidents have occurred in Chernobyl, Goiania, and Tokai-mura. Planning, preparation, education, and training exercise appear to be essential factors to cope with radiological attacks and accidents effectively without feeling much anxiety. Triage and psychological first aid are prerequisite to manage and provide effective medial care for mass casualties without inducing panic. (author)

  16. Chernobyl

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs

  17. Examination of persons connected with the Chernobyl accident

    In 1990, seventy-four persons (46 Children and 28 adults) from various villages in Ukrainia and Byelorussia, radiation exposed from Chernobyl accident, were examined in the Federal Office of Health in co-operation with the Federal Office of Radiation Protection in Germany. In the Project were included persons who want a medical examination or in the case of children which presents a consens of legal representation. In no cases clinical findings were attributed to radiation directly. Clinical findings mainly were chronical infections, required dental treatments and unspecific symptoms in the abdominal region. Single haematological deviation from normal show no connection to the official surveyed contaminated settlements. In our endocrinological program we found only one case in reference to a hyperthyreosis. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral lymphocytes showed in some case an elevated number of dicentrics, but no differences has been found between people living in surveyed contaminated and surveyed control settlements. Whole body counting of the examined persons showed low incorporation of radiocaesium with a connection to the level of official values for caesium surface contamination of the persons residence. (orig.)

  18. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    K. Rissanen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  19. Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig

  20. Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in EEC countries

    The results are presented of an evaluation of the impact of radioactive substances escaped during the Chernobyl accident, on the population in EEC countries. The results have been processed from data provided by all member countries and relate to the most dangerous radionuclides namely 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. The population was divided into three groups: one-year olds, 10 year olds and adults. Assessed were external whole-body irradiation by the radioactive cloud and material deposited on the body surface, and internal irradiation with regard to the human food chain. The irradiation of the thyroid was assessed separately. As for 131I, the most endangered group were the infants with the exception of Italy where 10 year olds were the most affected group. Values calculated for the individual countries are given of the effective dose equivalent for the first year, the dose equivalent for the thyroide, the dose commitment in the first year, the collective effective dose equivalent and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid gland. Measures taken to reduce the irradiation of the population (restrictions on distribution and consumption of milk, dairy products and leafy vegetables, feeding cattle with preserved feeds, etc.) reduced the collective dose equivalent by a mere 5% and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid by 26%. (E.S.). 3 tabs

  1. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  2. Long-term consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe and remediation programs in Russia

    Unprecedented scale of radiological emergency at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has set us a package of the most difficult tasks aimed to eliminate negative consequences and remediate a normal life in contaminated areas. Due to the accident, above 56,000 square meters of the Russian Federation's territory, including about two million hectares of agricultural lands and about one million hectares of forest resources, were radioactively contaminated. The four regions, namely the Bryansk/Kaluga/Orel/Tula regions, were contaminated to the most extent. About three million people lived in those areas. More than 52,000 citizens were relocated in an organized way or resettled independently. Above 200,000 citizens of Russia were involved in elimination of emergency effects. The Russian Federation (RF) Government has charged EMERCOM of Russia to coordinate activities on mitigation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Ministry has undertaken the functions of a state customer of federal target programs for elimination of effects of radiological emergencies and catastrophes. Federal ministries and agencies, as well as executive authorities of the RF subjects are involved in implementation of the programs. Since 1998, joint Russian-Byelorussian projects to mitigate effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe have been under way. Large-scale work on radiological/medical/social protection for the citizens and remediation of the lands has been performed within the scope of federal target programs. Since 1991, more than 5 billion USD has been spent on the activities to eliminate consequences of the accident, as well as to pay out benefits and compensations. The key element of EMERCOM's policy is to comprehend the role of a radiation factor in the entire package of vital objectives. The result of it is that protective actions are directed towards the most contaminated areas and priority attention is focused on the development of a social sphere and health care. The main

  3. RADIATION-HYGIENIC AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE СHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: RESULTS AND PROGNOSIS

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An article is devoted to the analysis of the radiation situation in the dynamics during the years since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. Data on the scope of activities fulfilled for the assessment of the territories radioactive contamination levels and foodstuffs contamination levels, on the values of the exposure doses for the population living on the contaminated territories, on the medical and socio-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Basic norms and principles, used during the protective measures development and introduction, are considered, their effectiveness is demonstrated. Mistakes emerged during protective measures implementation are analyzed, the prognosis of the population exposure dose values for the 70-year period since the accident and main directions of activities for the contaminated territories remediation and normal life conditions restoration for the population at these territories are presented.

  4. Environmental radioactivity and dose evaluation in Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident

    A substantial increase in fission product activity was observed in various environmental samples taken in Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident. The concentration of long-lived fission products in air above ground, precipitation, grass, vegetation and milk were monitored in the next 7 wk. The individual effective dose equivalent committed by the first year of exposure and intake following the accident were evaluated. Average individual doses for the population in Taiwan are estimated at 0.9 microSv due to global fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This value is lower than that reported in neighboring countries in the Far East and poses no increased health impact to the public in Taiwan

  5. Environmental radioactivity in the soil of the Republic of Korea one decade after the Chernobyl accident

    During Chernobyl accident a large amount of radionuclides were released into atmosphere and added to atmospheric nuclide inventory from weapons tests. In early May of 1986 in South Korea, radioactivities such as 1-131 and Cs-137 were detected in surface air and rain water. That indicated that Chernobyl debris spreaded to far Eastern Asia. In the present time, the long-lived radionuclides have been deposited on the soil of Korean peninsular resulted from Chernobyl accident as well as from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Meanwhile, it has been reported that isotopic properties in fallout differ significantly, depending on their origin. Several studies have reported that plutonium isotopic ratio, Pu-238 to Pu-239,240 in particular, in fallout originated from Chernobyl accident was quite different from the ratio in global fallout from nuclear tests and burnup of SNAP-9A satellite using Pu-238 as energy sources. As soil, in terrestrial environment, is a principal reservoir of man-made radionuclides, a study on isotopic characteristic in soil can give some information on how Chernobyl accident is effecting on Korean environment. In this study, the vertical inventory of radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-239,240 and Cs-137, and their isotopic ratios in soils were investigated to estimate the contribution of Chernobyl derived-nuclides to Korean environment

  6. Results of a honey monitoring program in Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    Honey bees (Apis Mellifera) as bioindicators of environmental pollution have been studied for a long time to analyse their ability to detect air and water pollution. Bees forage over a large area (around 7Km2) and seem to act as biomagnifiers of the contamination of the environment. Honey bees and their products, mainly honey, were used in the U.S.A. during the seventies to monitor potential releases from nuclear waste disposal sites. Honey samples were examined to detect contaminated areas surrounding a nuclear facility at Cattaraugus Country (NY); the presence of radionuclides from fallout of nuclear weapon tests in honey samples was also investigated. As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive contamination spread all over the Italian soil allowed the analysis of the radioactivity transfer from the environment to honey

  7. Assessment of radiation dose commitment in Europe due to the Chernobyl accident

    The meeting in Bilthoven was held to make a preliminary assessment of the radiation dose commitment in Europe and to compare meteorological simulation models. Today, one year after the accident at Chernobyl, a much better data base and more precise dose estimates are available. Yet we are still publishing this report as we feel that it is of interest to compare the first dose assessments (external irradiation, inhalation, ingestion) with later ones to get an idea of the reliability of early dose predictions. Consequently the figures in the report reflect the state of knowledge in June 1986. Since last summer data from many extensive measuring programmes have been available to compile maps showing the local dose rates for most European countries. These now may be compared with the early meteorological calculations. This comparison should help scientists to improve their prognostic statements after widespread accidental releases. (orig./HP)

  8. Tumour markers in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late post-accident period

    Tumour markers (TM) are base plasma proteins with a carbohydrate component, produced by various types of tumor cells. 84 male liquidators aged from 30 to 50 y.o. were examined in the clinic of All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine in September 1994-April 1995. External irradiation exposure amongst liquidators varied from 2 to 30 sGr. TM concentration in serum and plasma were determined by conventional ELISA methods (CEA. AFP, CA19-9. PSA, NSE). The first (control) group was composed of liquidators with no GI tract pathology. The second group consisted of 28 liquidators with irradiation - induced cytogenetical disturbances in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The third group consisted included 28 liquidators with chronic GI tract diseases. In control group, levels of CA 19-9, CEA and AFP amounted to 4.7± 0.4 U/ml, 2.4± 0.8mg/ml, 2.1± 0.2 IU/ml, correspondingly. The CA 19-9 level has been shown to increase statistically significantly in the second (14.5±1.5 U/ml) and in the third group (17.8± 1.2 U/ml). A simultaneous elevation of CA 19-9 and CEA was found in 7.1% of the liquidators of the third group, the CA 19-9 level changes ranging from 63 to 708 U/ml. The mean value of PSA in all three groups remained within the discrimination concentration limits and amounted to 2.5± 0.4 U/ml. Concentration of NSE was equal to 29.9± 7.2 mg/ml in all three groups. Based on the data on frequencies of the tumour marker elevation, a group of 6 was selected.This group required a detailed dynamic examination because of the problem of remote consequences of the effect of complex factors of the Chernobyl Atomic Station accident upon its victims. (author)

  9. Determining economic cost of medical interventions in Belarus due to Chernobyl accident

    Full text: Using Chernobyl's impact on Belarus as an example, the goal of this project is to determine the health-related costs of a major nuclear accident to aid in contingency planning for all nations, educate the public about the potential impact on health of man-made nuclear accidents and to provide more impetus for development of safer nuclear power generation. An assessment of these costs by an international group will support Republic of Belarus in its studies of the costs and benefits of ongoing Chernobyl-related health care activities. This study is a retrospective analysis of the costs in Chernobyl radiation exposed populations associated with medical care and illness prevention. Data selection for analysis was determined by estimated financial impact. All factors expected to influence total cost by less than 1 % were not analyzed. Medical consequences, such as reduced birth rate, which did not increase medical expenditures where also not included. Normal health expenditures where subtracted. Most expenditures are being estimated from the services provided. Data to be included has been gathered since 1986 and is lo in various sites, including budgets and reports of various ministries of the Republic of Belarus and records in the Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, the Chernobyl Committee of the Ministry of Health, and other locations. Therefore, some figures will be estimated based on best evidence and current literature. Outcomes of sensitivity studies and uncertainty estimates will be performed once the data collection is completed and assessed. Data to be included in the financial estimate includes: Evacuation from restricted territories; Added medical facilities and establishment of preventive health measures; Decontamination and radiation monitoring of contaminated areas; Costs associated with research activities on related problems; General categories of medical costs, including impact of psychosocial factors

  10. The health status of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1986 is so far the largest nuclear accident, and has created a new problem for nuclear medicine. This accident has also become a problem for Latvia due to the more than 6000 residents who participated in the clean-up works at Chernobyl. The aim of our study was to assess the health status of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators, in comparison with a male control group in Latvia. We have examined the health of 2512 Chernobyl clean-up workers (males between age of 35-55 with documented and biologically estimated doses of received ionising radiation). For comparison of morbidity, we used a control group consisting of 3887 employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (males of the same age groups). The morbidity of Chernobyl NPP accident clean-up workers was generally higher than of control group. The highest contribution to morbidity in each age group of liquidators was from digestive, musculosceletal, nervous system and circulatory system diseases, as well as from mental disorders. (author)

  11. Economic consequences of major accidents in the industrial plants: The case of a nuclear power plant

    These last years, newspapers head-lines have reported various accidents (Mexico City, Bhopal, Chernobyl, ...) which have drawn attention to the fact that the major technological risk is now a reality and that, undoubtedly, industrial decision-makers ought to integrate it into their preoccupations. In addition to the sometimes considerable human problems such accidents engender, their economic consequences may be such that they become significant on a national or even international scale. The aim of the present paper is to analyse these economic effects by using the particular context of a nuclear power plant. The author has deliberately limited his subject to the consequences of a major accident, that is to say a sudden event, theoretically unforeseen and beyond man's control. The qualification major means an accident of which the consequences extend far beyond the industrial plant itself. The direct and indirect economic consequences are analysed from the responsibility point of view as well as from the national and international community's point of view. A paragraph explains how the coverage of the costs can rely on the cooperation of a number of parties: responsible company, state, insurers, customers, etc. The study is broadly based on the experience resulting from the two major accidents which happened in the nuclear industry these last years (Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986) and makes use of more theoretical considerations, for example in the field of the economic evaluation of human life. (author). 58 refs, 2 figs, 12 tabs

  12. Thyroid gland state in persons of Kiev region after Chernobyl accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    After Chernobyl accident, the growth of thyroid pathology, particularly the children's thyroid cancer, has been noted in Kiev Region. Reconstruction of exposure doses on thyroid gland is one of the major problems on liquidation of medical effects of the Chernobyl accident. While accessing the dose load it is necessary to take into account not only iodine-131 contribution to the radiation load, but also that of other iodine short-living radionuclides as well as radionuclides of other chemical elements inhalated or swallowed into the organism. Analysis of pathological involvement of the thyroid gland is to be performed with regard for the state of other organs and systems, i.e. on the entire organism level, thyroid gland playing the leading role in its functioning

  13. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed γ-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

  14. Down syndrome time-clustering in January 1987 in Belarus: link with the Chernobyl accident? : Down syndrome after Chernobyl

    Zatsepin, Ivan; VERGER, Pierre; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Gagnière, Bertrand; Tirmarche, Margot; Khmel, Rostislav; Babicheva, Irina; Lazjuk, Gennady

    2007-01-01

    International audience The Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) exposed a large part of the Belarus population to ionizing radiation. We analyzed the time trends of Down syndrome (DS) in Belarus to evaluate whether either brief exposure at high dose rates during the plume passage or continuous exposure at low doses and dose rates of the residents of contaminated areas had any detectable impact on DS prevalence at birth. DS data came from the Belarus National Registry of Congenital Malformat...

  15. The aftermath of nuclear accidents on mental health; Consequences des accidents radiologiques sur la sante mentale

    Pirard, Ph.; Brenot, J.; Verger, P. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1998-10-01

    Technological disasters bring about psychological effects in exposed populations of various durability and intensity. This article reviews the epidemiological studies which assess psychological and psychiatric consequences of the Three Mile Island, Goieanna and Chernobyl accidents. It shows, in different accidental and cultural contexts, a statistically significant and durable increase of psychological symptoms in various exposed population groups, which points out an actual psychological distress. Diagnosed psychiatric effects are less constant, but much less studied. Most affected groups are mothers of young children, relocated persons, persons with less social support or in financial trouble. The psychological distress can further psychiatric disorders and give rise to behavioural changes towards health. More research is necessary to delineate the nature and the determinants of the observed symptoms and disorders. It implies to design better tools for the assessment of individual exposure and the diagnosis of mental health effects. (authors)

  16. Concentration of radiocaesium in grain following the Chernobyl accident

    Radioactivity measurements and dose assessments in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident have shown that the consumption of baker's ware contributes significantly to the internal dose of man. Flour and bread have been contaminated mainly due to radiocaesium deposition onto the of cereals at the end of April and beginning of May, 1986. Because of the different seasonal and growing conditions of biomass, the interception fraction of the standing winter wheat became higher than that of the summer wheat. Therefore, the contribution of grain to the internal dose was relatively high in Hungary where near to 90 per cent of flour and bread is produced from winter wheat in comparison with other countries. The average concentration of 137Cs in winter grain harvested in summer 1986 was 32 Bq/kg with a range of 11-140 Bq/kg. The bran contained almost half of the total radiocaesium of the grain with about 20 per cent of the weight. The 40K concentration of grain was 149 Bq/kg. The 137Cs concentration in white bread commonly used in Hungary was 22 Bq/kg in average. The concentrations found in bread samples from the whole country showed a high variation due to the uneven deposition of radioactive substances. The 137Cs concentration in winter grain was 0.0075±0.0017 Bq/kg normalized to 1 Bq/m2 deposition density. The 137 Cs concentration in grain harvested in 1987 or later became less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that the root uptake of radiocaesium by cereals must be very small. The per caput committed effective dose equivalent due to consumption of baker's ware was estimated as 50 micro-Sv. (author)

  17. Some geochemical and environmental aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Radionuclide fallout on Byelorussia in the first days after the accident was mainly dependent on the mass movement of air and rain. In cities, fallout was confined to regions with intensive industrial dust emissions, as well as to river valleys, where degassing of deep-seated zones through faults occurred side by side with evaporation. Radionuclide washout from upland territories can be related to secondary processes. After 5 a, radioactivity near the surface of the Earth had decreased due to the decay of shortlived isotopes and penetration of radionuclides deeper into the soil, although the major part still occurs at a depth of 1-5 cm. Bogs, peat-bog soils, aquifers with fluctuating groundwater levels, variable pH-Eh conditions and a high-biological activity all contribute to radionuclide migration. A part of the radionuclides is gradually removed from eluvial landscapes and accumulated in subareal landscapes (e.g. lakes, oxbow-lakes, water-storage basins). The Chernobyl debris is represented by the following: ''hot'' particles, pseudocolloids, aerosols and gaseous compounds. Two zones can be distinguished around the reactor differing in the ratio of ''hot'' particles and condensate fallout. A very important role is assigned to biological processes and organic matter, which cause the destruction of ''hot'' particles, the formation or organometallic complexes, and water migration of nuclides. After 300 and more years, the distribution of radionuclides in the landscape will have been determined by weathering, erosion and sedimentation which strongly depend on climatic conditions. Side by side with a gradual decay of Cs and Sr, an appreciable accumulation of 241Am, which is very mobile in landscapes, should be expected due to decaying 241Pu. (Author)

  18. Environmental consequences of releases from nuclear accidents

    The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of a four-year Nordic cooperation program in the area of consequence assessment of nuclear accidents with large releases to the environment. This program was completed in 1989. Related information from other research programs has also been described, so that many chapters of the report reflect the current status in the respective areas, in addition to containing the results of the Nordic program. (author) 179 refs

  19. Chernobyl

    This book brings together a comprehensive history of the first 18 months of the accident at Chernobyl and the complete pictorial record of the disaster, including many photographs never seen in the West. It also gives a unique record of subsequent events in the USSR involving the evacuation and re-housing of a population of 135,000, the building of the 400,000 tonne concrete sarcophagus over the damaged reactor and the decontamination of the environment which may take years to complete. The human dimension of radiation injuries is recreated in the cast histories and hospital photographs of the firemen who brought the blaze under control. The problems of contamination of the food chain for various countries is included, and recommendations for safe levels of activity in milk are described

  20. Countermeasures to the Chernobyl accident in the Nordic countries: Public reactions

    In Sweden the TMI accident was the direct cause to a decision to hold a national referendum on nuclear power on March 23, 1980. The referendum and the subsequent political decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010 to some extent neutralized the issue and nuclear attitudes returned to a mildly positive state. However, the Chernobyl accident in 1986 again changed the scene. Just as the TMI accident had been something of a surprise to many, the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in Scandinavia were not anticipated. Attitudes to nuclear power became quite negative immediately after the accident but they soon resumed their initial mildly positive position again. Even if the radioactive fall-out never reached truly alarming levels authorities in Finland, Norway and Sweden took measures to counteract the effects of radioactivity and to protect the population. This was done in a very heated atmosphere and intense attention was paid by the mass media. Trust in authorities and governments was put to a stringent test during these days 10 years ago. Several psychologists, sociologists and mass media researchers were active from the very beginning to document the events taking place, e.g. by means of surveys of the public opinion. The reports they wrote were usually in local languages and much of this material was never published in print but remained as project reports. It is the purpose of the present project to localize these report and to summarize and interpret their contents, and to give bibliographical information about where the sources can be located. Different experiences and conditions in the three countries account for somewhat different approaches of the three country chapters. There is no doubt that Chernobyl was a very significant social and psychological event in the three countries discussed in the present report. It was also regarded by many as a significant threat to public health, although radiation experts assured the public that the direct effects

  1. Countermeasures to the Chernobyl accident in the Nordic countries: Public reactions

    Sjoeberg, L.; Rundmo, T.; Eraenen, L.; Ekstroem, H

    1998-01-01

    In Sweden the TMI accident was the direct cause to a decision to hold a national referendum on nuclear power on March 23, 1980. The referendum and the subsequent political decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010 to some extent neutralized the issue and nuclear attitudes returned to a mildly positive state. However, the Chernobyl accident in 1986 again changed the scene. Just as the TMI accident had been something of a surprise to many, the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in Scandinavia were not anticipated. Attitudes to nuclear power became quite negative immediately after the accident but they soon resumed their initial mildly positive position again. Even if the radioactive fall-out never reached truly alarming levels authorities in Finland, Norway and Sweden took measures to counteract the effects of radioactivity and to protect the population. This was done in a very heated atmosphere and intense attention was paid by the mass media. Trust in authorities and governments was put to a stringent test during these days 10 years ago. Several psychologists, sociologists and mass media researchers were active from the very beginning to document the events taking place, e.g. by means of surveys of the public opinion. The reports they wrote were usually in local languages and much of this material was never published in print but remained as project reports. It is the purpose of the present project to localize these report and to summarize and interpret their contents, and to give bibliographical information about where the sources can be located. Different experiences and conditions in the three countries account for somewhat different approaches of the three country chapters. There is no doubt that Chernobyl was a very significant social and psychological event in the three countries discussed in the present report. It was also regarded by many as a significant threat to public health, although radiation experts assured the public that the direct effects

  2. Chernobyl: The bitter taste of wormwood [videorecording

    A vivid account of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the far-reaching effects of radioactivity, monitoring radiation, evacuation of victims, etc. The video deals mainly with the impact and consequences of the accident in Sweden and Ukraine

  3. Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents

    Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 7Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for 7Be were 0.43 and 0.41 μm with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of 134Cs, 137Cs and 7Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to 131I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides (140Ba, 140La 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb) and volatile radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, and 132Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 μm were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. -- Highlights: • AMADs after the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents in the Czech Rep. were determined. • The mean value of AMADs of the monitored nuclides from the NPP Fukushima was 0.43 μm. • Nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl fell into two categories – refractory and volatile. • The mean value of AMADs of volatile nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl was 0.51 μm. • AMADs of volatile nucl. from the NPP Chernobyl were 3× smaller than of the refractory radionuclides

  4. Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children, after the Chernobyl accident

    Since the accident from Chernobyl, an important number of studies were focused on the effects of the accident but, nine years after the accident, we still don't know enough about its impact on public health and environment. A major problem after the Chernobyl accident was to asses the effects of the irradiation for different age groups, especially for children. Our group measured Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children of different ages (between 4 and 12 years), at different time intervals after the accident. From the intake data, a trend of the annually committed effective doses was deduced. The paper presents the dose values for different age groups, as well as the balance of the intake and excretion, given as the 'observed ratio'. (author)

  5. Chernobyl - Ten years after

    A decade later, in April 1996, more than 800 experts from 71 countries and 20 organizations, observed by over 200 journalists, met to review the Chernobyl accident's actual and possible future consequences, and to put these into proper perspective. They came together at the international conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident, held at the Austria Center in Vienna. The Chernobyl Conference was a model of international co-operation: six organizations of the UN family, including the IAEA, and two important regional agencies were involved in its organization

  6. Fifteen years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Lessons learned

    Fifteen years has passed on this year since accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant had formed on April 26, 1986. From before or after the accident, the world experienced a number of changes. On August, 1986, USSR carried out a report on the accident at an international conference on the accident at Chernobyl held at Wien. Outlines of the report are described in a report of IAEA INSAG (INSAG-1). After then, various facts hidden in the USSR report at this time have appeared. Then, INSAG revised previous INSAG-1 and published INSAG-7 re-evaluated on technical meanings of the accident on 1992, which became so-called finished issue on technical analysis and evaluation on causes and progresses of the accident. To correctly understand lessons on the accident, it must be begun from correct understanding of its real facts. It is widely recognized that its actual and fundamental reason was slight or neglect on safety found at whole of nuclear development and applications in USSR and shorts of safety culture such as emptiness of technology and regulation brought by them, relaxation of working rule, and so on, which were only the largest lesson on the Chernobyl accident. (G.K.)

  7. Chernobyl nuclear accident revealed from the 7010 m Muztagata ice core record

    TIAN LiDe; YAO TanDong; WU GuangJian; LI Zhen; XU BaiQing; LI YueFang

    2007-01-01

    The total activity variation with depth from a 41.6 m Muztagata ice core drilled at 7010 m,recorded not only the 1963 radioactive layer due to the thermonuclear test,but also clearly the radioactive peak released by the Chernobyl accident in 1986.This finding indicates that the Chernobyl nuclear accident was clearly recorded in alpine glaciers in the Pamirs of west China,and the layer can be potentially used for ice core dating in other high alpine glaciers in the surrounding regions.

  8. Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba

    This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

  9. Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

  10. National report: United Kingdom. Chernobyl - the aftermath. What can the industry learn from the accident

    The author points out that the nuclear industry has suffered a serious blow by the Chernobyl accident and asks the questions: Will nuclear power recover, and how, and when will it recover. The author states why in his opinion nuclear power will recover essentially, and reasons in terms of the future energy scene, national attitudes, and public opinion. The technical lessons from the Chernobyl accident are also evaluated. The conclusion is that the biggest single task facing the nuclear industry is that which concerns public perception. Effective communication is therefore very important

  11. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  12. The international Chernobyl project. Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures

    This Overview presents the conclusions and recommendations of the International Advisory Committee which directed the project on the Radiological Consequences in the USSR from the Chernobyl Accident: Assessment of Health and Environmental Effects and Evaluation of Protective Measures. Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress. The project concluded that the protective measures taken were too extreme, and that population relocation and foodstuff restrictions should have been less extensive. For a more detailed scientific account, the reader is referred to the full Technical Report, in which the various technical chapters have been written by the relevant task leaders of the Project. Figs and tabs

  13. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and

  14. Assessment of Chernobyl health consequences under the influence of public and other interests

    The Chernobyl reactor accident on 26 April 1986 was the largest and most severe disaster in the history of civil nuclear technology involving radiation exposure and radioactive contamination of large areas in the NIS. Among the three countries Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, Belarus was mostly affected, because about 70% of the radioactive fallout was deposited on its territory. The radiation doses from various nuclides, to which the public as well as the liquidators were exposed during the first months, let expect serious health consequences for a large number of persons. During the first weeks after the accident, the authorities in Moscow released several orders of secrecy. Later, in July 1987 the order was given that acute and chronic diseases of liquidators, who were exposed to less than 50 rem, must not be attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation. In 1990, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Chernobyl Project, with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others, in order to investigate and assess the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics. 200 scientists from the West and 500 from USSR were sent by their governments to participate. Concerning the health impact, the IAEA team under its chairman professor F. Mettler from USA concluded in 1991 that there were no health disorders that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. IAEA favoured psychological stress and anxiety to be the cause of health disorders observed. This information was spread world wide. But in reality, at this time the number of thyroid cancer cases in children in Belarus was already 30 times higher than the average in the 10 years before Chernobyl. And IAEA and other international organizations did not want to take into account the findings and reports of Belarusian and

  15. Chernobyl: what are the consequences for France?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences pour la France?

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Service Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-06-15

    This article sheds light on the controversy of the impact in France of the Chernobyl accident. It is shown that the increase in the number of thyroid cancers can not be attributed to the radioactive fallout of Chernobyl because this increase began in 1975 and has been continuing till now at the same pace. This increase is due to the development of the echography technique that allows the detection of very small tumors that do not usually evolve into cancers and then passed unnoticed before. The Astral program launched in 1997 and based on the numerous measurements made in 1986 concerning food contamination has led to the drawing of a reliable assessment of the spatial distribution of mean efficient dose over the French territory. It appears that in the most contaminated zone, this dose reached 0.4 10{sup -3} Sievert in 1986 (iodine + cesium) while the natural radioactivity varies from 2.5 to 5 10{sup -3} Sievert over the French territory. (A.C.)

  16. The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested. New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. (paper)

  17. The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes.

    Balonov, Mikhail

    2013-03-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested.New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. PMID:23295495

  18. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses received by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 μSv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

  19. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.)

  20. Psychical and social effects related to post-accident situations: some training of Chernobyl accident

    Some preliminary considerations on the psychic and societal dimensions related to post-accident situations connected to large scale and heavy land contamination are presented. This is done with the objective of exploring the role that these dimensions could play in the elaboration of new radiological protection principles and concepts in order to restore confidence among affected populations after a nuclear accident. It is important to facilitate the return to normal or, at least, acceptable living conditions, as soon as reasonably achievable, and to prevent the possible emergence of a post-accident crisis. A scheme is proposed for understanding the dynamics of the various phases after an accident, taking into account the collective response to the consequences as well as, the response to the countermeasures. (Author)

  1. Radiation effects on the population of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and the prediction of stochastic effects

    Evaluation of conditions of exposure during the post-accident period makes it possible to identify two periods in the radiation exposure of Belarus's population. As a result of our investigations we obtained data about doses for four different categories in the exposed population: people who lived in the contaminated territories without evacuation and relocation; evacuated people; cleanup workers (''liquidators''); and people who were exposed in childhood, especially for thyroid exposure. The total doses for these categories in different time periods were analyzed. Evaluation of doses received by the Belarusian population due to the Chernobyl accident shows no evidence of doses, that could lead to the deterministic consequences of radiation exposure. For all exposed groups we made predictions about different types of stochastic consequences of exposure. 10 refs, 2 tabs

  2. Environmental study of radioactive caesium in Greek lake fish after the Chernobyl accident

    The radiological status of radiocaesium in the Greek environment until 1986 has been characterized by the impact of world-wide fallout. During 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in an average deposition of total caesium(134Cs + 137Cs) of ∼ 9 kBq m-2 in Greece, while regional averages ranged within 3-45 kBq m-2. The radioactive contamination of the lake ecosystems is potentially a radiologically important consequence of the accident. The effects of 137Cs and 134Cs introduced into a number of major Greek lake ecosystems has been evaluated in the present work by determination of their concentrations in various lake fish species during the years 1986, 1988 and 1989. Although the representative and predominant species typically differ from lake to lake, while the local deposition of caesium varies significantly, the bioaccumulation of caesium by the examined species seems to depend rather on the fish species than on the local environmental parameters. The time-dependence of the fish contamination has been used to evaluate the contribution of lake fish consumption to the total ingestion dose of the population. (author)

  3. Mapping of caesium fallout from the Chernobyl accident in the Jotunheimen area

    Baranwal, Vikas C.; Ofstad, Frode; Roenning, Jan S.; Watson, Robin J.

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, several areas in Norway received radioactive fallout. One of these areas is the eastern part of Jotunheimen in central Norway. Immediately after the accident in 1986, the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) performed airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy in central Norway. At that time, it was not possible to calculate reliable radionuclide concentrations, and the data were presented as total counts per second. Several man-made radionuclides were present in the initial fallout, but due to short half-lives, most of these have now disintegrated into stable isotopes. 137Cs, with a half-life of 11.000 days ({approx} 30 years) is still present in the environment in significant quantities, leading to high radioactivity levels in meat from reindeer and sheep. To obtain a detailed map of the caesium fallout concentration in Jotunheimen, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) survey was carried out, focussing on reindeer grazing areas. This project was a cooperation between Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Geological Survey of Norway. (auth)

  4. Effects on environment and humans of accident of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    The USSR experts have reported the results of their works on the effects of the Chernobyl plant's accident at IAEA meeting in August. Plant staffs and fire men with acute radiation syndrome were hospitalized and treated with special care including bone marrow transplantation. Whole population (135,000) within the area of 30 km radius from the plant evacuated during a few days after the accident. Collective dose to this population was estimated as 1.6 x 106 person rem. (author)

  5. Recalculation of thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident in a iodine deficient area

    The thyroid doses were estimated in Poland shortly after the Chernobyl accident with assumption of stable iodine consumption for the reference man and areas with ''standard'' stable iodine consumption. These estimates are not representative for southern part of Poland which is known as the iodine deficient area. Therefore the thyroid doses were recalculated based on the real and differentiated stable iodine intakes for people groups of different age without and with thyroid blockade after the accident. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Results of measurements of internal contamination of persons caused by the Chernobyl accident

    A preliminary summary is presented of c.a. 140 measurements of internal radioactive contamination, motivated by the Chernobyl accident, in Dutch persons, by the Radiological Service TNO, Arnhem and the Institute for Radiopathology and Radiation Protection, Leiden, the Netherlands. 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident

    This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities

  8. Ground deposition of long-lived gamma emitters in Poland from the Chernobyl accident

    Activity composition was measured for the soil contaminated with the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Soil samples were collected at various areas of Poland. A map showing the 137Cs deposit distribution was drawn for the most contaminated southern part of Poland. 9 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  9. Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included

  10. Measured transfer factors in milk and meat after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail at the Lehrgebiet Strahlenschutz in der Kerntechnik. The change of the different radionuclides in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The knowledge about the transport of iodine into cow's milk could be very much improved

  11. Investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia after the Chernobyl accident

    The problem of radioactive pollution of biosphere has been acquiring a special topicality after nuclear weapon testing and NPP-induced accidents that have already brought to global pollution of the Earth with radioactive substances. One of visual examples of regional radioactive pollution is dispersion of emissions all over the territory of Central Europe after the Chernobyl accident, which aftermaths impacted Armenia, as well. Monitoring investigations in the Ararat Valley showed a precise peak of gross radioactivity of atmospheric fallout in 1986 - the year of Chernobyl accident. Gross mean annual radioactivity was established 1783 10 7 Bq/KXm 2 yr. Later, a sharp fall in the activity was observed. Mostly, radioactive fallout consisted of short-lived radionuclides. Measurements for 1986-1987 showed that gross β-radioactivity level in soils amounted to 977-1022 Bq/KXg, repeated measurements in 1991 allowed establishing 640-656 Bq/KXg. A precise indicator of radioactive emissions that reached Armenia after the Chernobyl accident was a short-lived radionuclide 134 Cs (T1/2=2.07 yr) identified in soils. Measurements made 2 years later showed half as much decay of 134 Cs, and in some points established were its traces only. 137 Cs/134 Cs ratio in varied 1.4 to 1.8 in atmospheric fallout and 2.1 to 33.4 in soils. Thus, monitoring investigations evidence a regional character of Chernobyl emission dispersion, this being proved by investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia, too

  12. Assesment of radioactive pollution of environment 10 years after Chernobyl accident. Pt. 2. Pollution in Poland

    Authors describe radioactive pollution in Poland resulting from Chernobyl accident. Several cases of misinformation immediately after the disaster are described. Surface waters, soil and food contamination is described in detail. Authors discuss the measures that should be undertaken in order to provide proper monitoring and efficient protection in the case if similar disaster would happen again

  13. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  14. The information psychological periodization of the Chernoby'l NPP accident information in the mass media

    The activity of mass media reflecting the Chernobyl' accident in 1986-1991 has been surveilled. The information (radio, television, press conferences) given at this period was devided into seven classification periods. The analysis of the information and its assessment in each period was demonstrated. 6 refs

  15. Intervention during late phase of the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: Gained experience and future strategy

    Various measures, introduced to reduce external and internal radiation doses of inhabitants of territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, are described. Average annual doses are given. It is concluded that while factors such as reduction of psychoemotional tension need to be explored, risk coefficients for chronic exposure at low doses should be specified. (author)

  16. Functional state of peripheral blood circulation in invalid victims of Chernobyl accident

    Rheographic and thermographic study of the extremities as well as biochemical study of cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein level were performed in 208 persons who had become invalids during the Chernobyl accident clean-up and have cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine diseases

  17. Soil contamination in Northern Austria as aftermath of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    The soil contamination caused by the accident at Chernobyl was very uneven distributed in Austria. In late autumn 1986 soil samples from northern Austria were analysed in order to get to know the actual contamination in terms of figures. The extreme values for Cs-137 found were 962 and 73630 Bq/m2 respectively. 3 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  18. The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident

    A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

  19. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity in Swedish reindeer

    Fallout radiocesium is effectively transferred to reindeer and the transfer is highly dependent on the season. The reduction of radiocesium from the soil-pasture-reindeer ecosystem has occurred with a higher rate after the Chernobyl fallout than after the nuclear weapons tests. Effective countermeasures have helped to prevent contamination of reindeer meat intended for human consumption. Nevertheless, the fallout from Chernobyl will probably remain a problem for reindeer husbandry in the contaminated parts of Sweden for a least 20 more years. 6 refs., 2 figs

  20. Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives

    Authoritative figures regarding the effect of the Chernobyl accident presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations