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1

The Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

2

The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

3

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed. (UK)

4

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

5

Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is not a most hazardous ones. Such psychological effects of the Chernobyl accident resulted from the lack of public information, the stress of relocation and the fear that any radiation exposures are damaging. Those affected people are believing that illnesses of all kinds are due to radiation. The spreading of such mistaken did influence on general public disapproval of Nuclear Power. This presentation includes also the data of real consequences for the health of concerned population

6

Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

7

Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

8

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.)

9

Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

10

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

11

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. PMID:21345660

Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

2011-05-01

12

The Chernobyl accident: consequences and their overcoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long

13

Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986.

Czakainski, M.

1986-06-01

14

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

15

Consequences to health of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen. (au)

16

Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

17

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of th1-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately after the accident. (orig.)

18

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

19

Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

20

The Chernobyl accident - Causes and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signalled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 am on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safety accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to contain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10-13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union

 
 
 
 
21

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

22

Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which mayrus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminate

23

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

24

Chernobyl radiological data for accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this draft is presented the results of a first effort to summarize information related to the radionuclides behaviour in rural areas, in order to estimate pathway parameters to assess accident consequences. This topic encloses relevant aspects concerning contamination of rural environment, the most important being: 1) dry deposition velocities; 2) washout coefficient; 3) accumulation in lakes; 4) migration in soil; 5) winter conditions; 6) filtering effects of forests

25

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 ?Sv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

26

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m-2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 ?Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident

27

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

28

Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

29

The Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986. (orig.)

30

Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ? The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ? We note the great effect of ?-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ? We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ? The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

31

Consequences and experiences - ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 26 April 1986. the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the present borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.Material released into the atmosphere dispersed and eventually deposited back on the surface of the earth,were it was measurable over the whole northern hemisphere. Millions of people and all segments of life and economy have been affected by the accident. Radioactive contamination has reached several tens of MBq/m2 in the area of 30 km diameter around the reactor in 1986., and plants and animals have been exposed to short lived radionuclides up to external doses of several tens of Gy. In the early phase after the accident, 237 persons were suspected to have acute radiation syndrome as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, but diagnoses has been confirmed in 134 cases. In that phase 28 person have died as a consequence of exposure. There are significant non - related health disorders and symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and various psychosomatic disorders attributable to mental stress among the population in the region

32

Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

33

First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

1989-07-01

34

The Chernobyl accident: its causes and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident occurred during the night of April 26th. Its exact causes were only known at the end of the month of August when an international conference, proposed by the Soviets, was held in Vienna. The Chernobyl reactor, which was moderated by graphite and cooled by water, had several weak points. A crew, which was carrying-out tests, cancelled six safety devices, some of which were essential. In these conditions, the reactor went out of control and this led to two explosions and a serious fire. The fire spread to the graphite and a part of the radioactivity in the reactor escaped into the atmosphere. The consequences of this accident which were well controlled by the authorities were serious in the neighbourhood of the reactor: 31 dead, 100 000 people evacuated and contaminated soil. The radioactive cloud resulting from the accident, pushed by the wind, travelled across Europe and provoked worry everywhere. In fact, the risks from such small doses of radioactivity are not significant; an evaluation of such risks is given in this article in comparison with the effects of small doses of chemical products which although they have analogous effects are considered as being inoffensive

35

Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smccident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)

36

Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional hae those already affected any additional harm and confusion

37

Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

38

First consequences to be drawn from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article first summarizes the facts known at the time, about the causes and events at Chernobyl, and continues with a discussion of the consequences such as the long-term effects of the radioactive contamination of the area affected, radiation-induced carcinogenesis, and latency periods. The lack of reliable and safe information on the effects of low-dose irradiation, and possible radiation effects to be expected in regions far away from the reactor site are dealt with together with the question of whether there is a linear relationship between radiation dose and cancer development, and what would happen if the F.R.G. were to experience such an accident on its own territory. The author finally discusses arguments raised against his own view of the situation and points to another type of damage observable in the country, namely the psychological stress created by the upsurge of fear of the atomic energy. (MG)

39

Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

40

Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

 
 
 
 
41

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

42

Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the seath due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

43

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

44

The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

45

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

46

Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

47

Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

48

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

2006-06-15

49

Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

2003-01-01

50

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption

51

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

52

Consequences of radioactive fallout - Experience acquired from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents considerations on the nature of protection measures which were taken following the Chernobyl accident. Six methods used in Belarus aiming at reducing the radionuclide concentration in soils are listed which resulted in a reduction by a factor of 1.5 to 2 of the contamination levels in different agricultural products after 1986. A table is given showing the continuous decrease between 1986 and 1991 in the amount of sold meat and milk on market having doses exceeding the admissible values. In 1994 an increase in the ratio of contaminated products is explained as being due to investment reduction and to augmentation of transfer coefficients produced by an extremely hot summer. In conclusion it is stressed that lifting and removing the superficial layers of contaminated soils proved to be an inefficient method of decontaminating vast areas. Certain lands will not be cultivated for long as no protective action can be conducted to get them returned to agriculture. If one forgives for an instant the natural decay it seems that never one can get rid of the radioactivity. An artificial reduction methods should be supported by an international experience in the field

53

One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

54

Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

55

Management of medical assistance provided to participants of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident consequences liquidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently in the Republic of Moldova there are 2675 people who had suffered from sequelae of Chernobyl accident. In the paper the morbidity (incidence and prevalence), disability and mortality among participants in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences for the period of 2007-2010 were studied. The analysis of morbidity among 'liquidators' during 2007-2010 in the Republic of Moldova reveals the decline of incidence and prevalence due to better monitoring, opportune diagnosis and appropriate and timely treatment. Cancer and cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for 'liquidators'.

56

Antioxidant therapy of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' organ of sight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antioxidant complex including flakumin, glutamic acid and sodium thiosulfate, has been used for treating pathologic changes in the organs of sight of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators. Its positive effect on a number of hormonal and immunology indices of blood and the visual acuity stabilization has been shown

57

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

58

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for people and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report recalls the accident scenario, discusses the dispersion of the radioactive plume, comments the contamination at the vicinity of the power station, discusses and comments data related to radioactive deposits in Europe and in France, comments available information regarding radioactive fallouts in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia (models have been used to assess radioactive deposits). It addresses the issue of food product contamination in these three countries (impact on farm products, on water streams and on forests), but also in France. It comments the health impacts, more particularly on the people who intervened on the site, but also on people who received medium doses. Thyroid cancer data are discussed for the three mainly concerned countries. Other pathologies and non-cancerous effects are also discussed. The mortality induced by the accident is commented. Effects in France are evoked as well as social and economic consequences in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The document provides several links to other documents for further and more detailed information

59

Chernobyl accident and Danmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

60

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

he three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After approval by the members of the Forum, this report is the result of that process

62

Research and managing institutions in Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents temporal changes of the national organizations in managing the Chernobyl accident and its activities. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine started its activity from the first days after the accident. In 1990 a special executive body, the State committee of Chernobyl Affairs was established in Ukraine to manage the whole activity to overcome the Chernobyl problems. In 1991 it was rearranged into the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In 1996 a new Ministry of Ukraine on Emergences and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe(MEA) was founded on the basis of the Min. Chernobyl and Headquarters Staff of Civil Defence. The National Commission on Radiological Protection of Ukraine (NCRPU) belongs to the Parliament structure. NCRPU is responsible for approval of radiological safety standards and derived regulations. Very often the regulation approved are stricter than the international recommendations. There is an essential lack of attention within the Parliament to the activity of NCRPU. Ministry of Health is responsible for all kinds of medical care for the people suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. In order to provide permanent medical service, a nation-wide scheme has been worked out. Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine is the leading scientific institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The State scientific Center of Environmental Radio geochemistry was created in 1996 on the basis of the two departments of the Institute of Geochemistry. The Center was created in order to improve coordination and managing of scientific researches on the behavior of artificial and natural radionuclides and chemical substances in the environment etc.. The Chernobyl Scientific-Technical center for International Research was created in March,1996. The Ukrainian Scientific Hygienic Center of Ministry of Health was created in 1989 and included two institutions. The subjects, the direction of research works, organizations and key personnel are introduced on these institutes and centers with the major publication list. (Y. Tanaka)

63

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs

64

Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

65

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (author

66

Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

1999-09-01

67

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

1997-12-31

68

Chernobyl accident consequences in Germany: Nuclear safety and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A working Programme of the Federal Government was initiated on 26 May 1986 to cover all aspects of nuclear safety and public health, including research and public affairs in the light of the European and international activities resulting from the accident

69

Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems for off-site emergency management (RODOS), etc

70

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

71

On the occasion of the 20-th anniversary of the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: medical consequences in Armenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The indices of the health state and the morbidity structure of the inhabitants of Armenia who took part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences are considered. The epidemiological analysis shows that nervous system diseases and cardiovascular diseases lead among of sickness of armenian liquidators of the Chernobyl accident. The role of other factors (smoking, alcohol and social-economic situation) influencing on the health Indies of examined persons is discussed

72

Radiological consequences of Chernobyl accident: UN scientific committee on effects of atomic radiation confirms earlier IAEA assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document informs about a new report by the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) to the UN General Assembly containing an evaluation of the consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl accident, and which concludes that 'there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure fourteen years after the accident'. The conclusions of the UNSCEAR report are similar to those arrived at by the International Conference 'One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident', organized by the IAEA in Vienna in 1996

73

Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Echocardiography was used for the study of prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in 839 liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (left ventricular myocardial mass 134 g/m2) was 10.3, 13.4 and 22.5 % in liquidators with normal blood pressure, borderline hypertension and hypertension, respectively. Liquidators with normal blood pressure had significantly greater left ventricular myocardial mass than normotensive men from general population while liquidators and non liquidators with hypertension had equal values of this parameter

74

Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs

75

Prophylaxis of arteriosclerosis and myocardial infarction among participants of elimination consequences after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the examination of 415 patients being the participants of the Chernobyl accident response are presented. Examinations were performed for risk assessment of arteriosclerosis and myocardial infraction or insult. Elevated cholesterin levels or high risk of the development of consequences were revealed in 204 patients. These patients were exposed to the treatment with Pravastatine (Lipostat, USA) as well as Zokor preparation (USA). It is shown that the treatment with Lipostat is well endured by patients has no side effects and gives an effect in 70-80 % of cases

76

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

77

Information on the Chernobyl NPP accident and its consequencies prepared for IAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information on the accident at the 4th power unit of the Chernobyl NPP and its consequences prepared for IAEA on the basis of the conclusions made by the Government commission constituted for investigating the accident causes and implementing the necessary emergency and reconstruction measures is given. The accident with reactor core disruption and partial destruction of the building Lappened on 26.04.86 at 1 hour and 23 minutes. The accident occurred before reactor shut-down for planned repairs during the testing of one of turbogenerators. The design features of the RBMK-1000 reactor plant, its main physical characteristics and parameters of the NPP safety system are considered. The chronology of the accident development and the results of analysis carried out using a mathematical model are given. The causes of the accident are analyzed. The measures for preventing the accident development and lessening its consequences as well as those for the environment radioactive contamination control and sanitary provisions are described in detail. The conclusion is made that the original cause of the accident is highly improbable combination of disorder and errors in operational conditions made by the personnel of the power unit. It is emphasized that development of the world nuclear engineering, besides advantages in the field of power supply and natural resources conservation, incurs also damages of international character. Among these are transboundary radioactivity transport, in particular, during serious radiation accidents and the danger of international terrorism and specific radiation hazard of nuclear objects under war conditions. All this defines the key necessity of deep international cooperation in the field of nuclear power engineering and its safeguarding

78

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

Czakainski, Martin; Kinzelmann, Thomas; Pretzsch, Gunter; Wasgindt, Volker (comps.)

2007-06-15

79

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

80

The accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

 
 
 
 
81

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident.

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

1997-11-01

82

Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

83

Programmes for epidemiologic studies on consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation exposure resulting from the Chernobyl accident for the Bulgarian population has been found to be of an order that limits possible health consequences to the realm of stochastic effects - cancer and heritable damage - and, in certain cases of prenatal irradiation, disorders of mental development. Our predictions took into consideration ICRP conceptions (Publication 60, 1990) and the specified estimates of accidental radiation doses. However values of radiation risk coefficients are based on limited direct human data, so use had inevitably to be made of experimental evidence obtained from other mammalian species and of in vitro findings. Moreover for the low-dose-level range, one has to draw largely on observations made using high doses and dose rates. The expected increase in cancer diseases was found to remain within the range of spontaneous incidence fluctuations and would hardly be demonstrated by conventional statistical analysis of oncologic morbidity and mortality. The same holds true for heritable diseases and possible effects of prenatal irradiation. Implied here are data on spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, infant mortality and congenital malformations, including such as become manifest at later times. Though findings for the first 6-year period following the accident are in general correspondence to predictions, the analysis is to be continued. All the more that enough time has not elapsed for the latent periods of the majority of anticipated nt periods of the majority of anticipated effects. In accordance with WHO recommendations on study of health implications of the Chernobyl accident the following effects are to be studied: leukemic disorders; nodular thyroid lesions; prenatal irradiation effects; genetic effects. (author)

84

Measures within the agriculture and the reindeer business as a consequence of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The newsletter describes various measures within the Norwegian agricultural and reindeer management community during the 20 years since the Chernobyl accident. The focus in on caesium limits and precipitators, feeding and slaughter routines and more general consequences for the sheep and reindeer businesses. Some nutritional advices are mentioned

85

Knowledge resources on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in the INIS Database  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains 19872 bibliographic records and 8400 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to 04/2005. A bibliometric study of these records was made to generate statistical summaries that characterise, in general terms, the intellectual content of the records and the nature of the records in terms of its major bibliographic attributes. Environmental aspects and human health constitute the two dominant subjects with a respective contribution of 49% and 38%. The rest is evenly divided among legal aspects, reactor safety and socio-economic impacts of the accident. The three countries that are most affected by the accident, namely Ukraine, Russian Federation and Belarus contributed 44% of the total input. 57% of the literature analysed are conference papers and reports while 25% are journal articles. Most of the documents were written in English (47%) and in Russian (36%). Seven percent of the publications were written in German. (author)

86

Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

87

International programme on medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). Belorussian state register of persons irradiated as a result of accident at Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aims and tasks of the Byelorussian State Register of persons irradiated in result of Chernobyl accident are described, as well as its organizational structure, organization of information collection, automated information processing system. 2 figs, 1 tab

88

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

89

Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

90

Chromosome aberrations in inhabitants of Byelorussia: Consequence of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 35 persons belonging to the 'general population' of Gomel or its surroundings (Byelorussia). This region was heavily contaminated by the nuclear fall-out following the radiation accident at Chernobyl. An elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations was found in most of the subjects. The type and frequency of the aberrations revealed past and possibly present radiation exposure which could be ascribed to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant about 5 years prior to the analysis.

Verschaeve, L. (Department of Biology, SCK/VITO, Mol (Belgium)); Domracheva, E.V.; Kuznetsov, S.A. (Scientific Center for Haematology, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Nechai, V.V. (General Hospital, Gomel (Belarus))

1993-06-01

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Chromosome aberrations in inhabitants of Byelorussia: consequence of the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 35 persons belonging to the 'general population' of Gomel or its surroundings (Byelorussia). This region was heavily contaminated by the nuclear fall-out following the radiation accident at Chernobyl. An elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations was found in most of the subjects. The type and frequency of the aberrations revealed past and possibly present radiation exposure which could be ascribed to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant about 5 years prior to the analysis. PMID:7685485

Verschaeve, L; Domracheva, E V; Kuznetsov, S A; Nechai, V V

1993-06-01

92

Chromosome aberrations in inhabitants of Byelorussia: Consequence of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 35 persons belonging to the 'general population' of Gomel or its surroundings (Byelorussia). This region was heavily contaminated by the nuclear fall-out following the radiation accident at Chernobyl. An elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations was found in most of the subjects. The type and frequency of the aberrations revealed past and possibly present radiation exposure which could be ascribed to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant about 5 years prior to the analysis

93

Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

94

Agroindustrial production sphere - radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident and the chief protective measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl accident, fallout of radionuclides has occurred on farm lands, and the contaminated production of the agroindustrial complex has become a source of additional irradiation of the population. The contribution of the irradiation associated with the consumption of locally produced food products was quite significant, and led to the implementation of protective measures in the agroindustrial production sphere. It should be noted that irradiation of people owing to the consumption of contaminated agricultural products is more easily regulated than external irradiation. For this reason, the decrease in the total dose load is largely determined by the possibilities of restricting the internal irradiation dose to the population from the consumption of food products. The paper discusses radiological conditions in the agroindustrial production sphere in the region of the accident; intake of radionuclides by agricultural plants through leaves; distribution and form of 137Cs in soils; uptake of radionuclides by plants from the soil, animal husbandry aspects of the migration of radionuclides and their biological action; and organizational measures of the USSR for mitigating the consequences

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Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider the approved reports... as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three most affected countries, regarding the environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system.' This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning the environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering the health effects of the Chernobyl accident is being published by the WHO

96

Radiation consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief overview of the meteorological and weather situation in Hungary in the time following the Chernobyl reactor accident, the contamination of the atmosphere, of soil, and of surface waters are presented. The contamination of food and the incorporation of radioactive iodine and cesium in human organism were measured. The radiation burden of population was estimated. (R.P.)

97

Summary of the consequences for the environment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main conclusions on the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the former Soviet Union can be summarised as follows: the long term radioactive contamination of the environment can essentially be put down to Cs and Sr and, to a lesser degree, transuranic elements. In the short term, the radioactive iodine fall-out plays a fundamental role; in the countries of the former Soviet Union, it is estimated that 29,300 and 10,200 km2 of the surface area of the land are respectively contaminated by over 185 and 555 kBq.m-2. Approximately 1,064,000 people live in areas contaminated by more than 185 kBq.m-2; acute radioactive fall-out effects have occurred in the 30 km exclusion zone, essentially witnessed by the death of numerous conifers. On average, it will take about twenty years for half the Cs to disappear from the top 10 cm of soil; the level of contamination of food products varies greatly according to soil type. However, we can consider that milk, berries and mushrooms were the most critical foods in the years immediately following the accident and that some of the agricultural counter-measures taken have proved very useful in containing the contamination of food products. Because of the massive iodine leakage, the worst affected organ in the body during the months following the accident was the thyroid gland. In the months following the accident, the presence of radioactive elements on the surface of vegetables which were subsequently eaten proved to be the main source of human contamination; after a rapid fall off in external dose received by the population during the first year, it is now decreasing much more slowly. This phenomenon is mainly due to the very long-life of the radioactive caesium in the soil; approximately 90 % of the total internal dose for the 70 years following the accident have already been received by the local population. The external dose level will be reduced fairly slowly and we can assess that approximately 60 % of the amount of the external dose cumulated for the 70 years following the accident has already been ingested. (author)

98

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within the

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Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarkog, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Arkhipov, N.P. [Scientific and Technical Centre of the RIA `Pripyat` (Ukraine); Johansson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

1996-07-01

100

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems

 
 
 
 
101

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is very difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. The Background Paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were taken; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. Although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) At high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts, but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen. (2) Effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans, but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population dose reduction. (3) The majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities undertaken in natural and seminatural ecosystems. (author). 82 refs, 8 figs, 7 tabs

102

Chernobyl and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident of 26 April 1986 in Chernobyl with the immense activity release was a catastrophe which took many victims and will still take many. This fact should not be hidden. This brochure represents an attempt to reflect the poor information from Chernobyl in a generally understandable manner and to assess them. Its goal is especially to make clear why even in maximum accidents in German nuclear power plants there is no danger to the population. The effects of the radioactive substances released after the accident in Chernobyl on Germany are described and put into relation. All presentations and descriptions were kept as models and were simplified and are therefore incomplete. This brochure was not meant to be an educational book; it only tries to respond to the questions raised by the accident in Chernobyl in the minds of non-professionals thus taking away the fear and strengthening the confidence in the safety of German reactors. (orig.)

103

Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

104

10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

105

The radioecological consequences of the Kyshtym and Chernobyl radiation accidents for forest ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Urals and Chernobyl accidents 60 to 90% of the radioactive fallout was retained by the above-ground part of forest stands. In the Urals the period for semi-removal of contamination from crowns ranged from 6 to 8 months, compared to around one month in the Chernobyl region - due to different seasonal conditions during the fallout period. The bulk of the dose burden in woody plants' critical organs built up over one to six months. The minimum lethal dose for pine tree needles in the Urals was around 50 Gy, and 25 Gy for the apical meristem; the corresponding figures for Chernobyl were 100 Gy and 25-30 Gy. At lower doses we observed morphological disturbances, reduced growth and suppressed reproductive capability in pines. The resistance to radioactive contamination of deciduous forest was 10-20 times greater than that of conifers. We studied the irradiation doses of the different groups of organisms living in the various forest storeys, and the effects of irradiation (changes in species composition, prevalence and productivity) in communities of herbaceous plants and soil invertebrates. Specific examples are given to highlight the secondary changes in these communities stemming from radiation damage in species sensitive to radioactive contamination. We studied the dynamics of dispersion and migration of the long-lived radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the various components of the biogeocenoses and in the network of geochemically intercand in the network of geochemically interconnected forest landscapes, and their content in forestry produce. Some six to ten years after the deposition of radioactive fallout in forest ecosystems the radionuclides were more or less evenly spread throughout the soil-woody plant system. Thus, overall 90Sr content in the arboreal storey amounts to 1-2% in coniferous forests, and 5-10% in deciduous forests (Urals accident), while the corresponding figures for 137Cs (Chernobyl accident) are 2 to 3 times higher. (author)

106

Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

107

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, ... >> The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to co nsid

108

Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; Strahlenbiologische Folgen des Unfalls von Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG) [Deutsch] Wesentliche Aspekte der tatsaechlichen oder moeglichen gesundheitlichen Folgen des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl in den unmittelbar betroffenen Gebieten werden dargestellt. Insbesondere wird auf strahleninduzierte Gesundheitsschaeden in der Bevoelkerung eingegangen, die durch das Radiojod entstanden sind. Epidemiologische Untersuchungen versuchen ein erhoehtes Auftreten von Leukaemien, Lymphomen und Schilddruesentumoren nachzuweisen. (DG)

Kellerer, A.M. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Strahlenbiologisches Inst.]|[GSF Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie

1996-07-01

109

Study on consequences of radioactive iodine pollution and iodine prophylaxis after Chernobyl accident in Cracow region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Program of investigations of effects of radiation and iodine prophylaxis undertaken after Chernobyl accident in Cracow region had to be modified due to goiter endemic in this region.These modifications included: 1) Division of the region into 3 areas (voivodeship Nowy Sacz, urban voivodeship Cracow and area of Kielce and Swietokrzyskie Mountains). 2) Study on iodine uptake in food and urinary secretion. 3) Examination of iodine level in drinking water, and an attempt of calculation of radiation dose absorbed by thyroid. Characterization of selected areas, principles of selection of study groups are presented as well as organisational details and methods of data collection. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

110

Agricultural aspects in the consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear PLant accident in Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The case of Ukraine territories contaminated after the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant accident is utilized to illustrate successive countermeasures applied to the agricultural sector in case of nuclear accident as well as to indicate their degree of efficiency. There are evidenced the excellent results obtained by fertilizer utilization particularly on derno-podzolic and acid peaty soils. The radiation protection of population is especially based upon application of countermeasures assigned specifically to private enterprises, the production of which is accomplished on sensible areas as forest pastures and humid prairies. On the other side it is demonstrated the need to implement not only a radiological survey but also an ecological and health surveillance in order to detect the zones and products which present maximum of risks

111

A preliminary assessment of the consequences for inhabitants of the UK of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive material and subsequent increases in environmental radioactivity in many countries. This paper considers the U.K. situation, and from preliminary monitoring measurements, major routes of population exposure are identified and quantified. U.K. exposures are mostly within variations in natural background radiation levels to be found in Europe, except for the thyroid dose likely to have been received by young people in the north of the U.K. From reported measurements of 131I in milk, it is predicted that thyroid doses up to 10-20 times the annual doses received from 'normal' natural background radiation might have affected young children drinking fresh cows' milk. Ways in which this exposure component could have been reduced and criteria governing decisions as to whether or not to implement counter-measures are discussed. The importance of 131I in milk as a population exposure route is a common feature with Chernobyl and the 1957 Windscale accident and underlines the importance of milk-producing regions in relation to reactor-siting policy. (UK)

112

Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

113

Standby after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

114

Character of protective clothes contamination of the personnel participated in the efforts to eliminate the Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of investigation of radioactive contamination of protective clothes made of cotton and mixed materials for personnel participated in elimination of the Chernobyl accident consequences are described. Radionuclide composition of clothes contamination before and after decontamination, as well as the values of decontamination coefficients, which are much lower than calculated ones, are presented. Clothes contamination is shown to be caused by difficulty soluble particles of irradiated uranium fuel. The contamination radionuclide composition changes a little as a result of decontamination: decrease only the total quantity of radionuclide substances, but contribution of every radionuclide remains unchanced. During decontamination particles of irradiated uranium fuel are removed from material without solution in the decontaminating solution

115

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

116

The presence of the radionuclide in the lung tissue of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A man of 66 years old who took an active part in the liquidation of Chernobyl catastrophe consequences, whose irradiation dose was 24 roentgens was examined. In march 1993 during the prophylactic examination the peripheral lung tumor of the lower left lobe with the penetration into the lung root was discovered by the method of computer tomography. The certain histological features very typical for adenocarcinoma were found in the samples of the tumor. By X- nad gamma-ray spectrometry methods a significantly high level (0,1-0,18 Bq) of 137Cs in the liwuidators lung is good evidence of the long-term accumulation of radionuclide in the lung tissue

117

Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in the decade 1986-1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the distance from Chernobyl to Norway is about 2000 km, it is estimated that 3-5% of the radiocesium released from Chernobyl was deposited upon Norwegian territory. This was caused by an unfortunate (for Norway) and unusual combination of large initial thermal lift of the plume (which kept the materials airborne), wind direction (which brought the plume across Scandinavia), and precipitation (which led to strong deposition in parts of Norway and Sweden). The areas in which deposition took place in Norway to a large extent comprise natural environments (mountain plains and forest) which are important in an agricultural context. In 1986, large amounts of mutton, reindeer meat and goat's cheese exceeded the limits for radiocesium content set by the authorities. Some non-destructive countermeasures were implemented, but much of the meat was condemned. By the following year the authorities had implemented a large programme of countermeasures, and thereby managed drastically to reduce the amount of discarded food. In the present report, the cost of these countermeasures, as well as the cost of discarded foodstuff, is summarized for each of the ten years since the accident. Although ten years have passed, all the countermeasures are still required, even though there has been some decline in the size of the areas and the number of animals involved. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

Tveten, U. [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Brynildsen, L.I. [Ministry of Agriculture Oslo (Norway); Amundsen, I. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteras (Norway); Bergan, T.D.S. [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)

1998-12-01

118

Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in the decade 1986-1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the distance from Chernobyl to Norway is about 2000 km, it is estimated that 3-5% of the radiocesium released from Chernobyl was deposited upon Norwegian territory. This was caused by an unfortunate (for Norway) and unusual combination of large initial thermal lift of the plume (which kept the materials airborne), wind direction (which brought the plume across Scandinavia), and precipitation (which led to strong deposition in parts of Norway and Sweden). The areas in which deposition took place in Norway to a large extent comprise natural environments (mountain plains and forest) which are important in an agricultural context. In 1986, large amounts of mutton, reindeer meat and goat's cheese exceeded the limits for radiocesium content set by the authorities. Some non-destructive countermeasures were implemented, but much of the meat was condemned. By the following year the authorities had implemented a large programme of countermeasures, and thereby managed drastically to reduce the amount of discarded food. In the present report, the cost of these countermeasures, as well as the cost of discarded foodstuff, is summarized for each of the ten years since the accident. Although ten years have passed, all the countermeasures are still required, even though there has been some decline in the size of the areas and the number of animals involved. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

119

Radiocontamination patterns and possible health consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main hazard in the early phase after Chernobyl was radioiodine. Thyroid doses were esimated separately for (i) zones of strict control, (ii) most contaminated provinces (iii) the whole central European region of the USSR. Distinction was made between children under the age of 7 years at the time of the accident and the rest of the population. In the later phase the main concern is whole-body exposure to radiocaesium. Doses were calculated for the same areas and age groups as radioiodine. The following were considered: thyroid malignancies, leukaemia, other types of cancer, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. A stastistically significant excess over the spontaneous level is unlikely to be detectable for these effects, with the possible exception of thyroid disorders. The risk was greatly reduced by preventive measures, in particular lifetime doses have been restricted by establishment of a limit of 0.35 Sv. (author).

Ilyin, L.A.; Balonov, M.I.; Buldakov, L.A. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (USSR)) (and others)

1990-03-01

120

Radiocontamination patterns and possible health consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main hazard in the early phase after Chernobyl was radioiodine. Thyroid doses were esimated separately for (i) zones of strict control, (ii) most contaminated provinces (iii) the whole central European region of the USSR. Distinction was made between children under the age of 7 years at the time of the accident and the rest of the population. In the later phase the main concern is whole-body exposure to radiocaesium. Doses were calculated for the same areas and age groups as radioiodine. The following were considered: thyroid malignancies, leukaemia, other types of cancer, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. A stastistically significant excess over the spontaneous level is unlikely to be detectable for these effects, with the possible exception of thyroid disorders. The risk was greatly reduced by preventive measures, in particular lifetime doses have been restricted by establishment of a limit of 0.35 Sv. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

The causes and consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident and implications for the regulation of U.S. nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is presented of the causes of the Chernobyl accident and of actions taken to terminate the accident and to mitigate the consequences. Emergency preparedness and evacuation measures, medical treatment, protection against contaminated food and water supplies, and a variety of post-accident recovery measures are examined. Methodological issues in assessing the health consequences of the accident are discussed, and a preliminary view of some implications of the accident for the regulation of U.S. nuclear power plants is provided. (UK)

122

Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

123

The consequences of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of the Chernobyl IV Reactor its operation and safety system. The following issues are analyzed; 1: the errors of the operators that produced the accident in april 26, 1986; 2: the fallout caused by the first explosions, that has mainly incorporated I and Cs in the food chain; 3: the path of the Chernobyl cloud, its passing across the north and south of Europe, and the middle east; 4: measures to stop the accident, fire control, plant stabilization and recovery of the place; 5: a sarcophagus, a technical novelty, had to be built due to the difficulties of monitoring; 6: the problematic decontamination of the forested places, caused interesting programs to be developed. Afterwords the effects produced by high and low doses in the population, were studied. A group of experts, reached the conclusion that no corrective or improvement measures for the occidental safety mechanisms, were required. (M.E.L.)

124

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

125

Legislation in Ukraine about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

those who produce pure products on contaminated areas. It is expected that on approval of the Ukrainian Parliament it will became a new basis for reviewing of the Chernobyl Laws. The Laws and regulations of Ukraine on radiation protection are on the way to meet international basic safety standards. But there is no experience in the world of dealing with the consequences of such a wide-scale radiation catastrophe. Taking into account the fact that a certain part of the Ukrainian population have to live permanently on the radioactively contaminated area, the contamination is not considered as an accidental, but rather as environmental factor like natural radioactivity. This thought provides somewhat different approach to setting acceptable levels of radionuclides in food stuffs and explains the difference in international recommendations. (Y. Tanaka)

126

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident in comparison with those of the Kyshtym and Windscale radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report briefly sets out the main features involved in the accidental releases of radioactive substances at Chernobyl, Kyshtym and Windscale, and the radiation conditions developing as a result. We outline the dynamics of the transfer of radioactive substances via the ''soil-plant-animal-man'' food chain, and compare the processes involved in internal and external exposure of the people who stayed on in the radioactively contaminated regions. In the Chernobyl and Windscale nuclear reactor accidents iodine and caesium were mainly responsible for irradiation of the local population. In contrast, the explosion at the storage facility for liquid radioactive waste in the Urals contaminated the area with a mixture of one-year-old fission products, and the long-term ecological effects stem mainly from the presence of strontium-90 in foodstuffs. The report traces the true dynamics of (and predicts future) individual and collective doses to Russia's inhabitants. The latest radiological data are used to estimate the incidence of long-term stochastic effects of a carcinogenic, genetic and teratogenic nature. (author)

127

Conclusions from the consequences of the reactor accident of Chernobyl for Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to abate the possibility, and to diminish the consequences of a serious reactor accident, the following measures are proposed and explained: (1) Establishment of an international reactor safety conference. (2) Establishment of a law on precautionary radiological protection on a national level. (3) In Bavaria: Extension of the radioactivity monitoring network to cover the whole area of Bavaria, enhancement of the information systems, establishment of a permanent inter-ministerial coordination board, research activities. (TRV)

128

The Chernobyl accident: causes, effects and measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In consequence of the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the department for Nuclear Technology of the Dutch Royal Institute of Engineers (KIVI) organized three symposia (at 7th October 1986, 30th October 1986 and 20th January 1987). This book is a collection of the analyses and conclusions which were presented and discussed during these symposia and which give a survey of the technical and managerial aspects of the Chernobyl accident relevant for the Netherlands. (Auth.)

129

Intercalibration study of laboratories involved in assessing the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the framework of the International Chernobyl Project in order to assess the reliability of results obtained by different USSR laboratories it was decided that selected USSR laboratories involved in analysis of environmental contamination in the USSR due to the accident would be invited to participate in intercalibration exercises. These exercises were performed with two types of materials: 1) materials already available in the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Services; 2) the vegetation material (clover) which was being used in a worldwide IAEA intercomparison programme in 1990. In May 1990 the Agency's Laboratories at Seibersdorf prepared a package of material for all participating laboratories, consisting of the following samples: (1) two bottles of milk powder (low and high level of activity), simulated air filters, one bottle of soil; (2) one bottle of the vegetation material (clover). This package was accompanied by detailed information sheets on its use and standardized data reporting format. The milk powder, soil and clover samples were distributed to additional laboratories in October 1990

130

Prenatal diagnostics of congenital malformations, the most efficient way to decrease genetic consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term study of the prevalence of congenital malformations (CM) in the population of Belarus, carried out by Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, showed considerably increased, from 5.6% in 1980-1985 to 7.2% in 1986-1996, frequency of the anomalies found in embryos, increased number of malformations in induced abortuses and also the growth of CM in newborns, from 5 in 1983-1985 to 7.2 in 2001, in post-Chernobyl period. The highest raise was registered in the mostly contaminated with Cs-137 areas in the first post-Chernobyl years. There are various reasons for the observed increase, but they are still not clearly understood. Nutrition imbalance (deficit of vitamins, essential amino acids and soluble selenium), physoemotional stress, hormone imbalance, alcoholism and increased level of mutations due to additional exposure of the gonads of the residents of contaminated areas of the Republic can have some impact. Positive prevalence trend of multifactorial anomalies evidences multifactorial origin of the increased prevalence of embryonal anomalies. Both, increased prevalence of CM with great contribution of dominant mutations and the peak of Down's syndrome cases, recorded in January, 1987 with maximum in Gomel region, suggest mutation component. At present, the most efficient measures to prevent the birth of malformed children are prenatal diagnostics and vitamin supplement of the couples, who plan their pregnancy, and pregnant women in the first trimester. Accoregnant women in the first trimester. According to the conclusion, made by WHO experts, vitamin intake can considerably reduce many CM with multifactorial origin. Positive results can be achieved only if the problem is solved by the government, when vitamins are added to flour, cereals and bread. Prenatal diagnostics with subsequent termination of pregnancy, where incurable anomalies are found, contributes greatly to the reduction of the proportion of malformed newborns, irrespective of the factors, which caused the anomalies. Thus, in Belarus in the last 5 years about 500 pregnancies were terminated annually for genetic reasons. Over 100 pregnancies were terminated in Gomel region, which considerably reduced (by 1-3%) perinatal mortality, children's morbidity and disability. The number of children, born with the anomalies of the central nervous system, renal polycystosis and agenesis, omphalocele, reduction limb defects, is decreasing most considerably. The potentialities of prenatal diagnostics of CM are far from being used adequately in the Republic. With sufficient financing, present-day techniques allow prenatal diagnosing of 1000 cases instead of 600 diagnosed each year. The program will be productive, if prenatal biochemical screening and invasive prenatal procedures are financed regularly and interregional centres for prenatal diagnostics are created. These measures will not only reduce the proportion of children, born with congenital malformations, but increase the birth rate in Belarus, since the future mothers will not be scared to give birth to a malformed child, which is especially essential for the population exposed to radiation due to Chernobyl accident (authors)

131

Primary disability and its structure at liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences in post-Chernobyl period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary disability in persons participated in Chernobyl catastrophe liquidation was studied for 1986-1987, for 1988 and for 1994-2000. The structure of the disease caused the primary disability of those persons was analyzed. The primary invalidity indices were determined to increase for certain nosologic forms such as for the blood circulation disease, malignant neoplasms, eye pathology (authors)

132

Chernobyl the health consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

133

Radiation risks and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of the basic of radiation protection, including nomenclature and units and principles for protection at accidents. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and in Sweden is described, and the recommendations and protection measures applied in Sweden are presented. In particular, the radiation levels and restrictions concerning food are discussed. (L.E.)

134

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This summary is the results of the International Conference ''One decade after Chernobyl''. It includes topics on initial responses, radioactive releases, absorbed radiation doses and health effects, socio-economic impacts as well as safety of RBMK type reactors

135

Response of neutrophils in peripheral blood of participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences to an additional radiation exposure in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific effect of radiation exposure in vitro on morphobiochemical characteristics of leukocytes in peripheral blood of the participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences are investigated. Samples of peripheral blood taken from 49 participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences were irradiated in vitro in doses 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 Gy. Cytochemical analysis of neutrophils was used for estimating the contents of lipids and cationic proteins, and also the activity of alkaline phosphatase and myeloperoxidase. The irradiation of samples of peripheral blood taken from the participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences has the same effects on functional and metabolic somatic status but with no history of exposure to the complex of radiation accident factors

136

Analysis of emergency response after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: observed and prevented medical consequences, lessons learned  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Belarus is one of the most contaminated Republic due to the Chernobyl accident. 23% of the entire area of Belarus was contaminated with radionuclides. To protect the population after the accident different types of protective actions were performed during all phases, based on various temporary dose limits. An analysis of conducted protective actions and lessons obtained during the emergency response is briefly presented 9 refs.

Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J. [Research Clinical Inst. of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus)

1997-12-31

137

Simulation of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical and structural drawbacks of RBMK reactors that led to the accident at Chernobyl unit 4 are analyzed. They are as follows: positive void reactivity coefficient and defects in the design of the reactor core protection system, Contribution of each drawback to the accident development is assessed. It is shown that the drawback in the design of control rods triggered the accident

138

An experience of information support of the Russian federal programs of the overcoming of consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1992, by a number of paragraphs of the federal programs on overcoming consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP, the measures on informational-analytic support of the federal programs were provided. Within the framework of this activity for the solution of various aspects of Chernobyl's problem central bank of generalized data and numerous information systems were created. In the report the brief description of some of them is presented. In particular the databank on radioactive situation includes the information on 12 thousand settlements of Russia which have been exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident.The medico-demographic section of a databank includes information on death rate for the reasons for all subjects of Russian Federation since 1982 till the present time. The developed information systems are available to all participants of work on overcoming of consequences of the accident. There are given the examples of integral estimates in short- and long-term forecasts of development of a situation in territories suffered by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. (author)

139

The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine and problems with the sarcophagus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident in the Ukraine contaminated part of the territory with iodine 131, caesium 137, strontium 90, and plutonium 239 and 240. The zone surrounding the site of the accident was declared restricted area; more than 90 000 persons were evacuated. The paper reports on current conditions in the restricted area and prospects for this area as well as on the current state of, and problems with, the sarcophagus. The conversion of the sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system and the economic situation of the Ukraine pose great problems. (DG)

140

Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

 
 
 
 
141

The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences; radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

142

Consequences, countermeasures and observed or suspected effects in the USSR after the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident led to substantial radioactive contamination, which was initially dominated by 131I and later by 137Cs. 90Sr was substantially less important. More than 200000 people were evacuated. There are still 270000 inhabitans of areas with Cs contaminations of more than 5 x 105 Bq/m2. At least some of these will still have to be evacuated for radiological reasons. In large regions of smaller contamination normal life with few restrictions would be possible, if it were not for the poor information policy of the authorities which has caused a degree of suspicion, fear and insecurity that makes it now almost impossible to reach an objective perception of the exposures and the associated risks. The deficient health statistics have, up to now, not permitted any conclusions regarding increases of childhood leukemias which are expected in the regions with the highest contamination. For other cancers one expects lower relative increases but it is unlikely that they would be detected even in thorough statistical studies. Thyroid cancers are a possible exception. In contrast, significant increases of ilnesses such as anemia or diabetes which are not normally associated with radiation, have been noted. They are due to the grave constraints in living conditions, to the fears and to the increased attention to illnesses which were formally not registered in any health statistics. They are now seen by the population and alsoey are now seen by the population and also by most physicians as radiation-induced. (orig./MG)

143

Calculation of accident dose loads for tooth enamel in liquidators of the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences by the method of EPR-spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A formula for calculation of accident dose loads at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been deduced, the dose loads being determined using the method of electronic paramagnetic resonance of tooth enamel. Principle of calculating accident doses is given for the Chernobyl catastrophe liquidators who had been living in Minsk and Minsk region before and returned to these areas after the Chernobyl clean-up activities. (Authors)

144

Evaluation of postpone Ch NPP accident consequences. Health state of children born in families of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of the results of the medical investigation during 1996-2008 years of the health of the about 200 children (107 girls, 115 boys 5-17 years old), which parents took part in liquidation of C NPP accident have been performed. Clinical, immunological disturbance and increased chromosome mutagenesis intensity in somatic cells of the investigated children gave reason to classify them among those with the increased risk of probability of the pathology with genetic component. This may be considerate as a well founded conclusion for elaboration of separated registry of the children born in families of liquidators. The immunological disturbance of children probably reflects the disturbance of the differential processes and maturity of cells of thymus and can be the consequences of the factors influence related with the clinic pathologies. The results permitted to select the group for feature cytogenesis and clinic investigations (authors)

145

Metabolic syndrome X as a clinical outcome of hormonal changes on the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences (the problem analysis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of hormonal changes in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences, which promote the metabolic syndrome X development, was carried out on the base of clinical and experimental data. The system insulin-glucose, the mechanisms of insulinresistance and gyperinslinemia forming, the pathogenetical role of hyperinsulinemia interaction with others hormomes, some aspects of hormone - receptor interaction, an interconnection of hyperinsulinemia and vascular pathology, peculiarities of radiobiological stress as a non-classic adaptive reaction, which frequently resulting with a pathology, were discussed in the article

146

Information-Analytic support of the programs of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident: gained experience and its future application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the initial stage of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the role of system-analytic and information support in the decision making process for protection of the population and rehabilitation of territories was. to a certain extent, underestimated. Starting from 1991, activity in system-analytic support was the part of the USSR (later on, Russian) stage programs. This activity covered three direction: development of the Central bank of the generalized data on the radiation catastrophes; development, implementation, and maintenance of the control informational system for the Federal bodies; computer-system integration

147

Particularities of chronic diseases evolution in persons from the Republic of Moldova, who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper the results of chronic diseases evolution during the period of 1995-2010 for participants of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation are presented. The study group consisted of 800 male patients, Chisinau city residents, aged 43-63 years, and 200 healthy male control subjects of same age. In the study group 2197 cases of chronic diseases in 1995, 4338 - in 2010 were recorded. During this period, the number of cardiovascular diseases has increased three times, digestive system disorders - 2 times, diseases of musculoskeletal system - 4.7 times, and respiratory illnesses have tripled.

148

The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

2006-04-15

149

The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

150

Chernobyl - the radioactive plume and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual report 1986 of the United Kingdom Meterological Office is presented. The contents of the report contains a paper entitled 'Chernobyl - the radioactive plume and its consequences'. The paper is an account of the incident from a meteorological viewpoint. The account includes a description of the following topics:- the accident, during the first few days, the plume over Europe, loss processes, the plume over Britain, depositions, and the relation between emission and deposition. (U.K.)

151

Medical consequences for children population of survivors after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (12 years later)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl NPP accident is recognized as the global disaster. Wide amount of population including children was involved. According to the direct measurements results from 1986 the 40% of children population received thyroid irradiation doses from 0.3 to 2.0 Gy and 10% of them - over 2 Gy respectively. Cesium incorporation value calculated per irradiation dose not exceeded 0.5 rem in 97% of kids. Children examination was organized in 2 steps. Within 1. one various transient reactions of nervous system, skin, mucosa, blood formula were revealed. Within 2. one the complete medical examinations were carried out both with dosimetric control. ChNPP accident poly-factor nature was fixed. Wide amount of somatic pathology not related to radiation exposure dose was registered. 12 years after the accident as the result of wide-scale epidemiological study was found out that children population had been exposed to both acute (evacuated persons) and long-term chronic (contaminated territories residents) effect of radiation factor. The main health risk for children involved in nuclear disaster zone is connected with non-oncological blood and haemopoietic organs diseases, digestive system pathology and mental disorders. Parameters excess was revealed in group of persons with higher collective dose accumulated for 10-12 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rate growth is recognized as the radioinduced effect. 12 years after the accident is obvious that 'health detriment' for children population of ChNPP accident survivors is expressed in additional number of endocrine system diseases cases - 24%, blood and haemopoietic organs - 33%, digestive system - 24%, mental disorders - 52% respectively. (authors)

152

Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

153

Nuclear accidents - Chernobyl, a warning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is one of a number prepared by the Swedish KAMEDO organisation, a name derived from the Swedish for ''Organising Committee for Disaster Medicine''. The main task of KAMEDO, a State-supported institution, is to send qualified observers to the site of major disasters, their resultant reports being widely distributed on a national basis. In the following presentation, the author provides information on the Chernobyl nuclear accident based largely on a personal visit to Moscow, Kiev and the Chernobyl region in 1987. Amongst areas examined are the fire-fighting resources available prior to the accident, the mishap and its immediate results, the way the firemen fought and contained the conflagration, the resultant radiation injuries and general exposure levels, methods of treatment, and the evacuation of the people in the surrounding region. (author)

154

The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range of estimates of excess mortality resulting from the Chernobyl accident spans an extremely wide range depending upon precisely what is taken into account. The most recent epidemiological evidence, published under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences, suggests that the scale of the problems could be very much greater than predicted by studies published to date. For example, the 2005 IAEA report predicted that 4000 additional deaths would result from the Chernobyl accident. The most recently published figures indicate that in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine alone the accident resulted in an estimated 200,000 additional deaths between 1990 and 2004. Overall, the available data reveal a considerable range in estimated excess mortalities resulting from the Chernobyl accident, serving to underline the huge uncertainties attached to knowledge of the full impacts of the Chernobyl accident. This report includes some data, which have not been published before in the international arena. In combination with the extensive body of literature which has been published to date, these data indicate that 'official' figures (e.g. the IAEA 2005 evaluation) for morbidity (incidence of disease) and death arising as a direct result of the radioactive contamination released from Chernobyl may grossly underestimate both the local and international impact of the incident. Four population groups appear to have experienced the most severe health effects: (1) accident clean-up workers, or 'liquidators', including civilian and the military personnel drafted to carry out clean-up activities and construct the protective cover for the reactor; (2) evacuees from dangerously contaminated territories inside the 30-km zone around the power plant; (3) residents of the less (but still dangerously) contaminated territories; and (4) children born into the families from all of the above three groups.

Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

2006-04-15

155

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

156

The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, além de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O foco no câncer de tireóide, porém, distraiu a atenção de especialistas sobre outros possíveis efeitos. A resposta internacional ao acidente foi inadequada, descoordenada e injustificavelmente tranqüilizadora. Acurada avaliação sobre efeitos futuros nem sempre é possível por causa de uma certa dose de incertezas frente ao estágio atual dos debates sobre radiação. É essencial que investigações sobre efeitos e conseqüências do desastre possam ser socializadas e apoiadas por um longo período de tempo. Por causa das inadequadas respostas internacionais ao problema, a ONU deveria iniciar uma revisão independente a respeito das ações e responsabilidades das agências, com recomendações de como agir em futuros desastres. Isso deveria envolver cientistas independentes e não que atuassem em competição.

Keith Baverstock

2007-06-01

157

The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response / O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, alé [...] m de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O foco no câncer de tireóide, porém, distraiu a atenção de especialistas sobre outros possíveis efeitos. A resposta internacional ao acidente foi inadequada, descoordenada e injustificavelmente tranqüilizadora. Acurada avaliação sobre efeitos futuros nem sempre é possível por causa de uma certa dose de incertezas frente ao estágio atual dos debates sobre radiação. É essencial que investigações sobre efeitos e conseqüências do desastre possam ser socializadas e apoiadas por um longo período de tempo. Por causa das inadequadas respostas internacionais ao problema, a ONU deveria iniciar uma revisão independente a respeito das ações e responsabilidades das agências, com recomendações de como agir em futuros desastres. Isso deveria envolver cientistas independentes e não que atuassem em competição. Abstract in english Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and cons [...] ider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.

Keith, Baverstock; Dillwyn, Williams.

158

The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response / O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, alé [...] m de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O foco no câncer de tireóide, porém, distraiu a atenção de especialistas sobre outros possíveis efeitos. A resposta internacional ao acidente foi inadequada, descoordenada e injustificavelmente tranqüilizadora. Acurada avaliação sobre efeitos futuros nem sempre é possível por causa de uma certa dose de incertezas frente ao estágio atual dos debates sobre radiação. É essencial que investigações sobre efeitos e conseqüências do desastre possam ser socializadas e apoiadas por um longo período de tempo. Por causa das inadequadas respostas internacionais ao problema, a ONU deveria iniciar uma revisão independente a respeito das ações e responsabilidades das agências, com recomendações de como agir em futuros desastres. Isso deveria envolver cientistas independentes e não que atuassem em competição. Abstract in english Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and cons [...] ider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.

Keith, Baverstock; Dillwyn, Williams.

159

Accident at the Chernobyl AES and its consequences. Data prepared for the International Atomic Energy Agency Expert Conference (25-29 August 1986, Vienna)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant describes the plant and associated RBMK-1000 reactors and gives a chronology of the development of the accident. The causes of the accident are discussed as well as an analysis of the process of development of the accident. Also discussed are measures adopted to increase power plant safety and prevent development of similar accidents

160

Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

 
 
 
 
161

Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of nuclear power to meet increasing energy demands in many parts of the world. In 2001, after taking note of the conflicting views on the results of the accident, I called for the creation of a Chernobyl Forum, inviting the world's foremost scientific experts to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the health, environmental and social impacts of the accident. As with all IAEA programmes, we emphasized an impartial, fact based approach to the analysis of this difficult and highly charged topic. I was pleased that, after a long period of careful analysis, the parties involved - including the World Health Organization and seven other specialized United Nations agencies, as well as the Governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - were able to achieve consensus on the set of authoritative reports that were issued last September. But the Chernobyl Forum had another purpose as well. My hope was that, by giving clear, impartial answers about the accident and its effects, we would be able to focus more effectively on present and future needs. Better international cooperation on assistance to the people and regions affected by the accident. Smarter approaches to safe food production and effective health care. Enhanced investments in the people concerned, in ways that would give them control over their own livelihoods. In short, it was my hope that, by answering questions about the past, we could restore a vision of a brighter future for the regions concerned. And that remains my hope. We will not soon forget the Chernobyl accident. We will not forget the emergency workers who gave their lives. We will not forget the health and environmental consequences. And we should never forget the lessons we learned regarding nuclear safety and international cooperation. In remembering the Chernobyl accident, we should renew our determination to ensure that such a tragedy will not happen again. But we must also remember the survivors, the individuals and communities who seek to move forward with their lives and the lives of their children. At this time of remembrance, they too deserve our att

162

Study on the health and social consequences based on assessment of the irradiation of the Bulgarian population as a result of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Ionizing radiation is one of the well-established etiologic factors for induced malignant diseases. As a result of trans-boundary transfer of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident, Bulgaria, like other European countries, was contaminated and all consequences followed. Based on data for radiation background in Bulgaria in the first two months after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, assessment of thyroid gland exposure of different population groups was made. The thyroid gland exposure was determined by direct measurement of thyroid gland activity and indirect (computing) methods as well. Both methods show that children under school age are the group at highest dose burden. The average doses equal 10 mGy and vary from 7.5 to 20 mGy for direct measurement and indirect methods respectively, and the maximum doses range from 100 mGy to 96.5 mGy. The doses for other age groups are: average 3.2±1.5 mGy and maximum 25±10 mGy. The primary source of exposure is Iodine-131 and the other Iodine and Tellurium radionuclides have an insignificant impact. The main share in thyroid gland exposure has the consumption of milk, esp. sheep's milk, and green foliar vegetables. The contribution of inhaled Iodine and both internal and external exposure from other sources is up to 10-15%. An epidemiological case-control study was carried out according to thyroid gland doses received in regions of highest radioactive contamination. The thyroid cancer cases contamination. The thyroid cancer cases diagnosed in these regions were compared with cases in regions of lowest contamination for the period 1990-2003. The analysis was based on place of residence and diet (type and source of consumed milk and milk products) of cases during May-June 1986. The standardized incidence of thyroid cancer by sex and age in these regions was compared also. The difference in thyroid gland doses estimated by region are not related with thyroid cancer incidence Data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Discussed are results from different descriptive epidemiological studies on malignant diseases of lymph and haemopoietic system (especially lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia) and thyroid cancer incidence after the Chernobyl accident. The descriptive and analytical studies carried out since now provide evidence that there is no public health impact of the Chernobyl accident in the field of leukaemia and thyroid cancer in Bulgaria

163

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

164

Reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

165

The causes of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

166

CEC/CIS collaboration projects on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident preliminary results on the project dealing with strategies of decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1992, an agreement was signed between the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and the relevant Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine in order to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, through the implementation of a collaboration program involving the participation of about 200 CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) and EU (European Union) Institutes and Research Centers. In such a context, a collaboration project aiming at evaluating strategies of decontamination for the territories affected by the accident was launched. This project not only dealt with decontamination of agricultural soils, urban areas and forests but also included treatment of contaminated foodstuff. To date, the project comprised both experimental and theoretical activities. It is expected that the results of this project can be used for the development of practical strategies for decontaminating the relevant CIS territories, as well as for the definition of appropriate policies in the event of a future nuclear accident. Relying on a strong collaboration network which was progressively established between EU and CIS scientists, field experiments mainly dealt with decontamination of meadows using a turf harvester, and forests while producing valuable wood derivatives

167

Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

168

Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

2001-11-01

169

Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on tred academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental health problems like depression in Fukushima patients. (note)

170

International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

171

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

172

US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

1992-04-01

173

Blood picture alternations in persons after liquidating the consequences of the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of haemogram examination in 90 men who worked in Chernobyl in 1986 are reported. In 58 cases alterations were found in red blood in the form of oxy phil norm o- and/or macrocytes and half moon erythrocytes. Ovalocytes, stomatocytes or acanthocytes were found in ten persons. White blood picture was characterized by relative lymphosytosis, but also by appearance of lymphoid and plasmatic cells, what may be interpreted as activation of immune response. The results of reexamination after six to twelve months in 25 men demonstrated increased frequency or deepening of alterations in blood picture. (author). 12 refs

174

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for ...

E. F. Konoplya, I. V. Rolevich

1998-01-01

175

Cytogenetic effects in children born to participants in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident consequences - Acute radiation syndrome survivors and children evacuated from Pripyat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cytogenetic study of 87 children was held. Age of involved kids ranged from 5 to 14 years old. The I-st study group was presented with 17 kids born in 1987-1988 from the Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) who survived the Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) of I-II severity degree in 1986. The II-nd study group was consisted from the 45 children born in 1983-1985 resident in town Pripyat with thyroid exposure doses from 65 to 616 sZv and total irradiation doses from 0.2 to 13.2 sZv. The 25 children born in 1983-1988 and resident in radiation situation - favourable region of Ukraine constituted the Control (III-rd) group. The aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations amount mainly due to chromatide type ones confidential increase compared to that in control was revealed among the children born from CACCP - ARS survivors. In children exposed to ionizing radiation during infant and early childhood age the aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations quantity was elevated also but due to both chromosomal (dicentrics and rings) and chromatide types. (author)

176

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

177

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden.

Odlind, V. (Uppsala Univ. (SE)); Ericson, A. (National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm (SE))

1991-01-01

178

The 1986 Chernobyl accident; Der Unfall von Tschernobyl 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

April 26, 2011 marks the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the worst incident in the history of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. While investigations of the course of events and the causes of the accident largely present a uniform picture, descriptions still vary widely when it comes to the impact on the population and the environment. This treatment of the Chernobyl accident constitutes a summary of facts about the initiation of the accident and the sequence of events that followed. In addition, measures are described which were taken to exclude any repetition of a disaster of this kind. The health consequences and the socio-economic impact of the accident are not discussed in any detail. The first section contains an introduction and an overview of the Soviet RBMK (Chernobyl) reactor line. In section 2, fundamental characteristics of this special type of reactor, which was exclusively built in the former Soviet Union, are discussed. This information is necessary to understand the sequence of accident events and provides an answer to the frequent question whether that accident could be transferred to reactors in this country. The third section outlines the history of the accident caused ultimately by a commissioning test never performed before. The section is completed by a brief description of radiological releases and the state of the plant after the accident when entombed in the ''sarcophagus.'' The different causes are then summarized and the modifications afterwards made to RBMK reactors are outlined. (orig.)

Kerner, Alexander; Stueck, Reinhard; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching bei Muenchen, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsanalysen; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

2011-02-15

179

Realism and myths of Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is one of the scientific-publicistic book on the Chernobyl accident. It contains earlier unknown facts and cases as well as analysis of modern scientific data. The book gives an information on complex medical and social problems resulted from the accident occured in April, 26, 1996

180

The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavihe accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

2000-12-01

182

Latest report about health effects of the chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After twenty years of Chernobyl accident, the international conference was hold in Kyiv, Ukraine, 24-26, April in 2006. During the conference WHO declares the paper named health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The report look back the nuclear accident in the history, and then recite conclusion about health effects of the Chernobyl accident, which from doses received from the Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer, non-thyroid solid cancer, leukemia, mortality, cataract and cardiovascular disease. The report is considered as milestone events in the studying of health effects of Chernobyl accident. (authors)

183

Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (autause of their negligible percentages. (author)

184

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

185

Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. PMID:24189103

Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

2014-02-01

186

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different (in type and pattern) from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan (and doses received early after the accident are not well known). Predictions derived from studies of these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, although an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in persons exposed as children as a result of the Chernobyl accident was envisages, the extent of the increase was not foreseen. Only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential, therefore, that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if any increase in the incidence of cancers as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident, except for leukaemia among liquidators and thyroid cancer, is expected to be difficult to detect. Studies of selected populations and diseases are also needed in order to study observed or predicted effects; careful studies may in particular provide important information on the effect of exposure rate and exposure type in the low to medium dose range and on factors which may modify radiation effects. As such, they may have important consequences for the radiation protection of patients and the general population in the event of any future accidental exposure. 50 refs, 7 tabs

187

Socio-economic consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe. Social protection of the citizens, affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident on Chernobyl NPP has affected the destiny of 35 million people in Ukraine. The social protection of the population affected during Chernobyl catastrophe is founded on the Law of Ukraine 'About the status and social protection of citizens affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe' (see further - 'Law'), and is the principal direction of activity and the subject of the special state attention to total complex of problems bound to Chernobyl catastrophe consequences elimination. The current legislation stipulates partial compensation of material losses connected with resettlement of the affected population. According to the current legislation in Ukraine about 50 kinds of aid, privileges and compensations are submitted to the affected citizens

188

Chernobyl accident genesis and its syndrome abatement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical aspects of nuclear power engineering develoopment in the USSR are considered in brief. The reasons of occuring situation, which resulted in the Chernobyl-4 accident are analyzed. Possible directions of nuclear power development in our country including processing with stopped NPP as the first measure, are shown

189

Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

190

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Early on April 26, 1986, a major accident occurred at Unit 4 or the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the USSR. The plume of airborne radioactive fission products from the accident was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence northerly toward Scandinavia on April 26-29 and into Central Europe on April 29-30. It continued to spread and reached Japan and Korea on May 3 and the US on May 7. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data, which were obtained directly from official reports, have been utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Preliminary calculations indicate that the external collective dose equivalent to the population (approximately 1.75 x 108) in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident will be about 4 x 106 person-rem and that about half this population dose will be received by the smaller population (approximately 6 x 107) who were downwind or Chernobyl within the USSR during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week

191

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

192

The Chernobyl accident and nuclear safety in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature and purpose of the Watt Committee on Energy is explained. Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in April 1986, the Watt Committee appointed a working group to study civil nuclear safety in the UK. This is the interim report of that working group. The report looks at the international aspects of the Chernobyl accident, the key aspects of the RBMK reactor design, then gives a description of the accident to find out why it happened. The consequences for the USSR and the UK, and the implications for the UK and the world at large are then considered. The aims of the final Watt Committee report, the designs and operational practices used in the nuclear power industry, especially in the UK, will be considered to contribute to the maximum attainable safety of these operations. (UK)

193

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases; delayed radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus; experimental development and scientific-and-engineering projects (development of special technologies and means for decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes, technologies for a safety of industrial activity in the contaminated territories, technologies of production of special medicinal preparations and food additives, etc.); detection, rescue and preservation of a historical and cultural heritage in regions having suffered after the Chernobyl accident. The institutes and establishments of a National academy of sciences of Belarus, Academy of agrarian sciences, Ministry for public health, Ministry for education and other ministries and departments took part in performance of researches. The new, original results allowing to estimate objectively medical, ecological and a socio economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to develop a number of measures for their minimization are submitted

194

Lessons taught by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On nuclear development, it is natural that safety is the most important condition. However, when occurring an accident in spite of earnest efforts on safety pursuit, it is essential for a technical developer to absorb some lessons from its contents as much as possible and show an attitude to use thereafter. The Chernobyl accident brought extraordinarily large damage in the history of nuclear technology development. Therefore, the edition group of the Japan Society of Atomic Energy introduced opinions of three groups of the Society (that is, groups on reactor physics, nuclear power generation, and human-machine system research) with some description on cause analysis of the accident and its result and effect. And, here was also shown four basic difference on design between RMBK type reactor in Chernobyl and LWR type reactor supplied in Japan. (G.K.)

195

Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs

196

Structure of the thyroid pathology in the radiation exposed areas of Leningrad region: late consequences of Chernobyl accident after 20 years  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident large areas of the USSR were contaminated with fallout, it has been proved that I131 caused higher incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Further observation for over 20 years showed retention of high annual prevalence of this pathology among the population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultimate result of the influence of I131 on the thyroid gland. The study included 454 women living in localities affected by the Chernobyl accident in April-May 1986 (case) and 909 women living in fallout-free localities (ICCIDD method). The incidence of malignant thyroid tumors among the inhabitants of the contaminated territories is higher than in the control area. This phenomenon can not be unambiguously attributed to radiation induced cancers, but requires further investigation, perhaps by the method of carrying out continuous and all-round prophylactic medical examination. High incidence of autoimmune changes can be considered to have been caused by the action of I131 and prophylactic supplement with stable iodine

197

Structure of the thyroid pathology in the radiation exposed areas of Leningrad region: late consequences of Chernobyl accident after 20 years  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the Chernobyl accident large areas of the USSR were contaminated with fallout, it has been proved that I{sup 131} caused higher incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Further observation for over 20 years showed retention of high annual prevalence of this pathology among the population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultimate result of the influence of I{sup 131} on the thyroid gland. The study included 454 women living in localities affected by the Chernobyl accident in April-May 1986 (case) and 909 women living in fallout-free localities (ICCIDD method). The incidence of malignant thyroid tumors among the inhabitants of the contaminated territories is higher than in the control area. This phenomenon can not be unambiguously attributed to radiation induced cancers, but requires further investigation, perhaps by the method of carrying out continuous and all-round prophylactic medical examination. High incidence of autoimmune changes can be considered to have been caused by the action of I{sup 131} and prophylactic supplement with stable iodine

Semenov, A.; Uspenskaya, A.; Bychenkova, E.; Chinchuk, I.; Novokshonov, K.; Chernikov, R.; Sleptsov, I.; Bubnov, A.; Fedotov, Y.; Makarin, V.; Karelina, Y. [Endocrinology, NWRMC FHSDA, ST-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

198

Nuclear security in the European Communities following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description of the actions that have already been initiated, under the auspices of the Commission for the European Communities as a consequence of experiences following the Chernobyl reactor accident. The aim of these undertakings is to minimize health hazards in the case of potential threatening amounts of radioactivity in the atmosphere. They cover the areas of prevention of food contamination, improved information dissemination, monitoring, international cooperation, research programming, safety standards, legislation and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (AB)

199

The impacts of the Chernobyl accident on Austria's economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the whole of Europe was affected by radioactive immissions. What was the actual magnitude of radiation exposure for the Austrians, and what are the consequences? Were the official regulations and measures that caused losses worth several thousand millions of schillings to the Austrian economy really necessary? Who bears the responsibility for this damage? This article attempts to give an answer to these questions. (Auth.)

200

[The disturbances of the relationship between oxidative homeostasis and the immune status of lymphocytes in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated into the relations between the immune status of individuals who took part in liquidating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (liquidators) and the level of active oxygen forms in peripheral blood lymphocytes, as well as the level of the genome damage in lymphocytes (frequency of cells with micronuclei). The results show that the immune status changes as the level of the genome damage increases: the content of some markers increases and others decreases. It has also been shown that a) active oxygen forms participate in forming some indexes of the immunological lymphocyte status and b) the exposure of liquidators to irradiation many years ago almost completely changes the characteristics of the relation between the concentration of active oxygen forms and immunological status indexes. It has been shown that there are many more immunological indexes that experienced changes in their relation with the concentration of active oxygen forms than the amount of indexes associated with the genome damage. It has been found that a) there is little difference in the concentration of active oxygen forms in donors and liquidators and b) the concentration is not associated with the level of the genome damage. Taking this into account, the authors speculate that the changes in the relation between the concentration of active oxygen forms and the immunological indexes are reflection of how irradiation influences the level of the immune status formation based on the relation between the concentration of active oxygen forms and the appearance of a marker in the immune status. The obtained results point to the new, previously unknown aspects of how the primary injuries which are the result of the low dose irradiation influence the health of irradiated individuals. The changes in relations that can be seen in liquidators in comparison with donors lead to a different set of immunological indexes as well as to different immune status, and may become the reason for the deterioration in their health. The authors suppose that the above results could be a substantial contribution to the research into the fundamental mechanisms of the human immune status formation and human health. PMID:23033794

Serebriany?, A M; Aleshchenko, A V; Kudriashova, O V; Nikonova, M F; Oradovskaia, I V; Osipov, A N; Pashchenkova, Iu G; Pelevina, I I

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of the people; development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases at various categories of victims; development and introduction in practice of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of effective preventive means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; optimization of system of measures for health saving of the having suffered population and development of ways of increase of its efficiency

202

Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

... Email This Document Share Special Report Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk Studies of cleanup workers from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant have revealed a link between ...

203

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accident to reactor 4 at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986 provided an opportunity to mount a wide range of investigations on the dispersion processes following a major atmospheric release of radionuclides. At Harwell measurements were made in air, rain, soil, grass, some foodstuffs and in staff of the laboratory. Radionuclides in the atmosphere were monitored through the existing network of air and rain stations used to sample fall-out from nuclear weapon testing both in the UK (in collaboration with the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)) and world-wide. Deposition on the ground was determined from analysing soil samples, including many obtained from outside the UK throughout the northern hemisphere. A limited number of grass samples were examined from the immediate vicinity of Harwell, and a variety of foodstuffs were accepted from elsewhere for analysis. Most of these analyses were carried out using high resolution ..gamma.. spectrometry with germanium detectors. A limited number of analyses for actinides using ..cap alpha.. spectroscopy were undertaken, but generally the quantities of these radionuclides in the samples were too small to justify extensive use of this method. A small group of staff volunteered for measurement of radioiodine accumulated in the thyroid and additional measurements were carried out with the whole-body monitor on a standard group routinely measured at Harwell. The early measurements at Harwell were reported to the World Health Organisation and, through the NRPB, to government departments. However, the resulting international and national compilations of raw data are of limited value because the precise details of the measurements were inevitably absent. A more comprehensive account of the Harwell measurements, mainly those available up to the end of October 1986, is provided here as a contribution to a more systematic international evaluation of the consequences of the accident.

Cambray, R.S.; Cawse, P.A.; Garland, J.A.; Gibson, J.A.B.; Johnson, P.; Lewis, G.N.J.; Newton, D.; Salmon, L.; Wade, B.O.

1987-04-01

204

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident to reactor 4 at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986 provided an opportunity to mount a wide range of investigations on the dispersion processes following a major atmospheric release of radionuclides. At Harwell measurements were made in air, rain, soil, grass, some foodstuffs and in staff of the laboratory. Radionuclides in the atmosphere were monitored through the existing network of air and rain stations used to sample fall-out from nuclear weapon testing both in the UK (in collaboration with the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)) and world-wide. Deposition on the ground was determined from analysing soil samples, including many obtained from outside the UK throughout the northern hemisphere. A limited number of grass samples were examined from the immediate vicinity of Harwell, and a variety of foodstuffs were accepted from elsewhere for analysis. Most of these analyses were carried out using high resolution ? spectrometry with germanium detectors. A limited number of analyses for actinides using ? spectroscopy were undertaken, but generally the quantities of these radionuclides in the samples were too small to justify extensive use of this method. A small group of staff volunteered for measurement of radioiodine accumulated in the thyroid and additional measurements were carried out with the whole-body monitor on a standard group routinely measured at Harwell. The early measurements at Harwell were reported to the World Health Organisation and, through the NRPB, to government departments. However, the resulting international and national compilations of raw data are of limited value because the precise details of the measurements were inevitably absent. A more comprehensive account of the Harwell measurements, mainly those available up to the end of October 1986, is provided here as a contribution to a more systematic international evaluation of the consequences of the accident. (author)

205

The accident of Chernobyl's nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Soviet Union announced six major improvement measures for preventing another accident of the RBMK type nuclear reactor. The present study is aimed at technical evaluation of these measures. The structure, performances, nuclear-heat hydraulic power characteristics (coolant void coefficient, dynamic characteristic parameters, graphite exothermic reaction, etc.) of the Chernobyl's nuclear reactor are examined to determine the plant behaviors from 1 : 19 on April 26 until the accident and after 1 : 23 : 04. By using the FATRAC code and the EUREKA-2 code, which have been proposed previously, analysis is made of the changes in neutron flux, recirculation flow rate, steam separator pressure, water supply rate and steam separator water level for the period before the accident, and changes in thermal output, overall reactivity, void reactivity, Doppler reactivity and control reactivity for the period after the accident. Results show that the two codes can reproduce the values announced by the Soviet Union. Detaled analysis is also made for the above-mentioned parameters after the accident under various assumed conditions. Based on these analyses, some measures are proposed to effectively prevent serious damage under the same accident conditions as experienced in Chernobyl. (Nogami, K.)

206

Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident of April 1986, there has been a continual increase in the numbers of reported cases of childhood thyroid carcinoma. An EC-supported consortium to study the pathology and molecular biology of the thyroid cancers is being coordinated from the University of Cambridge. This paper reports the findings of this study so far, together with its recommendations for further studies. (author)

207

Experience from the nuclear accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present first part of the committee's report describes how the discharges spread from the reactor to Scandinavia and the situation as regards contamination in different parts of Norway. The report also deals with the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, and countermeasures and action levels used

208

Chernobyl, 14 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

209

Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

210

Medical consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of health deterioration in population of Ukraine affected after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The survived population division in groups, peculiarities of morbidity incidence and prevalence are described. The dynamics of some medical demography parameters are discussed concerning adults and paediatric population. The precise values of incidence and prevalence for the main classes of diseases are shown in comparison of 1995-1996 to 1987. (author)

211

Long-term external radiation exposure of inhabitants in the western Bryansk region of Russia as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The western Bryansk region in south-western Russia was highly contaminated with 137Cs and 134Cs due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In 1990, a joint Nordic-Russian project was initiated in order to make measurements and estimates of the absorbed doses to selected groups of inhabitants in this area. The participating individuals were living in small villages with contamination levels between 0.9 and 2.7 MBq m(-2). Only some villages had been decontaminated. Both school-children and adults participated in the study and the number of persons was between 100 and 130 each year, residing in 5 villages. Every year in September-October, from 1990 to 1998. we performed individual measurements of external absorbed doses, assessed with thermoluminescent (TL) dosemeters (LiF). The mean effective dose per year from external irradiation due to the Chernobyl accident of the inhabitants in the villages ranged between 0.8 and 2.9 mSv during the study period and decreased with an apparent half-time of 3.7-8.2 years, depending on village and group. The highest individual doses within one village were, on average higher by a factor of 3 than the mean value for that village. Under the conservative assumption of a decrease rate in the external effective dose of 2% per year after 1998, individuals in the most highly exposed village are assumed to receive a life-time effective dose of about 75 mSv (between 1986 and 2056) from external exposure to caesium radionuclides. The mean value for the villages under study was estimated to be around 65 mSv using the assumed rate of decrease. PMID:11820737

Thornberg, C; Vesanen, R; Wallström, E; Zvonova, I; Jesko, T; Albinsson, J; Börjesson, J; Mattsson, S

2001-12-01

212

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

213

Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

214

ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

215

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of radiation protection is a fundamental outgrowth of peaceful and military applications of ionizing radiation and the use of nuclear energy. Scientific progress in radiation protection has not, however, been as dramatic as progress in other scientific endeavors, because many users of ionizing radiation have perceived that the major technical and institutional problems have already been solved. This misperception is not based on solid fact and is not shared by radiation protection professionals, who have a broader vision of both past achievements and problems remaining in this area. Experience gained as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident has highlighted new problems and demonstrated the urgency of finding better answers to some old questions. This paper addresses the future impact of the recent Chernobyl accident on the science of radiation protection. In summary, the accident demonstrated that particular emphasis should be directed toward: Improvement of dosimetric and health-effects models for predicting the consequences of exposure of the public to low doses of ionizing radiation. Development of optimized, realistic countermeasures and improvement in emergency preparedness. Education of the public, including students, scientists and politicians with regard to radiation protection issues. Development of advanced computer programs and radiation instruments for evaluating reactor accidents and their consequences. Transfer of learned concepts, methods es. Transfer of learned concepts, methods and approaches to other scientific fields, such as environmental sciences, toxicology, pharmacology, etc

216

Chernobyl - fallout, measurements and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation levels and the ground contamination in May 1986 from the Chernobylaccident are reviewed. The radiation doses to the most exposed persons in Sweden from the accident is estimated to be 4 mSv for the year 1986. The report also discusses radiation effects on main unit for radiation levels and doses etc

217

First report of the task group on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The events surrounding the accident at the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR are examined. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor and the Soviet Union's nuclear power program. A scenario of the cause of the accident is presented. The major long-term consequence is an risk of cancer. The estimated collective dose of several hundred thousand person-sieverts could lead to several thousand deaths from cancer, spread over the next 30 or 40 years

218

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

219

Medical consequences of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1945, more than 1.8 x 1021 Bq of artificial radionuclides have been released into the atmosphere. Approximately 2.04 x 1018B, i.e. approx. 0.11%, are the result of accidents at nuclear industrial facilities. This percentage is causing increased interest among researchers. This is due to the fact that in the wake of accidental release radionuclides become distributed unevenly across the Earth's surface, and the associated exposures, fluctuating from background level to several grays, an induce both stochastic and deterministic effects in the irradiated population. A comparative analysis of the medical consequences of the twentieth century's most serious nuclear events, namely the authorized dumping of high level radioactive waste into the river Techa in 1950, the explosion of a storage tank containing long lived radioactive waste in the Southern Urals in 1957, the fire at Sellafield in 1957 and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, has shown that when timely countermeasures are taken, the worst immediate and delayed medical consequences of an accident can be avoided. The consequences that have since been ascertained are a brief rise in the mortality rate during the first five years, with a dose in excess of 500 mSv; an increase in the incidence of leukaemia, with an absolute risk of up to 1.1. x 10-4 man·years/Gy; and increased mortality among children with external radiation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and intediation doses of up to 1000 mSv, and internal doses of 99-190 mSv on the bone surfaces of neonates or 170-600 mSv on the bone surfaces of the mother. There is reliable evidence that, with external gamma radiation doses in excess of 520 mSv, the mortality rate for all malignant tumorous increases by 45-58% compared with the control level. There is also a significant increase in thyroid cancer frequency four to ten years after the incorporation of iodine isotopes by children aged up to 7 years, including an accumulation period in the womb. (author). 12 refs, 7 tabs

220

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

h, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

 
 
 
 
221

Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

222

Comprehensive analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

elf-consistent evaluation of the accident it is necessary to use two dimensional (R-Z) multigroup kinetics and dynamics models developed in the last ten years for the analysis of reactivity accidents in fast reactors. It is important to reach a proper understanding of the various mechanisms that caused the Chernobyl accident and for this purpose an interdepartmental group in ENEA is working on a comprehensive analysis using classical computational models and codes for thermal reactors. A new tool is being implemented: the code NADYP-Water, a new version of the two dimensional space-time code NADYP. International co-operation on the subject is desirable. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

223

Environmental consequences of Chernobyl in Western Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Europe as a whole the collective dose would be a few tens of percent higher. Using the risk factor recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the theoretical number of extra cancers predicted in western Europe due to the Chernobyl accident is of the order of 1000. This can be compared with the number of fatalities which would be expected over the next fifty years in western Europe as a result of radiation from natural sources, which is over half a million. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

224

Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.)

225

Dosimetric and biomedical studies conducted in Cuba of children from areas of the former USSR affected by the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Children from ares affected by the Chernobyl accident have been receiving medical care in Cuba since 1990. The dosimetric and biomedical studies made include: measurement of 137Cs body content; internal, external, thyroid and total dose estimation; evaluation of the overall health condition and behaviour of hameatological, endocrinological, biochemical and cytogenetic indicators. Measurements of body activity and dose estimation have been performed on altogether 4506 children. Of this total, 69.3% of the children were from the Ukraine, 22.5% from Russia and 8.1% from Belarus. Assessments of overall health conditions, haematological and thyroid indicators have been made covering 3016 children from 421 Ukrainian townships, taking into account the body measurements of 137Cs and the surface contamination of the locations where the children come from. The biochemical indicator used (nucleic acid concentration in leucocytes) was assessed in five groups comprising some 445 children from areas where the level of surface contamination varied. Chromosome and micronuclei aberration rates were established in 28 children from Pripyat, 21 living in Kiev and 20 in Ovruch

226

The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

227

Congenital malformations and infant mortality from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The health impact of radiological contamination in Bavaria from the Chernobyl accident was evaluated. According to caesium 137 levels in soil samples, Bavaria was subdivided in a higher contaminated region (Southern Bavaria) and a lower contaminated region (Northern Bavaria). Indicators for health effects were congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, and infant mortality. Definition of the study periods accounted for the temporal relationship between conception as well as organogenesis and the time of highest exposure to radioactivity during the first weeks of May 1986. Statistical analysis was based on a combined spatial and temporal comparison. The results of the study do not show a significant increase in any of the outcome variables. Consequently, this study provides no evidence that radiation from Chernobyl caused a rise in the birth prevalence of congenital malformations or perinatal and infant mortality in the Bavarian population. (orig.)

228

Chernobyl accidents observed on Ryukyu Islands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was all of sudden that the atomic power plant accident occurred at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986. Tremendous amount of radionuclides as fission product has been scattered into the atmosphere and caused enormous atmospheric contaminations not only on the European countries but also throughout the world. The radionuclides induced from the accident were also observed on Okinawa Island on May 5, 1986, two days after the observation on Japan mainland. The observed radionuclides are such as Mo-99, Te-132, I-131, 132, Cs-134, 137 and Ru-103 which were also observed on Japan mainland. The atmospheric contaminations were observed for almost a month showing 3 times of the contaminations on May 6, 15 and 24. The several survived nuclides are positively circulating, being accompanied with Jet Stream, throughout the would on the Northern Hemisphere. (author)

229

Radiation safety following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status and development of the nuclear industry in Russian are intimately linked with the Chernobyl accident. The Three Mile Island-2 accident, 1979, USA turned out to be a strong impetus to revising approaches to ensuring nuclear safety. The Gosatomnadzor of Russian was established under the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation in 1991 an pursued the activities of its predecessor Gospromatomnadzor of the USSR aimed at improving the permissive and inspection activities. In contrast to its predecessors (Gosatomenergonadzor of the USSR, Gospromatomnadzor of the USSR), the Gosatomnadzor of Russia has been entitled with the responsibility both to regulate and supervise safety not only at NPPs, but also in the whole nuclear industry, including nuclear materials and fuel cycle facilities

230

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

231

The human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. A strategy for recovery. A report commissioned by UNDP and UNICEF with the support of UN-OCHA and WHO. Final - 25.01.02  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Report contains the findings of a study conducted into the human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident fifteen years after the explosion. The Mission explored the health, socio-economic and environmental effects of the accident and the events that followed. The Report contains an analysis of the current situation and the prospects for the future, focusing on aspects that are significant for the well-being of the people and communities directly affected. The affected population - those exposed to radioactive fallout, remaining in the affected areas, or forced to relocate - continue to face disproportionate suffering in terms of health, social conditions, and economic opportunity. Hundreds of thousands of people have been evacuated from the most severely affected areas. Many have found it difficult to adapt and continue to face serious psychological, economic and social problems. The process of evacuation has now virtually ceased and only a small number of people continue to live in the most polluted areas. However, some tens of thousands remain in areas polluted to a level of between 15 and 40 curies per square kilometre. The accident has also had a continuing impact on the opportunities and well-being of a much wider circle of the inhabitants of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, through the negative image that it has created for large areas of these countries. It has imposed a heavy burden on the national budgets through the cost of clean-up, compensation and recovery. Ukraine, in addition, has had to carry much of the cost of closing and making safe the Chernobyl complex as well as the opportunity cost of the lost electrical output from the reactors concerned. These commitments have diverted resources away from other priorities, such as health, education and investment, at a time of profound economic crisis

232

Chernobyl, 12 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

233

Unbudgeted expenditure in chapter 1602, unbudgeted title 68112-2/3 of indemnification to be paid by the Federal Government to contribute to the compensation to be paid according to the General Guideline on Compensation for Losses as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information by the Federal German Minister of Finance, approval of DM 125 mill. as an unbudgeted expensure, to be used for compensation of losses as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Two thirds of the payments to be borne by the Federal Government, and one third by the Land government carrying through the compensation procedure. (HSCH)

234

Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

235

Analysis of radioecological situation and health state of Ukrainian population contingents affected due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioecological situation is analysed at the Ukrainian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident on the basis of data of radioecological and dosimetric studies in 1987-1991 and medical consequences of the accident are assessed. Four categories of persons affected due to the Chernobyl accident are considered. Disease incidence in the above categories is retraced taking into account age, sex and obtained dose. 1 tab

236

On the main causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main causes are described of the Chernobyl accident, the discussion of which seems to be finished. It is shown that important actual parameters of the reactor differed adversely from the project; this fact had not been taken into account in operational instructions and therefore it could not be known to the operators. Further, the general causes of the Chernobyl accident are pointed out. A major cause is the still non-existing fundamental law and, consequently, lack of definition of responsibilities (it will, above all, be necessary to set out indivisible responsibility of the plant operator for nuclear safety). At present all participants in nuclear power engineering share responsibility. Another cause of the accident can be seen in insufficient quality assurance resulting from the fact that the Soviet regulatory body has not all the necessary powers and the independence. Closely connected with this is the fact that the role of the human factor is overemphasized and operational experience is not included in design modifications. In general, insufficient safety culture as defined by INSAG can be stated. 6 figs., 4 refs

237

Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

238

Impact on agriculture in Norway from the Chernobyl accident, 1986-1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Even now, 10 yr after the Chernobyl accident, the consequences are felt in some Western European countries, particularly in Norway, where considerable yearly economic consequences to Norwegian agriculture are incurred. This paper summarizes these economic consequences year by year over the 10-yr period and describes the various countermeasures adopted to reduce the consequences. The consequences are mainly connected to the production of mutton and reindeer meat.

Tveten, U.; Bergen, T.D.S. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Brynildsen, L.I. [Ministry of Agriculture, Oslo (Norway); Amundsen, I. [National Radiation Protection Authority, Osteras (Norway)

1996-12-31

239

17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems

240

Consequence analysis of depressurization accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of the depressurization accidents for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor are investigated. A consequence model is developed that is used to delineate the parameters that are important to the consequence calculations. A numerical example of the calculational technique is given

 
 
 
 
241

Dynamics of social-psychological consequences 10 years after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study has been carried out according to the long-term JSP2 in comparison with the results of data acquired by the authors in previous years in other programs in 1988-95 for more then 5 thousand people. In working out the strategy of post-catastrophe situation it is necessary to have a joint effort of the population and authority. The studies have showed that cooperation has not been achieved in this case. Hence, the effect of protective measures have been seriously decreased. Countermeasures taken after the catastrophe have had not only a positive, but in some cases a negative impact. The results of many previous studies as will as JSP2 program have shown serious social and psychological consequences of Chernobyl Accident. There is a constant year-to-year comprehension among population anxiety concerning their health. The main result of the study is that social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl Accident include nonradiological risks as seriously as the radiation risk.23

242

The Chernobyl accident - impact on Western Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implications of the Chernobyl accident are outlined. For the USSR, 135,000 people had to be moved. Farming in these regions will cause difficult problems in the future. The contamination of 131I caused great problems in Western Europe the first month after the accident. The excess dose the first year after the accident was generally below 2 mSv. Over a 50-year period an increase over background of less than 1% is predicted. It is not possible to state if this irradiation has any health impact. Great problems were caused for the population in northern Scandinavia because of the reliance on reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. Very few Lapps will, however, reach an effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv during 1986/1987. This is less than the natural background effective dose equivalent during a year for the average Swede. Therefore, the greatest problem seems to be the difficulty for the Lapps to sell their reindeer meat and lake fish. 40 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

243

Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

244

State of the analyses of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident in unit 4 was due to major weaknesses in the engineered safeguards of the RBMK reactor plus grave acts of mal-operation. One important reason for the power excursion was the positive void coefficient, which can lead to prompt supercriticality in certain plant states. No technical measures existed to ensure that such power excursions are safety brought under control. Instead, they were to be avoided chiefly by the observation of operating instructions. This was the reason why the erroneous behavior of the personnel had such grave consequences. In the light water reactors used in the Federal Republic of Germany power excursions with the possibility to destroy the fuel are excluded by the physical design and the inherent characteristics of the reactors. The findings made as a result of investigations of the Chernobyl accident show no reasons for reassessing the safety evaluation of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./HP)

245

The German reactor safety and the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident has raised the alarm of many people making them fear both nuclear energy as such and nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. The majority, however proved to be ignorant of the totally different reactor design of the Soviet plant as well as of the extremely different safety philosphy. The philosophy, i.e. safety of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (and other Western countries) has reached a level which according to experts and common sense excludes a similar accident. In an interview Dr. Hans Frewer, member of the Kraftwerk Union management, voices his opinion on the different forms of a nuclear phaseout and points out the economic and ecological consequences. (orig./GL)

246

Retrospective dosimetry of populations exposed to reactor accident: Chernobyl example, lesson for Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Follow-up of the Chernobyl accident had included a good deal of retrospective dosimetry and dose reconstruction. Comparison of Chernobyl and Fukushima shows that despite some differences in course and scale of the two accidents, main elements are present in both situations and Chernobyl experience could be quite educative for better understanding and more optimal handling of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident consequences. This paper contains review of dose reconstruction efforts done to date and extensively published in scientific journals and reports. Specifically the following cases are considered: (i) evaluation of individual doses to evacuees; (ii) validation of ecological dosimetric models and ruling out unconfirmed dose rate measurements; dosimetric support of (iii) case–control study of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators), and (iv) cohort study of cataracts among liquidators. Due to limited size of this paper the given application cases are rather outlined while more detailed descriptions could be found in relevant publications. Each considered Chernobyl case is commented with respect to possible application to Fukushima Dai-ichi situation. The presented methodological findings and approaches could be used for retrospective assessment of human exposures in Fukushima. -- Highlights: ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for evaluation of individual doses to evacuees. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for validation of ecological dosimetric models, rejection dubious dose rate records. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for risk assessment of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators). ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for study of cataracts among liquidators. ? Experience of dose reconstruction in Chernobyl could be used for retrospective assessment of exposures in Fukushima

247

Chernobyl, 17 after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

248

Public relations and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

249

Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

250

10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS; 10 Jahre nach der Tschernobyl-Katastrophe. Schilddruesenkrebs und andere Folgen fuer die Gesundheit in der GUS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zehn Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe im Atomkraftwerk Tschernobyl stellen in den betroffenen GUS-Republiken staatliche und internationale Organisationen betraechtliche gesundheitliche Auswirkungen in den verschiedenen Gruppen von Betroffenen fest. Eine dramatische, ueber 100fache Erhoehung von Schilddruesentumoren bei Kindern in Belarus ist durch papillaere Schilddruesenkarzinome verursacht, die durch aggressives und frueh metastasierendes Wachstumsverhalten auffallen. Die Zahl der Neuerkrankungen von Erwachsenen mit Schilddruesenkrebs lag 1995 bereits vierfach ueber dem Mittelwert vor 1986. Im Oblast Gomel hat sich von 1986 bis Ende 1995 die Zahl der Kinder mit Diabetes mellitus verdoppelt. Die inzwischen tatsaechlich aufgetretenen Faelle von Schilddruesenkrebs, insbesondere bei Kindern, uebertreffen die auf den ueblichen Annahmen zum Strahlenrisiko basierenden Prognosen bei weitem und deuten auf eine erhebliche Unterschaetzung des Strahlenrisikos und der Tschernobyl-Folgen hin. (orig.)

Lengfelder, E. [Strahlenbiologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Demidschik, E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule, Minsk (Belarus); Demidschik, J. [Lehrstuhl fuer Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule, Minsk (Belarus); Becker, K. [Inst. fuer Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany); Rabes, H. [Pathologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Birukowa, L. [Endokrinologisches Dispensaer und Schilddruesenzentrum, Gomel (Belarus)

1996-04-12

251

The comparative analysis of traumas and poisonings incidence and mortality rates from them at workers and men-employees, workers of the nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims the estimation of incidence of traumas and poisonings, and mortality from them at workers of the Russian nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station, in view of their social structure. Material and methods. Carrying out this research, we used the information base of the Register of the persons exposed by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. There had been registered as of January, 1, 1998: liquidators of 1986-1987 years — 12882 people (men — 84,3%, liquidators of 1988-1990 years —2313 people (men — 88,3%. There had been presented parameters of case rate and mortality of men, separately workers and employees of the given cohort. Results. Lower level of traumas and poisonings incidence at employees had been revealed (2-2,4 times lower, than at the workers, the mortality of traumas and poisonings at employees were also 1,1-2,9 times lower (on the average — in 2,0 times is revealed. The alcoholism essentially raises a traumatism at liquidators. The traumatism above at the liquidators, suffering a chronic alcoholism, in 1,9-3,3 times. The distinctions in coefficients of the mortality from traumas and poisonings and the incidence by them for age groups of the men-liquidators were revealed. Conclusion. The essential difference in parameters of men-liquidators' health, workers of the nuclear industry, and workers shows that a social factor renders significant influence on health of a studied contingent of persons. Age features in many respects define value of parameters of incidence of traumas and poisonings and death rates from them a studied contingent. In radiation epidemiological researches it is necessary to consider biological and social factors necessarily.

Birukov A.P.

2013-12-01

252

The Chernobyl accident ten years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

253

Cancer effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, there is (apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence) no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers in general and of specific cancers (in particular breast cancer) have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. Both of these findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk, apart from thyroid cancer, is not proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Such an increase, however, is expected to be difficult to identify in the absence of careful large scale epidemiological studies with individual dose estimates. It should be noted that, given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused by even a small increase in the relative risk could be substantial, particularly in the future. At present, the prediction of the cancer burden related to radiation exposure. (author)

254

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Austrian agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident the environmental radioactivity in Austria increased far above the level recorded before. Radionuclides can enter into the foodchains by the contamination of agricultural products. Determining for the contamination is the behaviour of radionuclides in plants and soils, the development of vegetative plant mass at the moment of the accident and regional differences in fallout intensity. Contamination of plants is caused mainly by cesium-137 and cesium-134. Cs is taken up easily by plant foliage. Its mobility in the plant is high, even to fruits and seeds growing after the accident. Higher contaminations are recorded generally in winter cercals, rape, and fruits, while spring cercals, sugar beets and maize are nearly free from Cs-activity. Heavy contaminations with Cs appear in grassland vegetation as a result of combined uptake via leaves, plant base, and roots. The entry of caesium into the milk is one of the most serious consequences of the reactor accident. Transfer coefficients derived from prevailing experiments can be used for estimating the activity concentration in milk. Accordingly the threshold value of 5 nCi 137Cs per liter milk should be reached when the daily intake by feeding is about 700 nCi. During the grazing season the Cs-availability for cattle is distinctly lower. (Author)

255

Chernobyl - accident scenario and plant design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An evaluation of the information provided by the Soviet Union at the IAEA meeting was made, in collaboration with the GRS. It refers to the description of the plant including the safety systems, the course of the accident, the encapsulation of the reactor and the consequences regarding the collective dose to be expected in the 50 years to come. (orig.)

256

Radioiodine in the Tarapur environment due to Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioiodine due to Chernobyl accident fallout was first detected at Tarapur on 14th May in animal thyroids. This led to a complete study of 131I in all environmental matrices. The paper describes the levels of 131I in different environmental samples and reveals that the radiation hazard to the public due to Chernobyl accident fallout 131I activity levels are insignificant. (author)

257

Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

258

Radiation damage aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power stations. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 x 104 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years. (author)

259

Accident consequence assessment code development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

260

25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accideradionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

 
 
 
 
261

Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

262

Americium and curium deposition in Finland from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

241Am and 244Cm were analysed from peat samples collected in Finland immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The separation method included co-precipitation, anion exchange and extraction chromatography. Activities of 241Am and 244Cm were measured by alpha spectrometry. The activity of Chernobyl-derived 241Am varied between 0.0115 and 9.32 Bq/m2 and that of 244Cm from 2 (reference date 1.5.1986). The origin of 241Am in Finland is predominantly from atmospheric nuclear tests. However, the geographical distribution of Chernobyl-americium is uneven and depending on a location even 100% of 241Am in peat originated from the Chernobyl accident. The deposition pattern of Chernobyl-derived 241Am and 244Cm resembles that of other refractory nuclides, such as 95Zr, 141Ce and 239,240Pu. (orig.)

263

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the problem of estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of natural and agricultural ecological systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy radiation accidents cause long-term low-dose biota irradiation on large territories. In this situation of great importance is a correct estimation of danger of low-dose irradiation. Approaches now in use to assess the genetic consequences of irradiation are based on linear extrapolation of biological effects induced by high and medium doses to the region of low doses. However, models based on the linear non threshold hypothesis lack strong biological justification and come into conflict with the experimental data available. Our experiments with agricultural crops aimed at studying regularities in the induction cytogenetic damages using test-systems have demonstrated that the form of the dose-effect curve in the domain of low exposure values shows a pronounced linearity and the presence of a dose-independent region. A comparison of the experimentally revealed form of the empirical curve with results obtained for other objects (human lymphocytes, fibroblasts of Chinese hamster, seedlings of horse beans, etc.) allows a conclusion to be made that the relationship between the yield of radiation induced cytogenetic disturbances and dose is non-linear and universal in character, varying for different objects only in dose values at which changes in the relationship nature occur. So, the observed genetic effects in the region of low doses result from peculiarities in the cellular response to weak external action rather than damaging impact of ionising radiation or other factors of physical or chemical nature

264

Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

265

Chernobyl and consequences for the Soviet agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region within a radius of 30 km around the Chernobyl reactor was declared a safety zone, from where people and livestock were evacuated. In this zone agricultural activities were stopped temporarily. The losses to Soviet agriculture are surprinsingly low, the reason being that in the Soviet Union radioactivity hazards are rated differently than in western countries. The Soviet radiation protection standards for man are accordingly. They allow a total body burden of 500 mrem a year, and a thyroid burden for children of 30 mrem. It is obvious that the authorities keep the quantitative losses for agriculture down. Of greater consequence could be the qualitative losses in so far as the soil of a large area will be contaminated on a long-term basis, radioactive contaminated crops have been and will continue to be harvested and fed, and contaminated food is and will be eaten. (orig./HSCH)

266

Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

2006-12-15

267

European Parliament, resolution of May 15, 1986 (consequences of Chernobyl for agriculture)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the resolution of May 15, 1986 the European Parliament deals with the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident for agriculture. According to the importance of the atomic catastrophe and the following contamination inter alia common protection provisions and harmonized intervention levels are required in the member states. (WG)

268

Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

269

Radiation exposure: cytogenetic tests - Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimate thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

270

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

271

The accident in the Chernobyl reactor. Scenario and impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution is based to a great extent on the comprehensive report of the Radiation Protection Commission on the 'Impacts of the reactor accident in Chernobyl' on the Federal Republic of Germany. There is another detailed report meanwhile by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection on the radiation exposure of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany following the Chernobyl accident. Dealt with are the accident scenario, activity release, atmospheric transport of released activity, activity concentrations in air, soil and water in the Federal Republic of Germany, radiation exposure of the German population and appropriate evaluations, and radiation exposure and effects on health in the Soviet Union. (orig./HSCH)

272

Radioactive residues from nuclear accidents in Kyshtym and Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive contamination of lands is one of the most dangerous forms of environmental pollution in Russia. In total up to 25% of Russia's territory has been subjected to some form of radioactive contamination, mainly owing to the large radiation accidents of Kyshtym (1957) and Chernobyl (1986). Data are presented on radioactive contamination of lands in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident and Karachai dust storm (1967) and in the European part of the Russian Federation following the Chernobyl disaster. A brief description is provided of the RADLEG information system, which collects data on radiation accidents and radiation contamination in the Russian Federation. (author)

273

A first assessment of the psychic and social effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A synthesis has been made of a series of surveys carried out in Ukraine in 1992 and 1993 on the psychic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident, within the framework of the ''Evaluation programme of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident'' of the Commission of the European communities. The main results demonstrate the strength of the post-accident dynamics of the accident, more than 7 years later. Some 3 millions people were directly affected in their everyday life by the post-accident management which resulted in many perverse effects on the social and psychic levels. Economically, each year, financing of the post-accident management system requires nearly 1/6 of the Ukraine budget. Politically speaking, Chernobyl is still a major stake for the various actors of the institutional transition process underway since the disappearance of the soviet system. The article shows the systemic complexity of the local situation and the many explanatory factors (physical, sanitary, political, cultural, historical) at the origin of the post-accident dynamics. A systemic modelling of the interactions between these factors is presented. It makes it possible to better define the contributions of both accident and post-accident stages to the process that has led to the present situation. It shows out the close connections between the different accident stages and the need, from the very beginning of an accident, to take into account the mid-and long-term consequento account the mid-and long-term consequences arising from the accident management. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

274

Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation. PMID:22048494

Jargin, Sergei V

2011-12-01

275

Three Mile Island, Bhopal and Chernobyl: causes and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1970's worldwide criticisms of nuclear power have been so strong that in many countries nuclear power has been outlawed. At Kyoto, scientists and politicians working together have designed a Protocol where the role of nuclear power in reducing CO2 emissions was completely ignored. One of the reasons for this, probably the most important one, is the general perception that nuclear power is unacceptably dangerous and that world can live without it. Both perceptions are, of course, incorrect. Some twenty years ago, as a physicist, not being part of 'nuclear establishment', I became interested in these two issues. Since then, as explained in a number of my publications, I have come to a firm conclusion that (a) nuclear power on the world scale is an essential energy source, whether we like it or not, and (b) that nuclear power is a very safe technology, probably the safest of all technologies the modem industrialized world has. To illustrate this last statement, in this paper I compare causes and consequences of two largest nuclear accidents, TMI and Chernobyl, with Bhopal accident, probably the largest accident that chemical technology has ever produced. (author)

276

Resuspension in contaminated soils by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary of the CIEMAT contribution to the multinational project CHECIR-ECP 1 Contamination of surfaces by resuspended material. Ten research organisations participated in this study, six of them from european countries. The project is one of the sixteen projects carried out under an Agreement for International Collaboration on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, signed in June 1992 by the EC and representatives of the three affected republics, Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The work is addressed to the collection of experimental data in order to make dose estimations from the resuspension pathway. The experimental activities were carried out in several contaminated areas in the surrounding of the Chernobyl reactor site, under natural conditions (wind resuspension) and simulating human activities (agricultural and traffic). The main conclusion obtained was that, at the time of the project, the doses from resuspension are small, even for potential risk groups such as agricultural workers, in comparison with the doses from other exposure pathways. (Author)

277

Chernobyl and the consequences for the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lecture reproduces the scenario which existed after the Chernobyl accident in the Federal Republic of Germany regarding the formation of consciousness and opinions. The unscientific discussions in various associations, groups and parties are traced back to the fact that some scientists have ventured on the slippery course of making announcements with apparent certainty on the subject of Chernobyl. Pseudo-competence and politically motivated 'know-all' attitudes at some of the Land authorities have led to total confusion. (DG)

278

20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

279

Non-budgetary expenditure from fund 0615, item 68101 - compensatory payments in accordance with sec. 38(2) Atomic Energy Law, as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident - within the fiscal year 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the Minister of Finance agrees, according to section 38 subsection 2, to grant a further non-planned sum of up to 22 Mio. DM for claims of compensation. Expenses up to 200 million DM have already been granted. According to the recent development and the yet outstanding claims, total expenses of up to 222 million DM shall arise in this sector. (HSCH)

280

Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a we issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

 
 
 
 
281

Changed level of peripheral blood red cell total and membrane-bound catalase in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident and in residents pf a zone with increased radiation background  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and men permanently living in a zone with increased radiation background were examined 7.5 years after the accident. Use of tests characterizing the status of adaptation systems and defence reactions of the organism helped detect disorders in oxidative balance, to which the production of biooxidants by activated neutrophils and attenuated activity of blood catalase essentially contribute. The prooxidant shift results in injury to cell membranes manifested by the reduction of their enzyme-binding capacity. These shifts homeostasis disorders may create prerequisites for increase of morbidity of the examined populations due to disorders in the adaptation mechanisms

282

Radiation impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radiation monitoring to study the effect of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the contamination of the environment in Hungary comprised radioactivity determinations of aerosols, of samples of fallout, surface and drinking water, plants, milk and meat as well as the monitoring of human beings. Time dependent dose rates and activity concentrations based on total ?-disintegration and ?-spectrometric measurements are given. The spatial distribution of radioactivity in Hungary is determined. According to calculations of internal and external radiation exposures of the population, the effective dose increment in Hungary due to the Chernobyl reactor accident is regarded to be about 1 mSv. (V.N.)

283

The Chernobyl accident and its implications for the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book describes the 1986 accident at Chernobyl to a USSR RBMK boiling water, graphite moderated pressure tube reactor and the sequence of events that led to what has been described as the worst accident in the world. It gives a description of the technical and operational steps that occurred during and after the accident. The release of radioactivity into the environment is covered, and the large scale post-accident measures in the USSR and Europe described in detail. The book examines the nuclear power industry in the UK

284

Accident consequences and risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident consequences and risk assessments presented here take as a basis the results of previous studies made on the HTR-modul accidental behaviour. The event scenarios are used to assess the resulting release of fission products (type, amounts, frequency), which is classified into five release categories. Due to the design characteristics of the reactor, the core heat-up accident is not the dominating case to be studied. The investigations concentrate on events entailing release of certain amounts of fission products previously deposited on metallic surfaces of the system. The calculations made with the UFOMOD/B3 code show that for none of the release categories defined occurrence of immediate radiation effects is to be expected, even if no evacuation measures are taken. (orig./DG)

285

Long term consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe and remediation programmes in the Russian Federation [Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Government of the Russian Federation has charged the Russian Ministry for Emergencies (EMERCOM) with coordinating activities for the mitigation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Ministry has undertaken the function of a State customer of federal target programmes for eliminating effects of radiological emergencies and catastrophes. Federal ministries and agencies, as well as executive authorities of the Russian Federation are involved in implementing the programmes. Joint Russian-Belarus projects to mitigate effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe have been under way since 1998

286

Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident  

CERN Document Server

This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01

287

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

Kouts, H.

1986-09-24

288

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

289

Atmospheric impact of Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of meteorological conditions on radioactivity transport from Chernobyl through Europe to Hungary was analyzed. Based on the half-lives of the radionuclides environmental radioactivity concentrations could be prognostized. Radioactivities due to the accident were compared with those measured in the fifties when the non-proliferation treaty had not been concluded. (V.N.)

290

How mobile robots have helped at Chernobyl and other accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of mobile robots at several recent accidents including Chernobyl is described. The robots assumed, with varying degrees of success, many of the tasks and missions that are normally conducted by the emergency response team. Lessons learned from the experiences, together with operational and performance problems are discussed. (U.K.)

291

The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

292

Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated characterize their relations with local authorities as satisfactorily, when 37,7% of the people are not satisfied by the level of such mutual relations. One can make a conclusion, that half of the population, residing on the affected territories, has adapted to conditions of residing in post-catastrophic-extreme situation. The seriousness of the social and psychological problems caused by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, their aggravation and deepening in conditions of the economic situation in general, require work focused on strengthening social and psychological assistance to the affected population. Qualified psychological support is necessary to the people to help them cope with the difficulties of adaptation, reorient themselves to the new image of life, to help in overcoming of the post-catastrophic stress condition. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out a complex of measures on social and psychological rehabilitation of the population, supporting the measures with the most focussed and personal character whenever possible. It is important to improve the activity of the centers of social and psychological rehabilitation, especially established together with UNESCO to assist people affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences

293

Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

294

Comparison of radionuclides levels from the Chernobyl reactor accident and from global fallout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests have been carried out at this laboratory since the mid-fifties. Consequent to the Chernobyl reactor accident in the USSR in April 1986, similar studies were carried out. A number of fairly active samples were collected from commercial aircraft which had flown over the USSR soon after the accident. The studies provided detailed information on differences in the composition of fallout from the accident and long term radiation exposures likely to accrue from the Chernobyl fallout as opposed to global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. This paper presents the results and their interpretation on the above aspects. (author) 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

295

Validation and verification of accident consequence assessment models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An accident consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, primarily designed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for use in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear reactors in Japan, was applied to use for siting, emergency planning, and development of design criteria, and in the comparative risk studies of different energy systems. After verifying the code system through the international code comparison organized by CEC and OECD/NEA, the validation and improvements of the individual models and the verification of the whole OSCAAR code system were made. The cooperative research between Chernobyl Science and Technology Center for International Research (CHESCIR) and JAERI provided a valuable opportunity to test the performance of the accident consequence assessment models by comparing the model predictions with data obtained in the Chernobyl accidents. The predictive capabilities of OSCAAR were demonstrated using the accident source term and meteorological data for estimating the early exposure to the public occurred during and shortly after plume passage. The calculations indicated that ground-shine dose and inhalation dose, particularly from large nonvolatile particulates were the main contributors in the early stage of the accident. (S. Ohno)

Homma, T.; Togawa, O. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Arkhipov, A.N. [Chernobyl Science and Technology Centre for International Research (Ukraine)

2001-03-01

296

Validation and verification of accident consequence assessment models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An accident consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, primarily designed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for use in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear reactors in Japan, was applied to use for siting, emergency planning, and development of design criteria, and in the comparative risk studies of different energy systems. After verifying the code system through the international code comparison organized by CEC and OECD/NEA, the validation and improvements of the individual models and the verification of the whole OSCAAR code system were made. The cooperative research between Chernobyl Science and Technology Center for International Research (CHESCIR) and JAERI provided a valuable opportunity to test the performance of the accident consequence assessment models by comparing the model predictions with data obtained in the Chernobyl accidents. The predictive capabilities of OSCAAR were demonstrated using the accident source term and meteorological data for estimating the early exposure to the public occurred during and shortly after plume passage. The calculations indicated that ground-shine dose and inhalation dose, particularly from large nonvolatile particulates were the main contributors in the early stage of the accident. (S. Ohno)

297

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

298

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

Eisler, R.

2003-01-01

299

Modeling consequences of the accident at Fukushima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reactor accident in Fukushima Daiichi caused by one of the heaviest earthquakes in recent history and the disastrous tsunami at 11 March 2011 has, especially in Germany, aroused again the discussion about the risks of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the safety of nuclear power plants. Within this context it is also discussed how the operating company and the regulator authorities react, which actions they take to secure people and how believable their statements are. Taking this into account it seems reasonable to investigate, on the basis of this accident, how useful the tools, developed after the Chernobyl accident, can be applied to assist the decision makers. (orig.)

Scheuermann, W.; Piater, A.; Krass, C.; Lurk, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme; Wilbois, T.; Ren, Y. [T-Systems GEI GmbH, Ulm (Germany)

2011-06-15

300

The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

 
 
 
 
301

Plutonium in air at Warsaw after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As reported in 1986 by USSR the total initial core inventory of Chernobyl reactor was of about 4·1019 Bq of over 50 different radioisotopes at the time of accident. 1-2·1018 Bq of total activity was estimated to be released to the atmosphere. 239'240Pu and 238U are those with the longest half life time of released radioisotopes to the environment. The total core inventory of transuranium elements in Chernobyl reactor and calculated their release as for the date of 6th of May is presented in this paper

302

Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

303

Regulation concerning claims for compensation and their adjustment in accordance with sec. 38, sub-sec. 2 Atomic Energy Act, as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident (Regulation on Compensation)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl is a nuclear accident within the meaning of sec. 38, sub-sec. 2 Atomic Energy Act (liability of operator). However, since heavy difficulties and unacceptable burdens are to be expected for any one in the FRG trying to seek compensation for losses by the way defined in this legal provision, the Federal German Government decided to adjust losses on a national level, in accordance with the Regulation issued. Claims for compensation can be put forward for losses such as: (1) Destruction and confiscation of products and produce. (2) Restrictions on the milk market. (3) Damage occurred as a result of prompt intervention in business. Various annexes to the Regulation define criteria for compensatory payments available for milk, leaf vegetables and lettuce, and application forms. (HP)

304

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

305

Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the {sup 137}Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author).

Kryshev, I.I. [Institut Ehksperimental`noj Meteorologii, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

306

Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the 137Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author)

307

The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

308

The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ors' (emergency and recovery workers) did not exceed for that for the corresponding age group in the Russian Federation as a whole. The increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has been dramatic and, if it persists in members of the age group affected as they grow older over the coming decades, it may result in up to several thousand excess cases of thyroid cancer. The number of fatalities would be much lower than this, since treatment should be 90-95% successful if the thyroid cancer is diagnosed early. The affected people should therefore continue to be closely monitored throughout their lives. 24 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

309

Social psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A state of internal social psychological discomfort of the children and teenagers living on the contaminated territories is revealed. It is stipulated not only by radioactive contamination of regions, but by a level of work of the authorities too. A social psychological state of the population on the contaminated territories depends in a greater degree from both the social economic factors and the level of information about a real degree of a radiating risk, than from ecological and radioecological factors. In this connection in work with the children on the contaminated territories the social psychological aid should have a priority

310

Chernobyl accident consequences: the unborn children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk of spontaneous abortion in 1-12 week gestation term among Kiev region women with desired pregnancy is considered. If cumulative dose of total irradiation among Kiev region women was more than 5.0 mSv, spontaneous abortion risk increased. Mother's age more than 34, smoking, chronic infections and sterility treatment in anamnesis also increased spontaneous abortion risk. The material well being does not influence spontaneous abortion risk among women

311

Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological principles and criteria need detailed clarification. The specific aspect of this phase is the problem of social protection and social rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories has been considered as a combination of measures directed at improvement of environmental conditions and the quality of life. While planning decontamination for the long term, it is important to take into account the contribution of external dose to the total (external and internal) dose. The materialization of the social aspect is a very important characteristic of this phase. Unfortunately, in spite of all the efforts, the negative consequences of the accident have not been completely overcome. Nevertheless, the data array that has been accumulated since the accident allows unbiased assessment of not only the errors but also the achievements of the stupendous work on minimization of the consequences of the accident and drawing conclusions important for the future. (author)

312

Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

313

Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting

314

Aerial contamination agroecosystems following the accident at Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The regularities of the aerial contamination of agricultural ecosystems are described in the early period after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The aerial contamination is shown to be caused by the development of the above-ground biomass of plants and fallout characteristics. A specific coefficient of primary retention varied between 0.7 and 1.89 for 131In and between 0.46 and 1.2 m2 kg-1 for 137Cs. The first half-life period varies from 9.7 to 13.4 days. The second period varies from 46.2 to 52.2 days. It has been found that parameters of aerial contamination from the Chernobyl accident well correlate with the results of observation in the period of global fallout

315

Signs of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen was investigated to evaluate the possible appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles living in the areas of Kaluga region affected by the Chernobyl accident. The percentage of positive sera varied from 4.8% to 1.2% over seven years. There is a significant difference in the frequency of antibody appearance between persons affected by radioactive iodine and those not affected. A greater quantity of the positive sera was recorded in the area with highest level of radioactive contamination. It is suggested that the elevated rate of autoimmune thyroiditis signs in children and juveniles is one of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

316

Proceedings of the first part of a joint OECD(NEA)/CEC workshop on recent advances in reactor accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of the Joint Workshop, organised by the NEA, is focused on the progress achieved in the work of CSNI's GRECA (Group of Experts on Accident Consequences). The program is composed of the following papers. Session 1: characteristics of the Chernobyl release and fallout that affect transport and behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment; Chernobyl accident and hot particles in the fallout; radionuclides associated with colloids and particles in the Chernobyl fallout; source term in the Chernobyl accident; long range transport of radionuclides; parameters in consequence calculations for an urban area. Session 2: review of evaluations concerning radionuclide transfer to foodstuffs via plants in view of the data available after the Chernobyl accident; GRECA review of Chernobyl data on transfer to animal products; Chernobyl accident radiometric data (Cs-137 in fresh water fishes of north Italy lakes); distribution of Cs-137 in water sediment and fish in the Ijsselmeer (Netherlands); uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl accident; radioactivity of people in the nordic countries following the Chernobyl accident; preparations for an international study to evaluate long-range transport models against the Chernobyl accident

317

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

318

The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

319

Chernobyl accident causes: Overview of studies over the decade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years have passed since the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP and during this time its causes have been investigated by many teams of scientists both in Russia and abroad. This paper reviews such efforts over the past decade. Russian studies of 1986 through 1990 were covered in a paper presented at the European Nuclear Society Conference in Paris in March, 1991. 30 refs, figs

320

Disturbances of mnestic functioning in victims of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with mnestic disturbances in 98 victims of Chernobyl accident. A statistically significant decrease in attention and memory (in particular of long-term verbal and visual ones) was found. The considerable asthenisation of patients and the insufficiency of active attention as well as the possible disturbances in turnover of some neurotransmitters which promote the consolidation of engrams (dophamin and norepinephrine) may underline the above disorders

 
 
 
 
321

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

322

Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

1998-12-01

323

Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in ppromotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

324

Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG)

325

Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

326

Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

327

Children from Belarus suffering from thyroid cancer - results of the project 'Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors initially present facts and figures demonstrating the increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among children from Belarus as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The causal relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the increased risk of development of thyroid cancer in children is shown. The authors then explain the activities and the goals of the project ''Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident'', giving case reports and details of successful therapy for the children from Belarus who were invited by various hospitals for treatment of thyroid cancer. (orig.)

328

Markers for hepatitis B, C, D and G contamination in the population suffered of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results received in the study of 2814 persons having taken part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, of people (adult and teenagers) migrated from the contaminated territories to Vitebsk region and of the control group consisted of 46773 donors are presented. Hepatitis B and C viruses have been revealed more frequently in people suffered of the Chernobyl accident. Hepatitis D and G viruses have defined. It allows to predict a larger number of death caused by hepato cirrhosis or primary carcinomas of the liver

329

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

330

The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long. (from conclusion)

331

Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

332

Consideration on accident scenario in Chernobyl nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the IAEA expert conference on the assessment after accident held in Wien from August 25 to 29, 1986, the course of operation resulted in the accident and the state of accident of No.4 plant in Chernobyl nuclear power station were published in detail by USSR. However, how the abnormal power rise arisen in No.4 plant developed to the graphite fire which scattered radio-activity over wide areas as well as Europe was not explained. It is considered that the data enough for the analysis were perhaps not gathered. Based on the first report of this accident made by USSR on May 14, 1986, at IAEA, the authors carried out the quantitative examination by the analysis using the dynamic characteristic analysis code EUREKA and the use of the experimental data on fuel breaking of NSSR, and made a series of the accident scenario from the abnormal power rise to the graphite fire. This accident scenario does not contradict the report in August this time, and explains the phenomena of the accident from the results of analysis without discrepancy, therefore, it was decided to publish the scenario. The outline of the accident scenario, the abnormal power rise, the rupture of pressure tubes in primary cooling system, the generation of hydrogen gas, the second explosion of hydrogen, the graphite fire, and the jumping-up of the core top shield plate are reported. (Kako, I.)

333

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident: fears, rumours and the truth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the world's worst nuclear disaster at Chernobyl in 1986 is reviewed within a framework of a triad of fear, rumour and truth. The scope of the accident, Soviet secrecy about it, and the lack of general awareness of, or disregard for, the effects of radiation created a fertile ground for persistent fears and rumours attributing any health problem to Chernobyl. Scientifically correct answers to health issues have been the means to combat disinformation, and to replace interconnected fears, misconceptions and rumours. To date, according to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report, based on a review of epidemiological and radiobiological studies, the main radiation-related effect of the Chernobyl accident is an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer. In addition, the accident has had serious non-radiation-related psychological consequences on the residents of the contaminated territories, resettled populations and clean-up workers. Researchers in search of the truth through epidemiological reasoning are facing serious challenges which are reviewed within this article. PMID:12565980

Rahu, Mati

2003-02-01

334

The atlas of cesium-137 contamination of Europe after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Atlas, which was compiled under the Joint Study Project (JSP6) of the CEC/CIS Collaborative Program on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, implemented into the European Commission's Radiation Protection Research Action, summarizes the results of numerous investigations undertaken throughout Europe to assess the ground contamination by cesium-137 following the Chernobyl accident. The Atlas incorporates about 100 color maps at a range of scales (1/200k - 1/10M) which characterize the contamination in Europe as a whole, within state boundaries and for zones where the contamination levels are above 40 kBq/m2 (? 2.0% of the European territory) and above 1480 kBq/m2 (? 0.03% of the European territory). Investigations have shown that around 6% of the European territory has been contaminated for more than 20 kBq/m2 after the Chernobyl accident. The total amount of deposited cesium-137 in Europe is 8*1016 Bq and distributed in the following manner: Belarus 33.5%, Russia 24%, Ukraine 20%, Sweden 4.4%, Finland 4.3%, Bulgaria 2.8%, Austria 2.7%, Norway 2.3%, Romania 2.0%, Germany 1.1%

335

Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

336

Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Chernobyl accidenr of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer {Rangifer tarandus are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their wintet diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating ftom natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic.

Birgitta Åhman

1998-03-01

337

The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

338

Computer simulation of the initiation of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer simulation of RBMK-1000 reactor discloses the interactions between neutron physics and thermohydraulics in the plant status which gave rise to the accident on April 26, 1986. This improves our understanding of the initiation of the event as described by the USSR in the report submitted at the IAEA Experts Meeting. As the data base available is still incomplete, the computer simulation cannot claim to render the accident events in the Chernobyl-4 reactor in an absolutely faithful way. However, it does reveal systemic inadequacies, the repair of which is to be one of the purpose of the backfitting measures said to be conducted in RBMK-1000 reactors after the accident. (orig./HP)

339

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives the results of radiation measurements in Denmark following the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. The results of the measurements as of 3 May show that the effect of the accident on Danish territory is comparable to 2 weeks of natural background radiation. The report has been prepared on behalf of a coordinating committee established by Danish authorities after the accident. The coordinating committee is chaired by the National Agency of Environmental Protection and consists of representatives from the National Board of Health, the National Food Agency, Risoe National Laboratory, the Civil Defense, the Meteorological Institute and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report measurements were performed by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (part of the National Board of Health) and by Risoe National Laboratory. (author)

340

External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which parameters were driving the computed results. The mean external effective dose for all individuals in the cohort due to exposure to radiocontamination from the Chernobyl accident between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009 was found to be 1.2 mSv; the geometric mean was 0.84 mSv with a geometric standard deviation of 2.1. The mean value is well below the mean external effective dose expected due to typical background radiation (which in the United States over this time period would be 12.0 mSv). Sensitivity analysis suggests that the greatest driver of the distribution of individual dose estimates is lack of specific information about the daily behavior of each individual, specifically the portion of time each individual spent indoors (and shielded from radionuclides deposited on the soil) versus outdoors (and unshielded).

Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

 
 
 
 
341

Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

342

Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km2 (15 Ci/km2). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

343

Study on the social economic estimation of Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to estimate the external economic effect for the risk of the nuclear power plants, the document research has been carried out, which mainly deals with the economic influence of the Chernobyl accident that occurred on the 26th of April 1986. As a result, the direct and indirect total economic loss between 1986 and 1995 is about $ 80 billion in Belarus, $ 115 billion in Ukraine and 1.15 trillion in Russia. This value, however, is considered as an overestimation, since the environmental contamination with radioactive material and thyroid cancer in Russia is very much the same as in Belarus and Ukraine. Also, the total economic loss is about a billion dollars in west European countries. The total economic loss for the Chernobyl accident is estimated more than about $ 300 billion. On the other hand, the chance occurrence of this kind of major accident of the nuclear power plant is very small in terms of probabilities, and the product of economic loss and frequency is smaller than the cost benefit for the measure of global warming and the energy security in Japan. This kind of problem should be treated as a social problem and study on various external economic effect is necessary. (author)

Sagara, Aya; Fujimoto, Noboru; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji [Inst. of Environmental Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

2000-05-01

344

XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

345

Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

346

Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

347

Determination of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident, a coarse-meshed all-over picture of the radioactive ground deposition on Norway's land area was obtained by radiometric scanning from car. The measurements were carried out by the Geological Survey of Norway in the period 5 May - 6 June, 1986. High-concentration areas in the central part of the country were in addition surveyed by aerial scanning. By combining the scanning results with in situ background measurements, it was possible to calculate the distribution of some dominant radionuclides on the ground. The measured data are presented on contamination maps

348

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radioactivity monitoring is done in Bavaria by a system of monitoring stations distributed over the Land, and by the reactor remote monitoring systems. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, measuring activities have been intensified, and by the end of 1986 there have been available about 35.000 measured data records on radioactivity in the air, in water, land, and food and animal feeds. The report in hand presents the data measured in tables and explains their significance with regard to environmental radiation exposure. (DG)

349

Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

350

Ukrainian NPP instrumentation and control systems after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the main factors that contributed to the development of I and C systems of Ukrainian NPPs after 1986. The period of time after the Chernobyl accident is divided into three phases: 1986-1991, when the implementation of typical WWER-1000 I and C design was continued; 1992-2000, when the regulatory system on nuclear and radiation safety was formed in Ukraine; and 2001-2010, when numerous new digital NPP I and C systems were designed by national companies and implemented at Ukrainian NPPs. The main problems related to NPP I and C systems are indicated

351

HYSPLIT's Capability for Radiological Aerial Monitoring in Nuclear Emergencies: Model Validation and Assessment on the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident took place on 25 April 1986 in Ukraine. Consequently large amount of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The release was a widespread distribution of radioactivity throughout the northern hemisphere, mainly across Europe. A total of 31 persons died as a consequence of the accident, and about 140 persons suffered various degrees of radiation sickness and health impairment in the acute health impact. The possible increase of cancer incidence has been a real and significant increase of carcinomas of the thyroid among the children living in the contaminated regions as the late health effects. Recently, a variety of atmospheric dispersion models have been developed and used around the world. Among them, HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model developed by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)/ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) is being widely used. To verify the HYSPLIT model for radiological aerial monitoring in nuclear emergencies, a case study on the Chernobyl accident is performed

352

A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred. A corresponding effective deposition length for caesium, R-Cs, defined las the effective distance from Chernobyl to where the aerosols have been deposited, is found to be R-Cs approximate to 1000 km. From the observations of the regional variability of the Chernobyl fallout a simple probabilistic assessment method is proposed for the long-range radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

1999-01-01

353

Statistical evaluation of internal contamination data in the man following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main implications of the general interest derived from the statistical analysis of the internal human contamination data obtained by ENEA-PAS with Whole Body Counter mesurements performed in Bologna in consequence of the Chernobyl accident are presented. In particular the trend with time of the individual body activity of members of a homogeneous group, the variability of individual contamination in ralation to the mean contamination, the statistical distribution of the data, the significance of mean values concerning small, homogeneous groups of subjects, the difference between subjects of different sex and its trend with time, are examined. Finally, the substantial independence of the individual committed dose equivalent evaluation due to the Chernobyl contamination on the Whole from the hypothesized values of the metabolic parameters is pointed out when the evaluation is performed on the basis of direct measurements with a Whole Body Counter

354

Examination of the destructive forces in the Chernobyl accident based on NSRR experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possible causes of the destruction of the Chernobyl reactor core were examined by making use of the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) experimental results concerning the destructive forces generated by a fuel failure. A complementary experiment with Chernobyl reactor conditions was performed in order to observe the fuel failure behavior and the resultant vessel pressure rise, etc. Also, generation of hydrogen from the fuel rod cladding and the consequent system pressure rise were estimated based on the experiments. These examinations led to the conclusion that the most probable cause of the core pressure tube rupture in the accident was a static pressure rise due to rapid energy release from fragmented fuel. Other phenomena such as the hydrogen generation and molten fuel contact to the tube wall might have contributed to the tube rupture. The water hammer force is also estimated to have been large enough to break tubes even using conservative assumptions. (orig.)

355

The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

356

Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 ?Sv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 ?Sv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 ?Sv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

357

Genomic instability in children born from the Chernobyl accident victims  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It seems in all probability that the radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of cell genome. Evidence has been presented in the previous reports of our laboratory that a chromosome instability could be found out in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and in children from the regions with a high radiation level. Data on a chromosome instability in children born from the Chernobyl victims are presented in this paper. We investigated women in 1986 within the limits of 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Children born from these women were a main subject of our studies. In some cases an examination of their fathers was also carried out. It seems to us that a genetic instability transmitted from the parents is realized as an increased sensitivity to the different environmental factors, including an enhanced radiation level, chemical mutagens et al. Latent hereditary disturbances in these children probably appear later as a result of their contact with mutagens of a different nature. (authors)

358

Genomic instability in children born from the Chernobyl accident victims  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It seems in all probability that the radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of cell genome. Evidence has been presented in the previous reports of our laboratory that a chromosome instability could be found out in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and in children from the regions with a high radiation level. Data on a chromosome instability in children born from the Chernobyl victims are presented in this paper. We investigated women in 1986 within the limits of 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Children born from these women were a main subject of our studies. In some cases an examination of their fathers was also carried out. It seems to us that a genetic instability transmitted from the parents is realized as an increased sensitivity to the different environmental factors, including an enhanced radiation level, chemical mutagens et al. Latent hereditary disturbances in these children probably appear later as a result of their contact with mutagens of a different nature. (authors)

Komar, V.; Koliubaeva, S.; Monakhov, V.; Bejenar, V. [CentralInstitute of Roentgenology and Radiology, Central Research, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation). Dept. of Medical Radiobiology

1997-03-01

359

Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.)

360

Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of 137Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric dispersion. The L.A.D.A.S. were applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. The calculated concentration distributions were compared with the results of the other models of A.T.M.E.S. using statistical methods. The calculated results of L.A.D.A.S. showed a better agreement compared with the measured concentrations during the accident. The developed Lagrangian particle model for a long-range atmospheric dispersion will be provided as a basic tool to evaluate the atmospheric diffusion and the radiological dose assessment in the national emergency preparedness system in Korea. (N.C.)

 
 
 
 
361

Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of {sup 137}Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric dispersion. The L.A.D.A.S. were applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. The calculated concentration distributions were compared with the results of the other models of A.T.M.E.S. using statistical methods. The calculated results of L.A.D.A.S. showed a better agreement compared with the measured concentrations during the accident. The developed Lagrangian particle model for a long-range atmospheric dispersion will be provided as a basic tool to evaluate the atmospheric diffusion and the radiological dose assessment in the national emergency preparedness system in Korea. (N.C.)

Suh, K.S.; Jeong, H.J.; Kim, E.H.; Hwang, W.T.; Han, M.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Nuclear Environmental Research Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

362

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

363

The CEC programme on accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Commission of the European Communities in the framework of its Radiation Protection Programme, initiated in 1983 a two-year project on Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents-MARIA. Major contractors were the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK-FRG) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB-UK). Within the 1985-1989 Radiation Protection Programme, the MARIA programme was continued and enlarged (MARIA 2) through complementary research contracts in several Member States. At present, 28 projects contribute to the MARIA-2 programme, the priorities of which are shortly presented. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the priorities of the MARIA-2 programme were evaluated and additional projects were started. A total of ten actions, of which five are directly relevant for the MARIA-2 programme, was launched. These actions are briefly described. (Authors)

364

Evironmental health policy in ukraine after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine produced severe environmental health problems. This paper reports on the environmental health conditions in Ukraine after the accident and the health policy approaches employed to respond to the environmental conditions and health problems. Crisis conditions and a period of rapid change in Ukraine contributed to the difficulties of developing and implementing policy to address serious environmental health problems. Despite these difficulties, Ukraine is taking effective action. The paper describes the primary environmental health problem areas and the efforts taken to solve them. The effect of intense public fear of radiation on policymaking is described. The paper discusses the ability of public fear to distort health policy towards certain problems, leaving problems of greater importance with fewer resources. 35 refs., 1 fig

365

Health Hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The most recent meeting in the Federal Republic of Germany reviewed the principal long-lived radionuclides emitted from the accident and concluded that 134Cs and 137Cs had the greatest potential for contributing to the human dose because they are still present, the dose will be delivered over a long term, and because of the accumulation in some edible plants and animal products. The observed contribution of radionuclides to the collective effective dose-equivalent in the first year is about 60-80% from ingestion, 30-40% from external irradiation, and 2-20% from inhalation

366

Radionuclide deposition and exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of air, water, and foodstuff samples, together with in situ gamma spectrometric measurements in the Federal Republic of Germany, have documented the deposition and exposure consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In some cases, exposure values are significantly higher than background levels. Data compiled for the period from the initial identification of excess atmospheric radioactivity to the present, represent a unique resource for testing and validating models of environmental transport and human exposure. These data will serve as the bases for future studies of organism response, both somatic and genetic, to nuclear radiation. They will also prove useful in suggesting modifications to environmental sampling and monitoring systems. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

367

Determination of strontium-90 in various kinds of water after Chernobyl accident in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the reactor accident of Chernobyl, 1986, the environmental radioactivity in Austria increased above the level recorded earlier. Depending on the amount of precipitation the deposition of radioactive fallout showed great differences. Many water samples collected during the period of April 29 to May 30 in Vienna, Lower Austria and Steiermark were analyzed for 90Sr. The 90Sr concentration was not higher than the maximal permissible value (0.004-0.4 nCi 1-1) except for rain water (8.69+-2.3). (author)

368

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-07-01

369

Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears tollow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

370

Medical radiological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Russia. Estimation of radiation risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident, one of the worst radiation-related disasters ever, occurred about 18 year ago. A lot has been done over the past years to mitigate the consequences of this accident, especially in the worst affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The efforts to study health effects of the accident, however, need to be continued for many years to come, being an integral part of developing a general strategy for dealing with long-term effects. The question now arises: To what extent health consequences could be evaluated in 1986, given the existing scientific base of radiation epidemiology? The latest 20-30 years have seen a rapid development of radiation epidemiology, which was brought about, first of all, by the need to analyze long-term radiation effects of the 1945 atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It may now be considered as proved that high and medium radiation doses (above 0.3 Sv) lead to an increase in cancer incidence rates. Based on the Japanese data, the ICRP proposed mathematical models to be used for predicting long-term effects of radiation exposure. This brings up a question: Are radiation risks derived for Hiroshima and Nagasaki applicable to low doses (0.2 Sv)? An answer is critically important, as the overwhelming majority of emergency workers and the population exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident received doses within this range. Actually, understanding of these issues is crucial for dealing with long-term radiation effects of the Chernobyl accident. Deriving radiation risk factors for the Japanese cohort with medium and high doses was based on large-scale epidemiological studies of 86.5 thousand people during a prolonged period. As of now, no other approaches exist to estimating long-term radiation effects. Following the Chernobyl accident the All-Union Distributed Registry of persons exposed to radiation was established as soon as in the summer 1986. The Research Institute of Medical Radiology (Medical Radiological Research Center) of RAMS was designated as the lead organization responsible for creating and maintaining the Registry. By December of 1991, when the USSR collapsed, the Registry database contained individual medical and dosimetric information for 659292 persons, of them 284919 were emergency workers. After disintegration of the Soviet Union the national Chernobyl registries were set up in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. In Russia the registry operations are regulated by the Governmental Decree No 948 of 22 September 1993 'About national registration of persons exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident and other radiation accidents and incidents'. As of January 1 2004, the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry (RNMDR) contained individual medical and dosimetric data for 61,1819 persons, including 192148 emergency workers and 359724 residents of four contaminated oblasts of Russia (Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula). Since the total number of subjects under study in the RNMDR is 6 times higher than in the Japanese registry, it may be concluded that the activities to assess actual radiation risks at low doses are well under way. The present book consists of two parts. The first part is devoted to emergency workers and the second to the population. The radiation-epidemiological studies described in the book cover the follow-up period from 1986 to 2001

371

Activities of the central authorities in 1990-1991 on the Chernobyl accident response and social defence of it's victims. Long-term programs on the Chernobyl accident response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chapter presents the information on the approved All-Union Programs to eliminate the long-term consequences of the CNPP accident and on problems linked with the social protection of the victims. Three stages of the activity to overcome the consequences of the accident are studied: 1-st period - 1986; 2-nd period - 1987-1989; third period (reconstruction) -1990-1995 and subsequent years. Attention is focused on the All-Union section of the State Union and Republic Program to protect the USSR population against the effects of the Chernobyl NPP in 1991-1995 and during the period up to 2000

372

Testing of an accident consequence assessment model using field data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results obtained from the application of an accident consequence assessment model, OSCAAR to the Iput dose reconstruction scenario of BIOMASS and also to the Chernobyl 131I fallout scenario of EMRAS, both organized by International Atomic Energy Agency. The Iput Scenario deals with 137Cs contamination of the catchment basin and agricultural area in the Bryansk Region of Russia, which was heavily contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This exercise was used to test the chronic exposure pathway models in OSCAAR with actual measurements and to identify the most important sources of uncertainty with respect to each part of the assessment. The OSCAAR chronic exposure pathway models had some limitations but the refined model, COLINA almost successfully reconstructed the whole 10-year time course of 137Cs activity concentrations in most requested types of agricultural products and natural foodstuffs. The Plavsk scenario provides a good opportunity to test not only the food chain transfer model of 131I but also the method of assessing 131I thyroid burden. OSCAAR showed in general good capabilities for assessing the important 131I exposure pathways. (author)

373

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

374

Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL during the year following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident which destroyed Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986 provided the world's scientists with an opportunity, unique in recent years, to study many of the processes which follow the release of large quantities of radioactivity into the atmosphere. BNL undertook a wide ranging programme of environmental measurements after the accident, the immediate aim being to supply HM Government with data to help assess the radiological consequences to the UK population. As it became clear that the UK dose commitment was relatively low, the thrust of the measurements began to be concentrated on airborne radioactivity and the movement of nuclides in the grass-soil system. The aim of these studies was to assess dispersion and diffusion of radioactivity in these particular compartments of the environment. The measurements have continued over the twelve month period since the Chernobyl accident. This report aims to disseminate the year's data and to offer some initial interpretations of the trends. (U.K.)

375

Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents

376

Consequence analysis of accidents in nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident Consequence Analysis (ACA) is widely used a tool in the licensing process of nuclear reactors, in which the so called Design Basis Accident (DBA) is well defined, thus facilitating the analysis. Regarding other nuclear facilities (fuel cycle institutes) DBA's are not generally defined in the regulatory guides. Therefore, the accident analysis must start by defining the DBA, which is not a simple task. This paper presents a methodology for ACA of nuclear facilities, which has been used in CDTN since 1978, during several licensing processes. Analyzed accidents include fire and explosion followed by fire. The resulting dose are calculated inside and outside buildings, taking into account room layouts, ventilation rates, building materials and fraction of radioactive material that becomes aerosol under accident conditions. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig

377

The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

378

Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe. 3 figs

379

Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our work with about 100 subjects resident in eastern Europe (mostly Poland) at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or traveling as tourists, 131I was readily detectable in the thyroid through mid-June, 1986, and was detectable in some subjects as late as early July, 9 to 10 weeks after the start of the accident. Among 42 subjects who were in eastern Europe on April 26, 1986, and in whom 131I was detectable, the median activity in the thyroid was 1.4 nCi at the time of measurement. When extrapolated back to April 26 using a single exponential retention function for the thyroid and an 8-day effective half-life, the median activity was 42 nCi. The frequency distribution resembled a lognormal distribution. The extrapolated activities lay between approximately 2 and 1200 nCi. The risk levels derived from these observations of internal radioactivity and my conservative dose projection assumptions are as much as 10 times less than the risk levels published in the lay press during the months following the accident. This underscores the importance of basing risk estimation for internal radioactivity on direct observations. 2 refs., 1 tab

380

Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of fallout radioactivity were made in the thyroid region, abdomen, whole body, or urine of 96 persons who were in eastern Europe at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or who went there shortly afterward. The most frequently encountered radionuclides were 131I, /sup 134,137/Cs, and 103Ru/103Rh. The median 131I activity in the thyroids of 42 subjects in whom radioiodine was detected and who were in Europe when the accident began was projected as 42 nCi the day the accident began. The median total body activity of 134Cs in 40 subjects in which it was detected was 1.7 nCi upon arrival in the US. For 51 subjects with detectable 137Cs burdens, the total body activity was 4.6 nCi. The risk of fatal thyroid cancer is less than 3 x 10-6 for nearly all subjects in this series. The risk of fatal cancer from /sup 134,137/Cs for subjects with cesium exposures similar to the ones observed by us, but who remained in Europe, is estimated as 1.4 x 10-6 to 4.2 x 10-5 with 95% of the risk attributable to 137Cs. 5 refs., 4 tabs

 
 
 
 
381

Satellite change detection of forest damage near the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A substantial amount of forest within a few kilometers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor station was badly contaminated with radionuclides by the April 26, 1986, explosion and ensuing fire at reactor No. 4. Radiation doses to conifers in some areas were sufficient to cause discoloration of needles within a few weeks. Other areas, receiving smaller doses, showed foliage changes beginning 6 months to a year later. Multispectral imagery available from Landsat sensors is especially suited for monitoring such changes in vegetation. A series of Landsat Thematic Mapper images was developed that span the 2 yr following the accident. Quantitative dose estimation for the exposed conifers requires an objective change detection algorithm and knowledge of the dose-time response of conifers to ionizing radiation. Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation's Hyperscout trademark algorithm is based on an advanced, sensitive technique for change detection particularly suited for multispectral images. The Hyperscout algorithm has been used to assess radiation damage to the forested areas around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

382

Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

383

Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

384

Fallout of transuranium elements following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition of transuranium elements in Sweden following the Chernobyl accident was investigated through the analysis of carpets of lichen- and moss-samples and also air-filters and precipitation. The impact of transuranium elements was small compared to that of radiocesium. The deposition of 239+240Pu was, as for other actinides, inhomogeneously distributed and ranged from 0.1% to 100% of the inventory in 1986 from nuclear detonation tests. The activity ratio of 239+240Pu/137Cs was between 10-3 and 10-6 in comparison to 10-2 for nuclear test fallout. The activity ratios of 241Pu, 242Cm, 238Pu, 243+244Am and 239+240Pu were about 86, 14, 0.47, 0.14 and 0.13 respectively, but large variations were observed. The results from Sweden were compared with those found in South Finland, Denmark and Southern Europe. The deposition over Scandinavia originated from the initial explosion at Chernobyl, which contained relatively higher amounts of actinide elements than the second emission, which occurred a few days later and was a result of actions taken to bring the fire under control. (author) 22 refs.; 8 figs

385

Fallout of transuranium elements in Sweden following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition of transuranium elements in Sweden following the Chernobyl accident was investigated through the analysis of carpets of lichen- and moss- samples and also airfilters and precipitation. The impact of transuranium elements was small compared to that of radiocaesium. The deposition of 239+240Pu was, as for other actinides, inhomogeneously distributed and ranged from 0.1% to 100% of the inventory in 1986 from nuclear detonation tests. The activity ratio 239+240Pu/137Cs was between 10-3 and 10-6 compared to 10-2 for nuclear test fallout. The activity ratios of 241Pu, 242Cm, 238Pu, 243+244Cm and 241Am to 239+240Pu were about 86, 14, 0.47, 0.14 and 0.13 respectively but large variations were observed. The deposition over Scandinavia originated from the initial explosion on April 26, 1986, at Chernobyl, which contained relatively higher amounts of actinide elements that the second emission, a few days later, which was a result of actions taken to bring the fire under control. (au) (22 refs.)

386

Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

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20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

388

Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

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