WorldWideScience

Sample records for consequences chernobyl accident

  1. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  2. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

  3. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  4. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is not a most hazardous ones. Such psychological effects of the Chernobyl accident resulted from the lack of public information, the stress of relocation and the fear that any radiation exposures are damaging. Those affected people are believing that illnesses of all kinds are due to radiation. The spreading of such mistaken did influence on general public disapproval of Nuclear Power. This presentation includes also the data of real consequences for the health of concerned population

  5. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  6. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  7. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  8. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  9. The Chernobyl accident: consequences and their overcoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long

  10. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  11. Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

  12. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

  13. Chernobyl severe reactor accident. Accident causes, accident consequences and overcoming. Safeguards and disposal of the Chernobyl power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the Chernobyl reactor accident covers the following topics; (1) the reactor accident: the Chernobyl reactor, sequence of accident events, background, state of the sarcophagus and the power plant site; (2) radiation exposure and consequences for human health: radioactivity release and wide ranging contamination, radiation exposure of affected groups of people, health consequences, impact on Germany; (3) lessons learned; (4) safeguarding and waste disposal of the decommissioned Chernobyl reactor.

  14. Legislative consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author considers that the Chernobyl accident has underlined the limits of national legislation as an instrument for the regulation of the nuclear industry. It illustrates the need for co-operation among states and the potential of any nuclear accident for transborder damage. The aftermath of the accident has revealed the essential role of international organisations in providing guidance for national rule-making (NEA)

  15. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  16. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 4. Chernobyl accident consequences in the Ukraine and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of scientific general conclusion and analysis of wide spectrum of radioecological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences within the territory of the Ukraine are given. Investigations were conducted in 1986-1992 and before the accident. Information on the environmental radioactivity in Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is also presented. Attention is paid to the population migration and results of statistical processing of population disease incidence in contaminated areas (illustrated by the Tula region). 39 figs.; 47 tabs

  17. Chernobyl - the consequences of the maximum credible accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although regional in dimension, the MCA that happened on 26 April 1986 in the Chernobyl reactor station has gained global significance. The authors of the book are experts in radiation medicine and present their experience in the diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by ionizing radiation, referring whenever applicable to the Chernobyl reactor accident and the consequences in present-day life. (orig.)

  18. The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external ? dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on fresh milk supplies and other foods; the removal of grazing cattle from pastures; instructions to wash fruit and vegetables and the issue of stable iodine. We are currently carrying out a preliminary assessment of the radiation doses to individuals and the population as a whole in the European Community from Chernobyl, the final results will be published by the Commission of the European Communities. Later we will be extending this to other European countries

  19. Medical demographic consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demographic study was made of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone around the nuclear power plant and of the population living in areas over which the radioactive cloud passed and over which the plume was formed. For the farmers evacuated from 11,655 homes in the Chernobyl region, 7,000 new houses, built in the Kiev region, had already been provided within 5 months of the accident, and by the summer of 1987 another 5,000 houses were available. A study of the resettlement of the population carried out a year after the accident showed that more than 60% of those evacuated continued to live in the regions from which the evacuation had taken place; about 5% were resettled in other republics, and 20% within their own republic. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Consequences of the accident at Chernobyl-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the accident occurred at the Chernobyl-4 nuclear generating unit on April 26, 1986, the Soviet authorities took two days to report it. The accident happened in the course of some experiments at the beginning of the annual routine revision, in the course of which there was first a power drop and then a power excursion. At the IAEA meeting in the autumn of the same year, the Soviet side reported as the cause of the disaster maloperation combined with deficiencies in the conceptual design of RBMK reactors. Today it is taken for granted that the reactivity increment initiating the power excursion was brought about by the insertion of the control rods and shutdown rods, as the rods of the RBMK reactor line, because of their faulty design, under certain circumstances will not bind reactivity but release it when inserted. In this way, the chain reaction is not stopped, but accelerated. This phenomenon is called positive scram effect. (orig.)

  1. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  2. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  3. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  4. Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminated regions are also discussed

  5. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 ?Sv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

  6. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident a monitoring and control center has been brought about in Hungary that has organized both an efficient nuclear environmental surveillance in the country and co-ordination of decision making on the basis of the results of measurements. After listing the organizations that took part in environmental surveillance, the paper presents some characteristic results of the measurements, describes the most important measures taken, and gives estimates concerning additional exposure of the Hungarian population due to the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  7. Medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of statistical medical data in Ukraine, published results of conferences and reports of ' Pripyat '. Scientific and Technical centre is presented. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident and effectiveness of under taken measures are evaluated. Principles of profilactics and treatment of diseases and recommendations on these problems are formulated

  8. Remote medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In result of global radio-ecological disaster at the Chernobyl NPP in Armenia there has appeared a great 'risk group' of persons, who had participated in liquidation of the accident consequences. The results of medical observation of this cohort carried out in dynamics in Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine and Burns during 25 years are brought in the work

  9. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main radiological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for Hungary are summarised. The territory of Hungary was unevenly contaminated by radioactive fallout after the accident at Chernobyl. A nationwide survey was instituted to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in different environmental media and in the food chain. As final consequence the average dose equivalent for Budapest residents due to internal plus external exposure was estimated to be about 150 ?Sv in the first year after the accident and 450-500 ?Sv was predicted over 50 years. From the series of assumptions made, the uncertainty in these values is quite high and the doses received by different individuals can vary considerably. (author)

  10. Blood coagulation in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to examine blood coagulation status of the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences. A total of 117 young men were examined who participated int he liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences mainly in 1986 and 1987. The mean dose for those who worked in 1986 was 26 rem, that for 1987 10 rem. Blood coagulation status was studied by coagulography and thromboelastography. The results were processed for groups with consideration for the predominant disease. Moderately expressed changes in coagulogram, variously directed, were detected. A clear tendency to hypercoagulation was established form the integral tromboelastogram parameters. The changes were more expressed in patients with erosive gastroduodenitis. Shifts in blood coagulation took a latent course without clinical manifestations of the DIC syndrome or local thrombosis. A tendency to hypercoagulation in the liquidators seems to be caused by chronic stress. 18 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m-2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 ?Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident

  12. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

  13. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  14. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ? The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ? We note the great effect of ?-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ? We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ? The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  15. Consequences and experiences - ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26 April 1986. the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the present borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.Material released into the atmosphere dispersed and eventually deposited back on the surface of the earth,were it was measurable over the whole northern hemisphere. Millions of people and all segments of life and economy have been affected by the accident. Radioactive contamination has reached several tens of MBq/m2 in the area of 30 km diameter around the reactor in 1986., and plants and animals have been exposed to short lived radionuclides up to external doses of several tens of Gy. In the early phase after the accident, 237 persons were suspected to have acute radiation syndrome as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, but diagnoses has been confirmed in 134 cases. In that phase 28 person have died as a consequence of exposure. There are significant non - related health disorders and symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and various psychosomatic disorders attributable to mental stress among the population in the region

  16. Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

  17. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  18. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1996, the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant led to the release into the atmosphere of considerable quantities of radionuclides. Most contaminated regions were in the southern Belarus, northern Ukraine and Bryansk and Kaluga regions of Russia. Main population groups exposed to the radioactivity released during the accident were the personnel at the Chernobyl plant and the rescue teams present on-site during the first hours, the cleanup workers (numbering about 600000) who participated in the decontamination and cleaning operations in the 30 km zone around the site, the residents of the same zone who were evacuated (numbering about 115000) and the inhabitants of contaminated zones (?1 Ci/km2). Dose and dose rate levels as well as exposure pathways differ from one population group to another. A review of scientific articles published in the international literature till 1998 has been carried out. Apart the 28 deaths due to acute radiation sickness which occurred in the personnel of the plant and rescue teams within several days or weeks after the accident, two main public health consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been observed. First an unprecedented epidemic of thyroid cancers was detected in children first in 1992 in Belarus then in the Ukraine and to a lesser extent in Bryansk region. The spontaneous incidence of these tumours was multiplied by 100 in most contaminated regions. Although the role of the accident in this epidemic is now recognised, questions are raised regarding the respective role of radioactive agents and other environmental or genetic factors, and its evolution in the future. Regarding other kinds of solid cancers and leukemia, no excess has been clearly demonstrated in the residents of contaminated areas nor in liquidators. Second, results of available epidemiological investigations show an increased risk of psychological distress in residents of highly contaminated areas, evacuated people and liquidators but have not demonstrated severe psychiatric consequences. An increased psychological distress has also been demonstrated in other radiological accidents and disasters. It indicates a degradation of individual well-being and health and may increase health care demand and health risk behaviours. It should thus be regarded as an important consequence on public health. (authors)

  19. Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smccident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even s

  20. Health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews the sequence of the accident, the radiation exposures of different population groups and various short and long term health and environmental consequences to the surroundings and to other affected areas.. Radioactivity related deaths have occurred most frequently among the rescue and cleaning up personnel. The pollution problems in Scandinavia and Norway in particular, are pointed out with emphasis on the health and environmental aspects. However, the long term consequences for the Belarus' population and the natural surroundings of Chernobyl are unknown but an increase in possibly radiation related chromosomal changes and mutations are observed and may cause various defects and species alterations as well as health problems both to human beings and the environment

  1. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion

  2. Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

  3. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

  4. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 2. Medical-biological and genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health variations in people subjected to irradiation resulted from the Chernobyl accident is analysed. Participants of the Chernobyl accident response and human populations (children and adults) residing at contaminated areas were under consideration. Genetic radiation effects due to the Chernobyl accident were separately considered. 24 refs.; 37 figs.; 17 tabs

  5. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  6. Legal consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author considers that the Chernobyl accident was a challenge to lawmakers and lawyers. This paper reviews the different aspects under which it has tested the legal system governing the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. In particular, regulations protecting the public from the dangers of ionizing radiation proved to be inadequate and had to be amended (NEA)

  7. Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

  8. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

  9. Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

  10. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

  11. The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

  12. The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

  13. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

  14. Short-Term Medical Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: Lessons for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Robert Peter

    1988-01-01

    The author of this article discusses the world's most serious nuclear accident to date: the Chernobyl nuclear accident of April 1986. His major focus is on the short-term medical consequences of the accident, including reduction of exposure to persons at risk, evaluation of persons potentially affected, dosimetry, and specific medical interventions.

  15. Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

  16. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

  17. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Gustaf Åhman; Birgitta Åhman (editor in chief); Axel Rydberg

    1990-01-01

    Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water ...

  18. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  19. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  20. Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents, a preliminary compared approach of their sanitary consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is too early to draw a definitive account of the sanitary impacts of the Fukushima accident but the author tries to assess them by comparing with Chernobyl accident. It appears that the sanitary consequences will be far less dramatic because of lower radiation doses and efficient counter-measures taken quickly after the accident such as evacuation of contaminated areas and restriction about the consumption of food produced locally. (A.C.)

  1. One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  2. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  3. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  4. Management of medical assistance provided to participants of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident consequences liquidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently in the Republic of Moldova there are 2675 people who had suffered from sequelae of Chernobyl accident. In the paper the morbidity (incidence and prevalence), disability and mortality among participants in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences for the period of 2007-2010 were studied. The analysis of morbidity among 'liquidators' during 2007-2010 in the Republic of Moldova reveals the decline of incidence and prevalence due to better monitoring, opportune diagnosis and appropriate and timely treatment. Cancer and cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for 'liquidators'.

  5. Medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident: substantiation of problem, overcoming experience and future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report of Director General of RCRM, AMS of Ukraine, Corresponding Member of AMS of Ukraine Prof. V.G.Bebeshko at the session of National Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine on 27.11.2003 efforts of 17 years work in overcoming medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident are summarized and perspectives for future research are designed

  6. Level of health of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of 1986-1988 about 3,000 Moldova citizens took part in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences elimination. In this article the level of morbidity, disability and mortality among Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation participants is analyzed. As a result of analysis of medical documentation and statistical data was revealed that the sickness rate among disaster fighters 2,3 times higher than general sickness rate of the population in Moldova. Disability in this category is at average of 73 per cent as opposed to the overall index for the population of Moldova - 4,4%, this means it is 17 times higher. Mortality among the participants of the accident at Chernobyl NPP is 6 times higher of general data. The participants of the breakdown elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences are equal in their right with the participants and invalids of war and with the disabled workers. Medical and social security of this group is regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

  7. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  8. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  9. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for people and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recalls the accident scenario, discusses the dispersion of the radioactive plume, comments the contamination at the vicinity of the power station, discusses and comments data related to radioactive deposits in Europe and in France, comments available information regarding radioactive fallouts in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia (models have been used to assess radioactive deposits). It addresses the issue of food product contamination in these three countries (impact on farm products, on water streams and on forests), but also in France. It comments the health impacts, more particularly on the people who intervened on the site, but also on people who received medium doses. Thyroid cancer data are discussed for the three mainly concerned countries. Other pathologies and non-cancerous effects are also discussed. The mortality induced by the accident is commented. Effects in France are evoked as well as social and economic consequences in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The document provides several links to other documents for further and more detailed information

  10. In Vienna about Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint EC/IAEA/WHO International Conference ''One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' has been held in Vienna, 8-12 April 1996. The most important subjects of the conference was: assessment of total releases and deposits, radiation doses, clinically observed effects, thyroid effects, longer term health effects, psychological and environmental consequences, social economic, institutional and political impact, nuclear safety, sarcophagus, perspective and prognosis

  11. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

  13. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  14. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

  15. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (author

  16. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After approval by the members of the Forum, this report is the result of that process

  17. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  18. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet union and measures taken to mitigate their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of factual material on the levels of radioactive contamination of the environment in various regions of the Soviet Union, a forecast is given of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the Soviet population

  19. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

    1997-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  20. Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents, a preliminary compared approach of their sanitary consequences; Accidents de Fukushima et Tchernobyl, une premiere approche comparee de leurs consequences sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Academie des technologies, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    It is too early to draw a definitive account of the sanitary impacts of the Fukushima accident but the author tries to assess them by comparing with Chernobyl accident. It appears that the sanitary consequences will be far less dramatic because of lower radiation doses and efficient counter-measures taken quickly after the accident such as evacuation of contaminated areas and restriction about the consumption of food produced locally. (A.C.)

  1. Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems for off-site emergency management (RODOS), etc

  2. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

  3. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p<0.001) differences on intelligence scale of exposed children: the full scale IQ and verbal IQ are lower in exposed versus non exposed children. Differences on performance IQ are non significant (p>0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (authors)

  4. On the occasion of the 20-th anniversary of the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: medical consequences in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indices of the health state and the morbidity structure of the inhabitants of Armenia who took part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences are considered. The epidemiological analysis shows that nervous system diseases and cardiovascular diseases lead among of sickness of armenian liquidators of the Chernobyl accident. The role of other factors (smoking, alcohol and social-economic situation) influencing on the health Indies of examined persons is discussed

  5. Radiological consequences of Chernobyl accident: UN scientific committee on effects of atomic radiation confirms earlier IAEA assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document informs about a new report by the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) to the UN General Assembly containing an evaluation of the consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl accident, and which concludes that 'there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure fourteen years after the accident'. The conclusions of the UNSCEAR report are similar to those arrived at by the International Conference 'One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident', organized by the IAEA in Vienna in 1996

  6. Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs

  7. Prophylaxis of arteriosclerosis and myocardial infarction among participants of elimination consequences after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the examination of 415 patients being the participants of the Chernobyl accident response are presented. Examinations were performed for risk assessment of arteriosclerosis and myocardial infraction or insult. Elevated cholesterin levels or high risk of the development of consequences were revealed in 204 patients. These patients were exposed to the treatment with Pravastatine (Lipostat, USA) as well as Zokor preparation (USA). It is shown that the treatment with Lipostat is well endured by patients has no side effects and gives an effect in 70-80 % of cases

  8. Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the feeding of infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the persisting and understandable fear of parents with regard to radioactivity in the food of their babies as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Commission on Nutrition of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kinderheilkunde (German Society of Pediatrics) and the Strahlenschutzkommission have published a statement. According to this statement, the maximum permissible level of radioactivity in commercial baby food has been fixed by the EC to be 370 Bq/kg. The dietetic food industry itself has fixed a maximum for its products which is only a tenth of the radioactivity level permitted by the EC directive. The milk powders for infants tested since the reactor accident contained no measurable radioactivity or only very low amounts of Cs 134 or Cs 137, correspondung to a maximum of 25 Bq/kg in the product. Late damage to health is not to be expected. (orig./ECB)

  9. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  10. General situation of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident on April 26, 1986, epidemiological analyses of data point to impressive deterioration of the health of the people affected by radionuclide contamination in the environment. This deterioration of population health embraces a broad spectrum of diseases. Epidemiological prediction of the rate of thyroid cancer in children near Chernobyl seems strikingly compatible with a real increase. But there is a tendency to consider the morbidity augmentation as a result having been associated with the factors of non-radioactive origin (chemical compounds, heavy metals and mainly social-psychological syndrome development). The Chernobyl catastrophe has implied a heavy burden for Ukraine: pollution of air, water, soils and vegetation in all ecosystems, late radiological effects in the health of people, losses of arable land and forest, necessity of mass-evacuation from thousands of settlements in the contaminated regions, severe psychological shock for millions of people, and painful suffering of unexpected life tragedies. Eleven years after, this tragic event with its causes and consequence brings one to very important conclusions concerning moral aspects of human relations within the nuclear society, as well as interactions between the society and the environment. (J.P.N.)

  11. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

  12. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 1. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP accident, radiation monitoring, protection measures and their efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategy of the development of native nuclear power engineering is analysed concerning the Chernobyl accident. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP are considered. Attention is paid to the problems of radiation monitoring of personnel and human population. Radiation accident dynamics and radiation protection measures are discussed. Decontamination problem is analysed as well as its efficiency. 255 refs.; 5 figs.; 19 tabs

  13. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident.

  14. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  15. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  16. Programmes for epidemiologic studies on consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation exposure resulting from the Chernobyl accident for the Bulgarian population has been found to be of an order that limits possible health consequences to the realm of stochastic effects - cancer and heritable damage - and, in certain cases of prenatal irradiation, disorders of mental development. Our predictions took into consideration ICRP conceptions (Publication 60, 1990) and the specified estimates of accidental radiation doses. However values of radiation risk coefficients are based on limited direct human data, so use had inevitably to be made of experimental evidence obtained from other mammalian species and of in vitro findings. Moreover for the low-dose-level range, one has to draw largely on observations made using high doses and dose rates. The expected increase in cancer diseases was found to remain within the range of spontaneous incidence fluctuations and would hardly be demonstrated by conventional statistical analysis of oncologic morbidity and mortality. The same holds true for heritable diseases and possible effects of prenatal irradiation. Implied here are data on spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, infant mortality and congenital malformations, including such as become manifest at later times. Though findings for the first 6-year period following the accident are in general correspondence to predictions, the analysis is to be continued. All the more that enough time has not elapsed for the latent periods of the majority of anticipated effects. In accordance with WHO recommendations on study of health implications of the Chernobyl accident the following effects are to be studied: leukemic disorders; nodular thyroid lesions; prenatal irradiation effects; genetic effects. (author)

  17. Introductory remarks by the Chairman. [Session 1: Environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many scientists as well as representatives from UN organizations and governments of affected regions participated in the work of the Chernobyl Forum. Several meetings of the Forum were necessary to initiate the work and monitor the progress of the expert groups. Two expert groups formulated comprehensive reports - one on environmental issues, organized by the IAEA, and one on health issues, organized by the WHO. Experts from throughout the world were invited to contribute to these evaluations. The representatives of governments and the staff of international organizations then reviewed the results of these groups to be sure that the reviews were complete and the evaluations reasonable, so that they could serve as the basis for consensus agreements and effective recommendations for further dealing with the consequences of the accident

  18. Application of natural adsorbents as decontamination agents for the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific foundations of using natural adsorbents as ion exchangers,filtering media and adagulants for water purification ase presented. The results showing the efficiency of practical application of natural adsorbents for the decontamination of water, clothes, machinery, construction materials, etc. during the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986-1987 are presented

  19. Knowledge resources on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in the INIS Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains 19872 bibliographic records and 8400 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to 04/2005. A bibliometric study of these records was made to generate statistical summaries that characterise, in general terms, the intellectual content of the records and the nature of the records in terms of its major bibliographic attributes. Environmental aspects and human health constitute the two dominant subjects with a respective contribution of 49% and 38%. The rest is evenly divided among legal aspects, reactor safety and socio-economic impacts of the accident. The three countries that are most affected by the accident, namely Ukraine, Russian Federation and Belarus contributed 44% of the total input. 57% of the literature analysed are conference papers and reports while 25% are journal articles. Most of the documents were written in English (47%) and in Russian (36%). Seven percent of the publications were written in German. (author)

  20. Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

  1. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  2. Agroindustrial production sphere - radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident and the chief protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident, fallout of radionuclides has occurred on farm lands, and the contaminated production of the agroindustrial complex has become a source of additional irradiation of the population. The contribution of the irradiation associated with the consumption of locally produced food products was quite significant, and led to the implementation of protective measures in the agroindustrial production sphere. It should be noted that irradiation of people owing to the consumption of contaminated agricultural products is more easily regulated than external irradiation. For this reason, the decrease in the total dose load is largely determined by the possibilities of restricting the internal irradiation dose to the population from the consumption of food products. The paper discusses radiological conditions in the agroindustrial production sphere in the region of the accident; intake of radionuclides by agricultural plants through leaves; distribution and form of 137Cs in soils; uptake of radionuclides by plants from the soil, animal husbandry aspects of the migration of radionuclides and their biological action; and organizational measures of the USSR for mitigating the consequences

  3. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  4. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within the

  5. Summary of the consequences for the environment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main conclusions on the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the former Soviet Union can be summarised as follows: the long term radioactive contamination of the environment can essentially be put down to Cs and Sr and, to a lesser degree, transuranic elements. In the short term, the radioactive iodine fall-out plays a fundamental role; in the countries of the former Soviet Union, it is estimated that 29,300 and 10,200 km2 of the surface area of the land are respectively contaminated by over 185 and 555 kBq.m-2. Approximately 1,064,000 people live in areas contaminated by more than 185 kBq.m-2; acute radioactive fall-out effects have occurred in the 30 km exclusion zone, essentially witnessed by the death of numerous conifers. On average, it will take about twenty years for half the Cs to disappear from the top 10 cm of soil; the level of contamination of food products varies greatly according to soil type. However, we can consider that milk, berries and mushrooms were the most critical foods in the years immediately following the accident and that some of the agricultural counter-measures taken have proved very useful in containing the contamination of food products. Because of the massive iodine leakage, the worst affected organ in the body during the months following the accident was the thyroid gland. In the months following the accident, the presence of radioactive elements on the surface of vegetables which were subsequently eaten proved to be the main source of human contamination; after a rapid fall off in external dose received by the population during the first year, it is now decreasing much more slowly. This phenomenon is mainly due to the very long-life of the radioactive caesium in the soil; approximately 90 % of the total internal dose for the 70 years following the accident have already been received by the local population. The external dose level will be reduced fairly slowly and we can assess that approximately 60 % of the amount of the external dose cumulated for the 70 years following the accident has already been ingested. (author)

  6. Status of the vestibular analyzer and psychophysiologic parameters in miners and liquidators of the Chernobyl atomic power station accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Status of the vestibular analyzer and psychophysiologic parameters were studied in 20 miners with the long length of service and in 16 liquidators of Chernobyl atomic power station accident consequences. Liquidators showed reliably increased latent periods of P1, N1 and P2 spikes of vestibular evoked potentials, considerably increased latent of the complicated oculomotor reaction and lowered rate of information processing. Exposure to increased radiation dose during the work at Chernobyl atomic power station was a main factor to influence on the functional status of vestibular analyzer

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarkog, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Arkhipov, N.P. [Scientific and Technical Centre of the RIA `Pripyat` (Ukraine); Johansson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-07-01

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

  8. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems

  9. Scientometric analysis of the means of scientific communication of the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper evaluation of the structure and trends in the development of the Ukrainian scientific communication tools on the medical consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident using bibliometric methods has been given. The main developers of methodical documents are allocated, the dynamics of the distribution of methodical references, information letters and innovations is estimated. The importance of scientific communications tools in dissemination and use of new medical knowledge is demonstrated

  10. The reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl, was the first major catastrophe in the peaceful utilizaion of nuclear energy - however, it was a regional and not a global catastrophe. Chernobyl has shown that the most alarming and genuinely catastrophic consequences of such an accident were that large areas of the affected region were uninhabitable for a long period due to the radioactive fall-out. The effects caused by this to living conditions for very many people have had significant social, psychological and economic effects. (orig.)

  11. The reactor accident at Chernobyl and its consequences in the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four sets of subjects are examined and analysed against the background of the obligation of the media to provide information. These are questions of the extent of the information on the accident at Chernobyl, the separation of factual reports and opinionative ones, the thought-out nature of the representation by supporters and opponents and the slide from reporting on the danger from radioactive clouds to a debate on leaving the nuclear economy. (DG)

  12. Land use optimization is the key task of reducing consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the task to optimize land use of the Ukrainian territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The following 4 areas characterized by the specific peculiarities of the land-use are named: 1) right-of-way area; 2) obligatory eviction area; 3) area of the guaranteed voluntary eviction; 4) area with radionuclide increased concentration in soils. In correspondence with the given zoning the main trends for optimization of the contaminated land use are put forward

  13. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  14. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  15. Doses of internal irradiation of subjects participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences in April-May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed at assessing the doses of internal exposure for liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences. Doses of internal irradiation were estimated for two groups of subjects who witnessed the accident. Group 1 included 23 subjects who died in May-June, 1986. Group 2 consisted of 375 subjects divided in 2 subgroup (2-A and 2-B). These were the survivors who were examined using human radiation scintillator (HRS) and in whom gamma-radiating markers of fuel particles were detected in 1986-1988. Recovery of exposure doses for subjects witnessing the Chernobyl accident showed that 1) the mean expected suspended equivalent dose of internal irradiation for group 1 was 600 mSv. By the moment of death no more than 4 % of this value was realized; 2) the mean effective dose of internal irradiation for group 2-A was 130 mSv, the expected mean equivalent dose for the lungs 510 mSv; 3) the mean expected effective dose of internal exposure for group 2-B was 40 mSv, the expected mean equivalent dose for the lungs 120 mSv. The estimates of expected doses of internal exposure of subjects witnessing the accident indicate an appreciable contribution of the sources of internal irradiation of individual organs, and that this contribution should by no means be neglected in analysis and prediction of the medical consequences of the accident. 23 refs.; 8 tabs

  16. The radioecological consequences of the Kyshtym and Chernobyl radiation accidents for forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Urals and Chernobyl accidents 60 to 90% of the radioactive fallout was retained by the above-ground part of forest stands. In the Urals the period for semi-removal of contamination from crowns ranged from 6 to 8 months, compared to around one month in the Chernobyl region - due to different seasonal conditions during the fallout period. The bulk of the dose burden in woody plants' critical organs built up over one to six months. The minimum lethal dose for pine tree needles in the Urals was around 50 Gy, and 25 Gy for the apical meristem; the corresponding figures for Chernobyl were 100 Gy and 25-30 Gy. At lower doses we observed morphological disturbances, reduced growth and suppressed reproductive capability in pines. The resistance to radioactive contamination of deciduous forest was 10-20 times greater than that of conifers. We studied the irradiation doses of the different groups of organisms living in the various forest storeys, and the effects of irradiation (changes in species composition, prevalence and productivity) in communities of herbaceous plants and soil invertebrates. Specific examples are given to highlight the secondary changes in these communities stemming from radiation damage in species sensitive to radioactive contamination. We studied the dynamics of dispersion and migration of the long-lived radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the various components of the biogeocenoses and in the network of geochemically interconnected forest landscapes, and their content in forestry produce. Some six to ten years after the deposition of radioactive fallout in forest ecosystems the radionuclides were more or less evenly spread throughout the soil-woody plant system. Thus, overall 90Sr content in the arboreal storey amounts to 1-2% in coniferous forests, and 5-10% in deciduous forests (Urals accident), while the corresponding figures for 137Cs (Chernobyl accident) are 2 to 3 times higher. (author)

  17. Food monitoring for radioactivity concentrations after the Chernobyl accident: Consequences for the citizen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactively contaminated food accounts for most of the radiation exposure after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Hence, food low in radiation will allow to kerb exposure. Precautions include a general identification of radioactivity contents in food commodities by industry and trade as well as preferential supply of pregnant women, nursing mothers and young children with low-activity food. Such food would have an acceptable level of 10 Bq Cs 137/kg. Private precautions are needed for as long as the government fails to initiate corresponding measures. (DG)

  18. Study on consequences of radioactive iodine pollution and iodine prophylaxis after Chernobyl accident in Cracow region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Program of investigations of effects of radiation and iodine prophylaxis undertaken after Chernobyl accident in Cracow region had to be modified due to goiter endemic in this region.These modifications included: 1) Division of the region into 3 areas (voivodeship Nowy Sacz, urban voivodeship Cracow and area of Kielce and Swietokrzyskie Mountains). 2) Study on iodine uptake in food and urinary secretion. 3) Examination of iodine level in drinking water, and an attempt of calculation of radiation dose absorbed by thyroid. Characterization of selected areas, principles of selection of study groups are presented as well as organisational details and methods of data collection. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  20. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  1. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  2. The Chernobyl Accident: Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in the former Soviet Union in 1986 exposed large numbers of people in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia to radioactive iodines, principally I-131 which concentrates in the thyroid gland (Hatch, et al. 2005; Cardis and Hatch, 2011).

  3. Pathophysiological approaches to analyzing the medical consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of information on health state in persons involved in the Chernobyl accident, was carried out. 4 groups of persons affected due to ionizing radiation were formed. 1 group -received maximum radiation doses during the accident with subsequent development of ARD (237 persons); 2 group - rescuers (more than 600000 persons) dose level was lower than 25 CGy. 3 group - persons subjected to radiation action and evacuated from affected zone. More than 20 000 persons received dose of 25 cGy exceeding accidental. 4 group - the population of radionuclide contaminated areas. A study was made on blood system, immune system, sympatheticoadrenal system, hemostasis system; hypophysial adrenal system, hypophysis - thyroid system. Methods for investigations of pathology in the health of people subjected to low dose radiation are of great importance

  4. Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

  5. The causes and consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident and implications for the regulation of U.S. nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the causes of the Chernobyl accident and of actions taken to terminate the accident and to mitigate the consequences. Emergency preparedness and evacuation measures, medical treatment, protection against contaminated food and water supplies, and a variety of post-accident recovery measures are examined. Methodological issues in assessing the health consequences of the accident are discussed, and a preliminary view of some implications of the accident for the regulation of U.S. nuclear power plants is provided. (UK)

  6. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG)

  7. The Chernobyl Accident: Collaborators

    Science.gov (United States)

    A special note is made of the extraordinary leadership of the late Dr. Elaine Ron, who helped shape and oversee the conduct of the NCI-Chernobyl program. The late Dr. Geoffrey Howe of Columbia University also made invaluable contributions to this research. We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Gilbert Beebe, Jacob Robbins, and Terry Thomas, who were involved from the earliest days following the accident and continued to provide scientific input until the time of their respective deaths.

  8. Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

  9. Environmental and health consequences in Japan due to the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review was made on the results of national monitoring program for environmental radioactivity in Japan resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR. Period of monitoring efforts covered by the present review is from 30th of April 1986 to 31st of May 1987. A radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor initially arrived in Japan on 30th of April 1986 as indicated by the elevated level of 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activity in the total deposition on 30th of April and also by the increased 137Cs body burden noted on 1st of May. Almost all the radioactive nuclides detected in the European countries were also identified in Japan. For example, the observed nuclides were: 95Zr, 95Nb, 99mTc, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 111Ag, 125Sb, 127Sb, 129mTe, 131I, 132Te, 132I, 133I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce. Among the above radionuclides, the country average concentration was determined for 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs in various environmental materials such as air, fresh water, soil, milk, leafy and root vegetables, cereals, marine products and other foodstuffs. In contrast to the sharp decline of 131I which was negligible after a few months, 137Cs showed a tendency to maintain its activity in foodstuffs at an appreciable level one year later. Collective effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent to thyroid in Japanese population due to 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I were estimated to be around 590 man Sv and 4760 man Sv, respectively. Corresponding values for the per caput dose equivalent are 5 ?Sv for whole body and 40 ?Sv for thyroid, respectively. (author)

  10. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

  11. Demographic situation in the Kaluga region for 1976-1992. Possible consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies the demographic situation in different areas of the Kaluga region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, during 1976-1992. The following indices received the particular attention: the composition of population, size of population, birth rate, mortality, child mortality. It is shown that during the investigated period no variations of the size of population, of the mortality and of the increment of population resulted from the Chernobyl accident were detected

  12. Radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioecological pattern of radionuclides within ecosystems determines the peculiarities of irradiation by ionizing radiation of numerous microorganisms, fungi, plants and animals. Irradiation of the species populations leads to appearance of various stochastic and nonstochastic radiobiological consequences on different levels of bio system organization as a result of the direct and indirect effects of start and chronic irradiations. Prediction of possible remote effects of irradiation as well as search for optimal countermeasures against negative consequences of the nuclear accident system analysis of complicated nets of radioecological and radiobiological events in damaged ecosystems. The scheme of these nets is proposed

  13. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean-up operations at the reactor site in 1986 and 1987. (author)

  14. Primary disability and its structure at liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences in post-Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary disability in persons participated in Chernobyl catastrophe liquidation was studied for 1986-1987, for 1988 and for 1994-2000. The structure of the disease caused the primary disability of those persons was analyzed. The primary invalidity indices were determined to increase for certain nosologic forms such as for the blood circulation disease, malignant neoplasms, eye pathology (authors)

  15. Prenatal diagnostics of congenital malformations, the most efficient way to decrease genetic consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term study of the prevalence of congenital malformations (CM) in the population of Belarus, carried out by Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, showed considerably increased, from 5.6% in 1980-1985 to 7.2% in 1986-1996, frequency of the anomalies found in embryos, increased number of malformations in induced abortuses and also the growth of CM in newborns, from 5 in 1983-1985 to 7.2 in 2001, in post-Chernobyl period. The highest raise was registered in the mostly contaminated with Cs-137 areas in the first post-Chernobyl years. There are various reasons for the observed increase, but they are still not clearly understood. Nutrition imbalance (deficit of vitamins, essential amino acids and soluble selenium), physoemotional stress, hormone imbalance, alcoholism and increased level of mutations due to additional exposure of the gonads of the residents of contaminated areas of the Republic can have some impact. Positive prevalence trend of multifactorial anomalies evidences multifactorial origin of the increased prevalence of embryonal anomalies. Both, increased prevalence of CM with great contribution of dominant mutations and the peak of Down's syndrome cases, recorded in January, 1987 with maximum in Gomel region, suggest mutation component. At present, the most efficient measures to prevent the birth of malformed children are prenatal diagnostics and vitamin supplement of the couples, who plan their pregnancy, and pregnant women in the first trimester. According to the conclusion, made by WHO experts, vitamin intake can considerably reduce many CM with multifactorial origin. Positive results can be achieved only if the problem is solved by the government, when vitamins are added to flour, cereals and bread. Prenatal diagnostics with subsequent termination of pregnancy, where incurable anomalies are found, contributes greatly to the reduction of the proportion of malformed newborns, irrespective of the factors, which caused the anomalies. Thus, in Belarus in the last 5 years about 500 pregnancies were terminated annually for genetic reasons. Over 100 pregnancies were terminated in Gomel region, which considerably reduced (by 1-3%) perinatal mortality, children's morbidity and disability. The number of children, born with the anomalies of the central nervous system, renal polycystosis and agenesis, omphalocele, reduction limb defects, is decreasing most considerably. The potentialities of prenatal diagnostics of CM are far from being used adequately in the Republic. With sufficient financing, present-day techniques allow prenatal diagnosing of 1000 cases instead of 600 diagnosed each year. The program will be productive, if prenatal biochemical screening and invasive prenatal procedures are financed regularly and interregional centres for prenatal diagnostics are created. These measures will not only reduce the proportion of children, born with congenital malformations, but increase the birth rate in Belarus, since the future mothers will not be scared to give birth to a malformed child, which is especially essential for the population exposed to radiation due to Chernobyl accident (authors)

  16. Consequences of Chernobyl accident for Poland: Retrospective assessment after 10 years; Skutki katastrofy w Czarnobylu dla Polski: Ocena retrospektywna po 10 latach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskowski, J. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The regional contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident has been presented. On this base the biological and medical consequences have been discussed. The neonatal mortality as well as cancer frequency for selected regional population in Poland have been analysed during the last decade. 10 figs, 20 tabs.

  17. The accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl constituted the largest release of radioactivity ever recorded in a single technological accident. It was caused by a combination of design and management errors, and produced a highly variable pattern of fallout, strongly correlated with local rainfall. Even at 1500 km, fallout in some places far exceeded the levels recorded during the period of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The burden of 31 acute deaths was surprisingly small, and was limited to emergency workers who had to cope with the fire at the plant. The cost of potential chronic health effects, including as many as 28,000 cancers worldwide, in contrast, is surprisingly large, and is localized in Soviet Europe and non-Soviet Europe in approximately equal parts. The author discusses how the pattern of dispersion and exposure due to Chernobyl demands reconsideration of emergency planning for nuclear power stations, not only in the Soviet Union, but also in the West. Revised emergency plans should involve the combination of decentralized and centralized response efforts capable of providing not only acute risk management but also adequate protection against chronic exposure, particularly via ingestion

  18. Chernobyl the health consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

  19. Risk factors influencing disease incidence in subjects who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyzer the relationship between disease incidence in the participants of the liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident aftereffects and the factors influencing this disease incidence. Three factors influencing the incidence of metal and neural diseases are considered. These factors are the duration of the presence at the site of the accident, time of coming to the site of accident (time elapsed since the accident to the liquidators first coming to the zone), and external irradiation dose. The basic risk factors of these diseases are the time of arrival in the accident zone and the duration of work in the zone, the irradiation dose effect being negligible here

  20. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is the results of the International Conference ''One decade after Chernobyl''. It includes topics on initial responses, radioactive releases, absorbed radiation doses and health effects, socio-economic impacts as well as safety of RBMK type reactors

  1. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathways of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout to man were followed in the county of Vaesterbotten, Sweden. Reported airplane measurements had shown that the ground deposition of 137Cs was 3-40 kBq/m2 with hot spots with more than 80 kBq/m2. Multiplying with a factor of 0.6 gave the 134Cs deposition and an approximate factor of 20 the 131I ground deposition. The effective dose equivalent from 131I became low, 137Cs activity concentration in different types of food was measured in approximately 8000 samples. The most important sources of Cs intake in man were lake fish, elk (European moose) and reindeer. Variations with time was studied in detail for four types of lake fish. Whole-body measurements on more than 250 persons showed that no group of people on average received more than 1 mSv from food during the first year after the Chernobyl accident. However, single persons eating large amounts of reindeer meat received up to 2.5 mSv. People buying all their food in ordinary provision-shops got less than 0.1 mSv from the food during the first year. The present level of 90Sr activity concentration in man will only give an effective dose equivalent of 0.004 mSv/year, most of it being a result of the atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. (orig.)

  2. Genetic consequences of radioactive pollution of the environment caused by the chernobyl accident for plants populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana Heynh, and Sylvestris L., growing within 30 km of Chernobyl and Bransk region have been analyzed for the frequency of embryonic lethal mutations on arabidopsis and frequency of chlorophill mutations and chromosome aberrations by pine. On pine also have been analyzed rate of mutations at enzyme loci in endosperms of seeds. Dose dependence of the value genetic damage on level of radioactive pollution was observed. Refs. 30, figs. 4, tabs. 6

  3. Malignant neoplasms morbidity tendencies between liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1986-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the constantly increasing malignant tumors, the great interest towards the cancers induced by radiation appears. The analyze of such cancers is possible because of the detailed statistic data. 5965 Chernobyl clean-up workers were examined. In the years of 1986 - 2004 it was registered 128 cancers. 27,4 % - the cancers of pulmonary system; 26,9 % - the cancers of gastrointestinal system; 10,8 % - the cancers of blood and lymph system; 10,2 % - the lip and mouth cancers; 6,1% - the skin cancers. Among the clean-up workers who were worked in Chernobyl in the period of 1986-1987 years more often - the cancers skin, of blood and lymph system, the lip and mouth were detected. More often the cancers were detected in the age groups of 45-64 years with predomination of pulmonary and gastrointestinal system cancers, o in the age groups of 25-44 - with skin cancers, the cancers of blood and lymph system and the lip and mouth cancers. Comparing with Lithuanian men population the cancer predomination of Chernobyl clean-up workers is higher

  4. Medical problems after the Chernobyl's accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health hazards after Chernobyl are discussed according to the official data for the ex-USSR. The problems of some individuals participating in elimination of accident consequencies, as well as of the populations of the three most badly affected ex-Sovjet republics are analyzed. An estimation of the expected stochastic effects for the Bulgarian population is shown. 6 refs

  5. An experience of information support of the Russian federal programs of the overcoming of consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1992, by a number of paragraphs of the federal programs on overcoming consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP, the measures on informational-analytic support of the federal programs were provided. Within the framework of this activity for the solution of various aspects of Chernobyl's problem central bank of generalized data and numerous information systems were created. In the report the brief description of some of them is presented. In particular the databank on radioactive situation includes the information on 12 thousand settlements of Russia which have been exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident.The medico-demographic section of a databank includes information on death rate for the reasons for all subjects of Russian Federation since 1982 till the present time. The developed information systems are available to all participants of work on overcoming of consequences of the accident. There are given the examples of integral estimates in short- and long-term forecasts of development of a situation in territories suffered by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. (author)

  6. Increase of soil radioactivity in Cologne as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of soil radioactivity in Cologne has been measured in a private garden with a relatively simple device suitable for use in schools. By sheer accident, the author had measured a gamma spectrum of the soil on April 4, 1986, and thus had a pre-accident spectrum available for comparison with the one made on May 10, 1986. The comparison has been made using the Cs-137 spectrum. Analysis has been made using a 4K multichannel analyser with automatic dead-time correction, added to an APPLE IIe. (DG)

  7. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine and problems with the sarcophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident in the Ukraine contaminated part of the territory with iodine 131, caesium 137, strontium 90, and plutonium 239 and 240. The zone surrounding the site of the accident was declared restricted area; more than 90 000 persons were evacuated. The paper reports on current conditions in the restricted area and prospects for this area as well as on the current state of, and problems with, the sarcophagus. The conversion of the sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system and the economic situation of the Ukraine pose great problems. (DG)

  8. Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

  9. Lessons from Chernobyl and prognosis for Fukushima: radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following are considered: results of large-scale radiation epidemiological studies of the health effects of the Chernobyl accident, radiation risks for emergency workers and the affected population; and verification of ICRP risk models taking into account data on the Chernobyl accident and preliminary prognostic estimates of potential radiological consequences of the Fukushima disaster. (note)

  10. The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences; radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

  11. The Chernobyl Accident: About the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The accident happened during a routine test, intended to demonstrate how long the turbines would spin after a power loss. Prior to the test, the automatic shutdown mechanisms were disabled. Coolant water was reduced and the power output was increased. The operator tried to shut down the reactor but a flaw in the design caused a large power surge.

  12. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

  13. Consequences, countermeasures and observed or suspected effects in the USSR after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident led to substantial radioactive contamination, which was initially dominated by 131I and later by 137Cs. 90Sr was substantially less important. More than 200000 people were evacuated. There are still 270000 inhabitans of areas with Cs contaminations of more than 5 x 105 Bq/m2. At least some of these will still have to be evacuated for radiological reasons. In large regions of smaller contamination normal life with few restrictions would be possible, if it were not for the poor information policy of the authorities which has caused a degree of suspicion, fear and insecurity that makes it now almost impossible to reach an objective perception of the exposures and the associated risks. The deficient health statistics have, up to now, not permitted any conclusions regarding increases of childhood leukemias which are expected in the regions with the highest contamination. For other cancers one expects lower relative increases but it is unlikely that they would be detected even in thorough statistical studies. Thyroid cancers are a possible exception. In contrast, significant increases of ilnesses such as anemia or diabetes which are not normally associated with radiation, have been noted. They are due to the grave constraints in living conditions, to the fears and to the increased attention to illnesses which were formally not registered in any health statistics. They are now seen by the population and also by most physicians as radiation-induced. (orig./MG)

  14. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  15. IAEA report on assessment of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Unit 4 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant, extensive activities have been conducted to mitigate radiological consequences, on the public, associated with radioactive materials released during the accident. Among numerous decisions on protective measures, the decisions on long-term protective measures, in particular relocation, have been subjected to concerns and anxieties of the public, leading to social and political arguments in the three republics which were, are and will continuously be affected by the accident. Corresponding to this difficulty, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested the International Atomic Energy Agency to perform an international assessment of criteria established by the USSR authorities and an evaluation of protective measures on the public. This paper summarises the results of international assessment undertaken by the International Chernobyl Project under the direction of the International Advisory Committee, and includes such items as environmental contamination, exposure to the public, health effect and protective measures. (author)

  16. Long-term therapy for polymorphic mental disorders in liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krasnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a long-term comparative therapeutic study of a large cohort of more than 500 liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The patients were followed up (and periodically treated at hospital 5 years or more, usually 10—15 years. The study confirmed mainly the cerebrovascular nature of disorders following the pattern seen in moderate psychoorganic syndrome. Therapy with cerebroprotective agents having vascular vegetotropic properties could yield certain therapeutic results and, to some extent, preserve social functioning capacity in these patients.

  17. Metabolic syndrome X as a clinical outcome of hormonal changes on the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences (the problem analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of hormonal changes in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences, which promote the metabolic syndrome X development, was carried out on the base of clinical and experimental data. The system insulin-glucose, the mechanisms of insulinresistance and gyperinslinemia forming, the pathogenetical role of hyperinsulinemia interaction with others hormomes, some aspects of hormone - receptor interaction, an interconnection of hyperinsulinemia and vascular pathology, peculiarities of radiobiological stress as a non-classic adaptive reaction, which frequently resulting with a pathology, were discussed in the article

  18. Information-Analytic support of the programs of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident: gained experience and its future application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the initial stage of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the role of system-analytic and information support in the decision making process for protection of the population and rehabilitation of territories was. to a certain extent, underestimated. Starting from 1991, activity in system-analytic support was the part of the USSR (later on, Russian) stage programs. This activity covered three direction: development of the Central bank of the generalized data on the radiation catastrophes; development, implementation, and maintenance of the control informational system for the Federal bodies; computer-system integration

  19. Evaluation of postpone Ch NPP accident consequences. Health state of children born in families of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the results of the medical investigation during 1996-2008 years of the health of the about 200 children (107 girls, 115 boys 5-17 years old), which parents took part in liquidation of C NPP accident have been performed. Clinical, immunological disturbance and increased chromosome mutagenesis intensity in somatic cells of the investigated children gave reason to classify them among those with the increased risk of probability of the pathology with genetic component. This may be considerate as a well founded conclusion for elaboration of separated registry of the children born in families of liquidators. The immunological disturbance of children probably reflects the disturbance of the differential processes and maturity of cells of thymus and can be the consequences of the factors influence related with the clinic pathologies. The results permitted to select the group for feature cytogenesis and clinic investigations (authors)

  20. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  1. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  2. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  3. State institution 'Republican research centre of radiation medicine and human ecology': concept of development and its role in solution of medical problems of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the Centre is the head institution, which provides specific medical assistance to population affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. It also carries out research work defined by the State Program of the Republic of Belarus on liquidating consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe within the period of 2001-2005 and up to 2010, sub-items 'Medical Assistance and Recuperation, Mother and Child Care, Hereditary Illnesses' and 'Radiation Protection and Dosage Monitoring of Population'. The aim of the Concept of the development of the Centre is to maintain and promote the health of the people exposed to multicomponent and prolonged impact of irradiation after Chernobyl accident and other negative factors of the environment of anthropogenic and man-caused nature, by means of realization of scientifically-grounded measures on minimizing of direct and indirect losses of society due to morbidity and mortality decrease. The ecological situation in the Republic and necessity of liquidation of medical consequences of the Chernobyl disaster demand to conduct long-term dynamic monitoring of state of health of big cohorts of people. At present, this problem is solved by clinical examination of population affected by irradiation. This is the base of preventive activity directed to decrease medical consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. In the Republic of Belarus, clinical examination of suffering population is carried out at all levels - republican, regional, local, - in clinics. To monitor the state of health of the population and to obtain correct data of medico-biological consequences of the catastrophe, Belarus State Register of people exposed to irradiation due to Chernobyl accident, was established and is functioning. At present, State Register provides information supply of the conducted clinical examination. The concentration in one institution of functions of managing staff, quality control of clinical examination and scientific inspection of the State Register may solve: the issue of correct assessment of changes of state of health of the population under clinical examination, at all its levels; significant decrease of the amount and expenses for such investigations. The full and true information about health of the population, suffering from the catastrophe and being under clinical examination, qualitative and correct analysis of the levels of dynamics of morbidity makes possible to ground scientifically recommendations on perfection of medical assistance, to conduct targeted prevention activities on decrease of pathologies among suffered population on the whole and in separate regions and categories of the suffered people, to define ways of promotion of clinical examination at all its stages which is actual for health care system of the Republic. These materials will build the ground for preparation of the Concept of organization of medical supply of population affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Concept is to be developed by the Centre according to the Resolution N2 (29.01.2003) of the Board of Ministry of Health Care of the Republic of Belarus. The first stage of the Concept preparation was the development of the Centre's working plan on organization of clinical examination for population suffering from Chernobyl accident, for the period of 2003. The realization of the Concept of the development of the Centre will allow: to use effectively intellectual potential due to science and practical health care dissociation; to improve material and technical basis due to financial flow unification; to ensure integrity of the united technological chain: investigation - result - introduction; to ensure highly professional level of specialized medical assistance to the population due to maximum exploitation of medical equipment and highly professional staff in treatment and diagnostic process; to ensure unified system of prognosis and regulation of state of health of the population in unfavorable environment; to develop, together with clinical sub-dividing, regional passports of health on the basis of complex monito

  4. The Chernobyl Accident: Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  5. Medical consequences for children population of survivors after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (12 years later)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl NPP accident is recognized as the global disaster. Wide amount of population including children was involved. According to the direct measurements results from 1986 the 40% of children population received thyroid irradiation doses from 0.3 to 2.0 Gy and 10% of them - over 2 Gy respectively. Cesium incorporation value calculated per irradiation dose not exceeded 0.5 rem in 97% of kids. Children examination was organized in 2 steps. Within 1. one various transient reactions of nervous system, skin, mucosa, blood formula were revealed. Within 2. one the complete medical examinations were carried out both with dosimetric control. ChNPP accident poly-factor nature was fixed. Wide amount of somatic pathology not related to radiation exposure dose was registered. 12 years after the accident as the result of wide-scale epidemiological study was found out that children population had been exposed to both acute (evacuated persons) and long-term chronic (contaminated territories residents) effect of radiation factor. The main health risk for children involved in nuclear disaster zone is connected with non-oncological blood and haemopoietic organs diseases, digestive system pathology and mental disorders. Parameters excess was revealed in group of persons with higher collective dose accumulated for 10-12 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rate growth is recognized as the radioinduced effect. 12 years after the accident is obvious that 'health detriment' for children population of ChNPP accident survivors is expressed in additional number of endocrine system diseases cases - 24%, blood and haemopoietic organs - 33%, digestive system - 24%, mental disorders - 52% respectively. (authors)

  6. Medical consequences for children population of survivors after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (12 years later)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomko, E.; Romanenko, A.; Kutcher, E.; Bomko, A.; Afanasyev, D. [Research Center for Radiation Medicine of Ukrainian Medical Sciences Academy, Melnikova (Ukraine)

    1998-07-01

    Chernobyl NPP accident is recognized as the global disaster. Wide amount of population including children was involved. According to the direct measurements results from 1986 the 40% of children population received thyroid irradiation doses from 0.3 to 2.0 Gy and 10% of them - over 2 Gy respectively. Cesium incorporation value calculated per irradiation dose not exceeded 0.5 rem in 97% of kids. Children examination was organized in 2 steps. Within 1. one various transient reactions of nervous system, skin, mucosa, blood formula were revealed. Within 2. one the complete medical examinations were carried out both with dosimetric control. ChNPP accident poly-factor nature was fixed. Wide amount of somatic pathology not related to radiation exposure dose was registered. 12 years after the accident as the result of wide-scale epidemiological study was found out that children population had been exposed to both acute (evacuated persons) and long-term chronic (contaminated territories residents) effect of radiation factor. The main health risk for children involved in nuclear disaster zone is connected with non-oncological blood and haemopoietic organs diseases, digestive system pathology and mental disorders. Parameters excess was revealed in group of persons with higher collective dose accumulated for 10-12 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rate growth is recognized as the radioinduced effect. 12 years after the accident is obvious that 'health detriment' for children population of ChNPP accident survivors is expressed in additional number of endocrine system diseases cases - 24%, blood and haemopoietic organs - 33%, digestive system - 24%, mental disorders - 52% respectively. (authors)

  7. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic regulation is one of the most important trends in protection of the public and the human habitat in radiological emergencies. This regulation has developed and improved along with changes in the radiation status, thus, fortifying the latter's improvements with a view to stabilize and normalize it through preventive/protective measures. Since 2002, the emergency standards have been abolished and replaced by the common federal ones. Regardless of the measures for public protection and the remediation activity, the output of products exceeding the hygienic standards has been under way on the individual farms. The samples of such products reach 12% in the south-west districts of the Bryansk region. At present, the public exposure doses obtained in 425 localities of the Brynask region and in 3 settlements of the Kaluga region exceed the established standard of 1 mSv; that requires the arrangements for and performance of a package of protective measures. At the same time, the radiation status has completely normalized in other 12 subjects of the Russian Federation. To minimize medical effects, the Federal Supervision Service for Consumerism and Human Welfare (Rospotrebnadzor) considers it essential to continue a package of actions on health protection and medical rehabilitation of the public affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident, as well as to develop further epidemiological research to reveal radiological effects of the accident. The above mentioned remains the priority for the Russian preventive public health service

  8. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  9. Chernobyl and the consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure contains the texts of a broadcasting series with the following subjects: 1) Brighter than a thousand suns - what happened at Chernobyl; 2) Radical assault on the genetic material - the effect of radiation; 3) It's the dose that counts - slight radiation and human health; 4) Nuclear fallout - contamination levels of water, soil and air; 5) Safety against bombing - how safe are German nuclear power plants; 6) Practical advice for consumers. (HP)

  10. Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

  11. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of nuclear power to meet increasing energy demands in many parts of the world. In 2001, after taking note of the conflicting views on the results of the accident, I called for the creation of a Chernobyl Forum, inviting the world's foremost scientific experts to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the health, environmental and social impacts of the accident. As with all IAEA programmes, we emphasized an impartial, fact based approach to the analysis of this difficult and highly charged topic. I was pleased that, after a long period of careful analysis, the parties involved - including the World Health Organization and seven other specialized United Nations agencies, as well as the Governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - were able to achieve consensus on the set of authoritative reports that were issued last September. But the Chernobyl Forum had another purpose as well. My hope was that, by giving clear, impartial answers about the accident and its effects, we would be able to focus more effectively on present and future needs. Better international cooperation on assistance to the people and regions affected by the accident. Smarter approaches to safe food production and effective health care. Enhanced investments in the people concerned, in ways that would give them control over their own livelihoods. In short, it was my hope that, by answering questions about the past, we could restore a vision of a brighter future for the regions concerned. And that remains my hope. We will not soon forget the Chernobyl accident. We will not forget the emergency workers who gave their lives. We will not forget the health and environmental consequences. And we should never forget the lessons we learned regarding nuclear safety and international cooperation. In remembering the Chernobyl accident, we should renew our determination to ensure that such a tragedy will not happen again. But we must also remember the survivors, the individuals and communities who seek to move forward with their lives and the lives of their children. At this time of remembrance, they too deserve our att

  12. The status of cellular and cytokine pathways of immunity among participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences, in 10-12 years after they left the zone of enhanced radiation danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the immune system among liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are investigated in 10-12 years after they left the zone of the enhanced radiation danger. Clinical and laboratory examinations are conducted in 49 men in the range of 44-52 who took part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences in the period of 1986-1988. The total leukocyte count, absolute and relative counts of lymphocytes and granulocytes are defined. The content of lymphocytes in a peripheral blood and the amount of cells synthesizing cytokines are estimated. The content of lipids and cationic proteins as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase and myeloperoxidase are studied by means of cytochemical methods. It is established that no appreciable changes of the absolute leukocyte count is found in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences but changes of parameters of cellular and cytokine pathways of the immunity are conserved

  13. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response / O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Keith, Baverstock; Dillwyn, Williams.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, alé [...] m de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O foco no câncer de tireóide, porém, distraiu a atenção de especialistas sobre outros possíveis efeitos. A resposta internacional ao acidente foi inadequada, descoordenada e injustificavelmente tranqüilizadora. Acurada avaliação sobre efeitos futuros nem sempre é possível por causa de uma certa dose de incertezas frente ao estágio atual dos debates sobre radiação. É essencial que investigações sobre efeitos e conseqüências do desastre possam ser socializadas e apoiadas por um longo período de tempo. Por causa das inadequadas respostas internacionais ao problema, a ONU deveria iniciar uma revisão independente a respeito das ações e responsabilidades das agências, com recomendações de como agir em futuros desastres. Isso deveria envolver cientistas independentes e não que atuassem em competição. Abstract in english Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and cons [...] ider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.

  14. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Baverstock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, além de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O foco no câncer de tireóide, porém, distraiu a atenção de especialistas sobre outros possíveis efeitos. A resposta internacional ao acidente foi inadequada, descoordenada e injustificavelmente tranqüilizadora. Acurada avaliação sobre efeitos futuros nem sempre é possível por causa de uma certa dose de incertezas frente ao estágio atual dos debates sobre radiação. É essencial que investigações sobre efeitos e conseqüências do desastre possam ser socializadas e apoiadas por um longo período de tempo. Por causa das inadequadas respostas internacionais ao problema, a ONU deveria iniciar uma revisão independente a respeito das ações e responsabilidades das agências, com recomendações de como agir em futuros desastres. Isso deveria envolver cientistas independentes e não que atuassem em competição.

  15. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

  16. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  17. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the major concerns after radiation exposure, do

  18. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA)

  19. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  20. Objectivity and subjectivity on nuclear information about Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the Chernobyl's accident are reviewed. The results of medical and epidemiological surveys show few health's effects among exposed populations; however, the medias report falsely a lot of medical and environmental heavy consequences. The knowledge of the true consequences of this accident, and of the basics of radiobiology and radioprotection allows to relativize the nuclear risk and, more generally ionizing radiations. (author). 27 refs

  1. Public responses to the Chernobyl accident

    OpenAIRE

    Renn, Ortwin

    1990-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl caught many European nations by surprise since most risk management institutions were unprepared for an accident of the magnitude and transnational character of Chernobyl. Although confusion and contradictory advice from these institutions dominated the risk management efforts in the early aftermath of the disaster, the dose savings achieved by protective actions were roughly proportional to the magnitude of the nuclear threat. The accident itself and the pol...

  2. Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of consequences of thyroid exposure of the Russian population following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early period after the Chernobyl accident, analysis of patterns of 131I exposure of the human thyroid showed that contaminated milk was the basic source of 131I intake among the inhabitants of Russia. The equipment and techniques used for measurement of the 131I content in the thyroids of these individuals are described in this work. A model of the 131I intake, taking into account protective actions, and a method of thyroid dose calculation are discussed. The mean thyroid dose and frequency distributions of the thyroid doses to inhabitants of towns and villages of the Bryansk, Tula and Orel regions of Russia are presented. The mean dose to the thyroids of children living in the villages was 2 to 5 times higher than the dose to adult thyroids; for children living in the towns, the mean dose was 1.5 to 12 times higher. The mean thyroid mass in adult inhabitants of the Bryansk region was 27 g, which exceeded the value for a standard man (20 g) and was taken into account in the dosimetric calculations. The technique for reconstructing the mean and individual thyroid doses was based on the correlation between thyroid dose and several parameters: Surface 137Cs activity in soil, dose rate in air in May of 1986, 131I content in local milk, milk consumption rate, and 134Cs + 137Cs content in the body. The collective thyroid dose to inhabitants of the most contaminated regions of Russia is estimated and a thyroid cancer rate prognosis is derived. The need for intensified medical care for the critical group - children of preschool age during 1986 - is based on a significant increase in the number of projected thyroid cancers and adenomas. 32 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  3. The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of {sup 137}Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

  4. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. Informative report prepared on behalf of the IAEA meeting, Vienna, August 25-29, 1986. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRS has revised the German translation of part 1 of the report on the Chernobyl reactor accident. The translation is technically clear and intelligible and contains the current technical terms. The report comprises a description of RBMK-1000, a chronological description of the accident, the analysis of the accident, the causes of the accident, measures preventing the further development of the accident as well as measures controlling the radioactive contamination of the environment and the population. The report discusses immediate emergency measures improving the safety of RBMK-type nuclear power plants and deals with recommendations for nuclear safety engineering. (DG)

  5. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  6. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  7. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  8. Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

  9. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so far. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabsChernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal synd

  10. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental health problems like depression in Fukushima patients. (note)

  11. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental health problems like depression in Fukushima patients. PMID:22394694

  12. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  13. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  14. Biological Effects 10 years after the Chernobyl NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological consequences of Chernobyl accident were analyzed. The mortality of infants in some towns in Poland was presented. The increase in the incidence of neoplasms, blood diseases and endocrine diseases infants was observed in 1986-1988. The increase in number of the Down syndrome during this time period was remarkable. Also the first notifications of neoplasms showed the trend to an increase

  15. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  16. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents

  17. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  18. Realism and myths of Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is one of the scientific-publicistic book on the Chernobyl accident. It contains earlier unknown facts and cases as well as analysis of modern scientific data. The book gives an information on complex medical and social problems resulted from the accident occured in April, 26, 1996

  19. Long-lasting alterations in the immune system of Chernobyl accident victims: manifestations, nature and possible consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis is formulated, which explains genesis of long-lasting disturbances in the immune system of the persons affected by factors of Chernobyl disaster. Immunological alterations which are displayed at the late time after action of radiation in doses 0.5 Gy or lower are not a result of direct damage of the cells of immune system by irradiation. Their development is more probably a result of appearance of some systemic conditions and factors in affected organism - such as hormonal disbalance and especially autoantibodies of different specificities, including those reactive with thymic epithelial cells. Refs. 60, refs. 5

  20. Blood picture alternations in persons after liquidating the consequences of the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of haemogram examination in 90 men who worked in Chernobyl in 1986 are reported. In 58 cases alterations were found in red blood in the form of oxy phil norm o- and/or macrocytes and half moon erythrocytes. Ovalocytes, stomatocytes or acanthocytes were found in ten persons. White blood picture was characterized by relative lymphosytosis, but also by appearance of lymphoid and plasmatic cells, what may be interpreted as activation of immune response. The results of reexamination after six to twelve months in 25 men demonstrated increased frequency or deepening of alterations in blood picture. (author). 12 refs

  1. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

  2. Cytogenetic effects in children born to participants in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident consequences - Acute radiation syndrome survivors and children evacuated from Pripyat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytogenetic study of 87 children was held. Age of involved kids ranged from 5 to 14 years old. The I-st study group was presented with 17 kids born in 1987-1988 from the Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) who survived the Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) of I-II severity degree in 1986. The II-nd study group was consisted from the 45 children born in 1983-1985 resident in town Pripyat with thyroid exposure doses from 65 to 616 sZv and total irradiation doses from 0.2 to 13.2 sZv. The 25 children born in 1983-1988 and resident in radiation situation - favourable region of Ukraine constituted the Control (III-rd) group. The aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations amount mainly due to chromatide type ones confidential increase compared to that in control was revealed among the children born from CACCP - ARS survivors. In children exposed to ionizing radiation during infant and early childhood age the aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations quantity was elevated also but due to both chromosomal (dicentrics and rings) and chromatide types. (author)

  3. Overview of EC coordinated radioecological research after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncontrolled release of radionuclides coming up after the Chernobyl accident has led to a large number of scientific and political activities to assess the contamination of the environment and the consequences for the population. A large scale of measures were deployed attempting to mitigate the consequences and initiatives were launched to follow the fate of the radionuclides in and around the Chernobyl area. Some of these efforts are described in this paper, summarizing which way radioecologists had chosen to evaluate the problem, to compare the scientific culture existing in East and West, to sharpen their views on the fundamentals of radioecology and to test their knowledge in the real field. (author)

  4. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. PMID:24189103

  5. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  6. Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (author)

  7. The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

  8. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Reactor accidents. Chernobyl and Three Miles Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the facilities at Chernobyl and TMI, as well as of the course of the accidents is given. Supplementary information relates to the quantities and types of radionuclides released and to the size of the group of persons concerned. (DG)

  10. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  11. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases; delayed radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus; experimental development and scientific-and-engineering projects (development of special technologies and means for decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes, technologies for a safety of industrial activity in the contaminated territories, technologies of production of special medicinal preparations and food additives, etc.); detection, rescue and preservation of a historical and cultural heritage in regions having suffered after the Chernobyl accident. The institutes and establishments of a National academy of sciences of Belarus, Academy of agrarian sciences, Ministry for public health, Ministry for education and other ministries and departments took part in performance of researches. The new, original results allowing to estimate objectively medical, ecological and a socio economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to develop a number of measures for their minimization are submitted

  12. Evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident (as of May 30, 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact presentation of information, as available on May 30, 1986, including the design of the Chernobyl reactor, the presumed course of events and causes of the accident, and radiological consequences. (HP)

  13. The Chernobyl Accident: Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Radiation Epidemiology Branch (REB) is always looking for research fellows to join our team of investigators. There are numerous opportunities to evaluate research related to Chernobyl. It must be noted that these studies will probably not result in a first author publication for post-doctoral fellows. However, there are many research projects that do afford such an opportunity at REB.

  14. Psychological consequences of nuclear and radiological accidents: Delayed neuropsychiatric effects of the acute radiation sickness following Chernobyl. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neuropsychiatric consequences of accidental irradiation to ARS patients have been monitored to the present on the basis of one in-patient medical examination per year. All ARS patients are hospitalized in the Radiation Pathology Department of the Institute for Clinical Radiology, RCRM, Kiev. The data on the neuropsychiatric aftermath of ARS presented hereafter were based on two research designs: 1) prospective follow-up study (1987-2001), and 2) cross-sectional study with parallel groups (1996-1998). The principles of the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders include complexity, stability and succession between stages (clinical, ambulatory-polyclinic, ambulatory and sanatorium treatment). Basic treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychological therapy. Neuropharmacology includes vasoactive and nootropic drugs, neuroprotectors, antidepressants (predominantly, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors - SSRIs) and atypical antipsychotic (if necessary). The correction of mental disorders is carried out at syndromological level. It is worth mentioning the importance of out-patient methods of treatment and rehabilitation [Nyagu A.I. et al., 1998, Nyagu A.I. et al., 1999

  15. Childhood leukaemia in Romania and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the WHO recommendations, we focused our study on short-term consequence of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia. The present study was designed to show whether the frequency of leukaemia has increased during the time period following the nuclear accident. We studied the frequency of childhood leukaemia, its geographical distribution in Romania, and the possible changes of this distribution after the Chernobyl accident. For the period before the accident (1981-1985), the distribution of the cumulative mortality from leukaemia is shown. The mortality for the entire country was 13.54/100,000 for all age-groups (14.92 for the 0-4 years old age group, 15.68 for the 5-9, and 10.13 for 10-14). After the Chernobyl accident, the geographical distribution of cumulative mortality from childhood leukaemia has somewhat changed. The rate for the entire country was 13.24/100,000 (13.72 for 0-4 years old, 16.64 for 5-9 years old, and 9.83 for 10-14 years old). Four districts showed a greater increase of the mortality rate. The age distribution of the mortality in these districts during the two time periods, is shown. (author)

  16. Structure of the thyroid pathology in the radiation exposed areas of Leningrad region: late consequences of Chernobyl accident after 20 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, A.; Uspenskaya, A.; Bychenkova, E.; Chinchuk, I.; Novokshonov, K.; Chernikov, R.; Sleptsov, I.; Bubnov, A.; Fedotov, Y.; Makarin, V.; Karelina, Y. [Endocrinology, NWRMC FHSDA, ST-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident large areas of the USSR were contaminated with fallout, it has been proved that I{sup 131} caused higher incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Further observation for over 20 years showed retention of high annual prevalence of this pathology among the population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultimate result of the influence of I{sup 131} on the thyroid gland. The study included 454 women living in localities affected by the Chernobyl accident in April-May 1986 (case) and 909 women living in fallout-free localities (ICCIDD method). The incidence of malignant thyroid tumors among the inhabitants of the contaminated territories is higher than in the control area. This phenomenon can not be unambiguously attributed to radiation induced cancers, but requires further investigation, perhaps by the method of carrying out continuous and all-round prophylactic medical examination. High incidence of autoimmune changes can be considered to have been caused by the action of I{sup 131} and prophylactic supplement with stable iodine

  17. Chernobyl accident- causes, sequence and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 25, 1986 was initiated a sequence of events which culminated in the world's worst nuclear power reactor accident. The accident occurred because of a rare combination of design deficiencies, human errors and complacency. The accident led to a thorough review of the safety aspects of not only the RBMK reactors of Soviet design but also the other types of reactors designed in the Soviet Union. The trend of designing advanced reactors, with passive safety features, also received a boost. Subsequent to the accident, the RBMK safety issues have been thoroughly reviewed by various agencies and a number of steps have been taken to improve the system safety. The engineering aspects of the Chernobyl accident are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig

  18. The Chernobyl Accident: Contact Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  19. The Chernobyl Accident: Research Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  20. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cardis, E.; Hatch, M

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection.

  1. The Chernobyl Accident: Leukemia Study (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several years after a 1988 agreement between the United States and the USSR to cooperate in the area of nuclear reactor safety, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), NIH undertook to develop a study of leukemia risk among Ukrainian men potentially exposed to external radiation during clean-up operations (e.g., liquidators) following the Chernobyl accident. Responsibility for the study resides in the Radiation Epidemiology Branch of NCI.

  2. Legal aspects of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brief article presents questions arising after the Chernobyl reactor accident, primarily those of compensation for damage and the relationship between citizens and the state. As existing laws do not offer suitable instruments for reacting to such a disaster, the author outlines ways and means that should be created on an international level in order to be able to react more efficiently in future. (HSCH)

  3. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  4. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

  5. Chernobyl NPP accident: a year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is being given to measures on liquidation of Chernobyl accident aftereffects, conducted since August, 1986. One of the most important measures lay in construction of the ''shelter'', which must provide long-term conservation of accidental unit. Works on decontamination of reactor area and contaminated populated regions were continued. Measures on providing safety of population and its health protection were performed. An attention was paid to long-term investigations on studying delayed aftereffects of the accident, monitoring of invironment, development and introduction of measures on improving NPP safety. Prospects of further development of nuclear power engeneering and possibilities of improving its safety are considered

  6. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, a large accident occurred in No.4 plant of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine, USSR. This accident was an unprecedented one in the history of atomic energy development in view of any of the state of reactor damage, the number of casualties, the amount of radioactivity release and so on, and gave a large shock to the whole world. Also in Japan far away, the radioactive substance that seemed to be originated from the accident was detected though a minute amount. In the countries of Europe as well as the surroundings of the Power Station, the contamination with radioactive substances was serious, and the measures such as the limitation of intake and the limitation of distribution of foods were taken. The international conference was held for five days from August 25 at IAEA, and USSR made the report on the accident. Respective countries and international organization began the evaluation of the accident and the work to extract the lessons based on this report. However, as to the details of the accident, still many unknown points remain. The No.4 plant is RBMK-1000 type, graphite moderated, boiling light water cooled, pressure tube type of 1000 MWe output. The features of the damaged reactor, the course of the accident, and the evaluation of the accident and the lessons are described. (Kako, I.)

  8. First report of the task group on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The events surrounding the accident at the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR are examined. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor and the Soviet Union's nuclear power program. A scenario of the cause of the accident is presented. The major long-term consequence is an risk of cancer. The estimated collective dose of several hundred thousand person-sieverts could lead to several thousand deaths from cancer, spread over the next 30 or 40 years

  9. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Chernobyl NPP accident elimination experience and exposure regulation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of radiation on the human and actions related to liquidation of consequences resulted from Chernobyl NPP unit 4 accidents considered in this article. Realistic and mythical consequences of the exposure are shown. Basic methodological approaches to forming radiation safety standards were proposed. The conclusion was made that the radiation safety standards shouldn't take for a basis the linear non threshold model, and provisions, which are included in the exposure regulation, should take into account socially-psychological perception by he society of the activity related to radiation sources

  11. Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

  12. Medical consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of health deterioration in population of Ukraine affected after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The survived population division in groups, peculiarities of morbidity incidence and prevalence are described. The dynamics of some medical demography parameters are discussed concerning adults and paediatric population. The precise values of incidence and prevalence for the main classes of diseases are shown in comparison of 1995-1996 to 1987. (author)

  13. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control

  14. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  15. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  16. Changes in the brain of subjects who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident consequences as shown by the data of radiodiagnosis (emission single-photon computer-aided scintigraphy, X-ray computer -aided and magnetic resonanse tomography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents the data of X-ray examinations of the brain in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Findings of X-ray methods of diagnosis permit a conclusion on a complex organic involvement of the brain in subjects who participated in liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident. The most typical are signs of the hypertensive hydricephalic syndrome with liquorodynamic disturbances and of the vascular encephalic syndrome with development of local postischemic malacia of the brain matter. 7 refs., 5 figs.,

  17. Main lessons based on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review the main lessons of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and the liquidation of its consequences in the area of the nuclear reactors safety operation, any major accident management, liquidation accident consequences criteria, emergency procedures, preventative measures and treatment irradiated victims, the monitoring methods etc. The special emphasis is put on the questions of the emergency response and the antiaccidental measures planning in frame of international cooperation program

  18. Present review of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of the accident at Chernobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986 are discussed. The IAEA's International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group has reconsidered the root cause of the accident in the report INSAG-7. The shortcomings in the neutron physics characteristics of RBMK-type reactors were the positive void reactivity coefficient and the possibility of positive scram. The operating reactivity margin concept is seen as inappropriate for complete assurance that the control rod configuration secures fully adequate reactor protection. Two earlier accidents at RBMK reactors, a fuel channel failure at Leningrad 1 in 1975 and a fuel failure at Chernobyl 1 in 1982, had indicated weaknesses in the characteristics and operation of RBMK units. IAEA organized a consultants' meeting on void reactivity effects in RBMK reactors in Moscow 1995. In the meeting the phenomena influencing the void reactivity effects in RBMK reactors in Moscow 1995. In the meeting the phenomena influencing the void reactivity coefficient, the calculational tools and the status of experimental determination of the void reactivity coefficient in operating RBMKs were discussed. (orig.) (3 figs.)

  19. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1945, more than 1.8 x 1021 Bq of artificial radionuclides have been released into the atmosphere. Approximately 2.04 x 1018B, i.e. approx. 0.11%, are the result of accidents at nuclear industrial facilities. This percentage is causing increased interest among researchers. This is due to the fact that in the wake of accidental release radionuclides become distributed unevenly across the Earth's surface, and the associated exposures, fluctuating from background level to several grays, an induce both stochastic and deterministic effects in the irradiated population. A comparative analysis of the medical consequences of the twentieth century's most serious nuclear events, namely the authorized dumping of high level radioactive waste into the river Techa in 1950, the explosion of a storage tank containing long lived radioactive waste in the Southern Urals in 1957, the fire at Sellafield in 1957 and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, has shown that when timely countermeasures are taken, the worst immediate and delayed medical consequences of an accident can be avoided. The consequences that have since been ascertained are a brief rise in the mortality rate during the first five years, with a dose in excess of 500 mSv; an increase in the incidence of leukaemia, with an absolute risk of up to 1.1. x 10-4 man·years/Gy; and increased mortality among children with external radiation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and internal doses of 99-190 mSv on the bone surfaces of neonates or 170-600 mSv on the bone surfaces of the mother. There is reliable evidence that, with external gamma radiation doses in excess of 520 mSv, the mortality rate for all malignant tumorous increases by 45-58% compared with the control level. There is also a significant increase in thyroid cancer frequency four to ten years after the incorporation of iodine isotopes by children aged up to 7 years, including an accumulation period in the womb. (author). 12 refs, 7 tabs

  20. Evaluation of operators' actions in Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a retrospective analysis of operators' actions in Chernobyl accident by Performance Evaluation of Teamwork. Based on Internal information, which includes descriptions and analyses of nuclear power plant with RBMK-1000, Chernobyl accident timeline, implemented experiment, events and actions, a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of probable and possible operators'actions is made

  1. A first assessment of the psychic and social effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesis has been made of a series of surveys carried out in Ukraine in 1992 and 1993 on the psychic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident, within the framework of the ''Evaluation programme of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident'' of the Commission of the European communities. The main results demonstrate the strength of the post-accident dynamics of the accident, more than 7 years later. Some 3 millions people were directly affected in their everyday life by the post-accident management which resulted in many perverse effects on the social and psychic levels. Economically, each year, financing of the post-accident management system requires nearly 1/6 of the Ukraine budget. Politically speaking, Chernobyl is still a major stake for the various actors of the institutional transition process underway since the disappearance of the soviet system. The article shows the systemic complexity of the local situation and the many explanatory factors (physical, sanitary, political, cultural, historical) at the origin of the post-accident dynamics. A systemic modelling of the interactions between these factors is presented. It makes it possible to better define the contributions of both accident and post-accident stages to the process that has led to the present situation. It shows out the close connections between the different accident stages and the need, from the very beginning of an accident, to take into account the mid-and long-term consequences arising from the accident management. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  2. Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors, and fetal irradiation

  3. The Chernobyl accident has changed our life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book presents news paper articles and other contribution written by female authors, showing openly their determination to fight for their conception of life, and to put up opposition against the arguments and attitudes of men who so far have dominated events and developments in science, technology, and politics. The fear and worries of the women and mothers after the Chernobyl accident are discussed in great detail, explaining their view in contrast to the male world believing in science and technology, and showing the reasons why women have started to take a new turn, fighting for recognition of their conception life. (DG)

  4. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  5. Congenital malformations and infant mortality from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health impact of radiological contamination in Bavaria from the Chernobyl accident was evaluated. According to caesium 137 levels in soil samples, Bavaria was subdivided in a higher contaminated region (Southern Bavaria) and a lower contaminated region (Northern Bavaria). Indicators for health effects were congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, and infant mortality. Definition of the study periods accounted for the temporal relationship between conception as well as organogenesis and the time of highest exposure to radioactivity during the first weeks of May 1986. Statistical analysis was based on a combined spatial and temporal comparison. The results of the study do not show a significant increase in any of the outcome variables. Consequently, this study provides no evidence that radiation from Chernobyl caused a rise in the birth prevalence of congenital malformations or perinatal and infant mortality in the Bavarian population. (orig.)

  6. Chernobyl accident: its causes, impacts and the lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident, its causes, impacts and the lessons learned from it are briefly reviewed from the viewpoint of nuclear safety and radiation protection, based on the recent studies and reports worldwide and on the information taken by the author during his visit to the site. The paper includes a short description of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the process of the accident, emergency actions and protection measures, health and environmental impacts, and its causes and lessons learned. To look at matters in the safety aspect, some defects of the design, such as the positive void reactivity coefficient, the insufficient reactivity margin, the exist of an area of increasing reactivity when the absorbing rods move downwards from the top, and the lack of an effective containment, are the essential causes bringing the accident to occur and breeding up catastrophic consequences. The coincidence of some extremely improbable incidents aroused by the operators is the blasting fuse which directly touched off the accident, and the most serious problem revealed is the defects in nuclear safety management in the former Soviet Union. The author holds that strengthening safety management and raising the safety culture level are the key to improve nuclear safety

  7. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  8. Radiation epidemiology after the Chernobyl accident. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present proceedings give a review of epidemiological studies conducted into the reactor accident in Chernobyl comprising both the results of several studies carried out in the former Laender of the Federal Republic of Germany and results from those three Republics of the former Soviet Union which were most seriously affected, i.e. Russia, Byelorussia, and the Ukraine. Whilst the results obtained in Germany indicated no appreciable health effects in these regions, those from the three Republics directly affected suggest that the radiation exposure did have health impacts on the population. These include first of all an increased incidence of thyroid tumours in children as reported especially from Byelorussia. However, this was observed in Russia and the Ukraine as well, though not to the same extent. The report also considers the psychological situation of the population concerned. Additionally it is emphasized that the WHO is strongly interested in research as to the health effects of the reactor accident. (orig.)

  9. The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

  10. The Chernobyl active phase: why the ''official view'' is wrong [Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a new investigation into the active phase of the Chernobyl accident are summarised. This phase is defined as the period from the initial destruction of the core to the puzzling and very sharp drop in environmental radionuclide release about nine days later. The research was carried out at Chernobyl over 18 months in cooperation with scientists living there. Its objective was to examine the reliability of the official Soviet presentation at the IAEA post-accident review conference in August 1986. In order to reconstruct the events, four new spheres of information were brought together: a reappraisal of the effectiveness of the accident management actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident; a description of the remains of the reactor building and the solidified corium; results of radiochemical analyses of the melted fuel; and an analysis of radioisotope release dynamics. An alternative explanation for the bathtub shaped release curve has been arrived at and a rough release estimate made which confirms suspicions that the amount of radioactivity released into the environment was greater than that officially reported. (UK)

  11. Dosimetric and biomedical studies conducted in Cuba of children from areas of the former USSR affected by the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children from ares affected by the Chernobyl accident have been receiving medical care in Cuba since 1990. The dosimetric and biomedical studies made include: measurement of 137Cs body content; internal, external, thyroid and total dose estimation; evaluation of the overall health condition and behaviour of hameatological, endocrinological, biochemical and cytogenetic indicators. Measurements of body activity and dose estimation have been performed on altogether 4506 children. Of this total, 69.3% of the children were from the Ukraine, 22.5% from Russia and 8.1% from Belarus. Assessments of overall health conditions, haematological and thyroid indicators have been made covering 3016 children from 421 Ukrainian townships, taking into account the body measurements of 137Cs and the surface contamination of the locations where the children come from. The biochemical indicator used (nucleic acid concentration in leucocytes) was assessed in five groups comprising some 445 children from areas where the level of surface contamination varied. Chromosome and micronuclei aberration rates were established in 28 children from Pripyat, 21 living in Kiev and 20 in Ovruch

  12. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  13. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  14. The human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. A strategy for recovery. A report commissioned by UNDP and UNICEF with the support of UN-OCHA and WHO. Final - 25.01.02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report contains the findings of a study conducted into the human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident fifteen years after the explosion. The Mission explored the health, socio-economic and environmental effects of the accident and the events that followed. The Report contains an analysis of the current situation and the prospects for the future, focusing on aspects that are significant for the well-being of the people and communities directly affected. The affected population - those exposed to radioactive fallout, remaining in the affected areas, or forced to relocate - continue to face disproportionate suffering in terms of health, social conditions, and economic opportunity. Hundreds of thousands of people have been evacuated from the most severely affected areas. Many have found it difficult to adapt and continue to face serious psychological, economic and social problems. The process of evacuation has now virtually ceased and only a small number of people continue to live in the most polluted areas. However, some tens of thousands remain in areas polluted to a level of between 15 and 40 curies per square kilometre. The accident has also had a continuing impact on the opportunities and well-being of a much wider circle of the inhabitants of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, through the negative image that it has created for large areas of these countries. It has imposed a heavy burden on the national budgets through the cost of clean-up, compensation and recovery. Ukraine, in addition, has had to carry much of the cost of closing and making safe the Chernobyl complex as well as the opportunity cost of the lost electrical output from the reactors concerned. These commitments have diverted resources away from other priorities, such as health, education and investment, at a time of profound economic crisis

  15. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control. The experience of the scientific approach to the decision of wide-scale and multiple-discipline tasks of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences promotes for transformation of separate knowledge about radiation safety in holistic conception of safety and protection of the population in emergency caused by industrial accidents, catastrophes, natural disasters

  16. Analysis of radioecological situation and health state of Ukrainian population contingents affected due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioecological situation is analysed at the Ukrainian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident on the basis of data of radioecological and dosimetric studies in 1987-1991 and medical consequences of the accident are assessed. Four categories of persons affected due to the Chernobyl accident are considered. Disease incidence in the above categories is retraced taking into account age, sex and obtained dose. 1 tab

  17. On the main causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main causes are described of the Chernobyl accident, the discussion of which seems to be finished. It is shown that important actual parameters of the reactor differed adversely from the project; this fact had not been taken into account in operational instructions and therefore it could not be known to the operators. Further, the general causes of the Chernobyl accident are pointed out. A major cause is the still non-existing fundamental law and, consequently, lack of definition of responsibilities (it will, above all, be necessary to set out indivisible responsibility of the plant operator for nuclear safety). At present all participants in nuclear power engineering share responsibility. Another cause of the accident can be seen in insufficient quality assurance resulting from the fact that the Soviet regulatory body has not all the necessary powers and the independence. Closely connected with this is the fact that the role of the human factor is overemphasized and operational experience is not included in design modifications. In general, insufficient safety culture as defined by INSAG can be stated. 6 figs., 4 refs

  18. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  19. Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

  20. Chernobyl, 17 after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  1. Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident

  2. Public relations and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

  3. Retrospective dosimetry of populations exposed to reactor accident: Chernobyl example, lesson for Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follow-up of the Chernobyl accident had included a good deal of retrospective dosimetry and dose reconstruction. Comparison of Chernobyl and Fukushima shows that despite some differences in course and scale of the two accidents, main elements are present in both situations and Chernobyl experience could be quite educative for better understanding and more optimal handling of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident consequences. This paper contains review of dose reconstruction efforts done to date and extensively published in scientific journals and reports. Specifically the following cases are considered: (i) evaluation of individual doses to evacuees; (ii) validation of ecological dosimetric models and ruling out unconfirmed dose rate measurements; dosimetric support of (iii) case–control study of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators), and (iv) cohort study of cataracts among liquidators. Due to limited size of this paper the given application cases are rather outlined while more detailed descriptions could be found in relevant publications. Each considered Chernobyl case is commented with respect to possible application to Fukushima Dai-ichi situation. The presented methodological findings and approaches could be used for retrospective assessment of human exposures in Fukushima. -- Highlights: ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for evaluation of individual doses to evacuees. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for validation of ecological dosimetric models, rejection dubious dose rate records. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for risk assessment of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators). ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for study of cataracts among liquidators. ? Experience of dose reconstruction in Chernobyl could be used for retrospective assessment of exposures in Fukushima

  4. Cancer effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, there is (apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence) no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers in general and of specific cancers (in particular breast cancer) have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. Both of these findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk, apart from thyroid cancer, is not proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Such an increase, however, is expected to be difficult to identify in the absence of careful large scale epidemiological studies with individual dose estimates. It should be noted that, given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused by even a small increase in the relative risk could be substantial, particularly in the future. At present, the prediction of the cancer burden related to radiation exposure. (author)

  5. The Chernobyl Accident: 25 Years of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine. In addition to 28 near-term deaths due to radiation, the accident resulted in the exposure of 5 million people in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine to fallout from the accident, principally radioiodines.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard computational methods have been used to make a preliminary analysis of the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics of the first two phases of the Chernobyl accident (initial positive reactivity generation and first Doppler transient). The most important results are discussed. These include the fact that it is impossible to define only one value of the reactor void coefficient. In the central channels (20% of the reactor volume) the effective coefficient is three times higher than the average, while the value is practically zero in the peripheral channels (40% of the reactor volume). The difference is due not only to the statically larger neutron worth of the central zone, but also to the dynamic instability of the radial flux distribution. The void increase in the central regions induces an increase of power and of the void in these regions, thus increasing the reactivity in an unexpected way. A design error in the scram rods (too short a graphite follower) can generate an undesired positive reactivity insertion while the first 1.25 m of the rods is being inserted. This effect can introduce from 0.5 to 1.2$ reactivity. The Doppler effect is the only one introducing negative feedback during a transient. The current model for the calculation of the effective fuel temperature must be reconsidered. A more sophisticated approach in needed to assess the rate of thermal and mechanical energy delivered during the explosion. For a self-consistent evaluation of the accident it is necessary to use two dimensional (R-Z) multigroup kinetics and dynamics models developed in the last ten years for the analysis of reactivity accidents in fast reactors. It is important to reach a proper understanding of the various mechanisms that caused the Chernobyl accident and for this purpose an interdepartmental group in ENEA is working on a comprehensive analysis using classical computational models and codes for thermal reactors. A new tool is being implemented: the code NADYP-Water, a new version of the two dimensional space-time code NADYP. International co-operation on the subject is desirable. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  7. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Austrian agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident the environmental radioactivity in Austria increased far above the level recorded before. Radionuclides can enter into the foodchains by the contamination of agricultural products. Determining for the contamination is the behaviour of radionuclides in plants and soils, the development of vegetative plant mass at the moment of the accident and regional differences in fallout intensity. Contamination of plants is caused mainly by cesium-137 and cesium-134. Cs is taken up easily by plant foliage. Its mobility in the plant is high, even to fruits and seeds growing after the accident. Higher contaminations are recorded generally in winter cercals, rape, and fruits, while spring cercals, sugar beets and maize are nearly free from Cs-activity. Heavy contaminations with Cs appear in grassland vegetation as a result of combined uptake via leaves, plant base, and roots. The entry of caesium into the milk is one of the most serious consequences of the reactor accident. Transfer coefficients derived from prevailing experiments can be used for estimating the activity concentration in milk. Accordingly the threshold value of 5 nCi 137Cs per liter milk should be reached when the daily intake by feeding is about 700 nCi. During the grazing season the Cs-availability for cattle is distinctly lower. (Author)

  8. Dynamics of social-psychological consequences 10 years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study has been carried out according to the long-term JSP2 in comparison with the results of data acquired by the authors in previous years in other programs in 1988-95 for more then 5 thousand people. In working out the strategy of post-catastrophe situation it is necessary to have a joint effort of the population and authority. The studies have showed that cooperation has not been achieved in this case. Hence, the effect of protective measures have been seriously decreased. Countermeasures taken after the catastrophe have had not only a positive, but in some cases a negative impact. The results of many previous studies as will as JSP2 program have shown serious social and psychological consequences of Chernobyl Accident. There is a constant year-to-year comprehension among population anxiety concerning their health. The main result of the study is that social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl Accident include nonradiological risks as seriously as the radiation risk.23

  9. Radioactivity of eggs due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident wash-out of radionuclides and deposition on vegetation caused a distinct increase of radioactivity of eggs. Exposure of the consumers of contaminated eggs was insignificant. (orig.)

  10. The comparative analysis of traumas and poisonings incidence and mortality rates from them at workers and men-employees, workers of the nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birukov A.P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims the estimation of incidence of traumas and poisonings, and mortality from them at workers of the Russian nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station, in view of their social structure. Material and methods. Carrying out this research, we used the information base of the Register of the persons exposed by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. There had been registered as of January, 1, 1998: liquidators of 1986-1987 years — 12882 people (men — 84,3%, liquidators of 1988-1990 years —2313 people (men — 88,3%. There had been presented parameters of case rate and mortality of men, separately workers and employees of the given cohort. Results. Lower level of traumas and poisonings incidence at employees had been revealed (2-2,4 times lower, than at the workers, the mortality of traumas and poisonings at employees were also 1,1-2,9 times lower (on the average — in 2,0 times is revealed. The alcoholism essentially raises a traumatism at liquidators. The traumatism above at the liquidators, suffering a chronic alcoholism, in 1,9-3,3 times. The distinctions in coefficients of the mortality from traumas and poisonings and the incidence by them for age groups of the men-liquidators were revealed. Conclusion. The essential difference in parameters of men-liquidators' health, workers of the nuclear industry, and workers shows that a social factor renders significant influence on health of a studied contingent of persons. Age features in many respects define value of parameters of incidence of traumas and poisonings and death rates from them a studied contingent. In radiation epidemiological researches it is necessary to consider biological and social factors necessarily.

  11. Radioiodine in the Tarapur environment due to Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioiodine due to Chernobyl accident fallout was first detected at Tarapur on 14th May in animal thyroids. This led to a complete study of 131I in all environmental matrices. The paper describes the levels of 131I in different environmental samples and reveals that the radiation hazard to the public due to Chernobyl accident fallout 131I activity levels are insignificant. (author)

  12. Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

    During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

  13. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

  14. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Wesse the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refsThe accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by We

  15. Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG)

  16. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  17. Results of liver puncture biopsy in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident with hepatic pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides review of data on study of liver damage under radiation impact. Liver structure in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences was studied. It is determined that in patients with hepatic pathology occurs, in the future, structural alterations from the side of the liver after being under conditions of low dose ionizing radiation impact. (author)

  18. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

  19. Chernobyl. Five hard years. The collection of materials on the liquidation works after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP during 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper reviews the whole period starting from design and construction of the Chernobyl NPP up to acceptance and realization of long-term programs linked with the elimination of the accident consequences. Attention is focused on the peculiarities of RBMK type reactors, on the accident reasons and circumstances, on the activity of the state bodies and establishments linked with elimination of the accident consequences. Review presents information on the accepted All-Union programs to eliminate long-term effects of the CNPP accident and those linked with problems concerning social protection of the accident victims. Refs.; figs.; tabs

  20. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

  1. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

  2. Chernobyl accident and health: end of first tenth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials on medical and social-psychological aspects, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Comparative evaluation of the morbidity cases, frequency of tumor formation, mortality among the accident liquidators and the public of various age in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation is given

  3. Effects in Switzerland of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April 1996 saw the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The current article takes advantage of this occasion to present, from today's point of view, a summary appraisal of the radiological effects that this accident had in Switzerland, and to show how the warning and monitoring organisation in existence at the time coped with the event. (orig.)

  4. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    OpenAIRE

    Kulakov, V. I.; Sokur, T. N.; Volobuev, A. I.; Tzibulskaya, I. S.; Malisheva, V. A.; Zikin, B. I.; Ezova, L. C.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Bonartzev, P. D.; Speranskaya, N. V.; Tchesnokova, J. M.; Matveeva, N. K.; Kaliznuk, E. S.; Miturova, L. B.; Orlova, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. ...

  5. European Parliament, resolution of May 15, 1986 (consequences of Chernobyl for agriculture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the resolution of May 15, 1986 the European Parliament deals with the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident for agriculture. According to the importance of the atomic catastrophe and the following contamination inter alia common protection provisions and harmonized intervention levels are required in the member states. (WG)

  6. Chernobyl and consequences for the Soviet agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region within a radius of 30 km around the Chernobyl reactor was declared a safety zone, from where people and livestock were evacuated. In this zone agricultural activities were stopped temporarily. The losses to Soviet agriculture are surprinsingly low, the reason being that in the Soviet Union radioactivity hazards are rated differently than in western countries. The Soviet radiation protection standards for man are accordingly. They allow a total body burden of 500 mrem a year, and a thyroid burden for children of 30 mrem. It is obvious that the authorities keep the quantitative losses for agriculture down. Of greater consequence could be the qualitative losses in so far as the soil of a large area will be contaminated on a long-term basis, radioactive contaminated crops have been and will continue to be harvested and fed, and contaminated food is and will be eaten. (orig./HSCH)

  7. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP accident in 26.04.86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real causes of the Chernobyl accident are analysed, incidentally the whole complex of factors of nuclear power plant potential hazard concerning their design and operation (before and after the Chernobyl accident) was revealed. 412 refs

  8. Transuranium elements in macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. (Lunds, Lasarett (SE)); Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco-Ville (XA). Lab. of Marine Radioactivity); Bulos, A. (Philippines Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (PH)); Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G. (Nice Univ., 06 (FR))

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric deposition and transfer of transuranium elements (TU) to macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident has been studied. The deposition of TU was small compared to most fission products: {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am could not be detected in water or algae, {sup 242}Cm was the dominant {alpha} emitter detected in Chernobyl fallout. Concentration factors of TU for the macroalgae are estimated.

  9. Transuranium elements in macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric deposition and transfer of transuranium elements (TU) to macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident has been studied. The deposition of TU was small compared to most fission products: 239+240Pu and 241Am could not be detected in water or algae, 242Cm was the dominant ? emitter detected in Chernobyl fallout. Concentration factors of TU for the macroalgae are estimated

  10. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.)

  11. Radioactivity in foods - Chernobyl and the consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident until the end of November radioactivity data obtained on more than 36.000 food samples were reported by the country-wide network of measuring stations. An evaluation of the data is presented, together with results obtained at the Federal Research Centre for Nutrition on various foods collected in the Karlsruhe area. While I-131 constituted the main fraction of ingested radioactivity in May, this radionuclide reached the limit of detection in most samples in July. Since June the uptake of radioactivity was essentially determined by Cs-137 and Cs-134. Analyses of total diet samples indicated that the maximal uptake of radiocesium occurred in August, with a daily ingestion of 7.8 Bq Cs-137 and 4 Bq Cs-134 per person. Until December a decline to 2.2 and 1 Bq, respectively, was observed. From the total diet uptake in the calendar year 1986 an effective equivalent dose of 1.8 mrem, 1.3 mrem, and 0.30 mrem due to Cs-137, Cs-134, and I-131, respectively, was estimated. (orig./MG)

  12. On the terminology ''super GAU''. Fukushima and Chernobyl were catastrophic nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution is concerned with the terminology ''super GAU''. The GAU - maximum credible accident - is a design based accident, thus the accidents in Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl were catastrophic accidents. Not every core melt accident has the consequence of major fission product release, the international nuclear event scale INES with 7 steps is supposed to describe the severity of a reactor accident. In case of beyond-design base accident appropriate repair and emergency measures are of extreme importance to avoid fission product release.

  13. Implications of the Chernobyl accident for US reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident that occurred at unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986, was the worst accident in the history of nuclear power. Thirty-one workers and emergency personnel died and more than 200 were hospitalized as a result of this event. Approximately 135,000 persons within 30 km around the reactor were evacuated, and radioactive debris was spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere. There was much public concern generated around the world, and an increased risk of fatal cancer in the world;s population is possible as a result of exposure to Chernobyl fallout. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the major lessons that the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) believes can be learned from the Chernobyl accident. The IDNS has identified five major areas where implications can be drawn from Chernobyl for US reactors: (a) administrative controls, (b) reactor design, (c) containment, (d) emergency planning, and (e) severe accident phenomena. It is clear that administrative controls in place at Chernobyl did not work

  14. Three Mile Island, Bhopal and Chernobyl: causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1970's worldwide criticisms of nuclear power have been so strong that in many countries nuclear power has been outlawed. At Kyoto, scientists and politicians working together have designed a Protocol where the role of nuclear power in reducing CO2 emissions was completely ignored. One of the reasons for this, probably the most important one, is the general perception that nuclear power is unacceptably dangerous and that world can live without it. Both perceptions are, of course, incorrect. Some twenty years ago, as a physicist, not being part of 'nuclear establishment', I became interested in these two issues. Since then, as explained in a number of my publications, I have come to a firm conclusion that (a) nuclear power on the world scale is an essential energy source, whether we like it or not, and (b) that nuclear power is a very safe technology, probably the safest of all technologies the modem industrialized world has. To illustrate this last statement, in this paper I compare causes and consequences of two largest nuclear accidents, TMI and Chernobyl, with Bhopal accident, probably the largest accident that chemical technology has ever produced. (author)

  15. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  16. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  17. Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

  18. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present and discuss measurements of radionuclide concentrations made in Turkey during the Chernobyl event and perform preliminary analyses of the internal and external doses associated with exposure to these materials. 15 refs., 1 tab

  19. 20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

  20. Changed level of peripheral blood red cell total and membrane-bound catalase in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident and in residents pf a zone with increased radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and men permanently living in a zone with increased radiation background were examined 7.5 years after the accident. Use of tests characterizing the status of adaptation systems and defence reactions of the organism helped detect disorders in oxidative balance, to which the production of biooxidants by activated neutrophils and attenuated activity of blood catalase essentially contribute. The prooxidant shift results in injury to cell membranes manifested by the reduction of their enzyme-binding capacity. These shifts homeostasis disorders may create prerequisites for increase of morbidity of the examined populations due to disorders in the adaptation mechanisms

  1. Environmental and agricultural impacts of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on April 26, 1986 resulted in large quantities of radioactive materials being released into the atmosphere. The environmental contaminations and agricultural impacts of the accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere were reviewed. Radiological consequences of the accident were briefly assessed. The data were presented on the results of radioactivity monitoring for air, ground and water, average individual effective dose commitment for each county, and levels of contamination on plant cover, milk, meat in live animals, food, aquatic, and other agricultural products etc. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides in grass-(cow)-milk were listed. Finally, problems on radioecology were discussed

  2. The evolutions of the nuclear industry after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the scenario of the Chernobyl accident, discussed the safety of nuclear power stations in eastern European countries, presented the both types of reactors present in these countries (RBMK and VVER), this report describes the current status of the Chernobyl site. Then it gives an overview of technical improvements brought to eastern European countries, of the lessons drawn from this accident for western power stations. It describes what could be a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor and a reactivity accident, as well as clear water stopper scenarios on PWR. It evokes the CABRI-CIP program, describes phenomena that could lead to a sudden confinement failure, discusses the case of fast-neutron reactors and of experimental reactors, the inhibitions of safeguard system. It evokes research studies, calculation codes, experimental programs, safety probability studies, the EPR safety, and the notion of safety calculation

  3. Lessons of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insensitivity of radiation without measuring apparatus and health outcome observed in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are major sources that make people fear the possible late effects of radiation exposure attributable to nuclear power plant accident. However, the health conditions of people in the last 20 years around Chernobyl indicated the necessity to review the risk assessment suggesting that effects of radiation exposure may considerably be different between the atomic bombing and nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  4. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  5. The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

  6. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG)

  7. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  8. The accident at Chernobyl and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Harjulehto, T.; Aro, T.; Rita, H; Rytömaa, T; Saxén, L.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in Finnish women after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. DESIGN--Geographic and temporal cohort study. SETTING--Finland divided into three zones according to amount of radioactive fallout. SUBJECTS--All children who were exposed to radiation during their fetal development. Children born before any effects of the accident could be postulated--that is, between 1 January 1984 and 30 June 1986--served as controls. I...

  9. Management of Ultimate Risk of Nuclear Power Plants by Source Terms - Lessons Learned from the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition mechanisms of fuel particles and fission fragments during the initial phase of the Chernobyl accident. Through this study, it is now possible to generally reconstruct the radiological consequences by using a dispersion calculation technique, combined with the meteorological data at the time of the accident and land contamination densities of 137Cs measured and reported around the Chernobyl area. Although it is challenging to incorporate lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident into the source term issues, the author has already developed an example of safety goals by incorporating the radiological consequences of the accident. The example provides safety goals by specifying source term releases in a graded approach in combination with probabilities, i.e. risks. The author believes that the future source term specification should be directly linked with safety goals. (author)

  10. Childhood leukemia in Belarus before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood leukemia (ICD 204-208 [1]) incidence rates in the different regions of Belarus are reported for a period before and after the Chernobyl accident (1982-1994). There are, at this point, no recognizable trends towards higher rates. (orig.). With 13 figs

  11. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author)

  12. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  13. The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

  14. Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

  15. The Chernobyl accident and its implications for operators of civil nuclear power plant in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of the accident at the Chernobyl reactor on 26 April 1986 are first identified. In particular, the design features responsible for the accident are noted. A list of the violations of safety rules and the consequences of the violations is drawn up. The lack of understanding on the part of the reactor operators as to how the plant operated is mentioned. The questions of why this mismanagement of the plant by the operators was possible and why it led to catastrophe are then considered. Aspects of plant design -specific design features and design safety principles are discussed. The lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident so far as the UK plant operators are concerned are discussed. (UK)

  16. Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated characterize their relations with local authorities as satisfactorily, when 37,7% of the people are not satisfied by the level of such mutual relations. One can make a conclusion, that half of the population, residing on the affected territories, has adapted to conditions of residing in post-catastrophic-extreme situation. The seriousness of the social and psychological problems caused by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, their aggravation and deepening in conditions of the economic situation in general, require work focused on strengthening social and psychological assistance to the affected population. Qualified psychological support is necessary to the people to help them cope with the difficulties of adaptation, reorient themselves to the new image of life, to help in overcoming of the post-catastrophic stress condition. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out a complex of measures on social and psychological rehabilitation of the population, supporting the measures with the most focussed and personal character whenever possible. It is important to improve the activity of the centers of social and psychological rehabilitation, especially established together with UNESCO to assist people affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences

  17. Environmental consequences of releases from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of a four-year Nordic cooperation project (AKTU-200). The results have impact upon many facets of accident consequence assessment, ranging from new computational tools to recommendations concerning food preparation methods to be utilized in a fallout situation. Some of the subprojects have approached areas where little or no research has been performed previously, like the project on winter conditions, the project on the physico/chemical form of radionuclides in the Chernobyl fallout, and the project on resuspension. The conclusion from the first of these projects is that the impact of an accident or fallout situation occuring during winter may be considerable smaller than in a similar situation during summer conditions. The most important conclusion from the second of these projects is that bioavailability of radiocesium in soil is significantly lower than that of radiocesium in plant material taken up via the roots. In the third project is was found that the resuspension factor is several orders of magnitude lower than the values traditionally cited, and that resuspension is a local phenomenon in a majority of weather conditions. The development of large-scale testing of mitigating actions to prevent uptake of radiocesium in animals in a fallout situation is also one of the projects where new ground has been sucessfully broken. 189 refs., 89 figs., 55 tabs

  18. Documents, used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

  19. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  20. The roots of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disaster at Chernobyl did not happen only due to human failure. The development was supported by the Soviet mental attitude to science and technology, according to which projects of Soviet scientists and technologists are regarded to be infallible. From the Russian point of view, there is no reason to reconsider the risks of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (WG)

  1. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  2. Psychological consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation. Lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the results of a survey among the population in areas of the former Soviet Union (Gomel region) which were affected by the nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl it appears that fear for radiation can have a negative impact on the public health. The results of the survey can help governments to deal with the psychological effects of disasters. 3 refs

  3. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  4. Cytogenetic study in children from zones affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus in lymphocytes with blockade of the cytokines were established in 58 children from three Ukrainian localities that suffered to different extent the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations have been established up to this moment in 2779 cells of 28 children from Ovruch, in 11 475 cells of 28 children from Pripiat and in 994 cells of 10 children from Kiev

  5. Synthesis on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first outlines and comments the differences between the BWR and PWR reactors: notably, BWRs used in Japan exhibit many defects the French PWRs do not have. Thus, a transposition of the Fukushima accident to a French nuclear power plant is not possible. As far as PWRs are concern, Three Mile Island remains the reference in terms of severe accident. On another hand, natural disasters in Japan have no equivalent in France. The author outlines the failures and inertia made by the actors in charge of nuclear issues and which resulted in the Fukushima accidents, just like in Chernobyl: they are therefore qualified of manmade disasters. He comments the various actions undertaken by engineers and technicians in Fukushima, and the consequences of the accident in terms of radioactive releases. He comments the present knowledge on biological effects of radiations with reference to past situations (Hiroshima, Chernobyl). He comments the health consequences of the Fukushima accident in relationship with radionuclide measurement. He also comments the health status of technicians working in the power plant, and finally proposes a brief overview of major problems which are still to be solved

  6. Wheat radioactive contamination in the Italian territory with particular reference to the province of Piacenza as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From radiocesium analyses on several samples of wheat from all over Italy, it can be stated that this species was one of the most widely affected by the radioactive fallout with an average value, referred to Cs-137 and Cs-134, of 196 Bq/kg f.w.. The radioactivity distribution on the basis of the altimetric factor shows a greater radiocaesium absorption at lower altitudes as compared with the medium and above all the higher ones. These results are to be attributed to the different vegetation stage of the wheat at the moment of contamination, as a consequence of a climate difference due to altimetry. The radioactivity differences observed in the various cultivars are imputable to climate factors again, rather than to genetic ones. No correlation was observed between absorbed radiocaesium and contents of assimilable potassium of the soil. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  7. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  8. The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

  9. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Retrospective dosimetry of Iodine-131 exposures using Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 inventories in soils - A critical evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in parts of Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, R; Daraoui, A; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Romantschuk, L D; Alfimov, V; Synal, H-A

    2015-12-01

    The radiation exposure of thyroid glands due to (131)I as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident was investigated retrospectively based on (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in soils in Northern Ukraine. To this end, soil samples from 60 settlements were investigated for (129)I, (127)I, and (137)Cs by AMS, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry, respectively. Sampling was performed between 2004 und 2007. In those parts of Northern Ukraine investigated here the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories are well correlated, the variability of the individual (129)I/(137)Cs ratios being, however, high. Both the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in the individual 5 samples for each settlement allowed estimating the uncertainties of the inventories due to the variability of the radionuclide deposition and consequently of the retrospective dosimetry. Thyroid equivalent doses were calculated from the (129)I and the (137)Cs inventories using aggregated dose coefficients for 5-year old and 10-year-old children as well as for adults. The highest thyroid equivalent doses (calculated from (129)I inventories) were calculated for Wladimirowka with 30 Gy for 5-years-old children and 7 Gy for adults. In 35 settlements of contamination zone II the geometric mean of the thyroid equivalent doses was 2.0 Gy for 5-years-old children with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.0. For adults the geometric mean was 0.47 Gy also with a GSD of 3.0. In more than 25 settlements of contamination zone III the geometric means were 0.82 Gy for 5-years old children with a GSD of 1.8 and 0.21 Gy for adults (GSD 1.8). For 45 settlements, the results of the retrospective dosimetry could be compared with thyroid equivalent doses calculated using time-integrated (131)I activities of thyroids which were measured in 1986. Thus, a critical evaluation of the results was possible which demonstrated the general feasibility of the method, but also the associated uncertainties and limitations. PMID:26254721

  11. Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km2), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' 137Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km{sup 2}), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' {sup 137}Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological principles and criteria need detailed clarification. The specific aspect of this phase is the problem of social protection and social rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories has been considered as a combination of measures directed at improvement of environmental conditions and the quality of life. While planning decontamination for the long term, it is important to take into account the contribution of external dose to the total (external and internal) dose. The materialization of the social aspect is a very important characteristic of this phase. Unfortunately, in spite of all the efforts, the negative consequences of the accident have not been completely overcome. Nevertheless, the data array that has been accumulated since the accident allows unbiased assessment of not only the errors but also the achievements of the stupendous work on minimization of the consequences of the accident and drawing conclusions important for the future. (author)

  14. Modeling consequences of the accident at Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuermann, W.; Piater, A.; Krass, C.; Lurk, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme; Wilbois, T.; Ren, Y. [T-Systems GEI GmbH, Ulm (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The reactor accident in Fukushima Daiichi caused by one of the heaviest earthquakes in recent history and the disastrous tsunami at 11 March 2011 has, especially in Germany, aroused again the discussion about the risks of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the safety of nuclear power plants. Within this context it is also discussed how the operating company and the regulator authorities react, which actions they take to secure people and how believable their statements are. Taking this into account it seems reasonable to investigate, on the basis of this accident, how useful the tools, developed after the Chernobyl accident, can be applied to assist the decision makers. (orig.)

  15. Revisiting Chernobyl accident:what were the causes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally stated, particularly in the West, that the Chernobyl accident was the result of a specific Soviet political and economic system, and that such an accident could not happen in the Western reactors. The reality is much more complicated. A careful examination of events that lead to the accident reveals that there were several different factors contributing to it. If any one of these factors were absent, there would have been no accident, or it would have been only a minor incident. Three of these factors were related to the reactor design, two to the preparation of the experiment, three to the judgment of the operators, judgments made under pressure and in a hurry, and at least one to the management..The management factor is perhaps the most controversial and interesting. One popular interpretation is that the accident was the result of excessive bureaucracy and individual irresponsibility. Some examples of mismanagement in other areas of human activity are quoted in this paper. They illustrate that similar mistakes occur quite frequently all around us, not only in the Soviet Union. The overall analysis of the Chernobyl accident confirms what scientists and engineers have known for a long time. It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to develop a new technology without making mistakes, some of which may be fatal. (author)

  16. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  17. After Chernobyl - Consequences for energy policy, nuclear safety, radiation and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter B contains a report on the current situation with regard to international nuclear power development, nuclear safety programmes. Swedish emergency preparedness planning, and the phasing out of nuclear power. Chapter C explains the causes of the Chernobyl accident and its course and effects in the Soviet Union. The chapter also contains a summary of earlier reactor accidents, a comparison between the Chernobyl reactor and Swedish reactors, and a discussion of the conclustions that can be drawn with respect to the Swedish reactor safety programme. Chapter D begins with an account of certain basic concepts related to radioactive substances and radiation, our radiological environment, and the effects of radiation. Then follows an account of the risks of nuclear power, and in particular the effects of the Chernobyl accident in Sweden. The Expert Group urges that careful consideration be given to the question of further reinforcement of and other measures concerning preparedness for nuclear power accidents on the basis of the material now available, including the evaluation of emergency operations after the Chernobyl accident. Twelve nuclear power blocks now in operation may be used insofar as safety criteria permit. The Expert Group presents the conditions for and consequences of some alternative, faster phase-out schedules. Chapter E begins with an account of the available substitutes for nuclear power. Different phase-out schedules are then presented. The chapter closes with an estimate of the consequences for the national economy. In Chapter F the Expert Group present a description of risks and environmental problems in relation to the alternative phase-out schedules. (authors)

  18. Chernobyl in the French mass media 14 years after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents how the mass media have dealt with the fourteenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Nowadays Chernobyl epitomizes the hazards of nuclear energy. Public opinion has become extremely sensitive to topics concerning human health. This sensitivity is due to previous important affairs such as the scandal of the tainted blood, the mad cow disease or the syndrome of the Balkan war. Most media have broadened the debate to the sanitary impact of nuclear activities. The hyper-mediatization of the legal case of a man prosecuting the French state for no having taken adequate measures when the radioactive cloud spread over France, has given the feeling that French authorities have always wrongly minimized the consequences of the accident. (A.C.)

  19. The radiation burden in Austria from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the radioactivity levels in Austria after the Chernobyl accident, in air, grass, milk and different meats as a function of time. A table of the Austrian legal activity uptake limits, for 290Sr, 131J, 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru and 106Ru provide standards of comparison. For 1986 the integral burden for the population is estimated to be 30 mrem. (G.Q.)

  20. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    OpenAIRE

    Rissanen, K.; Rahola, T.

    1990-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the correspond...

  1. Infant leukaemia after the Chernobyl accident; and reply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, J.; Kaletsch, U. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation; Burkart, W.; Grosche, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Petridou, E.; Trichopoulos, D. [Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, Boston, MA (United States); Dessypris, N.; Flytzani, V.; Haidas, S.; Kalmanti, M.; Koliouskas, D.; Kosmidis, H.; Piperopoulou, F.; Tzortzatou, F.

    1997-05-15

    In a correspondence concerning the incidence of infant leukemia in Germany and Greece, a disagreement is aired over the possible link between increased incidence and the fallout from Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented to demonstrate that observations made in Germany show no link between in utero exposure to ionising radiation from the fallout and increased infant leukemia. This conflicts with the findings published earlier by other researchers working on observations made in Greece. These researchers defend their initial conclusions. (UK).

  2. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  3. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  4. Chernobyl accident causes: Overview of studies over the decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years have passed since the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP and during this time its causes have been investigated by many teams of scientists both in Russia and abroad. This paper reviews such efforts over the past decade. Russian studies of 1986 through 1990 were covered in a paper presented at the European Nuclear Society Conference in Paris in March, 1991. 30 refs, figs

  5. The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

  6. Human minisatellite mutation rate after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germline mutation at human minisatellite loci has been studied among children born in heavily polluted areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and in a control population. The frequency of mutation was found to be twice as high in the exposed families as in the control group. Mutation rate in the Mogilev families was correlated with the level of caesium-137 surface contamination, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. (author)

  7. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  8. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabachny, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends.

  9. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends

  10. The Chernobyl accident. Occurrence, causes and backfitting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in the fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power station was able to occur because of the major deficits in engineered safeguards design of the RBMK line of reactors: Faulty core design; unsuitable shutdown system; absence of automatic shutdown criteria; insufficient protection against reactor protection measures being blocked by the reactor operators. The sequence of accident events was started and aggravated by a faulty experimental program; insufficient experience in, and preparation for, the experiment of the personnel; and violations of important rules by the operating crew. (orig./UA)

  11. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  12. Radiation measurement of some materials in Egypt after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological measurements of rain water, cress, and milk before and after Chernobyl nuclear power accident have been carried out. The results show that Egyptian environment was affected by the accident, but the increase of radioactive contamination was small and below the permissible. The paper suggests methodological procedures for measuring the growth activity in the studied materials. It offers also a simplified diagram for automatic national radiological monitoring station to measure the environmental background radiation by a routine way for detection any increase of radioactivity rapidly. This station enables the responsibles to take rapid and optimum decisions in time to lessen the environmental radiological contamination. (orig.)

  13. Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG)

  14. Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

  15. Exposure of trees to radiation due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl, the contribution to the exposure to radiation due to radionuclides on or in the trees was considerably increased. The increase in the proportion of Cs 137 of the radioactivity contained in the leaves or needles can exceed the factor 100, compared with the time before the accident. However, the total radiation exposure remains in the range of variation of natural exposure to radiation so that radiation damage to trees in the area of West Germany cannot be shown. The increase in artificial radioactivity related to the area of West Germany is large compared with the contribution from nuclear establishments. (orig.)

  16. Chernobyl accident consequences: the unborn children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of spontaneous abortion in 1-12 week gestation term among Kiev region women with desired pregnancy is considered. If cumulative dose of total irradiation among Kiev region women was more than 5.0 mSv, spontaneous abortion risk increased. Mother's age more than 34, smoking, chronic infections and sterility treatment in anamnesis also increased spontaneous abortion risk. The material well being does not influence spontaneous abortion risk among women

  17. Social psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A state of internal social psychological discomfort of the children and teenagers living on the contaminated territories is revealed. It is stipulated not only by radioactive contamination of regions, but by a level of work of the authorities too. A social psychological state of the population on the contaminated territories depends in a greater degree from both the social economic factors and the level of information about a real degree of a radiating risk, than from ecological and radioecological factors. In this connection in work with the children on the contaminated territories the social psychological aid should have a priority

  18. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their winter diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic

  19. Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting

  20. Probability of double nuclear bursts in the Chernobyl reactivity accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussions are made for potentially existing double nuclear bursts in a reactivity accident in reactors having positive void reactivity coefficients, with a typical example being taken from the Chernobyl accident case. A brief discussion is first made on the physics backgrounds of reactivity coefficient consisting of Doppler, void, and moderator temperature effects. Three dimensional spatial kinetic analyses are then made to study the case of the Chernobyl reactivity accident, where the emphasis is on the effect of uniform and non-uniform void generation in the core during the accident. The result with uniform void generation indicated that the reactor could have become quite unstable to induce an uncontrolled power surge. The initial local void, depending on its spatial area, would also result in an uncontrolled power surge with an initial local void expanding into the global core. In this case, some parts of the core quickly attained the fuel melting temperature, while the rest of the core remained well below it. Under such circumstances, there would be a good reasoning for the local initial core damage, leaving other part of the core uninfected and still ready for the second power surge. The speculating discussions have been tried to explain the background situations for the potential double nuclear bursts, and also for the two witnessed explosions given in the accident report(1). (author)

  1. Setting up a specialized centre for rendering therapeutical and prophylactic aid to the Chernobyl accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of examination and observation dynamics are presented of the patients participated in the Chernobyl accident response. Data were obtained in the Tomsk Regional Center on rehabilitation and disease treatment and prevention of persons participated in the Chernobyl accident response. It was shown that the diagnosis and treatment of this category of population required the combined purposeful approach. It is recommended to create the regional special centres on rendering therapeutic-preventive service and rehabilitation of participants of the Chernobyl accident response

  2. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. Children from Belarus suffering from thyroid cancer - results of the project 'Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors initially present facts and figures demonstrating the increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among children from Belarus as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The causal relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the increased risk of development of thyroid cancer in children is shown. The authors then explain the activities and the goals of the project ''Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident'', giving case reports and details of successful therapy for the children from Belarus who were invited by various hospitals for treatment of thyroid cancer. (orig.)

  4. Some parameters of immune system in clean up workers of Chernobyl NPP accident suffering from peptic ulcer duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some parameters of cellular and humoral immunity in 55 patients with Peptic Ulcer Duodenum are presented. All involved persons participated in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up. The immune status in patients with acute ulcer was characterised by statistically significant decreasing level of T-lymphocytes and T-helpers compared with healthy pearson

  5. Proceedings of the first part of a joint OECD(NEA)/CEC workshop on recent advances in reactor accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the Joint Workshop, organised by the NEA, is focused on the progress achieved in the work of CSNI's GRECA (Group of Experts on Accident Consequences). The program is composed of the following papers. Session 1: characteristics of the Chernobyl release and fallout that affect transport and behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment; Chernobyl accident and hot particles in the fallout; radionuclides associated with colloids and particles in the Chernobyl fallout; source term in the Chernobyl accident; long range transport of radionuclides; parameters in consequence calculations for an urban area. Session 2: review of evaluations concerning radionuclide transfer to foodstuffs via plants in view of the data available after the Chernobyl accident; GRECA review of Chernobyl data on transfer to animal products; Chernobyl accident radiometric data (Cs-137 in fresh water fishes of north Italy lakes); distribution of Cs-137 in water sediment and fish in the Ijsselmeer (Netherlands); uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl accident; radioactivity of people in the nordic countries following the Chernobyl accident; preparations for an international study to evaluate long-range transport models against the Chernobyl accident

  6. Consequences of Chernobyl. A chance for East-West relations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the opinion of the author the catastrophe of Chernobyl does not only have an impact on the inner development of the Soviet Union but also on the East-West relations. Perhaps during the next years the Soviet Union takes part in a worldwide information system about atomic plants to guarantee the communication between countries of different political systems in cases of nuclear accidents. (WG)

  7. The atlas of cesium-137 contamination of Europe after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atlas, which was compiled under the Joint Study Project (JSP6) of the CEC/CIS Collaborative Program on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, implemented into the European Commission's Radiation Protection Research Action, summarizes the results of numerous investigations undertaken throughout Europe to assess the ground contamination by cesium-137 following the Chernobyl accident. The Atlas incorporates about 100 color maps at a range of scales (1/200k - 1/10M) which characterize the contamination in Europe as a whole, within state boundaries and for zones where the contamination levels are above 40 kBq/m2 (? 2.0% of the European territory) and above 1480 kBq/m2 (? 0.03% of the European territory). Investigations have shown that around 6% of the European territory has been contaminated for more than 20 kBq/m2 after the Chernobyl accident. The total amount of deposited cesium-137 in Europe is 8*1016 Bq and distributed in the following manner: Belarus 33.5%, Russia 24%, Ukraine 20%, Sweden 4.4%, Finland 4.3%, Bulgaria 2.8%, Austria 2.7%, Norway 2.3%, Romania 2.0%, Germany 1.1%

  8. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long. (from conclusion)

  9. The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

  10. The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives the results of radiation measurements in Denmark following the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. The results of the measurements as of 3 May show that the effect of the accident on Danish territory is comparable to 2 weeks of natural background radiation. The report has been prepared on behalf of a coordinating committee established by Danish authorities after the accident. The coordinating committee is chaired by the National Agency of Environmental Protection and consists of representatives from the National Board of Health, the National Food Agency, Risoe National Laboratory, the Civil Defense, the Meteorological Institute and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report measurements were performed by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (part of the National Board of Health) and by Risoe National Laboratory. (author)

  11. Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

  12. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

  13. Radioactivity measurements in air over Europe after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Frank; Graziani, Giovanni; Stanners, David; Girardi, Franco

    A comprehensive European data set of radioactivity in air caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is presented. For the first 2 weeks after the beginning of the release, levels of particulate I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 (85 locations) and of total I-131 (10 locations) are given. All data are stored in a computerized data base. For the first time the passage of the Chernobyl cloud over Europe is mapped after re-averaging the time histories in each location to produce coherent daily concentrations. Cs-134/Cs-137 ratios were analyzed: the 'European' average ratio calculated from 1239 samples is 0.55, with a standard deviation of 0.25.

  14. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  15. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident (131I, 140Ba /140La, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Nb, 95Zr, 137Cs and 134Cs). They accumulate the long-living 90Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than 137Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of 137Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of 137Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of 137Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more 137Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of 137Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by 137Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of 137Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of 137Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

  16. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which parameters were driving the computed results. The mean external effective dose for all individuals in the cohort due to exposure to radiocontamination from the Chernobyl accident between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009 was found to be 1.2 mSv; the geometric mean was 0.84 mSv with a geometric standard deviation of 2.1. The mean value is well below the mean external effective dose expected due to typical background radiation (which in the United States over this time period would be 12.0 mSv). Sensitivity analysis suggests that the greatest driver of the distribution of individual dose estimates is lack of specific information about the daily behavior of each individual, specifically the portion of time each individual spent indoors (and shielded from radionuclides deposited on the soil) versus outdoors (and unshielded).

  17. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by {sup 137}Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of {sup 137}Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

  18. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131I, 129Tem, and 110Agm and lowest for radiocesium and 140Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  19. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km2 (15 Ci/km2). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  20. XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

  1. Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

  3. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

  4. The animal kingdom in the Chernobyl NPP accident zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monograph has the review and analysis of data on the problem of estimation of the Chernobyl accident effect on animal world of the Republic of Belarus. Questions of ionizing irradiation influence on organisms, populations and ecosystems are considered. Features of radionuclides accumulation by the animals of various systematic groups are investigated. Characteristic of the parasitological situation in the 30-km zone is given, the effect of secondary radioecological factors stipulated by exception of economic activity in zone of alienation and moving away on forming of fauna complexes is analysed. The book is designed on zoologists, radio ecologists, experts in the field of nature protection. (authors). 326 refs., 35 tabs., 39 figs

  5. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radioactivity monitoring is done in Bavaria by a system of monitoring stations distributed over the Land, and by the reactor remote monitoring systems. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, measuring activities have been intensified, and by the end of 1986 there have been available about 35.000 measured data records on radioactivity in the air, in water, land, and food and animal feeds. The report in hand presents the data measured in tables and explains their significance with regard to environmental radiation exposure. (DG)

  6. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  7. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 ?R h-1 [1 ?Sv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  8. A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred. A corresponding effective deposition length for caesium, R-Cs, defined las the effective distance from Chernobyl to where the aerosols have been deposited, is found to be R-Cs approximate to 1000 km. From the observations of the regional variability of the Chernobyl fallout a simple probabilistic assessment method is proposed for the long-range radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Frequency changes of inherited anomalies in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex cytogenetic, embryologic and clinical studies of possible genetic consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for the population of Belarus have been carried out. They showed that groups of the population (pregnant women, fetuses, school children) had received biologically significant doses of radiation, as assessed by the registration of ring and dicentric chromosomes in blood lymphocytes. The study of more than 22,000 embryos and fetuses, and of 4090 neonates with compulsory registered congenital malformations, showed a considerable increase of anomalies of intrauterine origin since 1987. They correlated with the level of 137Cs contamination in the areas, but did not correlate with the preconception dose to the mother from the same radionuclide. Teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl pollution have not been conclusively idenitifed. The increase of embryonal anomalies was mainly due to the group of multifactorial defects, and to the anomalies with a large contribution from dominant mutations. The Down's syndrome incidence showed to increase. (Author)

  10. Transgenic plants are sensitive bioindicators of nuclear pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the genetic consequences of radioactive contamination originating from the Nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl on indigenous populations of plants and animals, it is essential to determine the rates of accumulating genetic changes in chronically irradiated populations. An increase in germline mutation rates in humans living close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site, and a two- to tenfold increase in germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl have been reported. Little is known, however, about the effects of chronic irradiation on plant genomes. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks in DNA, which are repaired via illegitimate or homologous recombination. The authors make use of Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying a ?-glucuronidase marker gene as a recombination substrate to monitor genetic alterations in plant populations, which are caused by nuclear pollution of the environment around Chernobyl. A significant increase in somatic intrachromosomal recombination frequencies was observed at nuclear pollution levels from 0.1--900 Ci/km2, consistent with an increase in chromosomal aberrations. This bioindicator may serve as a convenient and ethically acceptable alternative to animal systems

  11. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 ?Sv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 ?Sv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 ?Sv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  12. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established Safety Culture, the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  13. Assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident made after 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies dealing with the consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been published on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the event. The doses received from absorbed iodine are estimated at up to 70 mSv in adults and over 1000 mSv in children. The average whole-body dose received by the inhabitants prior to evacuation was about 15 mSv. The people who were engaged in the mitigation of the accident received whole-body doses as high as over 10 Sv. From among 432 000 such persons, 6000 died over the 1988-1994 period, the causes being other than the irradiation. Hence, the mortality in this group was the same as in the normal population. About 270 000 persons still live in regions contaminated with Cs-137 in quantities higher than 555 kBq/m2. The radiation doses for the population of Europe were roughly 1 to 2 mSv above the natural background. No abnormalities caused by the radiation were found during medical examinations. The accident, however, had serious psychological consequences. Currently, a staff of 6000 is working at the Chernobyl power plant, and the new town of Slavutich is inhabited by the youngest population, exhibiting the lowest mortality in the Ukraine. (M.D.) 1 tab., 12 refs

  14. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  15. Chernobyl: Lessons learned one decade after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power generating reactor in May 1986 was the largest event of its kind in terms of radionuclides released, size of contaminated areas, and corresponding counter measures. In the Ukraine alone, over 50 thousand square kilometers are contaminated effecting more than 2.4 million people in 2,200 settlements. In the ten years since this event, there are new data concerning characteristics of the radionuclides released. This includes dispersion into the environment and migration into ecosystems, as well the physio-chemical characteristics hot particles. On the most contaminated areas (up to 1015 Bq km-2) anomalous genetic effects have been found. In the Ukraine and Belorussua, a significant increase in thyroid cancer has been observed. This information will have important implications for emergency planning and accident response in the future

  16. Evironmental health policy in ukraine after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine produced severe environmental health problems. This paper reports on the environmental health conditions in Ukraine after the accident and the health policy approaches employed to respond to the environmental conditions and health problems. Crisis conditions and a period of rapid change in Ukraine contributed to the difficulties of developing and implementing policy to address serious environmental health problems. Despite these difficulties, Ukraine is taking effective action. The paper describes the primary environmental health problem areas and the efforts taken to solve them. The effect of intense public fear of radiation on policymaking is described. The paper discusses the ability of public fear to distort health policy towards certain problems, leaving problems of greater importance with fewer resources. 35 refs., 1 fig

  17. Evaluation of special safety features of the SNR-300 in view of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of those characteristics, which decisively influenced the accident in the RMBK-1000 reactor, with the safety features of SNR-300 has been performed. The conclusions of this comparison are presented in the present report. The SNR-300 is characterized by a stable reactivity behaviour and good controllability, whereas RBMK-1000 has an instable behaviour and complex spatial dependencies in the core. Among other points, design deficiencies in the protection and emergency shutdown systems were responsible for the Chernobyl accident. The protection and scram systems of the SNR-300 are unquestionably superior to those of the RBMK-1000 with regard to redundancy, diversity, degree of automation, separation of operational and safety-relevant tasks, protection against inadmissible interventions, effectiveness and safety reserves. Therefore, excursion accidents can be classified as hypothetical for SNR-300. Due to elementary physical properties, possible energy releases during hypothetical excursions are substantially lower for SNR-300 and would be controlled by the design of the primary system and containment systems. No damage limiting measures are provided in the RBMK-100 for excursion accidents. Finally, exothermal processes augmented the consequences of the accident in the RBMK-1000 and the long-lasting graphite fire intensified the release of radioactivity. In the SNR-300, however, inertisation of the containment, the steel plate lining and the floor troughs ensure that activity enclosure inside the containment after leakage or hypothetical excursion accident is not endangered by exothermal reactions. Further safety aspects are presented in the report, which can be linked with the accident in Chernobyl. In summary, it is obvious that the disadvantageous physical and technical features of the RBMK-1000 do either not exist in the SNR-300 or are covered by the safety design

  18. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  19. Transport of radioactive particles from the chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöllänen, Roy; Valkama, Ilkka; Toivonen, Harri

    After the Chernobyl accident large and highly radioactive particles were found in several European countries. Particles > 20 ?m in aerodynamic diameter were transported hundreds of kilometres from the plant, and they were sufficiently active (> 100 kBq) to cause acute health hazards. Here, a particle trajectory model is used to identify the areas of large particle fallout. Effective release height of the particles and atmospheric phenomena related to their transport are investigated by comparing particle findings with locations given by trajectory calculations. The calculations showed that in the Chernobyl accident either the maximum effective release height must have been considerably higher than previously reported (> 2000 m) or convective warm air currents may have lifted radioactive material upwards during transport. Large particles have been transported to other areas than small particles and gaseous species. The particulate nature of the release plume must be taken into account in dispersion and transport analyses. Air parcel trajectories alone are not necessarily sufficient for identifying the fallout area of radioactive material.

  20. Cancer morbidity among the emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on human health of exposures to ionizing radiation have long been the subject of dispute. In this paper we focus on the primary cancer morbidity in the cohort of 8745 men who worked in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1990 and were followed since exposure up to 1995. The official dosimetry data, mostly falling in the range of 0-25 cSv, are available for 75% of ameliorators. Annual cancer morbidity rates turned out to increase rapidly. However, trend analysis in the age-specific subgroups provides evidence that the observed temporal gradients are to be attributed to the ageing (regression coefficients for the age groups of 40-44; 45-49; 50-54 are 0.201; 0.793 and 1.223, correspondingly). In the five-year age groups cancer morbidity of the emergency workers (EWs) makes no statistically significant differences with that of the male populations of Russia and St-Petersburg. No evidence of an association between radiation dose and cancer morbidity was observed. The highest primary cancer morbidity is registered among those EWs, who arrived to Chernobyl region within 360 days followed the accident and had been working there during less than 30 or more than 180 days. The follow-up of the cohort is to be continued. (author)

  1. Radioactive contamination characteristics in China following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the Environmental Radiation Surveillance Network of Ministry of Public Health of China has done monitoring on environmental samples to determine the contamination levels of radioactivity. Radionuclides, such as I-131, I-132, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Te-132, were found on surface of airplanes, which flew in domestic airlines between May 1-3, that means the radionuclides from Chernobyl accident already reached high altitude atmosphere over China, but the concentration was much lower than that in Europe. During the period of May 2-15, in most stations, radionuclides were found in different environmental samples, such as air, milk, vegetables, rain water, river and lake water, and sheep thyroid. Radioactivity levels of samples were higher in north part of China than in south. The amounts of radionuclides in all samples were well below the derived air concentrations and derived intake concentrations specified in the National Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection. Thus, the public need not to take any precautions for the purpose of radiation protection

  2. Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

  3. Some aspects of the genetic consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a study of the genetic effects of ionizing radiations resulting from the Chernobyl disaster. It involves application of the laboratory radiosensitive test-objects for the biological dosimetry of the environment; evaluation of primary radiation-genetic effects resulting from the ionizing irradiation of plant and animal populations within the 30-km vicinity and outside this zone; and a study of distant genetic consequences of ionizing radiation exposure (in a number of generations) on the environmental objects

  4. The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

  5. Activities of the central authorities in 1990-1991 on the Chernobyl accident response and social defence of it's victims. Long-term programs on the Chernobyl accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter presents the information on the approved All-Union Programs to eliminate the long-term consequences of the CNPP accident and on problems linked with the social protection of the victims. Three stages of the activity to overcome the consequences of the accident are studied: 1-st period - 1986; 2-nd period - 1987-1989; third period (reconstruction) -1990-1995 and subsequent years. Attention is focused on the All-Union section of the State Union and Republic Program to protect the USSR population against the effects of the Chernobyl NPP in 1991-1995 and during the period up to 2000

  6. Modelling and estimating consequences of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only a computer model can suitably process the new source terms obtained by great experimental and theoretical efforts. To reach this aim was the main task of the further development of the accident consequence model UFOMOD of the German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Plants - Phase B (DRS-B). The considerable improvements of the model compared with DRS phase A are shown and finally the future estimates of consequences of accidents and their results are described. (orig./DG)

  7. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  8. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

  9. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

  10. Medical radiological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Russia. Estimation of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident, one of the worst radiation-related disasters ever, occurred about 18 year ago. A lot has been done over the past years to mitigate the consequences of this accident, especially in the worst affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The efforts to study health effects of the accident, however, need to be continued for many years to come, being an integral part of developing a general strategy for dealing with long-term effects. The question now arises: To what extent health consequences could be evaluated in 1986, given the existing scientific base of radiation epidemiology? The latest 20-30 years have seen a rapid development of radiation epidemiology, which was brought about, first of all, by the need to analyze long-term radiation effects of the 1945 atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It may now be considered as proved that high and medium radiation doses (above 0.3 Sv) lead to an increase in cancer incidence rates. Based on the Japanese data, the ICRP proposed mathematical models to be used for predicting long-term effects of radiation exposure. This brings up a question: Are radiation risks derived for Hiroshima and Nagasaki applicable to low doses (0.2 Sv)? An answer is critically important, as the overwhelming majority of emergency workers and the population exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident received doses within this range. Actually, understanding of these issues is crucial for dealing with long-term radiation effects of the Chernobyl accident. Deriving radiation risk factors for the Japanese cohort with medium and high doses was based on large-scale epidemiological studies of 86.5 thousand people during a prolonged period. As of now, no other approaches exist to estimating long-term radiation effects. Following the Chernobyl accident the All-Union Distributed Registry of persons exposed to radiation was established as soon as in the summer 1986. The Research Institute of Medical Radiology (Medical Radiological Research Center) of RAMS was designated as the lead organization responsible for creating and maintaining the Registry. By December of 1991, when the USSR collapsed, the Registry database contained individual medical and dosimetric information for 659292 persons, of them 284919 were emergency workers. After disintegration of the Soviet Union the national Chernobyl registries were set up in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. In Russia the registry operations are regulated by the Governmental Decree No 948 of 22 September 1993 'About national registration of persons exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident and other radiation accidents and incidents'. As of January 1 2004, the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry (RNMDR) contained individual medical and dosimetric data for 61,1819 persons, including 192148 emergency workers and 359724 residents of four contaminated oblasts of Russia (Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula). Since the total number of subjects under study in the RNMDR is 6 times higher than in the Japanese registry, it may be concluded that the activities to assess actual radiation risks at low doses are well under way. The present book consists of two parts. The first part is devoted to emergency workers and the second to the population. The radiation-epidemiological studies described in the book cover the follow-up period from 1986 to 2001

  11. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

  12. Retroactive epidemiological study of the consequences of the Chernobyl cloud for the populations of Corsica - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief presentation of the knowledge on health consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Europe (quantities of iodine-131 deposited in different countries, evolution of thyroid cancers and evolution of cancer diagnosis programs), this report examines the relationship between the variations of thyroidal pathologies and the level of exposure to the Chernobyl cloud. The methodology and peculiarities of this study are discussed. The main results obtained for women and men in Europe are briefly presented in terms of occurrence of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis and thyroid cancers. Then, the report addresses the specific case of Corsica: methodology and peculiarities (structural and circumstances-related limitations), discussion of the results obtained from endocrinology medical files, discussion with respect to pathologies (hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis and thyroid cancers). A distinction is made between mountain and seaside territories. The next part addresses the consequences the Chernobyl cloud fallouts for children in terms of thyroidal pathologies, of cohorts of children born in 1986 and in 1989, of acute leukaemia, and of prenatal mortality due to congenital malformations

  13. Analyzing Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentration in mosses samples in Campania region. Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident caused an exceptional relapse of radioactive material. The consequent fallout it in several European countries, including Italy. Term and height of aeriform effluent radioactivity admitted into the atmosphere, the distance of place of origin and the variability of meteorologic qualifications existence (wind, rain, etc...), determined the level of contamination of radioactivity in the air with a consequent deposition of soil much variable depending on space and time. Following the Chernobyl accident the situation of artificial deposition in Italy is considerably changed. In order to obtain arrange a new map of contamination of radioactivity in the soil. All over Italian territory has been organized radioecological campaign to arrange a new zero point. (author)

  14. Report of the Land Berlin: The Chernobyl reactor accident and its effects on Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents in detail the activities of the Berlin Senate administrations for the protection of the population after the reactor accident and outlines the consequences that have already resulted or are still to be expected for the people and the environment in Berlin. The radiation control guidelines and the provided instruments enabled the Berlin Senate to encounter the sudden accident with a fast and unbureaucratic crisis management. The special geopolitical situation of Berlin made it possible to set up a comprehensive control and measuring program for imported food. This report shows that all the measures required in connection with Chernobyl were taken by the Berlin Senate and that there is an effective precautionary program. (orig./HSCH)

  15. Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

  16. 20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

  17. Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

  18. Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

  19. Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since August 1991, six surveys have been made on thyroid cancer in children in Ukraine and Belorussia. The results were compared with those for Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Children with thyroid cancer were characterized as having the following: (1) frequent occurrence of thyroid cancer; (2) extremely short latency period; (3) poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma; (4) frequent occurrence within the thyroid gland; (5) the association of fibrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, and proliferation of follicular epithelial cells; (6) frequent occurrence of sclerosing variant of papillary cancer associated with fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration, especially in heavily exposed areas. These findings were supposed to be attributable to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. No data has been available on infantile thyroid cancer in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors because of the following reasons: (1) acute death from acute radiation injury, leukemia and cancer other than thyroid cancer; (2) few survey on thyroid cancer during the first 10 years after exposure; (3) the lack of surgical data on thyroid cancer. In the case of Chernobyl survivors, there were few acute death cases; I-131 seemed to have damaged specifically the thyroid gland; heavily exposed areas corresponded to areas with low iodine intake; pediatric thyroid gland is sensitive to I-131, leading to the possibility that infantile thyroid cancer may have been induced by I-131. (N.K.)

  20. Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

  1. The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

  2. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  3. Radiocesium contamination in soil due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different cereal cultivated fields (rice, maize/wheat, wheat/barley) were selected and soil samples were collected in order to study the behaviour of the radiocesium deposited over the crops after the Chernobyl accident fall-out (April 1986) together with its distribution at different ground depths. For each field, soil samples were removed during the sowing (Oct-Nov '86), in Spring (Apr '87) and during the harvest time (June-Sept '87). The 40K concentration and stable potassium content in soil was also evaluated by nuclear spectrometry and by atomic absorption spectrometry. Beside soil sample measurements, the cultivated cereals produced in the 1986 harvest (rice, maize, wheat) were analyzed to evaluate the deposited contamination, and in order to evaluate the contamination during the growth and naturation we also analyzed whole plants (roots, stalks, grains) of the cultivated cereals (rice, wheat, barley) in 1987. Results are presented and discussed. (author) 9 refs.; 9 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Local radiation damage in the irradiated during Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some unusual forms of skin system damage are described in cases of local radiation damage in victims of the Chernobyl disaster. One phenomenon was skin erythema occurring 6 to 8 weeks following the accident in some irradiated persons. The original scope of damage of 25 to 30% of body surface generalized in 3 weeks to affect the whole body. One hypothetical explanation may be damage due to the effect of low level radionuclides or significantly slowed-down particles. Another unusual phenomena was side and crural erythema accompanied with oedema and strong pain in some patients. The primary cause of death in one patient with such damage was brain oedema similar to that in toxic shock following extensive burns. The therapy is outlined in the management of the said and other local radiation damage cases. (L.O.). 10 refs

  5. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  6. Dose estimates in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates have been made of the maximum individual doses and the collective doses in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Based on the measured data of ground deposition and radionuclide concentrations in air, raw milk, milk on sale and leafy vegetables, the doses from some significant radionuclides were calculated for 5 typical exposure pathways; cloudshine, groundshine, inhalation, ingestion of milk and leafy vegetables. The maximum effective dose equivalents for hypothetical individuals were calculated to be 1.8 mrem for adults, 3.7 mrem for children and 6.0 mrem for infants. The collective effective dose equivalent in Japan was estimated to be 5.8 x 104 man · rem; 0.50 mrem of the average dose per capita. (author)

  7. Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deliveries. In this connection, attempts were made to find out whether regional increases in radiation caused by the accident and the general uneasiness arising from this fact could be linked to higher rates of infants being born prematurely. A three-step procedure was followed for the survey, in which Step One hat the purpose of compiling basic data on the gestations and parturitions examined using information from patient records. In Step Two a biogramme was established on the basis of questionnaires filled in by pregnant women. Step Three was included for a post-partum ascertainment of material risk factors and data of paturition in women participating in the Step Two investigations. The information obtained from patient records pointed to no differences in the percentage shares of premature deliveries between the individual exposure regions examined, nor could any such discrepancies be revealed on the basis of the biogramme and post-partum survey. In areas showing elevated levels of radioactivity as a result of the Chernobyl fallout the proportion of women claiming to have fears about ecological afflictions invariably was 4 to 9% larger than that determined for areas, where radiation exposure remained within the range generally accepted as normal. Statistically significant increases in the percentage shares of premature deliveries could, however, be proven for groups of women showing additional risk factors other than radiation exposure. (orig./MG)

  8. Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: 131I, 132Te, 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and, to a lesser degree, 89Sr and 90Sr. Very quickly, 137Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of 137Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and 90Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is 137Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their 137Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of 137Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg-1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, 137Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

  9. Health implications of the Chernobyl accident for Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimations of Chernobyl-related accidental exposures to the Bulgarian population indicated the doses received to be low-level. Possible deviations in individual subjects were likewise held to be within the low-level range. It was thus inferred that appearance of nonstochastic, threshold effects which become manifest after doses of a certain magnitude, were not to be expected as such effects are known to require doses well in excess of those attributable to the accident. So it is difficult to explain the increase in nonmalignant thyroid pathology noted for 1986 and 1987 and particularly marked in children, according to a recent analysis covering the period 1980-1990. The characteristics of radiation exposure experienced by the Bulgarian population point only to possible stochastic effects (carcinogenic or genetic) and some types of damage incurred during embryonic development. As regards carcinogenic risk predictions indicated that any accident-related malignancies would hardly be statistically demonstrable in a setting of high spontaneous frequencies. Attention is now centered on leukemias in children, myeloid leukemia in adults and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. No increase has been noted for the 1986-1990. Radiation-related lung cancer and breast cancer have a latent period of some 20-30 years, so that looking for them at this time does not appear to be warranted. Thyroid cancer which is closely related to 131-iodine exposure has thus far shown no elevation across the country. With respect to the genetic risk carried by the Chernobyl accident for our population predictions based on internationally accepted criteria indicated it to be extremely low-level in term of severe genetic effects. Our retrospective analysis of incidence of spontaneous abortions in 1986 and 1987 as well as of stillbirths, congenital malformations, perinatal and neonatal infant mortality in 1987 and 1988, revealed no deviations attributable to accidental radiation exposure. The group at highest risk from the accident was that of pregnant woman. The period from 8 to 15 gestation weeks has been found to be highly vulnerable to ionizing radiation. (author)

  10. Migration and forecast of the radioactive contamination of the soil, water and air on the territory of Belarus after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP is the largest technogenic accident of our epoch, the global consequences of which for whole mankind with the course of time will larger and larger significance. In spite of the fact, that the radioactive contamination owing to the Chernobyl accident affected the whole world, just Belarus was subjected to the most intensive radioactive contamination. In addition the radioactive contamination territory of Belarus more than 37 kBq/sq.m. by caesium-137 has made 23% from the whole of the Republic. At the same time as a result of the Chernobyl accident, 5,0% of a territory of the Ukraine and 0,6 % of Russia have been contaminated with radionuclides

  11. Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents

  12. Fifteen years of the cuban program, with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cuban Chernobyl Program arrived to the 15th anniversary in March 2005. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. More than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program up to the moment, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric and biomedic research had been also carried out as part of the program. The most significant medical attention activities include the treatment of children with haematological disorders, including 120 leukaemia, bone marrow transplants, and the treatment of endocrine and cancer diseases. The dosimetric studies allow made a data base with information on internal 137Cs contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by 137Cs, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation in more than 8000 children. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences. This paper present a summary of the main results obtained in the program

  13. The comparison of environmental radioactive contamination following nuclear test explosions and the reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of environmental radioactive contamination following nuclear test explosions and the reactor accident in Chernobyl was made. Although there are wide local variations of the Chernobyl fallout in Slovenia it is generally comparable to that of the nuclear explosions. (author) 3 tabs.; 6 refs

  14. Leukaemia and lymphoma in Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As it was known Belarus is the country mostly affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The content of incorporated Cs-137 in tissues and Sr-90 in bones of exposed people of Belarus has increased several times. Long - live bone marrow doses per person was expected as: 8.8 mSv in Belarus, 2,8 mSv in Ukraine and 1,0 mSv in Russia. That why it was believed that one of the adverse effects of the Chernobyl radiation would be the increase of leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rates among the population (first of all among the children) of Belarus. Registration of leukaemia and lymphoma has been compulsory in Belarus since 1988 by the special training team at the Research Institute of Haematology. The information includes the name and address of the patients, age, date and place of diagnosis, ICD-number of the diagnosis, and diagnostic method (biopsy, autopsy, myelogram, immunohistochemical method used ect.). It was established that before the Chernobyl accident (1979 - 1985 ) the incidence rates of the child leukaemia was 4,16+0,22; after the accident: in 1986-1992 - 4,35 = 0,08; in 1993-2001 - 3,35 = 0,18 per 100.000 children, aged 0-14 years. Among the adult population of Belarus (aged 15-90) during the periods of 1979-85, 1986 - 92, and 1993 - 1999 correspondingly: 2,8, 3,24 and 2,94%ooo (p<0,05); for Chll and Chml - 6,10; 8,12 and 8,21%ooo; for MM - 1,44; 1,86 and 2,30%ooo; for lymphomas - 2,84; 4,07; 5,22%ooo; for HL - 3,11; 3,46 and 3,18%ooo. So, we found no suggestion an increase in risk of child leukaemia after Chernobyl. It's hardly possible to attribute child leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rate only to the level of the radionuclide contamination territory. At the same time, some preliminary our date allow to anticipate that the incidence rates correlate rather with levels of chemical pollution in the atmosphere and its compounds. Adults demonstrate a more significant increase of hemoblastoses morbidity after Chernobyl disaster in comparison with children. Adults have not demonstrate also any association between the morbidity levels and radiation factor: the level of hemoblastoses incidence rates correlate more with the level of chemical contamination of the environment that still plays a leading role in carcinogenesis. However, radionuclides do facilitate carcinogenesis development: the persons evacuated from radionuclide contaminated areas to radionuclide - free, but the severely chemically polluted ones, demonstrate 5 and more fold increase of tumour morbidity

  15. Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe. 3 figs

  16. Experience of medical service of the Armed Forces during elimination of consequences of Chernobyl's disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article analyzes ten-years experience (1986-1996) of the Armed Forces medical service participation in elimination of consequences of Chernobyl's accidents. The system of medical supply created soon after accidents (management and interaction, forces and means, peculiarities of sanitary-hygienic, antiepidemic, treatment-and-prophylactic supply) has been described in breaf, its positive sides and main deficiencies and also the ways of there elimination, the place of military-medical service in modern sate system of disaster medical supply have been discussed. The results of prolonged dynamic observation of rescuers by the All-Army medical-and-dosimetric register materials, the main directions, results and prospects of scientific study about problems of radiative disaster have been analyzed. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Core-melting accidents in Chernobyl and Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication deals with the essences of the reactor accident in Chernobylsk and the conclusions to be drawn from these with regard to reactor safety. Therein the technical differences between the reactor types in the West and the East play an important role. Also attention is spent to the now generally accepted philosophy that by simplification and making use of proven technologies, a further deminishing of the risks can be achieved step by step. In ch.'s 2 and 4 the origin and course of the accidents in respectively Chernobylsk and Harrisburg are analyzed; in the analysis of the Chernobylsk accident also date have been used which were provided by the Sovjet-Union, supplied with results of studies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In ch. 3 this information is compared with the insights which have grown at KEMA about these on the base of reactor physical and thermohydraulic considerations and of computer calculations reproducing the course of the accident. An important question is if, and if so: to which extent, an accident such as the one in Chernobylsk also can take place in the West. In order to answer that question as accurate as possible the consequences of core meltings accidents and the risk for such an accident taking place are pursued. In ch. 6 the legal frameworks are indicated by which the risk may be limited and by which eventually yet occurring damage may be arranged. Ch. 7 finally deals with the lessons which the accidents in Chernobylsk and Harrisburg have learnt us and with the possible consequences of these for the further application of nuclear power in the Netherlands. (H.W.). 105 refs.; 42 figs.; 17 refs

  18. Legislative reactions of the European Community and its Member States after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a survey on the enactment of regulations, directives and decisions of the European Communities after the Chernobyl accident as a basis for legislative measures of the EC-Member States. (orig./HP)

  19. A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

  20. The experience gives the Cuban program with children gives territories affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1990 it works in Cuba a program destined to offer medical attention you specialize and to develop a plan sanatoria gives rehabilitation with children provided the different areas affected by the contamination radioactive resultant to the Chernobyl accident

  1. Changes of radiological situation of Polish environment in 10 years period after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of natural and artificial radioisotopes in environment in Poland before and after Chernobyl accident was analyzed. The methods used in radiation monitoring in Poland and results of these measurements in the period 1986-1996 were presented. Since the Chernobyl accident changes of contamination of soils, southern Baltic sea water, other surface waters, deposits in Baltic sea, rivers and lakes in Poland were observed. Also concentration of radioisotopes in foodstuffs: mushrooms, fruits, meat, milk, eggs was described

  2. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  3. Preliminary calculation of the plume rise for the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of plume rise for the Chernobyl accident is made on assumption that at 1.23 a.m. on 26 April 1986 the reactor core started burning from the top in a cylindrical shape with radius at half of the core diameter and continued burning until it reached the bottom. Briggs formulae for a buoyant plume with the rise limited by ambient stability and ambient turbulence are used with the assumptions of atmospheric stability in inversion and neutral condition respectively. The results illustrate that even with very conservative assumption of the burning rate, the plume would rise beyond the inversion layer and penetrate the inversion layer to the mixed layer having turbulence domination. Therefore the plume rise calculated with the assumption of turbulence stability would give the more realistic results. If the core was burnt with the burning rate of about 7-12 cm/hr, the plume rise from the accident would be in the range of 650-1100 m

  4. Fallout and radiation doses in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. The total fallout of the cesium isotopes was approximately 2300 TBq (Cs-137) and 1200 TBq (Cs-134). The average for the country was 11 kBq/m2 with a variation from 1.5 to 40 kBq/m2 for the 19 different counties of the country. The fallout resulted in contamination of food products from some areas, mainly meat from reindeer and sheep, as well as freshwater fish. A small fraction of the food produced in 1986 was not sold due to the regulations enforced. The average radiation dose to the Norwegian population during the first year after the accident was approximately 0.3 mSv (0.1 mSv from external radiation and about 0.2 mSv from foodstuff). This first year extra dose is approximately 5% of the average normal background dose in Norway

  5. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  6. Chernobyl accident radiometric data: 137Cs in fresh water fishes of north italy lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general radiometric survey of the Italian territory was started as a consequence on the Chernobyl Accident. This survey gave rise to a very extensive program of environmental sampling and measurements; consequently, data collection, processing and management of this was necessary. All laboratories, nuclear centers, universities, local public health units involved in this survey had a unique aim: radiological analysis to determine environmental contamination levels or to estimate preliminary population doses, finalized on short term, urgent protective measures, and on long term, in addition to protective measures, environmental studies. Some of these analyses are presented in this report, e.g. the results of 137Cs concentration in various fresh water fishes present in several Italian lakes. It is observed that the degrees of contamination vary widely in the same species and among different ones

  7. The Chernobyl accident and the Spanish nuclear power plants. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the morning of April 26, 1986, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ukraine, USSR) suffered an accident of the greatest magnitude among those which have taken place in nuclear energy installations employed for peaceful uses. The accident reached a degree of severity unknown up to now in nuclear energy generating plants, both with respect to the loss of human lives and the effects caused to the neighboring population (as well as to other nations within a wide radius of radioactivity dispersal), and also with respect to the damage caused in the nuclear plant itself. In the light of the anxiety created internationally, the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy prepared a report (1), based on the conclusions of the Governmental Commission entrusted to study the causes of the accident, which was presented at the international meeting of experts held at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) headquarters in Vienna from August 25 to 29, 1986. The present technical report has been prepared by the Spanish nuclear power plants within the framework of UNIDAD ELECTRICA, S.A. (UNESA) - the Association of Spanish electric utilities - in collaboration with EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS, S.A. The report reflects the utilities' analyses of the causes and consequences of the accident and, based on similarities and differences with Spanish plants under construction and in operation, intends to: a. Evaluate the possibility of an accident with similar consequences occurring in a Spanish plant b. Identify possible design and operation modifications indicated by the lessons learned from this accident

  8. The Nordic safety program on accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One important part of Nordic cooperation is partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, namely the work performed within the Nordic Safety Program (often referred to as the NKA projects). NKA is the Nordic abbreviation of the Nordic Liaison Committee on Atomic Energy. One program area in the present four-year period is concerned with problems related to reactor accident consequence assessment, and contains almost twenty projects covering a wide range of subjects. The author is program coordinator for this program area. The program will be completed in 1989. The program was strongly influenced by Chernobyl, and a number of new projects were included in the program in 1986. Involved in the program are these Nordic institutions: Riso National Laboratory (Denmark). Technical Research Centre of Finland. Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Finnish Meteorological Institute. Institute for Energy Technology (Norway). Agricultural University of Norway. Meteorological Institute of Norway. Studsvik Energiteknik AB (Sweden). National Defence Research Laboratory (Sweden)

  9. North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

  10. Chernobyl in the French mass media 14 years after the accident; Tchernobyl dans la presse francaise 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-02-01

    The author presents how the mass media have dealt with the fourteenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Nowadays Chernobyl epitomizes the hazards of nuclear energy. Public opinion has become extremely sensitive to topics concerning human health. This sensitivity is due to previous important affairs such as the scandal of the tainted blood, the mad cow disease or the syndrome of the Balkan war. Most media have broadened the debate to the sanitary impact of nuclear activities. The hyper-mediatization of the legal case of a man prosecuting the French state for no having taken adequate measures when the radioactive cloud spread over France, has given the feeling that French authorities have always wrongly minimized the consequences of the accident. (A.C.)

  11. Radioactive contamination levels in China and health evaluation following radioactive release from Soviet Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of evaluating radiological effects in China and protecting population from possible consequences of Soviet Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, the national network of environmental radioactive monitoring stations in China started emergency monitoring since May 1st, 1986. From May 1st to the end of July, 131I, 137Cs and other man-made radionuclides in some environmental media were found in large amounts. 131I was detected obviously in daily deposition, surface water, growing leafy vegetables, fresh milk and sheep thyroid samples. It is proved that radioactive fallout from Soviet Chernobyl accident has spreaded in atmosphere over the territory of China; so, the environment has been contaminated. Thyroid dose for individuals of general public in China was estimated. The effective dose equivalents for adults are lower than 2 ?Sv, for infants lower than 30 ?Sv; they are low as compared with 'Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection' in China. The emergency sanitary protective measures were considered unnecessary

  12. The evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident by the help of the Hungarian Surveillance of Germinal Mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The germinal mutagenic consequences or radioactive fall-out deposition from the Chernobyl accident in Hungary was evaluated in the ongoing program on the population-based Hungarian Surveillance of Germinal Mutations. The surveillance is based on three groups of indicator conditions: 15 sentinel anomalies (indicators of germinal dominant gene mutations), Down syndrome (an indicator of germinal numerical and structural chromosomal mutations) and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities (indicators of germinal dominant gene and chromosomal mutations). Cases with indicator conditions were selected from the material of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. After the diagnostic accuracies were checked, familial and sporadic cases were separated and only the latter group was evaluated for evidence of new mutations. The analysis did not reveal any measurable germinal mutagenic effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary. (author)

  13. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  14. Radiological attacks and accidents. Medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probability of the occurrence of radiological attacks appears to be elevated after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11 in 2001. There are a lot of scenarios of radiological attack: simple radiological device, radiological disperse device (RDD or dirty bomb), attacks against nuclear reactor, improvised nuclear device, and nuclear weapons. Of these, RDD attack is the most probable scenario, because it can be easily made and can generate enormous psychological and economic damages. Radiological incidents are occurring to and fro in the world, including several cases of theft to nuclear facilities and unsuccessful terrorist attacks against them. Recently, a former Russian spy has allegedly been killed using polonium-210. In addition, serious radiological accidents have occurred in Chernobyl, Goiania, and Tokai-mura. Planning, preparation, education, and training exercise appear to be essential factors to cope with radiological attacks and accidents effectively without feeling much anxiety. Triage and psychological first aid are prerequisite to manage and provide effective medial care for mass casualties without inducing panic. (author)

  15. Assessment of Chernobyl health consequences under the influence of public and other interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident on 26 April 1986 was the largest and most severe disaster in the history of civil nuclear technology involving radiation exposure and radioactive contamination of large areas in the NIS. Among the three countries Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, Belarus was mostly affected, because about 70% of the radioactive fallout was deposited on its territory. The radiation doses from various nuclides, to which the public as well as the liquidators were exposed during the first months, let expect serious health consequences for a large number of persons. During the first weeks after the accident, the authorities in Moscow released several orders of secrecy. Later, in July 1987 the order was given that acute and chronic diseases of liquidators, who were exposed to less than 50 rem, must not be attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation. In 1990, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Chernobyl Project, with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others, in order to investigate and assess the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics. 200 scientists from the West and 500 from USSR were sent by their governments to participate. Concerning the health impact, the IAEA team under its chairman professor F. Mettler from USA concluded in 1991 that there were no health disorders that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. IAEA favoured psychological stress and anxiety to be the cause of health disorders observed. This information was spread world wide. But in reality, at this time the number of thyroid cancer cases in children in Belarus was already 30 times higher than the average in the 10 years before Chernobyl. And IAEA and other international organizations did not want to take into account the findings and reports of Belarusian and Ukrainian scientists on the marked increase in thyroid cancers, BBC found out and published in 1996 an TV documentation that as far back as 1990 F. Mettler had analyzed in the USA the pathological slides of thyroid cancer of 20 Ukrainian children confirming the malignancy in all cases. But Mettler and his colleagues suppressed this fact and stated in their reports that there was none. As a result, international organizations and the UN did not s tart proper assistance programmes for t he people affected and valuable time was lost. A new report in 2000 by the UNSCEAR committee contained a evaluation of the consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl accident which concludes that there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure fourteen years after the accident, apart from a high level of (treatable, non-fatal) thyroid cancers in children. With this exception, the report states 'there is no scientific evidence of increases in over all cancer incidence or mortality or in non-malignant disorders that could be related to radiation exposure.' The statement of UNSCEAR ignores a large number of scientific publications on a several fold increase in thyroid cancers in adults, the large increase in non-malignant thyroid disorders and in other diseases. It should be noted that this UN committee does not consist of independently elected scientists, but only of those being sent as representatives of governments of the 21 nations, who have strong interest in the use of nuclear technology. And F. Mettler is still member of UNSCEAR and represents the interests of the US government. Two international research programmes on the health effects of Chernobyl are of special interest. In the Project 'International Cooperation for post Chernobyl NIS Thyroid Tissue, Nucleic Acid and Data Banks' the USA, the European Atomic Energy Community, Japan and WHO invited Belarus, Russia and Ukraine to form a collaborative research resource. In the description of the programme it is outlined that competition among scientific groups should be avoided, that the study of

  16. Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been considered for a long time as a basic ecological danger source. Since the disaster at Chernobyl, a considerable number of the inhabited areas turned out to be situated on the territory contaminated with the radioactive substances. A risk value of the radiation-inducible affections is used in order to appraise the damage to the health of the population, residing in such regions, in other words - of the long term (stochastic) effects probability, among which malignant neoplasm represents the most serious danger. In many countries the systems of radiological protection and safety criteria are based on ecocentric approaches. Nevertheless the post-Chernobyl situation in the Republic of Belarus is continually producing a wide spectrum of hard questions of human health and social activity on contaminated territories. That is why present work is completely produced in the frameworks of anthropocentric approach. The radiation risk has been evaluated for a number of regions of Gomel areas and Mogilev region in accordance with the linear non-threshold model 'Dose-Effect'. A lifelong risk coefficient of the radiation-inducible cancers of 5% / Zv, offered by the ICRP, is used in the evaluations. The doses, used for the risk assessment, are taken from the Doses Catalogue-1992 of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Belarus, which contains the doses, referring to the years 1991-1992. Correspondingly, our evaluations determine potential cancers, conditioned by the radiation exposure during this period of time. Obtained evaluations do not take into account either the radiation-inducible cancers of the thyroid gland, or the leukemia cases, observed in the liquidators as a result of the radiation exposure in the year 1986. The work also contains an evaluation of the component, specific for the Chernobyl radiation risk, conditioned by the radiation dose, accumulated in the population of the regions under observation by the year 2004. The obtained results conform to the other authors' conclusions (Malko M.V., 2001, 2003). In the framework of the ICRP model it's shown that a maximum possible influence of the radiation contamination factor can't be a source of the actually registered carcinogenic risk. In this connection, an analysis of the ecological hazard non-radiation components is of importance. By now, the scientific community has achieved the understanding of the fact that a chemical pollution risk can be compared with a risk of the radiation contamination even in the regions mostly suffered from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Furthermore, under a combined influence of a complex of factors, there is a risk of a nonlinear enhancement of the adverse effects. In this connection, an urgent problem appeared consisting of the new approach elaboration on the evaluation of the technogenic environment contamination, under which an influence of different adverse factors would be expressed in comparable values, suitable for their comparative analysis. This problem solving refers first of all to the decision making optimization at the safety arrangements planning on the contaminated territories. (author)

  17. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rissanen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  18. Long-term consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe and remediation programs in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unprecedented scale of radiological emergency at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has set us a package of the most difficult tasks aimed to eliminate negative consequences and remediate a normal life in contaminated areas. Due to the accident, above 56,000 square meters of the Russian Federation's territory, including about two million hectares of agricultural lands and about one million hectares of forest resources, were radioactively contaminated. The four regions, namely the Bryansk/Kaluga/Orel/Tula regions, were contaminated to the most extent. About three million people lived in those areas. More than 52,000 citizens were relocated in an organized way or resettled independently. Above 200,000 citizens of Russia were involved in elimination of emergency effects. The Russian Federation (RF) Government has charged EMERCOM of Russia to coordinate activities on mitigation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Ministry has undertaken the functions of a state customer of federal target programs for elimination of effects of radiological emergencies and catastrophes. Federal ministries and agencies, as well as executive authorities of the RF subjects are involved in implementation of the programs. Since 1998, joint Russian-Byelorussian projects to mitigate effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe have been under way. Large-scale work on radiological/medical/social protection for the citizens and remediation of the lands has been performed within the scope of federal target programs. Since 1991, more than 5 billion USD has been spent on the activities to eliminate consequences of the accident, as well as to pay out benefits and compensations. The key element of EMERCOM's policy is to comprehend the role of a radiation factor in the entire package of vital objectives. The result of it is that protective actions are directed towards the most contaminated areas and priority attention is focused on the development of a social sphere and health care. The main program trends are as follows: Social and economic remediation of the areas; Public health protection; Radiation monitoring; Public exposure dose reduction; Remediation of agricultural/forest lands; Information activity and social-and-psychological rehabilitation of the public. This speech summarizes the results of these activities

  19. Study of genomic abnormalities in blood mononuclears of Chernobyl accident clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigations of genome mutations in blood mononuclears in 120 persons participated in the Chernobyl accident response and exposed to radiation within 5.1-75.0 cGy are presented. Studies were performed in 7-9 years after the accident. The data obtained are used for identifying risk groups by oncohematological diseases

  20. Early monitoring of the radioactivity in the NW of Yugoslavia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crude estimation of the upper limit for the /sup 239/240/Pu was made by alpha spectrometry of few drops of evaporated rainwater as well as by high resolution gamma spectrometry of /sup 239/Np on a GeHP detector. Later results of radiochemically prepared samples showed that the peak values of /sup 239/240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu//sup 241/Am were approximately 100 times increased in comparison to prechernobyl values in air and precipitation. Small amount of strontium isotopes was predicted because /sup 91/Sr was absent in gamma-ray spectra. The results of the radiochemical group showed that the levels of /sup 89/90/Sr and /sup 3/H are rather insignificant. It is possible to conclude that monitoring of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident provided sufficient data for the evaluation of doses as well as for the protective measures and information of public

  1. Results of a honey monitoring program in Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey bees (Apis Mellifera) as bioindicators of environmental pollution have been studied for a long time to analyse their ability to detect air and water pollution. Bees forage over a large area (around 7Km2) and seem to act as biomagnifiers of the contamination of the environment. Honey bees and their products, mainly honey, were used in the U.S.A. during the seventies to monitor potential releases from nuclear waste disposal sites. Honey samples were examined to detect contaminated areas surrounding a nuclear facility at Cattaraugus Country (NY); the presence of radionuclides from fallout of nuclear weapon tests in honey samples was also investigated. As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive contamination spread all over the Italian soil allowed the analysis of the radioactivity transfer from the environment to honey

  2. The Chernobyl accident: possible pathogenic mechanisms of origination of psychical and psychosomatic disadaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the social-psychological and biological (low doze chronic irradiation, foods unbalance, local ecological hazards) factors increase a degree of pathogen influence on organism. It is known that chronic irradiation by low dozes promotes to an increase of sensitivity to damaging action other pathogenic factors. At the same time at the special functional condition (for example, stresses), radiosensitivity of organism and a number of non radiobiological agents in combined action with radiation enhances the radiobiological effect of irradiation. Predisposing factors have a certain significance. Taking into account a real social-psychological situation the problem of medico-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident gets the special social-medical importance

  3. On the situation in the areas of the Soviet Union affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station on April 26, 1986 is the event with the most severe consequences in the history of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. Five years later, the experts and the public, both national and international, are still far from having obtained a complete overview of the radiological situation in the immediate and more distant environment of the destroyed plant. Copious information about measurements conducted by the Soviets, but also by international agencies, has produced partly contradictory findings, all of it extremely fragmentary about partial aspects of the disaster. This summary report about the situation written from a radiobiologist's point of view covers such aspects as the failure of the policy which had sought to put a ban on the dissemination of information; the levels of contamination; a radiological assessment of the 35 rem concept; the issue of generally higher morbidity; and the necessary measures of support and assistance. (orig.)

  4. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  5. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes the current controversial discussions in the public about the utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G., which has gained so much emotional impetus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The accident scenario and the causes of the disaster are outlined in order to show the difference between facts and conditions there, and design and conditions in our country, especially with regard to the LWRs. The main reason launching the disaster, it is said, lies in non-observance of orders and operating instructions; the article underlines the system of design features and instructions that has been established, and multiply checked, for reactor stations in the F.R.G., in order to prevent undue interference with the design-based safety equipment. Due to the high safety standard of the nuclear power plants in the F.R.G., Chernobyl cannot be used as an argument against further utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G. (HSCH)

  6. Tumour markers in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late post-accident period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour markers (TM) are base plasma proteins with a carbohydrate component, produced by various types of tumor cells. 84 male liquidators aged from 30 to 50 y.o. were examined in the clinic of All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine in September 1994-April 1995. External irradiation exposure amongst liquidators varied from 2 to 30 sGr. TM concentration in serum and plasma were determined by conventional ELISA methods (CEA. AFP, CA19-9. PSA, NSE). The first (control) group was composed of liquidators with no GI tract pathology. The second group consisted of 28 liquidators with irradiation - induced cytogenetical disturbances in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The third group consisted included 28 liquidators with chronic GI tract diseases. In control group, levels of CA 19-9, CEA and AFP amounted to 4.7± 0.4 U/ml, 2.4± 0.8mg/ml, 2.1± 0.2 IU/ml, correspondingly. The CA 19-9 level has been shown to increase statistically significantly in the second (14.5±1.5 U/ml) and in the third group (17.8± 1.2 U/ml). A simultaneous elevation of CA 19-9 and CEA was found in 7.1% of the liquidators of the third group, the CA 19-9 level changes ranging from 63 to 708 U/ml. The mean value of PSA in all three groups remained within the discrimination concentration limits and amounted to 2.5± 0.4 U/ml. Concentration of NSE was equal to 29.9± 7.2 mg/ml in all three groups. Based on the data on frequencies of the tumour marker elevation, a group of 6 was selected.This group required a detailed dynamic examination because of the problem of remote consequences of the effect of complex factors of the Chernobyl Atomic Station accident upon its victims. (author)

  7. Determining economic cost of medical interventions in Belarus due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Using Chernobyl's impact on Belarus as an example, the goal of this project is to determine the health-related costs of a major nuclear accident to aid in contingency planning for all nations, educate the public about the potential impact on health of man-made nuclear accidents and to provide more impetus for development of safer nuclear power generation. An assessment of these costs by an international group will support Republic of Belarus in its studies of the costs and benefits of ongoing Chernobyl-related health care activities. This study is a retrospective analysis of the costs in Chernobyl radiation exposed populations associated with medical care and illness prevention. Data selection for analysis was determined by estimated financial impact. All factors expected to influence total cost by less than 1 % were not analyzed. Medical consequences, such as reduced birth rate, which did not increase medical expenditures where also not included. Normal health expenditures where subtracted. Most expenditures are being estimated from the services provided. Data to be included has been gathered since 1986 and is lo in various sites, including budgets and reports of various ministries of the Republic of Belarus and records in the Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, the Chernobyl Committee of the Ministry of Health, and other locations. Therefore, some figures will be estimated based on best evidence and current literature. Outcomes of sensitivity studies and uncertainty estimates will be performed once the data collection is completed and assessed. Data to be included in the financial estimate includes: Evacuation from restricted territories; Added medical facilities and establishment of preventive health measures; Decontamination and radiation monitoring of contaminated areas; Costs associated with research activities on related problems; General categories of medical costs, including impact of psychosocial factors; Additional medical care and services for liquidators because of radiation exposure; Special costs, such as vitamin distribution, benefits for children and pregnant women; Research activities on radiation related disease; Treatment of radiation-linked diseases; Development and maintenance of registries. Following data-gathering, the project will develop an economic impact analysis technique and analyze data. Final reports and data sheets will be prepared for the Belarus Government, WHO, IAEA, and other International organizations; and both scientific reports and general interest papers will be prepared for publication

  8. Environmental consequences of releases from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of a four-year Nordic cooperation program in the area of consequence assessment of nuclear accidents with large releases to the environment. This program was completed in 1989. Related information from other research programs has also been described, so that many chapters of the report reflect the current status in the respective areas, in addition to containing the results of the Nordic program. (author) 179 refs

  9. Assessment of special safety-related features of the SNR-300 against the background of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SNR-300 is characterized by stable reactivity behaviour and good control properties, but the RBMK-1000 is marked by unstable behaviour and complex spatial properties. Faults in the design in the protection and emergency shut-down system were some of the factors responsible for the Chernobyl accident. Excursion accidents must be regarded as hypothetical on the SNR-300. Due to elementary physical properties, the possible energy releases in hypothetical excursions on the SNR-300 are much smaller than for the RBMK-1000. The primary system and containment systems of the SNR-300 are laid out so that the consequences of a very unfavourable excursion accident can be controlled. No damage limitation measures are provided for excursion accidents on the RBMK-1000. Exothermal chemical processes have increased the consequences of an accident of the RBMK-1000. The long graphite fire would be bound to cause a release of radioactivity. In the SNR-300, the inertia of the containment, the sheet steel cladding and the sump ensure that the activity inclusion in the containment after leakage accidents or after hypothetical excursion accidents is not endangered by exothermal chemical reactions. (orig./HP)

  10. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl disaster for house mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic disorders were studied in house mice caught from 1986 to 1994 in areas contaminated by radionuclides after the Chernobyl disaster. The gamma-radiation dose rates on soil surface ranged from 0.02 to 200 mR/h. Beta-radiation dose rates were 5 - 10 - fold higher than those of gamma-radiation. Maximal integral doses absorbed by testes of mice were apparently less than 3 - 4 Gy per month in 1986 and 1987 and decreased as time passed. Frequency of reciprocal translocations in spermatocytes of the mice studied was relatively low, but increased with dose rae. An increase in frequencies of dominant lethal mutations and abnormal sperm heads were observed in mice only from maximum contaminated regions. In populations, frequency of mice heterozygous for recessive lethal mutations decreased with time after the accident. The data obtained allow us to assume that induced mutations may lead to elimination of germ cells and decreased viability in mice heterozygous for the mutations. These processes result in removing excess mutations from the population. (authors)

  11. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed ?-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

  12. Chernobyl: The bitter taste of wormwood [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid account of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the far-reaching effects of radioactivity, monitoring radiation, evacuation of victims, etc. The video deals mainly with the impact and consequences of the accident in Sweden and Ukraine

  13. Some geochemical and environmental aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide fallout on Byelorussia in the first days after the accident was mainly dependent on the mass movement of air and rain. In cities, fallout was confined to regions with intensive industrial dust emissions, as well as to river valleys, where degassing of deep-seated zones through faults occurred side by side with evaporation. Radionuclide washout from upland territories can be related to secondary processes. After 5 a, radioactivity near the surface of the Earth had decreased due to the decay of shortlived isotopes and penetration of radionuclides deeper into the soil, although the major part still occurs at a depth of 1-5 cm. Bogs, peat-bog soils, aquifers with fluctuating groundwater levels, variable pH-Eh conditions and a high-biological activity all contribute to radionuclide migration. A part of the radionuclides is gradually removed from eluvial landscapes and accumulated in subareal landscapes (e.g. lakes, oxbow-lakes, water-storage basins). The Chernobyl debris is represented by the following: ''hot'' particles, pseudocolloids, aerosols and gaseous compounds. Two zones can be distinguished around the reactor differing in the ratio of ''hot'' particles and condensate fallout. A very important role is assigned to biological processes and organic matter, which cause the destruction of ''hot'' particles, the formation or organometallic complexes, and water migration of nuclides. After 300 and more years, the distribution of radionuclides in the landscape will have been determined by weathering, erosion and sedimentation which strongly depend on climatic conditions. Side by side with a gradual decay of Cs and Sr, an appreciable accumulation of 241Am, which is very mobile in landscapes, should be expected due to decaying 241Pu. (Author)

  14. Concentration of radiocaesium in grain following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity measurements and dose assessments in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident have shown that the consumption of baker's ware contributes significantly to the internal dose of man. Flour and bread have been contaminated mainly due to radiocaesium deposition onto the of cereals at the end of April and beginning of May, 1986. Because of the different seasonal and growing conditions of biomass, the interception fraction of the standing winter wheat became higher than that of the summer wheat. Therefore, the contribution of grain to the internal dose was relatively high in Hungary where near to 90 per cent of flour and bread is produced from winter wheat in comparison with other countries. The average concentration of 137Cs in winter grain harvested in summer 1986 was 32 Bq/kg with a range of 11-140 Bq/kg. The bran contained almost half of the total radiocaesium of the grain with about 20 per cent of the weight. The 40K concentration of grain was 149 Bq/kg. The 137Cs concentration in white bread commonly used in Hungary was 22 Bq/kg in average. The concentrations found in bread samples from the whole country showed a high variation due to the uneven deposition of radioactive substances. The 137Cs concentration in winter grain was 0.0075±0.0017 Bq/kg normalized to 1 Bq/m2 deposition density. The 137 Cs concentration in grain harvested in 1987 or later became less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that the root uptake of radiocaesium by cereals must be very small. The per caput committed effective dose equivalent due to consumption of baker's ware was estimated as 50 micro-Sv. (author)

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in 1986-1988 by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are reviewed. Airborne radioactivity, radionuclides in deposits, in situ measurements of external gamma radiation, and radionuclides in foodstuffs and water are discussed. Of the over thirty nuclides initially identified from air samples, only 137Cs and 134Cs can presently be detected. The concentration of 137Cs has decreased slowly, currently being about ten times higher than it was before the Chernobyl accident. In deposition the ratio of 137Cs to 90Sr varied at different sampling stations from 10 to 110, from 3 to 70 and from 5 to 60 in 1986, 1987 and 1988, respectively. On 1 October 1987 the mean value of 137Cs surface activity for the 461 municipalities was 10.9 kBq/m2, the population weighted mean environmental dose rate being 0.037 ?Sv/h. The distribution pattern of 137Cs fallout also represents the distribution of other volatile nuclides in Finland. The pattern of non-volatile nuclides is related to the distribution of hot particles. In almost all terrestrial foodstuffs the maximum radiocaesium contents were found in 1986. Since then the annual decrease in agricultural products has been substantial. Efficient uptake from the soil mostly explains the radiocaesium contents of wild berries and mushrooms. In predatory fish maximum values of 137Cs were reached in 1988 at the latest. Milk and beef made the dominant contribution to dietary intakes in the first fallout year. In the second year, the contribution of natural products to intakes almost equalled and in the third year exceeded that of agricultural produce. (author). 15 refs, 14 figs

  16. Countermeasures to the Chernobyl accident in the Nordic countries: Public reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Rundmo, T.; Eraenen, L.; Ekstroem, H

    1998-01-01

    In Sweden the TMI accident was the direct cause to a decision to hold a national referendum on nuclear power on March 23, 1980. The referendum and the subsequent political decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010 to some extent neutralized the issue and nuclear attitudes returned to a mildly positive state. However, the Chernobyl accident in 1986 again changed the scene. Just as the TMI accident had been something of a surprise to many, the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in Scandinavia were not anticipated. Attitudes to nuclear power became quite negative immediately after the accident but they soon resumed their initial mildly positive position again. Even if the radioactive fall-out never reached truly alarming levels authorities in Finland, Norway and Sweden took measures to counteract the effects of radioactivity and to protect the population. This was done in a very heated atmosphere and intense attention was paid by the mass media. Trust in authorities and governments was put to a stringent test during these days 10 years ago. Several psychologists, sociologists and mass media researchers were active from the very beginning to document the events taking place, e.g. by means of surveys of the public opinion. The reports they wrote were usually in local languages and much of this material was never published in print but remained as project reports. It is the purpose of the present project to localize these report and to summarize and interpret their contents, and to give bibliographical information about where the sources can be located. Different experiences and conditions in the three countries account for somewhat different approaches of the three country chapters. There is no doubt that Chernobyl was a very significant social and psychological event in the three countries discussed in the present report. It was also regarded by many as a significant threat to public health, although radiation experts assured the public that the direct effects of the Chernobyl fall-out were so small that they would not be statistically confirmed. Public health effects were instead associated with stress and anxiety created by (unfounded, according to the experts) fear of radiation. One important difference between the countries is that Norway did not, and does not, have nuclear power while Sweden and Finland do. Compared to Continental Europe and the UK, the Nordic countries tend to be more ethnically homogenous (although this is rapidly changing in Sweden), and possibly less affected by social conflicts and suspected corruption in the political and economical spheres of society. Sweden has a history of non-corrupt and competent authorities, directed by persons appointed largely on the basis of substantial competence rather than political contacts. Although this state of affairs may have been changing during the last few decades, it is probably still true that people have trust in authorities. In contrast, they have little trust in politicians - although they like the democratic system. Possibly, people - at least in Sweden - would like to see more referenda and other types of direct democracy

  17. Countermeasures to the Chernobyl accident in the Nordic countries: Public reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden the TMI accident was the direct cause to a decision to hold a national referendum on nuclear power on March 23, 1980. The referendum and the subsequent political decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010 to some extent neutralized the issue and nuclear attitudes returned to a mildly positive state. However, the Chernobyl accident in 1986 again changed the scene. Just as the TMI accident had been something of a surprise to many, the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in Scandinavia were not anticipated. Attitudes to nuclear power became quite negative immediately after the accident but they soon resumed their initial mildly positive position again. Even if the radioactive fall-out never reached truly alarming levels authorities in Finland, Norway and Sweden took measures to counteract the effects of radioactivity and to protect the population. This was done in a very heated atmosphere and intense attention was paid by the mass media. Trust in authorities and governments was put to a stringent test during these days 10 years ago. Several psychologists, sociologists and mass media researchers were active from the very beginning to document the events taking place, e.g. by means of surveys of the public opinion. The reports they wrote were usually in local languages and much of this material was never published in print but remained as project reports. It is the purpose of the present project to localize these report and to summarize and interpret their contents, and to give bibliographical information about where the sources can be located. Different experiences and conditions in the three countries account for somewhat different approaches of the three country chapters. There is no doubt that Chernobyl was a very significant social and psychological event in the three countries discussed in the present report. It was also regarded by many as a significant threat to public health, although radiation experts assured the public that the direct effects of the Chernobyl fall-out were so small that they would not be statistically confirmed. Public health effects were instead associated with stress and anxiety created by (unfounded, according to the experts) fear of radiation. One important difference between the countries is that Norway did not, and does not, have nuclear power while Sweden and Finland do. Compared to Continental Europe and the UK, the Nordic countries tend to be more ethnically homogenous (although this is rapidly changing in Sweden), and possibly less affected by social conflicts and suspected corruption in the political and economical spheres of society. Sweden has a history of non-corrupt and competent authorities, directed by persons appointed largely on the basis of substantial competence rather than political contacts. Although this state of affairs may have been changing during the last few decades, it is probably still true that people have trust in authorities. In contrast, they have little trust in politicians - although they like the democratic system. Possibly, people - at least in Sweden - would like to see more referenda and other types of direct democracy

  18. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.)

  19. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  20. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  1. The international Chernobyl project. Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Overview presents the conclusions and recommendations of the International Advisory Committee which directed the project on the Radiological Consequences in the USSR from the Chernobyl Accident: Assessment of Health and Environmental Effects and Evaluation of Protective Measures. Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress. The project concluded that the protective measures taken were too extreme, and that population relocation and foodstuff restrictions should have been less extensive. For a more detailed scientific account, the reader is referred to the full Technical Report, in which the various technical chapters have been written by the relevant task leaders of the Project. Figs and tabs

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on wildlife: what knowledge have we gained between the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Nicholas A; Copplestone, David

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan have raised questions over the effects of radiation in the environment. This article considers what we have learned about the radiological consequences for the environment from the Chernobyl accident, Ukraine, in April 1986. The literature offers mixed opinions of the long-term impacts on wildlife close to the Chernobyl plant, with some articles reporting significant effects at very low dose rates (below natural background dose rate levels in, for example, the United Kingdom). The lack of agreement highlights the need for further research to establish whether current radiological protection criteria for wildlife are adequate (and to determine if there are any implications for human radiological protection). PMID:21608117

  3. Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

  4. Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

  5. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

  6. Chernobyl ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the NucNet summary report on the Chernobyl accident, which has been compiled as an unbiassed document based on data obtained from the British Nuclear Industrial Forum and British Nuclear Fuels plc. The topics treated encompass the current situation at Chernobyl, a description of the accident, its consequences including the new Ukrainian data of the number of casualties, and safety of the RBMK reactor design. (P.A.)

  7. Consequences of Fukushima 11032011 - Radiological consequences from the nuclear accidents in Fukushima on 11 March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 11 March 2011 at 14.46 the strongest earthquake ever recorded in Japan struck the Pacific coast in front of Fukushima. The earthquake and the following tsunami damaged the nuclear power plants in Fukushima Dai-ichi to such an extent that the Japanese government declared the state of catastrophic accident with degree 7 according to the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). At Fukushima Dai-ichi there were 6 boiling water reactors (BWR), a storage pool for spent fuel assemblies and a dry cask storage. 12 km apart at Fukushima Dai-ni there were 4 more BWR. At the moment of the earthquake the reactors 1 to 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi, as well as the 4 reactors at Fukushima Dai-ni, were at full power, while the reactors 4 to 6 of Fukushima Dai-ichi were shut down for revision. From 12 March 2011 on, fairly large quantities of radioactive materials were released from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors with meaningful consequences on the population in the near neighbourhood. The irradiation from the radioactivity bearing clouds, the ingestion and inhalation, and the deposit of radioactive materials on the ground threatened the population. The inhabitants of large areas had to be evacuated. Furthermore, radioactive materials contaminated the drinking water, the sea water and finally the plants and animals, i.e. the food chain of the people living there. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) continuously proceeded with the evaluation of the situation in Japan and a specialists' team made a detailed analysis of the accident, with emphasis on the human and organisational factors and on the lessons learned from this. The present report describes the present knowledge about the radiological consequences of the accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on the population in the neighbourhood and on the staff at the power plant, until October 2011. First, the unrolling of the accident and its consequences on the plant site are analysed according to international criteria. Then the transport of radioactive materials out of the reactors 1 to 3 is described and evaluated. The continuous mean discharge rate of radioactive materials is estimated and the treatment of the contaminated water accumulated in the power plant is explained. Through pressure release from the reactor containment and hydrogen explosions in the reactor buildings the released fission products gave rise to high dose rates on the plant site. The staff engaged on the plant was submitted to radiation exposure, what strongly worsened the working conditions. Because of the high radioactive background, the dosimetric surveillance was difficult. What regards the radiation exposure of the population in the neighbourhood of the plant through the released radioactive materials, in the first phase of the accident most of the dose was delivered through the crossing radioactive clouds and the inhaled radioactive dust. In the next phase the radioactive materials deposited on the ground contributed to a long-dated dose through external irradiation. Radioactive materials, which either directly or indirectly arrived on fodder plants and on greens, represent another important source of dose through ingestion. Besides, radioactive materials came into the food chain from lakes, rivers and sea through fish and sea fruits. Delivery of radioactive materials to surface waters contaminated drink water reservoirs and so contributed to higher radiation exposure. The Japanese government took measures to reduce the radiation exposure. The report also describes the effects of the Fukushima accident for the Swiss population and gives information on the most important measures and consequences for Switzerland. Finally the Fukushima accident is compared to the one in Chernobyl concerning the effects on the population and the environment. The release of radioactive materials at Chernobyl was 5 to 10 times higher than it was at Fukushima, and they were conveyed to much larger areas

  8. Chernobyl's living legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years later, the April 1986 Chernobyl accident lives on in different ways: in fact and fiction. Today, national and international experts from eight United Nations agencies including the IAEA are working to sift fact from fiction. They are teamed with Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine to evaluate, document and report the accident's true scale. Known as the Chernobyl Forum, the group issued its comprehensive report in September 2005. It covers health and environmental consequences, and includes recommendations to channel assistance to where it is most needed. Dr. Fred Mettler is a member of the Forum, and a Chernobyl veteran researcher who served as the health team leader in an IAEA-led international project that first presented on-site assessments of Chernobyl's effects in the early 1990s, and participated in the International Chernobyl Conference in 1996 that summed up what was scientifically known then. In this essay, he revisits Chernobyl's health picture from personal and professional perspectives

  9. The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested. New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. (paper)

  10. Psychosomatic and somatopsychic aspects of the development of mental disturbances in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For mathematic-statistical analysis of factors, probably influencing the formation of mental disorders in participants of the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP accident the database containing 165 variables was made. By factor and dispersion analysis variables, influencing mental disorders formation rate, and share of influence and correlation dependencies were discriminated and calculated. The mental disturbances, emerging after an ecological radiation catastrophe, form not only due to direct and indirect action of physical factors, but as a consequence of inclusion of somatopsychic and psychosomatic mechanisms, associated directly with catastrophe effect

  11. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses received by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 ?Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

  12. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared by three WHO expert committees convened under auspices of the Chernobyl Forum's Expert Group 'Health' (EGH), and by WHO staff. It provides an updated assessment of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and follows a detailed report on this topic published by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR, 2000). The accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine on April 26, 1986 and released large amounts of radioactivity, primarily radioactive isotopes of caesium and iodine. These releases contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and other countries to a lesser extent, These releases exposed sizable populations to internal and external radiation doses. The Chernobyl accident caused the deaths of 30 power plant employees and firemen within a few days or weeks (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure). In addition, about 240,000 recovery operation workers (also called 'liquidators' or 'clean-up workers') were called upon in 1986 and 1987 to take part in major mitigation activities at the reactor and within the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor. Residual mitigation activities continued on a relatively large scale until 1990. All together, about 600,000 persons (civilian and military) have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (UNSCEAR, 2000). In addition, massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220,000 people from what are at this time three independent republics of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Vast territories of those three republics were contaminated to a substantial level. The population of those contaminated areas, from which no relocation was required, was about 5 million people. The present report focuses on the long-term health consequences of radiation exposures in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Cancer is currently thought to be the most consequential long-term stochastic effect of ionizing radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000), but, other non-malignant disease outcomes are also considered. To address the present status of information on these outcomes, the WHO, under the auspices of the Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened three separate meetings of experts in Geneva. The first of these meetings addressed thyroid disease and took place 1-3 December 2003, the second on leukemia and solid cancers other than thyroid cancer took place 5-7 April 2004, and the final meeting on non-cancer outcomes and health systems was convened 13-15 September 2004. The reports of each meeting were amalgamation into this report, which is structured as follows: Section 1 covers some general issues and reproduces the summary of the findings from the 2000 UNSCEAR report for convenience, since that report was the starting point for the current expert assessments, i.e., this assessment focused on new evidence available since that report. It also discusses various methodological issues regarding epidemiological studies, since epidemiology provides the primary tool for assessing health effects in human populations and the subsequent sections make broad use of such epidemiological studies. Dosimetry, which underpins all epidemiological studies of radiation and risk, is covered, in Section 2 with Chapter 4 being devoted to thyroid dosimetry and Chapter 5 to whole-body, bone marrow and other specific organ dosimetry. Sections 3 to 5 deal in turn with the various possible health outcomes of the Chernobyl accident including thyroid disorders, leukaemia and nonthyroid cancers, and non-cancer effects. In general, the approach has been to first summarize the current evidence relating to that outcome, in particular, focusing on new studies which have appeared since the UNSCEAR

  13. Health effect predictions from the Chernobyl accident for the Bulgarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of Bulgaria's territory from atmospheric transfer of radioactive products released by the disrupted Chernobylsk reactor is discussed. The mean effective doses derived are given. To predict health implications for the population use was made of the risk coefficients and approaches proposed in ICRP Publication 60 (1990). As regards stochastic effects, estimations indicated: 1) cancer with fatal outcome: a total of 363 cases occurring over 50 to 70 years (the lifetime of a generation); 2) nonfatal (curable) cancer: a total of 107 cases; 3) serious heritable effects: a total of 80 cases. Calculations of radiation doses involved two major assumptions: at the time of the accident people were continuously staying at their permanent place of residence; they were mostly consuming food of local origin. The predicted health consequences are of a probabilistic nature and serve to make comparative evaluations with other sources of radiation exposure, and as guides for epidemiologic studies. It is such studies that will enable to evaluate the harm actually incurred at the time of Chernobyl accident. (author)

  14. Environmental study of radioactive caesium in Greek lake fish after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological status of radiocaesium in the Greek environment until 1986 has been characterized by the impact of world-wide fallout. During 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in an average deposition of total caesium(134Cs + 137Cs) of ? 9 kBq m-2 in Greece, while regional averages ranged within 3-45 kBq m-2. The radioactive contamination of the lake ecosystems is potentially a radiologically important consequence of the accident. The effects of 137Cs and 134Cs introduced into a number of major Greek lake ecosystems has been evaluated in the present work by determination of their concentrations in various lake fish species during the years 1986, 1988 and 1989. Although the representative and predominant species typically differ from lake to lake, while the local deposition of caesium varies significantly, the bioaccumulation of caesium by the examined species seems to depend rather on the fish species than on the local environmental parameters. The time-dependence of the fish contamination has been used to evaluate the contribution of lake fish consumption to the total ingestion dose of the population. (author)

  15. Mapping of caesium fallout from the Chernobyl accident in the Jotunheimen area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, several areas in Norway received radioactive fallout. One of these areas is the eastern part of Jotunheimen in central Norway. Immediately after the accident in 1986, the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) performed airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy in central Norway. At that time, it was not possible to calculate reliable radionuclide concentrations, and the data were presented as total counts per second. Several man-made radionuclides were present in the initial fallout, but due to short half-lives, most of these have now disintegrated into stable isotopes. 137Cs, with a half-life of 11.000 days (? 30 years) is still present in the environment in significant quantities, leading to high radioactivity levels in meat from reindeer and sheep. To obtain a detailed map of the caesium fallout concentration in Jotunheimen, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) survey was carried out, focusing on reindeer grazing areas. This project was a cooperation between Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Geological Survey of Norway.(Au)

  16. Analysis of the Chernobyl accident taking core destruction into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer modeling of neutron-physical and thermohydraulic processes has been used extensively in the analysis of the Chrenobyl accident. In most works the first phase of the accident (up to the moment of destruction of the fuel) is studies. These studies have revealed serious deficiencies of RBMK reactors that resulted in a n nonroutine state with catastrophic consequences during operation: a large positive steam reactivity coefficient and a defect in the construction of the control rods, specifically, the possibility of a reactivity increase as a result of displacement of water to the core bottom when the safety and control rods are inserted in the process of stopping the reactor. The important role of the last factor has been noted in many investigations. In some works a large power burst was obtained during modeling, neglecting the effect of the rods, as a result of other external actions, for example, cavitation. Calculations performed using three-dimensional neutron-thermohydraulic programs with maximum use of accessible initial information have shown that both factors are important. If one of them artificially excluded, it is impossible to obtain the power burst which explains the explosion

  17. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products (including 70-100 P Bq of 137Cs). The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet 'system' performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and 'dingoes tending the sheep'

  18. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products including 70-100 PBq of 137Cs. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and 'dingoes tending the sheep'. This corrupted safety culture exacerbated the poor design of the reactor. The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet 'system' performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. (authors)

  19. Cosyma a new programme package for accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives details of a new programme package for accident consequence assessment, prepared under the CEC's Maria programme (Methods for assessing the radiological impact of accidents) initiated in 1982 to review and build on the nuclear accident consequence assessment methods in use within the European Community

  20. Social, economic, institutional and political impact of the Chernobyl accident in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania is among the countries which was socially, economically, institutionally and politically affected by the Chernobyl accident. The entire Romanian society had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident because of the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania which exceeded considerably the local radioactive background, due to the inherent proximity of accident place and to elliptical and over-estimated official statements broadcast through radio and TV. At institutional level, changes have occurred constantly after 1989 regarding both legislation and administration. All the platforms of the relevant political parties have provisions that are favorable to nuclear field. There are stated diverse preoccupations and objectives for the protection and the safety of the industrial installations that have associated risk of accident. Radiation protection issues and nuclear safety culture have reached a satisfactory level in our society and thereby the political speeches do not annoy anyone when they are proposing poll taxes for activities of decommissioning and transport of radioactive waste. (author)