WorldWideScience
1

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

2

Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is not a most hazardous ones. Such psychological effects of the Chernobyl accident resulted from the lack of public information, the stress of relocation and the fear that any radiation exposures are damaging. Those affected people are believing that illnesses of all kinds are due to radiation. The spreading of such mistaken did influence on general public disapproval of Nuclear Power. This presentation includes also the data of real consequences for the health of concerned population

3

Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

4

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

5

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. PMID:21345660

Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

2011-05-01

6

The Chernobyl accident: consequences and their overcoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long

7

Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986.

Czakainski, M.

1986-06-01

8

Consequences to health of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen. (au)

9

Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

10

The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in order to provide a factual basis for future policy decisions. There are two main issues: What actions can be taken to limit the health effects of the accident? And: What risk is still posed by the remains of the reactor in the sarcophagus? Assessing the health effects of radiation exposure due to the accident is very difficult. The doses received as a result of the accident are not well known and the complex relation between dose received and cancer induction is still not well understood. As a result, projections of future numbers of extra cancer cases depend on a number of assumptions and are at best crude estimates. Epidemiological investigations to detect health effects in populations, as opposed to effects in individuals, are complex and extremely difficult to conduct. It is difficult to find appropriate control groups for comparative purposes and to distinguish the influence of the studies themselves on the results. In addition, there has been a general deterioration in public health in the countries of the former Soviet Union since 1987. This general trend towards poorer health has been misinterpreted and misrepresented as being due to the Chernobyl accident. It has been asserted that up to tens of thousands of peoples 'have already died', implying that they were victims of the Chernobyl accident. However, the total death rate in 1990-1992 among 'liquidators' (emergency and recovery workers) did ors' (emergency and recovery workers) did not exceed for that for the corresponding age group in the Russian Federation as a whole. The increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has been dramatic and, if it persists in members of the age group affected as they grow older over the coming decades, it may result in up to several thousand excess cases of thyroid cancer. The number of fatalities would be much lower than this, since treatment should be 90-95% successful if the thyroid cancer is diagnosed early. The affected people should therefore continue to be closely monitored throughout their lives. 24 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

11

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of th1-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately after the accident. (orig.)

12

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

13

Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 4. Chernobyl accident consequences in the Ukraine and Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of scientific general conclusion and analysis of wide spectrum of radioecological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences within the territory of the Ukraine are given. Investigations were conducted in 1986-1992 and before the accident. Information on the environmental radioactivity in Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is also presented. Attention is paid to the population migration and results of statistical processing of population disease incidence in contaminated areas (illustrated by the Tula region). 39 figs.; 47 tabs

14

Chernobyl - the consequences of the maximum credible accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although regional in dimension, the MCA that happened on 26 April 1986 in the Chernobyl reactor station has gained global significance. The authors of the book are experts in radiation medicine and present their experience in the diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by ionizing radiation, referring whenever applicable to the Chernobyl reactor accident and the consequences in present-day life. (orig.)

15

The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such dat to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external ? dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on fresh milk supplies and other foods; the removal of grazing cattle from pastures; instructions to wash fruit and vegetables and the issue of stable iodine. We are currently carrying out a preliminary assessment of the radiation doses to individuals and the population as a whole in the European Community from Chernobyl, the final results will be published by the Commission of the European Communities. Later we will be extending this to other European countries

16

Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

17

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

18

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

19

Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which mayrus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminate

20

Human cytogenetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frequency of chromosome aberration was evaluated in 537 persons taken part in amelioration after the accident. The highest rate of aberration was found in covering builders and dosimetrists: 3.24±0.25 and 3.11±0.43 per 100 cells, respectively. The mean rate of aberrations among the Chernobyl NPP staff was 2.37±0.20 per 100 cells, in the other examined groups the mean yield of aberration varied from 1.31 to 1.47 per 100 cells. The found aberration rates correspond to the equivalent whole body doses in the range from 131 to 515 mGy as evaluated by the established dose-response curve. In the group of covering builders the individual aberration rates varied more markedly, and corresponded to the equivalent whole body dose up to about 1 Gy. Slides of 27 individuals were checked by an automated scoring system. The results showed a satisfactory correlation between the frequencies of dicentrics per chromosome detected by routine and computer methods. 17 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

21

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

22

Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

23

Blood coagulation in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to examine blood coagulation status of the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences. A total of 117 young men were examined who participated int he liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences mainly in 1986 and 1987. The mean dose for those who worked in 1986 was 26 rem, that for 1987 10 rem. Blood coagulation status was studied by coagulography and thromboelastography. The results were processed for groups with consideration for the predominant disease. Moderately expressed changes in coagulogram, variously directed, were detected. A clear tendency to hypercoagulation was established form the integral tromboelastogram parameters. The changes were more expressed in patients with erosive gastroduodenitis. Shifts in blood coagulation took a latent course without clinical manifestations of the DIC syndrome or local thrombosis. A tendency to hypercoagulation in the liquidators seems to be caused by chronic stress. 18 refs.; 2 tabs

24

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m-2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 ?Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident

25

Directions in epidemiological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The after-Chernobyl irradiation doses of the Bulgarian population cause possible health consequences in the sphere of scholastic effects only. Different mental disturbances arise under certain conditions. There are plans for epidemiologic investigations of the kind 'case-control' which are aimed to clarify the role of the radiation factor (of medical, professional and Chernobyl origin) in the appearance of some neoplasms in hemopoietic system and thyroid. A selective analysis of the congenital malformations frequency is envisaged which will overcome the shortcomings of the current registration system. Screening study of children born in the end of 1986 is also under way which will detect possible disturbances in their cognitive functions. The specifying of individual radiation doses in all studies is based on data received by survey and on information for radiation conditions in Bulgaria prior and after the Chernobyl accident. 2 refs. (A.B.)

26

The reactor accident of Chernobyl and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world has not changed but gained one more, however bitter, experience since the reactor accident of Chernobyl. Much has been written and published about its consequences and the damage caused by it. Its only benefit may be considered to be consisting in another international revision of the allegedly exemplary and worldwide accepted safety of our reactors and in future rigorous political efforts to be going into internationally accepted and applied safety concepts preventing another accident of that kind. National efforts alone will lead to nothing. (orig.)

27

Elimination of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological consequences of reactor accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station is considered. The Chernobyl's release is compared with the estimated radioactivity having been produced by both the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapons testing programs, as well as with the TMI and the Windscale reactor accidents. The necessity of the Shelter's construction, as well as basic problems in designing the Shelter structure is discussed. At the time of the Shelter's construction, the radiation safety division was created to provide the safety of construction personnel. The organization and main tasks of this division is given in detail. The main stages of the Shelter construction is stated. Today's condition of the Shelter and nuclear fuel inside are also discussed. (author)

28

Consequences and experiences - ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 26 April 1986. the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the present borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.Material released into the atmosphere dispersed and eventually deposited back on the surface of the earth,were it was measurable over the whole northern hemisphere. Millions of people and all segments of life and economy have been affected by the accident. Radioactive contamination has reached several tens of MBq/m2 in the area of 30 km diameter around the reactor in 1986., and plants and animals have been exposed to short lived radionuclides up to external doses of several tens of Gy. In the early phase after the accident, 237 persons were suspected to have acute radiation syndrome as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, but diagnoses has been confirmed in 134 cases. In that phase 28 person have died as a consequence of exposure. There are significant non - related health disorders and symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and various psychosomatic disorders attributable to mental stress among the population in the region

29

Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

30

First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

1989-07-01

31

Chernobyl accidents, its consequences and problems of its mitigations. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems discussed were devoted to: 1. Medical and biological aspects of the accident. 2. Agricultural works at contaminated territories. 3. Monitoring of contaminated regions. 4. Decontamination and safety of Chernobyl zone objects. 5. Social, economic and general problems

32

Health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reviews the sequence of the accident, the radiation exposures of different population groups and various short and long term health and environmental consequences to the surroundings and to other affected areas.. Radioactivity related deaths have occurred most frequently among the rescue and cleaning up personnel. The pollution problems in Scandinavia and Norway in particular, are pointed out with emphasis on the health and environmental aspects. However, the long term consequences for the Belarus' population and the natural surroundings of Chernobyl are unknown but an increase in possibly radiation related chromosomal changes and mutations are observed and may cause various defects and species alterations as well as health problems both to human beings and the environment

33

Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional hae those already affected any additional harm and confusion

34

First consequences to be drawn from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article first summarizes the facts known at the time, about the causes and events at Chernobyl, and continues with a discussion of the consequences such as the long-term effects of the radioactive contamination of the area affected, radiation-induced carcinogenesis, and latency periods. The lack of reliable and safe information on the effects of low-dose irradiation, and possible radiation effects to be expected in regions far away from the reactor site are dealt with together with the question of whether there is a linear relationship between radiation dose and cancer development, and what would happen if the F.R.G. were to experience such an accident on its own territory. The author finally discusses arguments raised against his own view of the situation and points to another type of damage observable in the country, namely the psychological stress created by the upsurge of fear of the atomic energy. (MG)

35

Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

36

Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 2. Medical-biological and genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Health variations in people subjected to irradiation resulted from the Chernobyl accident is analysed. Participants of the Chernobyl accident response and human populations (children and adults) residing at contaminated areas were under consideration. Genetic radiation effects due to the Chernobyl accident were separately considered. 24 refs.; 37 figs.; 17 tabs

37

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

38

Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents. Lessons from Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (ie, infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals. PMID:3112420

Gale, R P

1987-08-01

39

Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.  

OpenAIRE

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to m...

Ginzburg, H. M.; Reis, E.

1991-01-01

40

Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

41

Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the seath due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

42

Health consequences of Chernobyl and other radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation Protection Research Unit of the European Commission has been supporting collaborative research projects on the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident since 1991. However, in the Fourth Framework Programme of the Commission which started in 1996, the collaboration with scientists in the former Soviet Union has been placed on a different footing, and the programme has been expanded to include other regions, especially in Russia and Kazakhstan, where previous nuclear incidents have led to the exposure of workers and the local populations and to widespread radioactive contamination. There are 15 projects on health-related studies in the newly started programme, and in order to improve the collaboration between the different scientists working in these projects a Cluster Contractors'' Meeting was organised in San Miniato, Italy, in June 1997 with the participation of some 50 scientists from the European Union (EU) and the Newly Independent States (NIS). This report summarizes the different topics, including molecular biology and treatment of childhood thyroid cancer, various epidemiological studies and dose reconstruction, which were discussed at the meeting and which form the major projects in the new collaborative programme. (orig.)

43

Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

2012-09-01

44

The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

45

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

46

Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

47

On the sequence and consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A serious reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986 at Chernobyl near Kiev (Soviet Union) where, after melting of the core, there was a considerable release of radioactivity to the environment and to the atmosphere. The radioactivity release caused irradiation of the operating staff, which led to 24 deaths by June 1986. Hardly anything is known about the irradiation of the environment of the reactor plant, but the population within a radius of 30 km was evacuated. The radioactivity released into the atmosphere spread all over Europe, and Germany was affected a few days after the accident. The article gives a short description of the plant which suffered the accident, one tries to describe the course of the accident and to discuss the applicability to German plants. (orig.)

48

Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

49

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

2006-06-15

50

The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2001-04-01

51

Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

2003-01-01

52

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

Gustaf Åhman

1990-09-01

53

Chernobyl severe reactor accident. Accident causes, accident consequences and overcoming. Safeguards and disposal of the Chernobyl power plant; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report on the Chernobyl reactor accident covers the following topics; (1) the reactor accident: the Chernobyl reactor, sequence of accident events, background, state of the sarcophagus and the power plant site; (2) radiation exposure and consequences for human health: radioactivity release and wide ranging contamination, radiation exposure of affected groups of people, health consequences, impact on Germany; (3) lessons learned; (4) safeguarding and waste disposal of the decommissioned Chernobyl reactor.

NONE

2011-04-15

54

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

55

One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

56

Accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early morning of April 26, 1986, as the culmination of an almost incredible series of errors that began 24 hours earlier, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear complex, a so-called RBMK-1000 reactor, suffered the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. There was an uncontrolled nuclear excursion, release of a large amount of energy, possibly comparable to hundreds of pounds of TNT, blowing the top off the reactor. There was no containment, in the traditional American sense, so the roof of the building was blown out, an unprecedented amount of radioactivity was released to the biosphere, and a graphite fire was ignited, which burned for days. The radiation that was released spread through Eastern Europe (the world first learned of it through Swedish observations), bringing with it both official and unofficial protests that the Soviet Union had made no announcement of the radiation release until they were, in effect, caught. In fact, after a few days, the Soviets seemed to recognize that nuclear safety is a matter of international concern, and became quite open in their search for cooperation. They invited officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to visit the area and to fly over the plant, and agreed, in the end, to make a complete disclosure of the details of the accident at a special meeting of IAEA in Vienna, August 25 to 29, 1986. In preparation for that meeting they distributed a lengthy (400 pages) report on the event. This phy (400 pages) report on the event. This paper reviews this report

57

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

58

Management of medical assistance provided to participants of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident consequences liquidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently in the Republic of Moldova there are 2675 people who had suffered from sequelae of Chernobyl accident. In the paper the morbidity (incidence and prevalence), disability and mortality among participants in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences for the period of 2007-2010 were studied. The analysis of morbidity among 'liquidators' during 2007-2010 in the Republic of Moldova reveals the decline of incidence and prevalence due to better monitoring, opportune diagnosis and appropriate and timely treatment. Cancer and cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for 'liquidators'.

59

Medical aspects of Chernobyl power plant accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absence of experience in liquidation of consequences of largescale nuclear accidents, poorly argumented concepts of survival at contaminated territories, ungrounded rigig limitation measures contributed to formation of phychoemotional stress in the population of contaminated. The authors discuss factors promoting the development of stress states which negatively tell on health status. Nevertheless, the incidence of cardiovascular, and psychosomatic diseases is virtually the same in Russia. The authors emphasize that specialized medical care should be made better accessible for the population and specialized service be created

60

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

61

Chernobyl accident and Danmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

62

Research and managing institutions in Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents temporal changes of the national organizations in managing the Chernobyl accident and its activities. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine started its activity from the first days after the accident. In 1990 a special executive body, the State committee of Chernobyl Affairs was established in Ukraine to manage the whole activity to overcome the Chernobyl problems. In 1991 it was rearranged into the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In 1996 a new Ministry of Ukraine on Emergences and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe(MEA) was founded on the basis of the Min. Chernobyl and Headquarters Staff of Civil Defence. The National Commission on Radiological Protection of Ukraine (NCRPU) belongs to the Parliament structure. NCRPU is responsible for approval of radiological safety standards and derived regulations. Very often the regulation approved are stricter than the international recommendations. There is an essential lack of attention within the Parliament to the activity of NCRPU. Ministry of Health is responsible for all kinds of medical care for the people suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. In order to provide permanent medical service, a nation-wide scheme has been worked out. Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine is the leading scientific institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The State scientific Center of Environmental Radio geochemistry was created in 1996 on the basis of the two decreated in 1996 on the basis of the two departments of the Institute of Geochemistry. The Center was created in order to improve coordination and managing of scientific researches on the behavior of artificial and natural radionuclides and chemical substances in the environment etc.. The Chernobyl Scientific-Technical center for International Research was created in March,1996. The Ukrainian Scientific Hygienic Center of Ministry of Health was created in 1989 and included two institutions. The subjects, the direction of research works, organizations and key personnel are introduced on these institutes and centers with the major publication list. (Y. Tanaka)

63

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

64

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs

65

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (author

66

Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

67

Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

1999-09-01

68

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After approval by the members of the Forum, this report is the result of that process

69

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

1997-12-31

70

Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems for off-site emergency management (RODOS), etc

71

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p<0.001) differences on intelligence scale of exposed children: the full scale IQ and verbal IQ are lower in exposed versus non exposed children. Differences on performance IQ are non significant (p>0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (authors)

Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

2006-07-01

72

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

73

Epidemiological studies in Russia about the consequences of the Chernobyl APS accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The final purpose of all efforts to study and mitigate the consequences of the accident at the 4th reactor of the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS) is protection of health of the people who were more or less exposed to radiation action. This situation has not analogs in terms of scale and character. Certain experience was accumulated earlier through the studies of biological and medical effects of atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other radiation catastrophes, diagnostic and therapeutic application of radiation, and the control of health state of professionals in atomic industries. However, these experiences can be used just partially in the assessment and the forecast of possible negative after-effects of the Chernobyl accident for the present and future generations. The long-term irradiation of a lage number of population at low doses is to be considered the principal peculiarity of the Chernobyl accident. The medical activities are complicated significantly by the absence of verifiable individual dosimetric information, natural or forced migration of the population, insufficient development of radiation epidemiology, complicated social-economic situation in the country, and other factors which are inevitable at large-scaled catastrophes. Besides, many fundamental questions related to biological effects of action of low doses of ionizing radiation are still being studied. (J.P.N.)

74

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

75

Functional status of thyroid of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators after 10 years after disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' complaints is carried out and their clinical surveillance is conducted as well. Pronounced disorders of neuro-immune-endocrine system of the liquidators majority and ahill reflex latency half-period prolongation have been observed. By data of ultrasonic study the majority of examined ones have thyroid hyperplasia without features of chronic autoimmune inflammation and formation of adenomatous knots. Thyroid levels of hormone concentration are reduced. There is direct dependence between hormones levels and irradiation dose. The is concluded, that in delayed period after irradiation by low doses the hypo-function status of thyroid is observing

76

Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs

77

Information on the Chernobyl NPP accident and its consequencies prepared for IAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information on the accident at the 4th power unit of the Chernobyl NPP and its consequences prepared for IAEA on the basis of the conclusions made by the Government commission constituted for investigating the accident causes and implementing the necessary emergency and reconstruction measures is given. The accident with reactor core disruption and partial destruction of the building Lappened on 26.04.86 at 1 hour and 23 minutes. The accident occurred before reactor shut-down for planned repairs during the testing of one of turbogenerators. The design features of the RBMK-1000 reactor plant, its main physical characteristics and parameters of the NPP safety system are considered. The chronology of the accident development and the results of analysis carried out using a mathematical model are given. The causes of the accident are analyzed. The measures for preventing the accident development and lessening its consequences as well as those for the environment radioactive contamination control and sanitary provisions are described in detail. The conclusion is made that the original cause of the accident is highly improbable combination of disorder and errors in operational conditions made by the personnel of the power unit. It is emphasized that development of the world nuclear engineering, besides advantages in the field of power supply and natural resources conservation, incurs also damages of international character. Among these are transboundary radioactivity tra these are transboundary radioactivity transport, in particular, during serious radiation accidents and the danger of international terrorism and specific radiation hazard of nuclear objects under war conditions. All this defines the key necessity of deep international cooperation in the field of nuclear power engineering and its safeguarding

78

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

Czakainski, Martin; Kinzelmann, Thomas; Pretzsch, Gunter; Wasgindt, Volker (comps.)

2007-06-15

79

The accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

80

Research activity about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activity to assist its sufferers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the Chernobyl Accident in April 1986, a series of serious radiological consequences were brought in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The former Soviet Union and the authorities in the world such as IAEA, however, have been denying serious health consequences among the people around Chernobyl since the beginning of the accident. On the other hand, a lot of works indicating serious health effects of the accident have been reported by scientists in these affected countries although they are not well known in the western countries. Since 1993, under the research grant of the Toyota foundation, we have continued a cooperative program to investigate research activities in these countries about the Chernobyl accident and to look into data and information that were not known so far. The information concerning the social system and activity to assist the sufferers from the accident has been also overviewed, including legal aspects of the Chernobyl problem. Here we are presenting an outline of our cooperation activity and our work concerning dose estimation for the inhabitants around the Chernobyl NPS at the first stage after the accident. The results of our estimation suggest that at least several hundreds of inhabitants received radiation dose exceeding 1 Sv before their evacuation. The whole reports of our cooperation program will be published in English and in Japanese in the next year. (author)

Imanaka, Tetsuji; Koide, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Keiji [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.] [and others

1998-01-01

81

General situation of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident on April 26, 1986, epidemiological analyses of data point to impressive deterioration of the health of the people affected by radionuclide contamination in the environment. This deterioration of population health embraces a broad spectrum of diseases. Epidemiological prediction of the rate of thyroid cancer in children near Chernobyl seems strikingly compatible with a real increase. But there is a tendency to consider the morbidity augmentation as a result having been associated with the factors of non-radioactive origin (chemical compounds, heavy metals and mainly social-psychological syndrome development). The Chernobyl catastrophe has implied a heavy burden for Ukraine: pollution of air, water, soils and vegetation in all ecosystems, late radiological effects in the health of people, losses of arable land and forest, necessity of mass-evacuation from thousands of settlements in the contaminated regions, severe psychological shock for millions of people, and painful suffering of unexpected life tragedies. Eleven years after, this tragic event with its causes and consequence brings one to very important conclusions concerning moral aspects of human relations within the nuclear society, as well as interactions between the society and the environment. (J.P.N.)

82

Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 1. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP accident, radiation monitoring, protection measures and their efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strategy of the development of native nuclear power engineering is analysed concerning the Chernobyl accident. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP are considered. Attention is paid to the problems of radiation monitoring of personnel and human population. Radiation accident dynamics and radiation protection measures are discussed. Decontamination problem is analysed as well as its efficiency. 255 refs.; 5 figs.; 19 tabs

83

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

84

Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

85

Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

86

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident.

Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

1997-11-01

87

Introductory remarks by the Chairman. [Session 1: Environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many scientists as well as representatives from UN organizations and governments of affected regions participated in the work of the Chernobyl Forum. Several meetings of the Forum were necessary to initiate the work and monitor the progress of the expert groups. Two expert groups formulated comprehensive reports - one on environmental issues, organized by the IAEA, and one on health issues, organized by the WHO. Experts from throughout the world were invited to contribute to these evaluations. The representatives of governments and the staff of international organizations then reviewed the results of these groups to be sure that the reviews were complete and the evaluations reasonable, so that they could serve as the basis for consensus agreements and effective recommendations for further dealing with the consequences of the accident

88

Morbidity and death causes of the liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences residing in the Kyrgyz Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Morbidity and death causes were analyzed in the liquidators of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences residing in the Kyrgyz Republic. For 15 years of observation a growth in the amount of the disable people achieved 70,8% among the death causes cardiovascular diseases and traumas prevailed. High altitude of climatic therapy was recommended as one of the ways for rehabilitation. (authors)

89

A 25 year retrospective review of the psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chernobyl Forum Report from the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster concluded that mental health effects were the most significant public health consequence of the accident. This paper provides an updated review of research on the psychological impact of the accident during the 25 year period since the catastrophe began. First responders and clean-up workers had the greatest exposure to radiation. Recent studies show that their rates of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder remain elevated two decades later. Very young children and those in utero who lived near the plant when it exploded or in severely contaminated areas have been the subject of considerable research, but the findings are inconsistent. Recent studies of prenatally exposed children conducted in Kiev, Norway and Finland point to specific neuropsychological and psychological impairments associated with radiation exposure, whereas other studies found no significant cognitive or mental health effects in exposed children grown up. General population studies report increased rates of poor self-rated health as well as clinical and subclinical depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Mothers of young children exposed to the disaster remain a high-risk group for these conditions, primarily due to lingering worries about the adverse health effects on their families. Thus, long-term mental health consequences continue to be a concern. The unmet need for mental health care in affected regions remains an important public health challenge 25 years later. Future research is needed that combines physical and mental health outcome measures to complete the clinical picture. PMID:21330117

Bromet, E J; Havenaar, J M; Guey, L T

2011-05-01

90

Research activities about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 12th anniversary is coming soon of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the former USSR on April 26, 1986. Many issues are, however, still unresolved about the radiological impacts on the environment and people due to the Chernobyl accident. This report contains the results of an international collaborative project about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, carried out from November 1995 to October 1997 under the research grant of the Toyota foundation. Collaborative works were promoted along with the following 5 sub-themes: 1) General description of research activities in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the accident. 2) Investigation of the current situation of epidemiological studies about Chernobyl in each affected country. 3) Investigation of acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants evacuated soon after the accident from the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl NPS. 4) Overview of social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident in each affected country. 5) Preparation of special reports of interesting studies being carried out in each affected country. The 27 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

91

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

92

Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

93

Agroindustrial production sphere - radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident and the chief protective measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl accident, fallout of radionuclides has occurred on farm lands, and the contaminated production of the agroindustrial complex has become a source of additional irradiation of the population. The contribution of the irradiation associated with the consumption of locally produced food products was quite significant, and led to the implementation of protective measures in the agroindustrial production sphere. It should be noted that irradiation of people owing to the consumption of contaminated agricultural products is more easily regulated than external irradiation. For this reason, the decrease in the total dose load is largely determined by the possibilities of restricting the internal irradiation dose to the population from the consumption of food products. The paper discusses radiological conditions in the agroindustrial production sphere in the region of the accident; intake of radionuclides by agricultural plants through leaves; distribution and form of 137Cs in soils; uptake of radionuclides by plants from the soil, animal husbandry aspects of the migration of radionuclides and their biological action; and organizational measures of the USSR for mitigating the consequences

94

Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

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Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within the

96

The reactor accident at Chernobyl and its radiation-biological consequences for our country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author gives an overview, with many measured values in tables and graphs, on the radiation to which air, water and soil as well as the human population - mostly that of Schleswig-Holstein - were exposed after the reactor accident at Chernobyl. In a final risk assessment, the possible somatic and genetic defects are discussed. (MG)

97

Radiation consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief overview of the meteorological and weather situation in Hungary in the time following the Chernobyl reactor accident, the contamination of the atmosphere, of soil, and of surface waters are presented. The contamination of food and the incorporation of radioactive iodine and cesium in human organism were measured. The radiation burden of population was estimated. (R.P.)

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Summary of the consequences for the environment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main conclusions on the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the former Soviet Union can be summarised as follows: the long term radioactive contamination of the environment can essentially be put down to Cs and Sr and, to a lesser degree, transuranic elements. In the short term, the radioactive iodine fall-out plays a fundamental role; in the countries of the former Soviet Union, it is estimated that 29,300 and 10,200 km2 of the surface area of the land are respectively contaminated by over 185 and 555 kBq.m-2. Approximately 1,064,000 people live in areas contaminated by more than 185 kBq.m-2; acute radioactive fall-out effects have occurred in the 30 km exclusion zone, essentially witnessed by the death of numerous conifers. On average, it will take about twenty years for half the Cs to disappear from the top 10 cm of soil; the level of contamination of food products varies greatly according to soil type. However, we can consider that milk, berries and mushrooms were the most critical foods in the years immediately following the accident and that some of the agricultural counter-measures taken have proved very useful in containing the contamination of food products. Because of the massive iodine leakage, the worst affected organ in the body during the months following the accident was the thyroid gland. In the months following the accident, the presence of radioactive elements on the surface of vegetables which were subsequently eaten proved to be the main source of human contamination; after a rapid fall off in external dose received by the population during the first year, it is now decreasing much more slowly. This phenomenon is mainly due to the very long-life of the radioactive caesium in the soil; approximately 90 % of the total internal dose for the 70 years following the accident have already been received by the local population. The external dose level will be reduced fairly slowly and we can assess that approximately 60 % of the amount of the external dose cumulated for the 70 years following the accident has already been ingested. (author)

99

Synergistic interaction of detrimental factors can intensify the consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A lot of real efforts have been done over the past twenty years to estimate, understand and mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. This report deals with several groups of fundamental investigations, which can indicate to the possibilities of the intensification of medical radiological consequences of this accident. It was shown for cells of various origins that both the rate and the extent of recovery were decreased after the combined action of ionizing radiation with other detrimental physical factors or chemical agents. It was proved experimentally that both these observations are explained by a considerable increase in the yield of the irreversible damages, which cells incapable to recover. The rise of the irreversible component of radiation damage was accompanied by an increase of cell killing without postirradiation division, while the probability of recovery was identical for various conditions of the combined actions. It was concluded on this basis that the synergistic interaction could not be associated with the impairment of the recovery capacity itself and may be entirely attributed to the enhanced yield of irreversible damages. Basing on these new experimental data a generalized conception has been developed for the synergistic interaction of detrimental factors. The main idea of this conception is that the synergistic interaction is expected to result from additional effective damages arising from the interaction of sublesions inding from the interaction of sublesions induced by both agents. These sublesions are considered to be ineffective after each agent taken individually. The additional damage responsible for the synergistic effect seems to be irreversible, which cell is incapable to recover from. A novel mathematical model was suggested. The model predicts that the synergy can be observed only within a definite range of the ratio of damages produced by heat and another factor applied simultaneously with heat. It can optimize the synergy making a forecast of the greatest value of the synergy and condition under which it can be achieved. In addition, the model quantitatively describes and predicts the decrease in the cell recovery ability after the combined action of ionizing radiation. Finally, the model prognosticates the dependence of the synergistic effect on the dose rate of ionizing radiation, intensity of physical factor or concentration of chemical agent used simultaneously with ionizing radiation. To emphasize the importance of synergistic effects at low intensity of detrimental factors, existing in the biosphere and contaminating area, the dependence of synergistic interaction on the dose rate was carefully investigated. The predictions of the model have been tested with a number of experimental data obtained for simultaneous action of ionizing radiation with different detrimental factors on various cellular systems. The final conclusion was that the smaller dose rate of ionizing radiation the lesser intensity of physical factor or concentration of chemical agents has to be used to provide the highest or a definite level of synergistic interaction. On this basis, it is inferred that the synergism may take place at small intensities of harmful environmental factors existing in the biosphere and can intensify disaster consequences including the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Hence, the assessment of health or environmental risk both in normal and disaster conditions should take into account the synergistic interaction between harmful agents

100

The reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, was the first major catastrophe in the peaceful utilizaion of nuclear energy - however, it was a regional and not a global catastrophe. Chernobyl has shown that the most alarming and genuinely catastrophic consequences of such an accident were that large areas of the affected region were uninhabitable for a long period due to the radioactive fall-out. The effects caused by this to living conditions for very many people have had significant social, psychological and economic effects. (orig.)

101

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems

102

Environmental contamination following the Chernobyl accident and some ecological consequences of this contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements and scientific research results of natural environment contamination after the Chernobyl accident and ecological consequences of this contamination are presented. In April--May 1986 unique scientific results to evaluate the scale of radioactive effects were obtained. Areas of full estrangement zone (about 100 km2) and also of immediate population evacuation were determined.The isotope content of contamination was analyzed in detail. It is shown how open-quotes long rangeclose quotes contaminated areas by the most volatile of the long-lived radionuclides (Cs137) were formed. An area contamination map by the long-lived isotopes, i.e., Cs137, Sr90 and Pu239,240 is presented.The migration question of different isotopes in natural environments (by surface waters and wind migration), their penetration into vegetation and possibilities of penetration along food chains to animals and man are considered. Several stress effects on natural ecosystems adjacent to nuclear station are described. Finally, some aspects of man's radiation ecology are discussed

103

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarkog, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Arkhipov, N.P. [Scientific and Technical Centre of the RIA `Pripyat` (Ukraine); Johansson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

1996-07-01

104

Scientometric analysis of the means of scientific communication of the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper evaluation of the structure and trends in the development of the Ukrainian scientific communication tools on the medical consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident using bibliometric methods has been given. The main developers of methodical documents are allocated, the dynamics of the distribution of methodical references, information letters and innovations is estimated. The importance of scientific communications tools in dissemination and use of new medical knowledge is demonstrated

105

Chernobyl and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident of 26 April 1986 in Chernobyl with the immense activity release was a catastrophe which took many victims and will still take many. This fact should not be hidden. This brochure represents an attempt to reflect the poor information from Chernobyl in a generally understandable manner and to assess them. Its goal is especially to make clear why even in maximum accidents in German nuclear power plants there is no danger to the population. The effects of the radioactive substances released after the accident in Chernobyl on Germany are described and put into relation. All presentations and descriptions were kept as models and were simplified and are therefore incomplete. This brochure was not meant to be an educational book; it only tries to respond to the questions raised by the accident in Chernobyl in the minds of non-professionals thus taking away the fear and strengthening the confidence in the safety of German reactors. (orig.)

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The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident--findings from the International Atomic Energy Agency Study.  

OpenAIRE

In October 1989, more than 3 years after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, in the Ukraine, the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluate the medical and psychological health of residents living in areas identified as being contaminated with radioactive fallout. The IAEA designed and conducted a collaborative study to examine whether there were any measurable effects of exposure to the low levels of ...

Ginzburg, H. M.

1993-01-01

107

The radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH)

108

10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

109

Role of sanitary and epidemiologic service of Gomel region aimed to minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl accident leads to the organization and realization large-scale actions for liquidation of its consequences. In the structure of state public health service was created complete system of radiation protection. In the first days after Chernobyl accident sanitary and epidemiologic service of the Gomel region developed recommendations on working conditions in agriculture, mode of operation of all kinds of food enterprises, rest of children and adults, behavior of the population, the organization of the radiometric control of food stuffs and water. The division of a radiation control ware organized at the regional centers of hygiene and epidemiologic under the control external irradiation dozes as the basic part of the population lived in territories with high density of the radioactive contamination

110

Accidents, risks and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the accident at Chernobyl can be considered as the worst accident in the world, it could have been worse. Other far worse situations are considered, such as a nuclear weapon hitting a nuclear reactor. Indeed the accident at Chernobyl is compared to a nuclear weapon. The consequences of Chernobyl in terms of radiation levels are discussed. Although it is believed that a similar accident could not occur in the United Kingdom, that possibility is considered. It is suggested that emergency plans should be made for just such an eventuality. Even if Chernobyl could not happen in the UK, the effects of accidents are international. The way in which nuclear reactor accidents happen is explored, taking the 1957 Windscale fire, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as examples. Reactor designs and accident scenarios are considered. The different reactor designs are listed. As well as the Chernobyl RBMK design it is suggested that the light water reactors also have undesirable features from the point of view of safety. (U.K.)

111

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, ... >> The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Feder000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This mee

112

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident; Radiologische Folgen des Reaktorunfalls in Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately after the accident. (orig.) [German] In fuenfzig Jahren friedlicher Nutzung der Kernenergie war der Reaktorunfall, der 1986 den Block 4 des Kernfraftwerkes Tschernobyl in der Ukraine traf, ein einschneidendes Ereignis, dessen Folgen Millionen von Menschen tief in ihren Lebensverhaeltnissen betrafen und bis heute die Oeffentlichkeit bewegen. Durch die Freisetzung radioaktiver Stoffe wurden weite Gebiete in Belarus, der Russischen Foerderation und der Ukraine kontaminiert. Fruehschaeden in Form eines Strahlensyndroms sind bei einer Gruppe von Unfallhelfern zwar mit teils mortalem Ausgang aufgetreten, in der Bevoelkerung jedoch ist abgesehen von Schilddruesenerkrankungen bei Kindern ein statistisch signifikanter Anstieg von Spaetschaeden aufgrund der ionisierenden Strahlung bis jetzt nicht zu beobachten. Insbesondere ist keine Erhoehung von soliden Tumoren, Leukaemien, Erbschaeden und Geburtsfehlern nachzuweisen. Fuer einige Risikogruppen mit hohen Strahlenbelastungen (z.B. Liquidatoren) mag noch eine erhoehte Gefaehrdung bestehen; die grosse Mehrheit der Bevoelkerung braucht aber nicht in der Furcht vor ernsten Gesundheitsschaeden zu leben. Trotzdem zeigt der Unfall betraechtliche negative soziale und psychische Auswirkungen, die durch den Zusammenbruch der Sowjetunion noch verstaerkt werden. Damit koennen beobachtete Erhoehungen der Inzidenz anderer Erkrankungen, fuer die eine ursaechliche Verbindung mit Strahlenwirkungen bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden kann, in Zusammenhang stehen. Gerade an der Besorgnis der Bevoelkerung setzte die Messaktion der Bundesregierung in den Jahren 1991-1993 an, um durch objektive Information ueber festgestellte Belastungen einerseits Aengste der Menschen abzubauen und Stress zu reduzieren, andererseits aber auch zur wissenschaftlichen Bewertung der radiologischen Situation in den hochbelasteten Gebieten beizutragen. Zu den Bevoelkerungsgruppen, die in der Zukunft besonderer Aufmerksamkeit beduerfen, gehoeren insbesondere Kinder, die in hochkontaminierten Gebieten aufwachsen und die Liquidatoren der Jahre 1986 und 1987, die waehre

Hill, P.; Hille, R. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

2002-01-01

113

Influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences to the animal kingdom. Chapter 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total regularities of ionizing irradiation effect on the living systems, as well as molecular, cell and tissues radiation effects, radiation effects on organism, population and ecosystem are shown. The results of monitoring of zoo plankton systems, state of populations of mass species of benthos invertebrates and fishes in water reservoirs in the Chernobyl accident zone are given. Disorders in hemolymph and changes in complexes of soil invertebrates, as well as changes of population structures of amphibians and reptiles living in radioactive contaminated zone are described. The state of model groups and forming of population structure of insects, birds and mammals were investigated. 19 tabs., 16 figs

114

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

115

The ecological consequences of transuranium elements realize on Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of radioactive contamination with transuranium elements (TUE) on territory of Belarus as a result of nuclear weapon tests and Chernobyl NPP accident have been assessed . The uniform contamination of soil with level of 53±17 Bq/m2 for Pu-239+240 was formed as a result of global precipitation after the nuclear weapon test. This value increased up to 1.1·105 Bq/m2 in South regions of Belarus and gradually decreased to level of global fall out on the North of the republic after Chernobyl NPP accident. The study of the atmosphere contamination with TUE in Republic of Belarus is being held since 1980 to now. The mechanism of radioactive air pollution from April, 1986 is determined by dust transfer from radioactive contaminated regions. The value of this transfer is influenced considerably by agricultural activities on contaminated territory, forest fires and other anthropogenic factors. The transfer coefficients in the soil-plant system have plant species dependence. The behavior of TUE in environment is discussed. (Authors)

116

Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

117

Epidemiological survey of the medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characteristics of the contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are defined, as a basis for epidemiological investigations. Due to loss of integrity of the nuclear fuel and thermal buoyancy from fire and nuclear heating, a large quantity of radioisotopes were released over a period of up to 16 days. The areas affected were very large, 37 million hectares in Ukraine alone. About 5 million persons were affected in one way or another, over 2 million of them in Ukraine. Registration and epidemiological follow-up in the former USSR and the three republics afterwards are presented with an emphasis on Ukraine. Considering the long incubation times for some of the expected illnesses and relatively low average doses, the difficulties of confirming significant effects become evident. For example leucosis morbidity among cleanup personnel within a 30 km zone around the accident was 3.4 per 100,000 before the accident and 7 per 100,000 afterwards. The question of the statistical significance of such numbers is discussed by the authors, in the context of confounding factors. For some of the observed effects it has already been established that stress and anxiety caused by the accident and living conditions in the affected areas are the principal cause rather than radiation. According to the authors, more detailed retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies are needed in the future, in order to clarify the causes of observed health effects observed health effects

118

The presence of the radionuclide in the lung tissue of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A man of 66 years old who took an active part in the liquidation of Chernobyl catastrophe consequences, whose irradiation dose was 24 roentgens was examined. In march 1993 during the prophylactic examination the peripheral lung tumor of the lower left lobe with the penetration into the lung root was discovered by the method of computer tomography. The certain histological features very typical for adenocarcinoma were found in the samples of the tumor. By X- nad gamma-ray spectrometry methods a significantly high level (0,1-0,18 Bq) of 137Cs in the liwuidators lung is good evidence of the long-term accumulation of radionuclide in the lung tissue

119

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident; Radiologische Folgen des Tschernobyl-Ungluecks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large areas of Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine have been highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The most affected areas are around Chernobyl and east of Gomel in Belarus, where part of the radioactive fallout came down with rain. The article maps the radioactive contamination through cesium 137 and iodine 131, and summarizes the immediate action taken at the time, as well as long-term remedial action for decontamination of soils. Data are given on the radiation exposure of the population, in particular doses to the thyroid, and prognoses on the incidence of thyroid cancer. (VHE) [Deutsch] Durch den Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl wurden groessere Flaechen von Belarus, Russland und der Ukraine stark radioaktiv kontaminiert. Besonders betroffen sind die Umgebung von Tschernobyl sowie die Gegend oestlich von Gomel (Belarus), wo die radioaktive Wolke teilweise ausregnete. Der Artikel beschreibt die Belastung mit Caesium 137 und Iod 131 sowie die ergriffenen Sofortmassnahmen und die langfristigen Massnahmen zur Dekontamination der betroffenen Boeden. Die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung, v.a. die Schilddruesendosen, werden beschrieben, fuer Schilddruesenkrebs werden Prognosen gegeben. (VHE)

Jacob, P.

1996-05-01

120

The consequences of Chernobyl: What do we know 10 years after the accident?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

22 scientists provide in 12 articles a survey about what is happening at Tchernobyl. This includes the situation today in the countries most affected of the former Soviet Union and in Germany, and also the consequences of the accident. There is given a detailed report about the measurement activities of the German Federal Republic and the project of GAST 'scientists help the children of Tchernobyl'. The follows: A survey of epidemiological studies in Germany, a presentation of regulations and professional help as a consequence from the accident, and finally an evaluation of the media and their part in the proliferation of information. (orig.)

121

Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described.

Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

1986-01-01

122

Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

123

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG)

124

Summary of the consequences for the environment of the Chernobyl accident; Synthese sur les consequences environnementales de l`accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main conclusions on the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the former Soviet Union can be summarised as follows: the long term radioactive contamination of the environment can essentially be put down to Cs and Sr and, to a lesser degree, transuranic elements. In the short term, the radioactive iodine fall-out plays a fundamental role; in the countries of the former Soviet Union, it is estimated that 29,300 and 10,200 km{sup 2} of the surface area of the land are respectively contaminated by over 185 and 555 kBq.m{sup -2}. Approximately 1,064,000 people live in areas contaminated by more than 185 kBq.m{sup -2}; acute radioactive fall-out effects have occurred in the 30 km exclusion zone, essentially witnessed by the death of numerous conifers. On average, it will take about twenty years for half the Cs to disappear from the top 10 cm of soil; the level of contamination of food products varies greatly according to soil type. However, we can consider that milk, berries and mushrooms were the most critical foods in the years immediately following the accident and that some of the agricultural counter-measures taken have proved very useful in containing the contamination of food products. Because of the massive iodine leakage, the worst affected organ in the body during the months following the accident was the thyroid gland. In the months following the accident, the presence of radioactive elements on the surface of vegetables which were subsequently eaten proved to be the main source of human contamination; after a rapid fall off in external dose received by the population during the first year, it is now decreasing much more slowly. This phenomenon is mainly due to the very long-life of the radioactive caesium in the soil; approximately 90 % of the total internal dose for the 70 years following the accident have already been received by the local population. The external dose level will be reduced fairly slowly and we can assess that approximately 60 % of the amount of the external dose cumulated for the 70 years following the accident has already been ingested. (author). 2 refs.

Ciffroy, P.

1996-08-01

125

Legislation in Ukraine about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the status and consequences of the principal laws of Ukraine concerning the problem of the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Ukrainian authorities have been giving a series of the laws after February, 1991. The system of Chernobyl Laws in Ukraine reflects the rather good intention of the Ukrainian authorities to help the people who suffered from the Chernobyl catastrophe. The system of the Laws includes more than that justified by the scientific base, that is, the combined effect of radioactive exposure and factors of non-radioactive synergism. However, after the Soviet Union collapse, it was found that the Laws were overloaded with social payments and compensations. A number of changes and additions to the Laws caused political struggles. In this situation, the radiological aspect of the problems stepped aside. The radiological survey system in Ukraine provides necessary information on annual doses to the population in the contaminated areas. Despite of the clearly observed reduction of the doses, allocation on the categories of contaminated zones has not been reviewed since 1991. According to the monitoring data, the level of radiation doses of about 50 % of all settlements does not correspond to their present status. What is very important in the present situation is to stop compulsory resettlement. It is necessary to stop to pay compensations for contaminated food products, and introduce a system of benefit to those who produce pure products on contam those who produce pure products on contaminated areas. It is expected that on approval of the Ukrainian Parliament it will became a new basis for reviewing of the Chernobyl Laws. The Laws and regulations of Ukraine on radiation protection are on the way to meet international basic safety standards. But there is no experience in the world of dealing with the consequences of such a wide-scale radiation catastrophe. Taking into account the fact that a certain part of the Ukrainian population have to live permanently on the radioactively contaminated area, the contamination is not considered as an accidental, but rather as environmental factor like natural radioactivity. This thought provides somewhat different approach to setting acceptable levels of radionuclides in food stuffs and explains the difference in international recommendations. (Y. Tanaka)

126

Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

127

Environmental and health consequences in Japan due to the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive review was made on the results of national monitoring program for environmental radioactivity in Japan resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR. Period of monitoring efforts covered by the present review is from 30th of April 1986 to 31st of May 1987. A radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor initially arrived in Japan on 30th of April 1986 as indicated by the elevated level of 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activity in the total deposition on 30th of April and also by the increased 137Cs body burden noted on 1st of May. Almost all the radioactive nuclides detected in the European countries were also identified in Japan. For example, the observed nuclides were: 95Zr, 95Nb, 99mTc, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 111Ag, 125Sb, 127Sb, 129mTe, 131I, 132Te, 132I, 133I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce. Among the above radionuclides, the country average concentration was determined for 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs in various environmental materials such as air, fresh water, soil, milk, leafy and root vegetables, cereals, marine products and other foodstuffs. In contrast to the sharp decline of 131I which was negligible after a few months, 137Cs showed a tendency to maintain its activity in foodstuffs at an appreciable level one year later. Collective effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent to thyroid in Japanese population due to 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I were estimated to be around 590 man Sv and 4760 man Sv, respectively. Corresponding values for the per caput dose equivalent are 5 ?Sv for whole body and 40 ?Sv for thyroid, respectively. (author)

128

The consequences of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of the Chernobyl IV Reactor its operation and safety system. The following issues are analyzed; 1: the errors of the operators that produced the accident in april 26, 1986; 2: the fallout caused by the first explosions, that has mainly incorporated I and Cs in the food chain; 3: the path of the Chernobyl cloud, its passing across the north and south of Europe, and the middle east; 4: measures to stop the accident, fire control, plant stabilization and recovery of the place; 5: a sarcophagus, a technical novelty, had to be built due to the difficulties of monitoring; 6: the problematic decontamination of the forested places, caused interesting programs to be developed. Afterwords the effects produced by high and low doses in the population, were studied. A group of experts, reached the conclusion that no corrective or improvement measures for the occidental safety mechanisms, were required. (M.E.L.)

129

Chernobyl accident management actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident Management Actions taken during the first days after the Chernobyl accident either proved ineffective or were not fulfilled as reported by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Meeting of Experts in Vienna in August 1986. Most significant to source-term analyses and estimates is that it is now believed that approximately 71% of the initial 190.3 tonne UO2 fuel load was exposed to a high-temperature oxidizing environment because the core was neither covered with various materials thrown from helicopters to smother the fire nor was the core purged with (liquid) nitrogen. Both these actions were originally believed (on the basis of Soviet reports) to have effectively brought the crises to an end. These results seem to support earlier western far-field source term estimates that significantly more volatile radionuclides may have been released as a result of the accident than reported by the Soviets in August 1986. 46 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

130

Conclusions from the consequences of the reactor accident of Chernobyl for Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to abate the possibility, and to diminish the consequences of a serious reactor accident, the following measures are proposed and explained: (1) Establishment of an international reactor safety conference. (2) Establishment of a law on precautionary radiological protection on a national level. (3) In Bavaria: Extension of the radioactivity monitoring network to cover the whole area of Bavaria, enhancement of the information systems, establishment of a permanent inter-ministerial coordination board, research activities. (TRV)

131

Progress summary of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on two IAEA documents (the report of the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy named 'The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences' prepared for the IAEA Experts Meeting held in Vienna on 25-29 August, 1986 and the INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) summary report on the Post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident, drawn up in Vienna from August 30 until September 5, 1986, this publication tries to present a logic relation between the special features of the RMBK-1000 LWGR, the cause of the accident, and the technical countermeasures. (Auth.)

132

Intercalibration study of laboratories involved in assessing the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the framework of the International Chernobyl Project in order to assess the reliability of results obtained by different USSR laboratories it was decided that selected USSR laboratories involved in analysis of environmental contamination in the USSR due to the accident would be invited to participate in intercalibration exercises. These exercises were performed with two types of materials: 1) materials already available in the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Services; 2) the vegetation material (clover) which was being used in a worldwide IAEA intercomparison programme in 1990. In May 1990 the Agency's Laboratories at Seibersdorf prepared a package of material for all participating laboratories, consisting of the following samples: (1) two bottles of milk powder (low and high level of activity), simulated air filters, one bottle of soil; (2) one bottle of the vegetation material (clover). This package was accompanied by detailed information sheets on its use and standardized data reporting format. The milk powder, soil and clover samples were distributed to additional laboratories in October 1990

133

Prenatal diagnostics of congenital malformations, the most efficient way to decrease genetic consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term study of the prevalence of congenital malformations (CM) in the population of Belarus, carried out by Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, showed considerably increased, from 5.6% in 1980-1985 to 7.2% in 1986-1996, frequency of the anomalies found in embryos, increased number of malformations in induced abortuses and also the growth of CM in newborns, from 5 in 1983-1985 to 7.2 in 2001, in post-Chernobyl period. The highest raise was registered in the mostly contaminated with Cs-137 areas in the first post-Chernobyl years. There are various reasons for the observed increase, but they are still not clearly understood. Nutrition imbalance (deficit of vitamins, essential amino acids and soluble selenium), physoemotional stress, hormone imbalance, alcoholism and increased level of mutations due to additional exposure of the gonads of the residents of contaminated areas of the Republic can have some impact. Positive prevalence trend of multifactorial anomalies evidences multifactorial origin of the increased prevalence of embryonal anomalies. Both, increased prevalence of CM with great contribution of dominant mutations and the peak of Down's syndrome cases, recorded in January, 1987 with maximum in Gomel region, suggest mutation component. At present, the most efficient measures to prevent the birth of malformed children are prenatal diagnostics and vitamin supplement of the couples, who plan their pregnancy, and pregnant women in the first trimester. Accoregnant women in the first trimester. According to the conclusion, made by WHO experts, vitamin intake can considerably reduce many CM with multifactorial origin. Positive results can be achieved only if the problem is solved by the government, when vitamins are added to flour, cereals and bread. Prenatal diagnostics with subsequent termination of pregnancy, where incurable anomalies are found, contributes greatly to the reduction of the proportion of malformed newborns, irrespective of the factors, which caused the anomalies. Thus, in Belarus in the last 5 years about 500 pregnancies were terminated annually for genetic reasons. Over 100 pregnancies were terminated in Gomel region, which considerably reduced (by 1-3%) perinatal mortality, children's morbidity and disability. The number of children, born with the anomalies of the central nervous system, renal polycystosis and agenesis, omphalocele, reduction limb defects, is decreasing most considerably. The potentialities of prenatal diagnostics of CM are far from being used adequately in the Republic. With sufficient financing, present-day techniques allow prenatal diagnosing of 1000 cases instead of 600 diagnosed each year. The program will be productive, if prenatal biochemical screening and invasive prenatal procedures are financed regularly and interregional centres for prenatal diagnostics are created. These measures will not only reduce the proportion of children, born with congenital malformations, but increase the birth rate in Belarus, since the future mothers will not be scared to give birth to a malformed child, which is especially essential for the population exposed to radiation due to Chernobyl accident (authors)

134

Chernobyl the health consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

135

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This summary is the results of the International Conference ''One decade after Chernobyl''. It includes topics on initial responses, radioactive releases, absorbed radiation doses and health effects, socio-economic impacts as well as safety of RBMK type reactors

136

The radiat ion-epidemiological and cytogenetic study in group of participants of planned working on liquidation consequences Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data of radiation anamnesis (beginning and duration of staying in zone of the Chernobyl radiation accident, kind of fulfilled works) as factors of risk are specific in relation to the basic classes of diseases. Works on burial of atomic pile, deactivation, evacuation and all dates of entrance into the one of radiation injury were recognized as hazardous factors for the development of malignant growth

137

The Chernobyl accident: man or machine?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident the 'inherently safe' reactor has become a major theme for discussion. To improve reactor safety without questioning the economics of nuclear energy all power reactors that currently have no containment system should be backfitted

138

An experience of information support of the Russian federal programs of the overcoming of consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1992, by a number of paragraphs of the federal programs on overcoming consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP, the measures on informational-analytic support of the federal programs were provided. Within the framework of this activity for the solution of various aspects of Chernobyl's problem central bank of generalized data and numerous information systems were created. In the report the brief description of some of them is presented. In particular the databank on radioactive situation includes the information on 12 thousand settlements of Russia which have been exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident.The medico-demographic section of a databank includes information on death rate for the reasons for all subjects of Russian Federation since 1982 till the present time. The developed information systems are available to all participants of work on overcoming of consequences of the accident. There are given the examples of integral estimates in short- and long-term forecasts of development of a situation in territories suffered by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. (author)

139

Assessment of biological consequences in cattle within the area of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of Chernobyl NPP outburst on cattle from farms in Russia and Belorussia was examined sine 1988 to 1996. Changes in the level of thyroid hormones and disbalance in cAMP/cGMP ratio with increased cAMP concentration in blood were found. The content of cAMP and E, F2a prostaglandins was varied because of the disturbances in the rate of their metabolism. Two critical periods of pregnancy in cows were revealed. In the first half of pregnancy (the 4th-5th month) disorders in thyroid prevailed. In the second half (7th-9th month) changes in testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and estriol concentration were the most actual

140

The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine and problems with the sarcophagus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident in the Ukraine contaminated part of the territory with iodine 131, caesium 137, strontium 90, and plutonium 239 and 240. The zone surrounding the site of the accident was declared restricted area; more than 90 000 persons were evacuated. The paper reports on current conditions in the restricted area and prospects for this area as well as on the current state of, and problems with, the sarcophagus. The conversion of the sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system and the economic situation of the Ukraine pose great problems. (DG)

141

Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

142

Lessons from Chernobyl and prognosis for Fukushima: radiological consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The following are considered: results of large-scale radiation epidemiological studies of the health effects of the Chernobyl accident, radiation risks for emergency workers and the affected population; and verification of ICRP risk models taking into account data on the Chernobyl accident and preliminary prognostic estimates of potential radiological consequences of the Fukushima disaster. PMID:22394610

Ivanov, Victor K

2012-03-01

143

The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences; radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

144

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

145

Consequences, countermeasures and observed or suspected effects in the USSR after the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident led to substantial radioactive contamination, which was initially dominated by 131I and later by 137Cs. 90Sr was substantially less important. More than 200000 people were evacuated. There are still 270000 inhabitans of areas with Cs contaminations of more than 5 x 105 Bq/m2. At least some of these will still have to be evacuated for radiological reasons. In large regions of smaller contamination normal life with few restrictions would be possible, if it were not for the poor information policy of the authorities which has caused a degree of suspicion, fear and insecurity that makes it now almost impossible to reach an objective perception of the exposures and the associated risks. The deficient health statistics have, up to now, not permitted any conclusions regarding increases of childhood leukemias which are expected in the regions with the highest contamination. For other cancers one expects lower relative increases but it is unlikely that they would be detected even in thorough statistical studies. Thyroid cancers are a possible exception. In contrast, significant increases of ilnesses such as anemia or diabetes which are not normally associated with radiation, have been noted. They are due to the grave constraints in living conditions, to the fears and to the increased attention to illnesses which were formally not registered in any health statistics. They are now seen by the population and alsoey are now seen by the population and also by most physicians as radiation-induced. (orig./MG)

146

The Chernobyl accident - five years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

147

[The genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The monitoring of congenital developmental defects in newborn infants in Kaluga Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study concentrates on the genetic after-effects of the Chernobyl accident in some districts of Kaluga Province. The frequencies and range of congenital malformations, prematurely death-rate in the radionuclear polluted districts were compared with the control districts. Prematurely death-rate in compared regions is the same. The increase of the congenital malformation frequency is revealed in one the polluted districts (256/10,000) as compared with the control one (27/10,000). We assume that the observed effect is mainly connected with the professional activity of the population. PMID:7489096

Guzeev, G G; Kalabushkin, B A

1995-01-01

148

Particularities of chronic diseases evolution in persons from the Republic of Moldova, who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper the results of chronic diseases evolution during the period of 1995-2010 for participants of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation are presented. The study group consisted of 800 male patients, Chisinau city residents, aged 43-63 years, and 200 healthy male control subjects of same age. In the study group 2197 cases of chronic diseases in 1995, 4338 - in 2010 were recorded. During this period, the number of cardiovascular diseases has increased three times, digestive system disorders - 2 times, diseases of musculoskeletal system - 4.7 times, and respiratory illnesses have tripled.

149

Metabolic syndrome X as a clinical outcome of hormonal changes on the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences (the problem analysis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of hormonal changes in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences, which promote the metabolic syndrome X development, was carried out on the base of clinical and experimental data. The system insulin-glucose, the mechanisms of insulinresistance and gyperinslinemia forming, the pathogenetical role of hyperinsulinemia interaction with others hormomes, some aspects of hormone - receptor interaction, an interconnection of hyperinsulinemia and vascular pathology, peculiarities of radiobiological stress as a non-classic adaptive reaction, which frequently resulting with a pathology, were discussed in the article

150

Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

151

Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author).

Girard, P. [Caen Univ., 14 (France); Dubreuil, G.H. [Mutadis Consultants, Paris (France)

1996-09-01

152

The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

2006-04-15

153

The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

154

State institution 'Republican research centre of radiation medicine and human ecology': concept of development and its role in solution of medical problems of consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, the Centre is the head institution, which provides specific medical assistance to population affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. It also carries out research work defined by the State Program of the Republic of Belarus on liquidating consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe within the period of 2001-2005 and up to 2010, sub-items 'Medical Assistance and Recuperation, Mother and Child Care, Hereditary Illnesses' and 'Radiation Protection and Dosage Monitoring of Population'. The aim of the Concept of the development of the Centre is to maintain and promote the health of the people exposed to multicomponent and prolonged impact of irradiation after Chernobyl accident and other negative factors of the environment of anthropogenic and man-caused nature, by means of realization of scientifically-grounded measures on minimizing of direct and indirect losses of society due to morbidity and mortality decrease. The ecological situation in the Republic and necessity of liquidation of medical consequences of the Chernobyl disaster demand to conduct long-term dynamic monitoring of state of health of big cohorts of people. At present, this problem is solved by clinical examination of population affected by irradiation. This is the base of preventive activity directed to decrease medical consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. In the Republic of Belarus, clinical examination of suffering population is carried out at all levels - republican, regional, local, - in evels - republican, regional, local, - in clinics. To monitor the state of health of the population and to obtain correct data of medico-biological consequences of the catastrophe, Belarus State Register of people exposed to irradiation due to Chernobyl accident, was established and is functioning. At present, State Register provides information supply of the conducted clinical examination. The concentration in one institution of functions of managing staff, quality control of clinical examination and scientific inspection of the State Register may solve: the issue of correct assessment of changes of state of health of the population under clinical examination, at all its levels; significant decrease of the amount and expenses for such investigations. The full and true information about health of the population, suffering from the catastrophe and being under clinical examination, qualitative and correct analysis of the levels of dynamics of morbidity makes possible to ground scientifically recommendations on perfection of medical assistance, to conduct targeted prevention activities on decrease of pathologies among suffered population on the whole and in separate regions and categories of the suffered people, to define ways of promotion of clinical examination at all its stages which is actual for health care system of the Republic. These materials will build the ground for preparation of the Concept of organization of medical supply of population affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Concept is to be developed by the Centre according to the Resolution N2 (29.01.2003) of the Board of Ministry of Health Care of the Republic of Belarus. The first stage of the Concept preparation was the development of the Centre's working plan on organization of clinical examination for population suffering from Chernobyl accident, for the period of 2003. The realization of the Concept of the development of the Centre will allow: to use effectively intellectual potential due to science and practical health care dissociation; to improve material and technical basis due to financial flow unification; to ensure integrity of the united technological chain: investigation - result - introduction; to ensure highly professional level of specialized medical assistance to the population due to maximum exploitation of medical equipment and highly professional staff in treatment and diagnostic process; to ensure unified system of prognosis and regulation of state of health of the population in unfavorable environment; to develop, together with clinical sub-dividing, regional passport

155

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Karlsruhe region an effective dose equivalent is expected to be 60 ?Sv (6 mrem) for adults and 118 ?Sv (11,8 mrem) for a child, one year old, for the time between May 86 and May 87. These doses are caused by inhalation of radionuclides released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl, by the ?-radiation of deposited radionuclides and by the ingestion of contaminated food. The dose caused by as the uptake of natural radioactivity by food and inhaled air, the terrestrial and cosmic radiation achieves about 2200 ?Sv/a (220 mrem/a). During the first year after the reactor accident the additional dose will be about 5% of the natural annual exposure. During the following years the dose caused by radionuclides from Chernobyl will be negligible low. (orig.)

156

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

157

Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic regulation is one of the most important trends in protection of the public and the human habitat in radiological emergencies. This regulation has developed and improved along with changes in the radiation status, thus, fortifying the latter's improvements with a view to stabilize and normalize it through preventive/protective measures. Since 2002, the emergency standards have been abolished and replaced by the common federal ones. Regardless of the measures for public protection and the remediation activity, the output of products exceeding the hygienic standards has been under way on the individual farms. The samples of such products reach 12% in the south-west districts of the Bryansk region. At present, the public exposure doses obtained in 425 localities of the Brynask region and in 3 settlements of the Kaluga region exceed the established standard of 1 mSv; that requires the arrangements for and performance of a package of protective measures. At the same time, the radiation status has completely normalized in other 12 subjects of the Russian Federation. To minimize medical effects, the Federal Supervision Service for Consumerism and Human Welfare (Rospotrebnadzor) considers it essential to continue a package of actions on health protection and medical rehabilitation of the public affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident, as well as to develop further epidemiological research to reveal radiological effects of the accident. The above mentioned remains the priority for the Russian preventive public health service

158

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and measures taken to mitigate their impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the accident that occurred at 1:23 a.m. on 26 April 1986 at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, a significant quantity of the radioactive materials accumulated in the reactor during its operation escaped from the plant. Because of the meteorological air mass transfer conditions prevailing, the cloud formed at the time of the accident left a radioactive trail over the area to the west and north of the plant. In the following 10 days, an intense release of radioactive gases and aerosols continued, resulting in the contamination of terrain in different directions and at considerable distances from the plant. The total release of radioactive substances (excluding radioactive noble gases) was calculated on 6 May 1986 to be about 1.9 EBq (exabecquerel, or 1018 Bq), or 3.5% of the total inventory of radionuclides in the reactor at the time of the accident. Releases of the biomedically most significant nuclides such as strontium-90, iodine-131, and caesium-137 amounted to 8.1, 270, and 37 PBq (peta-becquerel, or 1015 Bq), respectively

159

Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who ychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

160

Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of nuclear power to meet increasing energy demands in many parts of the world. In 2001, after taking note of the conflicting views on the results of the accident, I called for the creation of a Chernobyl Forum, inviting the world's foremost scientific experts to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the health, environmental and social impacts of the accident. As with all IAEA programmes, we emphasized an impartial, fact based approach to the analysis of this difficult and highly charged topic. I was pleased that, after a long period of careful analysis, the parties involved - including the World Health Organization and seven other specialized United Nations agencies, as well as the Governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - were able to achieve consensus on the set of authoritative reports that were issued last September. But the Chernobyl Forum had another purpose as well. My hope was that, by giving clear, impartial answers about the accident and its effects, we would be able to focus more effectively on present and future needs. Better international cooperation on assistance to the people and regions affected by the accident. Smarter approaches to safe food production and effective health care. Enhanced investments in the people concerned, in ways that would give them control over their own livelihoods. In short, it was my hope that, by answering questions about the past, we could restore a vision of a brighter future for the regions concerned. And that remains my hope. We will not soon forget the Chernobyl accident. We will not forget the emergency workers who gave their lives. We will not forget the health and environmental consequences. And we should never forget the lessons we learned regarding nuclear safety and international cooperation. In remembering the Chernobyl accident, we should renew our determination to ensure that such a tragedy will not happen again. But we must also remember the survivors, the individuals and communities who seek to move forward with their lives and the lives of their children. At this time of remembrance, they too deserve our att

161

The status of cellular and cytokine pathways of immunity among participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences, in 10-12 years after they left the zone of enhanced radiation danger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the immune system among liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are investigated in 10-12 years after they left the zone of the enhanced radiation danger. Clinical and laboratory examinations are conducted in 49 men in the range of 44-52 who took part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences in the period of 1986-1988. The total leukocyte count, absolute and relative counts of lymphocytes and granulocytes are defined. The content of lymphocytes in a peripheral blood and the amount of cells synthesizing cytokines are estimated. The content of lipids and cationic proteins as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase and myeloperoxidase are studied by means of cytochemical methods. It is established that no appreciable changes of the absolute leukocyte count is found in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences but changes of parameters of cellular and cytokine pathways of the immunity are conserved

162

The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, além de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O foco no câncer de tireóide, porém, distraiu a atenção de especialistas sobre outros possíveis efeitos. A resposta internacional ao acidente foi inadequada, descoordenada e injustificavelmente tranqüilizadora. Acurada avaliação sobre efeitos futuros nem sempre é possível por causa de uma certa dose de incertezas frente ao estágio atual dos debates sobre radiação. É essencial que investigações sobre efeitos e conseqüências do desastre possam ser socializadas e apoiadas por um longo período de tempo. Por causa das inadequadas respostas internacionais ao problema, a ONU deveria iniciar uma revisão independente a respeito das ações e responsabilidades das agências, com recomendações de como agir em futuros desastres. Isso deveria envolver cientistas independentes e não que atuassem em competição.

Keith Baverstock

2007-06-01

163

The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response / O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, alé [...] m de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O foco no câncer de tireóide, porém, distraiu a atenção de especialistas sobre outros possíveis efeitos. A resposta internacional ao acidente foi inadequada, descoordenada e injustificavelmente tranqüilizadora. Acurada avaliação sobre efeitos futuros nem sempre é possível por causa de uma certa dose de incertezas frente ao estágio atual dos debates sobre radiação. É essencial que investigações sobre efeitos e conseqüências do desastre possam ser socializadas e apoiadas por um longo período de tempo. Por causa das inadequadas respostas internacionais ao problema, a ONU deveria iniciar uma revisão independente a respeito das ações e responsabilidades das agências, com recomendações de como agir em futuros desastres. Isso deveria envolver cientistas independentes e não que atuassem em competição. Abstract in english Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and cons [...] ider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.

Keith, Baverstock; Dillwyn, Williams.

2007-06-01

164

Reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

165

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

166

Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures throughnuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the m

167

Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

168

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results from the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Summary report from WHO 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main conclusions drawn from the investigations are that the Chernobyl accident caused psychosocial problems due to poor information just after the accident, and stresses and traumas inter alia due to forced relocation. A marked increase of thyroid cancer among children has been demonstrated. However, no significant increase in the frequency of leukemia has been observed., 2 figs, 3 tabs

169

Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of consequences of thyroid exposure of the Russian population following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early period after the Chernobyl accident, analysis of patterns of 131I exposure of the human thyroid showed that contaminated milk was the basic source of 131I intake among the inhabitants of Russia. The equipment and techniques used for measurement of the 131I content in the thyroids of these individuals are described in this work. A model of the 131I intake, taking into account protective actions, and a method of thyroid dose calculation are discussed. The mean thyroid dose and frequency distributions of the thyroid doses to inhabitants of towns and villages of the Bryansk, Tula and Orel regions of Russia are presented. The mean dose to the thyroids of children living in the villages was 2 to 5 times higher than the dose to adult thyroids; for children living in the towns, the mean dose was 1.5 to 12 times higher. The mean thyroid mass in adult inhabitants of the Bryansk region was 27 g, which exceeded the value for a standard man (20 g) and was taken into account in the dosimetric calculations. The technique for reconstructing the mean and individual thyroid doses was based on the correlation between thyroid dose and several parameters: Surface 137Cs activity in soil, dose rate in air in May of 1986, 131I content in local milk, milk consumption rate, and 134Cs + 137Cs content in the body. The collective thyroid dose to inhabitants of the most contaminated regions of Russs of the most contaminated regions of Russia is estimated and a thyroid cancer rate prognosis is derived. The need for intensified medical care for the critical group - children of preschool age during 1986 - is based on a significant increase in the number of projected thyroid cancers and adenomas. 32 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

170

The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of {sup 137}Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

2007-07-01

171

CEC/CIS collaboration projects on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident preliminary results on the project dealing with strategies of decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1992, an agreement was signed between the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and the relevant Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine in order to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, through the implementation of a collaboration program involving the participation of about 200 CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) and EU (European Union) Institutes and Research Centers. In such a context, a collaboration project aiming at evaluating strategies of decontamination for the territories affected by the accident was launched. This project not only dealt with decontamination of agricultural soils, urban areas and forests but also included treatment of contaminated foodstuff. To date, the project comprised both experimental and theoretical activities. It is expected that the results of this project can be used for the development of practical strategies for decontaminating the relevant CIS territories, as well as for the definition of appropriate policies in the event of a future nuclear accident. Relying on a strong collaboration network which was progressively established between EU and CIS scientists, field experiments mainly dealt with decontamination of meadows using a turf harvester, and forests while producing valuable wood derivatives

172

Onsite response to the accident at Chernobyl (accident management)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In summarizing the information provided in the USSR report on plant stabilization shortly after the accident at Chernobyl and on the early response measures, the following three main stages can be identified: (1) the building fire-fighting actions and measures (techniques) undertaken and their effectiveness in controlling and finally extinguishing the fire; (2) the short-term stabilization of the plant immediately following the accident; and (3) the long-term recovery, including entombment of the damaged unit and the monitoring of the evolution and long-term stability of the entombed core debris and reactor building. Clearly, the information provided in the USSR report and the additional discussions indicated the importance of accident management. The science and technology of nuclear accident management has not been neglected in the nuclear field; however, attention to this aspect of nuclear safety research has been necessarily largely theoretical. Consequently the practical and very successful experience at the Chernobyl site is of great interest and should be further analyzed and documented

173

Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

174

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. Informative report prepared on behalf of the IAEA meeting, Vienna, August 25-29, 1986. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GRS has revised the German translation of part 1 of the report on the Chernobyl reactor accident. The translation is technically clear and intelligible and contains the current technical terms. The report comprises a description of RBMK-1000, a chronological description of the accident, the analysis of the accident, the causes of the accident, measures preventing the further development of the accident as well as measures controlling the radioactive contamination of the environment and the population. The report discusses immediate emergency measures improving the safety of RBMK-type nuclear power plants and deals with recommendations for nuclear safety engineering. (DG)

175

Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so far. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

176

The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

177

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

178

Response to the Chernobyl accident in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The worst nuclear accident in history happened at No.4 unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station in USSR. Since the Chernobyl accident, a number of measures have been introduced in many countries, including the reconsideration of programs for construction and operation of nuclear power plants. In Japan, the press and television first reported the accident on April 29. The next day, all the relevant governmental agencies began to collect and analyze information in order to prepare possible countermeasures. The Nuclear Safety Commission issued a statement covering three points: 1) the radioactive substances released by the accident will have virtually no influence on the health of people in Japan, 2) a Special Committee on the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station Accident will be established, and 3) the Soviet government must provide all detailed information about the accident as soon as it is available. On April 30, the Committee on Radioactivity decided to increase radioactivity observations by the Science and Technology Agency, the Defence Agency, and the Meteorological Agency. On the same day, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry set up a survey committee for the Chernobyl accident with the responsibility of collecting and analyzing information about the accident. A review is also made in this article as to how the Japanese media reported the accident and how people reacted on reading the newspapers and watching TV on the accident. (Nogami, K.) the accident. (Nogami, K.)

179

International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

180

Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

181

Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

2001-11-01

182

Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental health problems like depression in Fukushima patients. PMID:22394694

Bromet, Evelyn J

2012-03-01

183

Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on tred academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental health problems like depression in Fukushima patients. (note)

184

Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents

185

Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

2014-02-01

186

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

187

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden.

Odlind, V. (Uppsala Univ. (SE)); Ericson, A. (National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm (SE))

1991-01-01

188

The 1986 Chernobyl accident; Der Unfall von Tschernobyl 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

April 26, 2011 marks the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the worst incident in the history of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. While investigations of the course of events and the causes of the accident largely present a uniform picture, descriptions still vary widely when it comes to the impact on the population and the environment. This treatment of the Chernobyl accident constitutes a summary of facts about the initiation of the accident and the sequence of events that followed. In addition, measures are described which were taken to exclude any repetition of a disaster of this kind. The health consequences and the socio-economic impact of the accident are not discussed in any detail. The first section contains an introduction and an overview of the Soviet RBMK (Chernobyl) reactor line. In section 2, fundamental characteristics of this special type of reactor, which was exclusively built in the former Soviet Union, are discussed. This information is necessary to understand the sequence of accident events and provides an answer to the frequent question whether that accident could be transferred to reactors in this country. The third section outlines the history of the accident caused ultimately by a commissioning test never performed before. The section is completed by a brief description of radiological releases and the state of the plant after the accident when entombed in the ''sarcophagus.'' The different causes are then summarized and the modifications afterwards made to RBMK reactors are outlined. (orig.)

Kerner, Alexander; Stueck, Reinhard; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching bei Muenchen, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsanalysen; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

2011-02-15

189

Cytological and ultrastructural investigation and X-ray microanalysis of the BAL fluid of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators made 7 years after the accident (the first report)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bronchoalveolar lavege (BAL) of 9 young man who took an active part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl wreck's consequences during may-july 1986 was analyzed. Control group -8 man without lung diseases. Whole absolute cell count in the liquidators BAL was greatly increased in comparison with control group (0.9±0.01x106/ml and 0.2±0.03x106/ml in control group) but different cell number was not different from healthy subjects. Cytoplasm of 30-60 % of alveolar macrophages contained large (0.5-1.0 mkm in diameter) high density particles. Only cytoplasm and part of the high density particles in alveolar macrophages from liquidators contained U, Np, Pu, Fr, Pm, Pa. Cytoplasm of lymphocytes and erytrocytes of these patients, nets, buffers and epon for electron microscopy did't contained such kind of the elements. Thus, it was determined that alveolar macrophages can take part in the deposition of actually unsoluble radioactive dust particles and parts of nuclear fuel

190

[Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

Takada, Jun

2012-03-01

191

Long-lasting alterations in the immune system of Chernobyl accident victims: manifestations, nature and possible consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hypothesis is formulated, which explains genesis of long-lasting disturbances in the immune system of the persons affected by factors of Chernobyl disaster. Immunological alterations which are displayed at the late time after action of radiation in doses 0.5 Gy or lower are not a result of direct damage of the cells of immune system by irradiation. Their development is more probably a result of appearance of some systemic conditions and factors in affected organism - such as hormonal disbalance and especially autoantibodies of different specificities, including those reactive with thymic epithelial cells. Refs. 60, refs. 5

192

Blood picture alternations in persons after liquidating the consequences of the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of haemogram examination in 90 men who worked in Chernobyl in 1986 are reported. In 58 cases alterations were found in red blood in the form of oxy phil norm o- and/or macrocytes and half moon erythrocytes. Ovalocytes, stomatocytes or acanthocytes were found in ten persons. White blood picture was characterized by relative lymphosytosis, but also by appearance of lymphoid and plasmatic cells, what may be interpreted as activation of immune response. The results of reexamination after six to twelve months in 25 men demonstrated increased frequency or deepening of alterations in blood picture. (author). 12 refs

193

Long term exposure of the population of the Russian Federation as a consequence of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventeen regions of Russia were contaminated after the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. Two and a half million persons live in areas contaminated with 137Cs above 0.04 MBq/m2 (1 Cikm2). The paper describes the main consequences of the long term exposure of this population. The influence of some natural, human and social factors on the forming of the external and internal doses of rural and urban populations has been studied in Bryansk and Tula, the most contaminated regions of Russia, during 1986-1994. Radioecological process of migration of caesium and strontium nuclides in the biosphere are considered. A model of their intake into the human body has been developed and validated by large scale measurements of the human body content. Also, a model of external exposure of different population groups has been developed and confirmed by a series of individual external dose measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters. General dosimetric characteristics of the exposure of the population are given, together with some samples of accumulated external and internal effective doses of inhabitants of some settlements of the Bryansk and Tula regions in 1986-1994. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 5 tabs

194

Assessment of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Bulgaria according to specified radiation doses and new ICRP risk coefficients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population after Chernobyl is assayed. In 1986 the median effective dose amounts to 0.79 mSv, and the lifetime one - to 0.95 mSv. Irradiation in children is about 30% higher than that in adults. Median equivalent dose for the thyroid is 10.0 mSv for children, and 3.3 mSv - for adults. In various regions and for individual persons there is a potential possibility that the maximum radiation exposure will reach 8.0 mSv, and for thyroid - 200 mSv. The predictable cases of radiation-induced cancer amount to 470, of which 363 fatal and 107 curable. According to prognosis there are eighty cases of serious genetic effects, while early nonstochastic effects are not anticipated. 5 refs., 6 tabs. (orig.)

195

Chernobyl - system accident or human error?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Did human error cause the Chernobyl disaster? The standard point of view is that operator error was the root cause of the disaster. This was also the view of the Soviet Accident Commission. The paper analyses the operator errors at Chernobyl in a system context. The reactor operators committed errors that depended upon a lot of other failures that made up a complex accident scenario. The analysis is based on Charles Perrow's analysis of technological disasters. Failure possibility is an inherent property of high-risk industrial installations. The Chernobyl accident consisted of a chain of events that were both extremely improbable and difficult to predict. It is not reasonable to put the blame for the disaster on the operators. (author)

196

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

197

Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. PMID:24189103

Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

2014-02-01

198

Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

199

Multidimensional analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multidimensional analysis of the CHERNOBYL accident was carried out to identify the role of the design and operating features of the RMBK-1000 and thereby identify implications on other reactor concepts. The results show that assumptions regarding the pre-accident fuel burnup and flux distributions are major determinants of the size and shape of the power pulse, especially due to their influence on effective system void reactivity and on the amount, if any, of positive scram reactivity

200

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different (in type and pattern) from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan (and doses received early after the accident are not well known). Predictions derived from studies of these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, although an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in persons exposed as children as a result of the Chernobyl accident was envisages, the extent of the increase was not foreseen. Only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential, therefore, that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if any increase in the incidence of cancers as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident, except for leukaemia among liquidators and thyroid cancer, is expected to be difficult to detect. Studies of selected populations and diseases are also needed in order to study observed or predicted effects; careful studies may in particular provide important information on the effect of exposure rate and exposure type in the low to medium dose range and on factors which may modify radiation effects. As such, they may have important consequences for the radiation protection of patients and the general population in the event of any future accidental exposure. 50 refs, 7 tabs

201

Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

202

Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (autause of their negligible percentages. (author)

203

WHO updating report on the WHO conference on ''Health consequences of the Chernobyl and other radiological accidents'', including results of the IPHECA Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A wide range of health issues resulting from the Chernobyl accident and other radiation accidents was discussed at the Conference. Acute and delayed radiation effects (thyroid diseases, primary thyroid cancer, haemoblastosis, solid malignancies of various sites, etc.) were of high priority among the questions discussed. In addition to the plenary and main sessions there were parallel sessions, which included important subjects such ast the set-up of epidemiological and other registries, techniques of epidemiological registries, techniques of epidemiological studies, estimates of individual and population doses, specificity of the health status of the population and liquidators, as well as treatment and rehabilitation of those affected. Special attention was paid to the psycho-social effects of the accident. 3 figs, 4 tabs

204

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

205

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on international nuclear energy law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author investigates the legal consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Although a network of legal provisions concerning the utilization of nuclear energy had been in force before the accident at Chernobyl occurred, this event proved that there were still gaps in the system. The author deals with the efforts started in the aftermath of the accident in order to cope with the new situation. International organisations, especially the IAEA, played a leading role in tackling the formation of new legal regimes. (WG)

206

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases; delayed radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus; experimental development and scientific-and-engineering projects (development of special technologies and means for decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes, technologies for a safety of industrial activity in the contaminated territories, technologies of production of special medicinal preparations and food additives, etc.); detection, rescue and preservation of a historical and cultural heritage in regions having suffered after the Chernobyl accident. The institutes and establishments of a National academy of sciences of Belarus, Academy of agrarian sciences, Ministry for public health, Ministry for education and other ministries and departments took part in performance of researches. The new, original results allowing to estimate objectively medical, ecological and a socio economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to develop a number of measures for their minimization are submitted

207

Evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident (as of May 30, 1986)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compact presentation of information, as available on May 30, 1986, including the design of the Chernobyl reactor, the presumed course of events and causes of the accident, and radiological consequences. (HP)

208

Socio-economic consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe. Social protection of the citizens, affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident on Chernobyl NPP has affected the destiny of 35 million people in Ukraine. The social protection of the population affected during Chernobyl catastrophe is founded on the Law of Ukraine 'About the status and social protection of citizens affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe' (see further - 'Law'), and is the principal direction of activity and the subject of the special state attention to total complex of problems bound to Chernobyl catastrophe consequences elimination. The current legislation stipulates partial compensation of material losses connected with resettlement of the affected population. According to the current legislation in Ukraine about 50 kinds of aid, privileges and compensations are submitted to the affected citizens

209

The Chernobyl accident: bibliography of the science literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information about the scientific publications in 1986-1995 on the problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented in the book. A significant, unique actual material about results of radiation influence on men, animals, vegetative world and other components of an environment is collected to the present of time. Radiation dozes are determined and combined influence of the both radiation and chemical factors is investigated, clinical epidemiological and genetic estimation of a condition of health of the population is given. Agriculture technologies for conditions of radioactive contamination are developed and used. Normative base for both decontamination works and radioactive wastes storage is created. These and other problems are reflected in the publications described in the collection. The following sections are available: Radiobiology and radioecology (1445 refs.); Radiation medicine (703 refs.); Agriculture radiology (194 refs.); Decontamination and radioactive wastes storage (86 refs.); Economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident (36 refs.); Social and psychological problems (39 refs.)

210

Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs.

Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

1988-09-02

211

Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs

212

Psychological consequences of nuclear and radiological accidents: Delayed neuropsychiatric effects of the acute radiation sickness following Chernobyl. Chapter 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neuropsychiatric consequences of accidental irradiation to ARS patients have been monitored to the present on the basis of one in-patient medical examination per year. All ARS patients are hospitalized in the Radiation Pathology Department of the Institute for Clinical Radiology, RCRM, Kiev. The data on the neuropsychiatric aftermath of ARS presented hereafter were based on two research designs: 1) prospective follow-up study (1987-2001), and 2) cross-sectional study with parallel groups (1996-1998). The principles of the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders include complexity, stability and succession between stages (clinical, ambulatory-polyclinic, ambulatory and sanatorium treatment). Basic treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychological therapy. Neuropharmacology includes vasoactive and nootropic drugs, neuroprotectors, antidepressants (predominantly, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors - SSRIs) and atypical antipsychotic (if necessary). The correction of mental disorders is carried out at syndromological level. It is worth mentioning the importance of out-patient methods of treatment and rehabilitation [Nyagu A.I. et al., 1998, Nyagu A.I. et al., 1999

213

The impacts of the Chernobyl accident on Austria's economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the whole of Europe was affected by radioactive immissions. What was the actual magnitude of radiation exposure for the Austrians, and what are the consequences? Were the official regulations and measures that caused losses worth several thousand millions of schillings to the Austrian economy really necessary? Who bears the responsibility for this damage? This article attempts to give an answer to these questions. (Auth.)

214

A description of nuclear reactor accidents and their consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear reactor accidents which have caused core damage, released a significant amount of radioactivity, or caused death or serious injury are described. The reactor accidents discussed in detail include Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, SL-1 and Windscale, although information on other less consequential accidents is also provided. The consequences of these accidents are examined in terms of the amounts of radioactivity released, the radiation doses received, and remedial actions and interventions taken following the accident. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

215

Caesium-137 in Baltic Sea sediments since the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Baltic Sea was the sea most affected by the Chernobyl accident, because the first radioactive clouds from Chernobyl travelled north and caused high deposition in the Baltic Sea region. The distribution pattern of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in the catchment area of the Baltic Sea was very scattered, with the highest deposition values occurring in the areas surrounding the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland. The highest 137Cs concentrations in bottom sediments also occurred in these gulfs, but the scattered nature was further emphasized as a consequence of river discharges, sea currents and different sedimentation rates on hard and soft bottoms. The present report contains a revised estimate based on a larger quantity of sediment data than the previous estimates

216

Structure of the thyroid pathology in the radiation exposed areas of Leningrad region: late consequences of Chernobyl accident after 20 years  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the Chernobyl accident large areas of the USSR were contaminated with fallout, it has been proved that I{sup 131} caused higher incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Further observation for over 20 years showed retention of high annual prevalence of this pathology among the population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultimate result of the influence of I{sup 131} on the thyroid gland. The study included 454 women living in localities affected by the Chernobyl accident in April-May 1986 (case) and 909 women living in fallout-free localities (ICCIDD method). The incidence of malignant thyroid tumors among the inhabitants of the contaminated territories is higher than in the control area. This phenomenon can not be unambiguously attributed to radiation induced cancers, but requires further investigation, perhaps by the method of carrying out continuous and all-round prophylactic medical examination. High incidence of autoimmune changes can be considered to have been caused by the action of I{sup 131} and prophylactic supplement with stable iodine

Semenov, A.; Uspenskaya, A.; Bychenkova, E.; Chinchuk, I.; Novokshonov, K.; Chernikov, R.; Sleptsov, I.; Bubnov, A.; Fedotov, Y.; Makarin, V.; Karelina, Y. [Endocrinology, NWRMC FHSDA, ST-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

217

Chernobyl, 14 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

218

Radiation medicine in an assessment of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident does not have equal in the world. Acute radiation sickness was a clear deterministic radiation effect as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The conclusion that the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence among persons irradiated at childhood as a result of the Chernobyl accident is of radiogenic nature and practically irrelevant to the effect of directed epidemiological screening of this pathology can be accepted. The first results testify to increase of some types of malignant neoplasms that should be verified. Main registered effects are the neuropsychiatric disorders, endocrine diseases, cardiovascular pathology, diseases of digestive tract and bronco-pulmonary system, immune and haematological disorders. The social-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are today the priority problem. Controversial conclusions concerning health effects of the Chernobyl accident testify to an acuteness of a situation with definition of radiation effects even now, and the actuality of the prolongation of studies in this area

219

Chernobyl NPP accident: a year later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is being given to measures on liquidation of Chernobyl accident aftereffects, conducted since August, 1986. One of the most important measures lay in construction of the ''shelter'', which must provide long-term conservation of accidental unit. Works on decontamination of reactor area and contaminated populated regions were continued. Measures on providing safety of population and its health protection were performed. An attention was paid to long-term investigations on studying delayed aftereffects of the accident, monitoring of invironment, development and introduction of measures on improving NPP safety. Prospects of further development of nuclear power engeneering and possibilities of improving its safety are considered

220

Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

221

ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

222

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

223

Accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, a large accident occurred in No.4 plant of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine, USSR. This accident was an unprecedented one in the history of atomic energy development in view of any of the state of reactor damage, the number of casualties, the amount of radioactivity release and so on, and gave a large shock to the whole world. Also in Japan far away, the radioactive substance that seemed to be originated from the accident was detected though a minute amount. In the countries of Europe as well as the surroundings of the Power Station, the contamination with radioactive substances was serious, and the measures such as the limitation of intake and the limitation of distribution of foods were taken. The international conference was held for five days from August 25 at IAEA, and USSR made the report on the accident. Respective countries and international organization began the evaluation of the accident and the work to extract the lessons based on this report. However, as to the details of the accident, still many unknown points remain. The No.4 plant is RBMK-1000 type, graphite moderated, boiling light water cooled, pressure tube type of 1000 MWe output. The features of the damaged reactor, the course of the accident, and the evaluation of the accident and the lessons are described. (Kako, I.)

224

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

225

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

Hull, A.P.

1987-01-01

226

Medical consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of health deterioration in population of Ukraine affected after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The survived population division in groups, peculiarities of morbidity incidence and prevalence are described. The dynamics of some medical demography parameters are discussed concerning adults and paediatric population. The precise values of incidence and prevalence for the main classes of diseases are shown in comparison of 1995-1996 to 1987. (author)

227

Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

228

Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

229

Changes in the brain of subjects who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident consequences as shown by the data of radiodiagnosis (emission single-photon computer-aided scintigraphy, X-ray computer -aided and magnetic resonanse tomography)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the data of X-ray examinations of the brain in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Findings of X-ray methods of diagnosis permit a conclusion on a complex organic involvement of the brain in subjects who participated in liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident. The most typical are signs of the hypertensive hydricephalic syndrome with liquorodynamic disturbances and of the vascular encephalic syndrome with development of local postischemic malacia of the brain matter. 7 refs., 5 figs.,

230

Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an Bq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors,

231

Congenital malformations and infant mortality from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The health impact of radiological contamination in Bavaria from the Chernobyl accident was evaluated. According to caesium 137 levels in soil samples, Bavaria was subdivided in a higher contaminated region (Southern Bavaria) and a lower contaminated region (Northern Bavaria). Indicators for health effects were congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, and infant mortality. Definition of the study periods accounted for the temporal relationship between conception as well as organogenesis and the time of highest exposure to radioactivity during the first weeks of May 1986. Statistical analysis was based on a combined spatial and temporal comparison. The results of the study do not show a significant increase in any of the outcome variables. Consequently, this study provides no evidence that radiation from Chernobyl caused a rise in the birth prevalence of congenital malformations or perinatal and infant mortality in the Bavarian population. (orig.)

232

The reactor accident in Chernobyl 1986. 3. upd. ed.; Der Reaktorunfall 1986 in Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal. (orig./GL)

Ebermann, Lutz; Junkert, Arthur (comps.)

2011-07-01

233

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

234

Worldwide radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of the entire world population to radiation resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has been evaluated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The evaluation accounted for measurement results reported from 34 countries to establish the pattern of transfer during the first year after the accident; the report used fallout measurement experience to make a projection of doses to be received from continued exposure, primarily to 137Cs. On the basis of transfer factors derived from this information and of 137Cs deposition measured or estimated in all regions of the Northern Hemisphere, the collective effective dose equivalent commitment has been estimated. The result is 600,000 man.Sv, with 53% of this to be received in Europe and 36% in the USSR. (The two areas were measured separately.) (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

235

Dosimetric and biomedical studies conducted in Cuba of children from areas of the former USSR affected by the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Children from ares affected by the Chernobyl accident have been receiving medical care in Cuba since 1990. The dosimetric and biomedical studies made include: measurement of 137Cs body content; internal, external, thyroid and total dose estimation; evaluation of the overall health condition and behaviour of hameatological, endocrinological, biochemical and cytogenetic indicators. Measurements of body activity and dose estimation have been performed on altogether 4506 children. Of this total, 69.3% of the children were from the Ukraine, 22.5% from Russia and 8.1% from Belarus. Assessments of overall health conditions, haematological and thyroid indicators have been made covering 3016 children from 421 Ukrainian townships, taking into account the body measurements of 137Cs and the surface contamination of the locations where the children come from. The biochemical indicator used (nucleic acid concentration in leucocytes) was assessed in five groups comprising some 445 children from areas where the level of surface contamination varied. Chromosome and micronuclei aberration rates were established in 28 children from Pripyat, 21 living in Kiev and 20 in Ovruch

236

Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.)

237

Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

238

The human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. A strategy for recovery. A report commissioned by UNDP and UNICEF with the support of UN-OCHA and WHO. Final - 25.01.02  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Report contains the findings of a study conducted into the human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident fifteen years after the explosion. The Mission explored the health, socio-economic and environmental effects of the accident and the events that followed. The Report contains an analysis of the current situation and the prospects for the future, focusing on aspects that are significant for the well-being of the people and communities directly affected. The affected population - those exposed to radioactive fallout, remaining in the affected areas, or forced to relocate - continue to face disproportionate suffering in terms of health, social conditions, and economic opportunity. Hundreds of thousands of people have been evacuated from the most severely affected areas. Many have found it difficult to adapt and continue to face serious psychological, economic and social problems. The process of evacuation has now virtually ceased and only a small number of people continue to live in the most polluted areas. However, some tens of thousands remain in areas polluted to a level of between 15 and 40 curies per square kilometre. The accident has also had a continuing impact on the opportunities and well-being of a much wider circle of the inhabitants of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, through the negative image that it has created for large areas of these countries. It has imposed a heavy burden on the national budgets through the cost of clean-up, compensation and recovery. Ukraine, in addition, has had to carry much of the cost of closing and making safe the Chernobyl complex as well as the opportunity cost of the lost electrical output from the reactors concerned. These commitments have diverted resources away from other priorities, such as health, education and investment, at a time of profound economic crisis

239

17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems

240

Comprehensive analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standard computational methods have been used to make a preliminary analysis of the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics of the first two phases of the Chernobyl accident (initial positive reactivity generation and first Doppler transient). The most important results are discussed. These include the fact that it is impossible to define only one value of the reactor void coefficient. In the central channels (20% of the reactor volume) the effective coefficient is three times higher than the average, while the value is practically zero in the peripheral channels (40% of the reactor volume). The difference is due not only to the statically larger neutron worth of the central zone, but also to the dynamic instability of the radial flux distribution. The void increase in the central regions induces an increase of power and of the void in these regions, thus increasing the reactivity in an unexpected way. A design error in the scram rods (too short a graphite follower) can generate an undesired positive reactivity insertion while the first 1.25 m of the rods is being inserted. This effect can introduce from 0.5 to 1.2$ reactivity. The Doppler effect is the only one introducing negative feedback during a transient. The current model for the calculation of the effective fuel temperature must be reconsidered. A more sophisticated approach in needed to assess the rate of thermal and mechanical energy delivered during the explosion. For a self-consistent evaluation of the accident elf-consistent evaluation of the accident it is necessary to use two dimensional (R-Z) multigroup kinetics and dynamics models developed in the last ten years for the analysis of reactivity accidents in fast reactors. It is important to reach a proper understanding of the various mechanisms that caused the Chernobyl accident and for this purpose an interdepartmental group in ENEA is working on a comprehensive analysis using classical computational models and codes for thermal reactors. A new tool is being implemented: the code NADYP-Water, a new version of the two dimensional space-time code NADYP. International co-operation on the subject is desirable. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

241

Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

242

The German reactor safety and the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident has raised the alarm of many people making them fear both nuclear energy as such and nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. The majority, however proved to be ignorant of the totally different reactor design of the Soviet plant as well as of the extremely different safety philosphy. The philosophy, i.e. safety of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (and other Western countries) has reached a level which according to experts and common sense excludes a similar accident. In an interview Dr. Hans Frewer, member of the Kraftwerk Union management, voices his opinion on the different forms of a nuclear phaseout and points out the economic and ecological consequences. (orig./GL)

243

Chernobyl, 17 after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

244

Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

245

Public relations and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

246

Cancer effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, there is (apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence) no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers in general and of specific cancers (in particular breast cancer) have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. Both of these findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk, apart from thyroid cancer, is not proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Such an increase, however, is expected to be difficult to identify in the absence of careful large scale epidemiological studies with individual dose estimates. It should be noted that, given thtimates. It should be noted that, given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused by even a small increase in the relative risk could be substantial, particularly in the future. At present, the prediction of the cancer burden related to radiation exposure. (author)

247

Evaluation of ground dose subsequently to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present some data concerning the evolution of the ground global dose due to the ? and ? radiations of the fission products from the radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

248

The comparative analysis of traumas and poisonings incidence and mortality rates from them at workers and men-employees, workers of the nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims the estimation of incidence of traumas and poisonings, and mortality from them at workers of the Russian nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station, in view of their social structure. Material and methods. Carrying out this research, we used the information base of the Register of the persons exposed by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. There had been registered as of January, 1, 1998: liquidators of 1986-1987 years — 12882 people (men — 84,3%, liquidators of 1988-1990 years —2313 people (men — 88,3%. There had been presented parameters of case rate and mortality of men, separately workers and employees of the given cohort. Results. Lower level of traumas and poisonings incidence at employees had been revealed (2-2,4 times lower, than at the workers, the mortality of traumas and poisonings at employees were also 1,1-2,9 times lower (on the average — in 2,0 times is revealed. The alcoholism essentially raises a traumatism at liquidators. The traumatism above at the liquidators, suffering a chronic alcoholism, in 1,9-3,3 times. The distinctions in coefficients of the mortality from traumas and poisonings and the incidence by them for age groups of the men-liquidators were revealed. Conclusion. The essential difference in parameters of men-liquidators' health, workers of the nuclear industry, and workers shows that a social factor renders significant influence on health of a studied contingent of persons. Age features in many respects define value of parameters of incidence of traumas and poisonings and death rates from them a studied contingent. In radiation epidemiological researches it is necessary to consider biological and social factors necessarily.

Birukov A.P.

2013-12-01

249

Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of 137Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium 137 in the U.K. (UK)

250

Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

251

25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accideradionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

252

Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

253

The Chernobyl accident ten years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdo to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

254

Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

2006-12-15

255

Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

256

Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG)

257

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequh, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

258

Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

259

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

260

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the problem of estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of natural and agricultural ecological systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy radiation accidents cause long-term low-dose biota irradiation on large territories. In this situation of great importance is a correct estimation of danger of low-dose irradiation. Approaches now in use to assess the genetic consequences of irradiation are based on linear extrapolation of biological effects induced by high and medium doses to the region of low doses. However, models based on the linear non threshold hypothesis lack strong biological justification and come into conflict with the experimental data available. Our experiments with agricultural crops aimed at studying regularities in the induction cytogenetic damages using test-systems have demonstrated that the form of the dose-effect curve in the domain of low exposure values shows a pronounced linearity and the presence of a dose-independent region. A comparison of the experimentally revealed form of the empirical curve with results obtained for other objects (human lymphocytes, fibroblasts of Chinese hamster, seedlings of horse beans, etc.) allows a conclusion to be made that the relationship between the yield of radiation induced cytogenetic disturbances and dose is non-linear and universal in character, varying for different objects only in dose values at which changes in the relationship nature occur. So, the observed genetic effects in the region of low doses result from peculiarities in the cellular response to weak external action rather than damaging impact of ionising radiation or other ing impact of ionising radiation or other factors of physical or chemical nature

261

Radioactive residues from nuclear accidents in Kyshtym and Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive contamination of lands is one of the most dangerous forms of environmental pollution in Russia. In total up to 25% of Russia's territory has been subjected to some form of radioactive contamination, mainly owing to the large radiation accidents of Kyshtym (1957) and Chernobyl (1986). Data are presented on radioactive contamination of lands in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident and Karachai dust storm (1967) and in the European part of the Russian Federation following the Chernobyl disaster. A brief description is provided of the RADLEG information system, which collects data on radiation accidents and radiation contamination in the Russian Federation. (author)

262

Accident consequence assessment code development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

263

Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation. PMID:22048494

Jargin, Sergei V

2011-12-01

264

Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in agreement with Chernobyl experiences. However, emergency planning presently is still often focussing on too small areas. In reality, almost all of Europe should be prepared for nuclear disaster. The project investigated also the effect of a simple phase-out scenario. A regional phase-out policy is effective for reducing or even eliminating high damage in the respective regions. It should also be mentioned that risk distribution depends strongly on accident frequency, but this parameter is highly uncertain. The work in flexRISK was funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN).

Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

2013-04-01

265

Very high mutation rate in offspring of Chernobyl accident liquidators.  

OpenAIRE

Exposure to ionizing radiation has long been suspected to increase mutation load in humans. Nevertheless, such events as atomic bombing seem not to have yielded significant genetic defects. The Chernobyl accident created a different, long-term exposure to radiation. Clean-up teams (or 'liquidators') of the Chernobyl reactor are among those who received the highest doses, presumably in some combination of acute and chronic forms. In this study, children born to liquidator families (currently e...

Weinberg, H. S.; Korol, A. B.; Kirzhner, V. M.; Avivi, A.; Fahima, T.; Nevo, E.; Shapiro, S.; Rennert, G.; Piatak, O.; Stepanova, E. I.; Skvarskaja, E.

2001-01-01

266

Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

267

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we present and discuss measurements of radionuclide concentrations made in Turkey during the Chernobyl event and perform preliminary analyses of the internal and external doses associated with exposure to these materials. 15 refs., 1 tab

268

Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

269

Report on the implementation of the programme initiated by the German Federal Government for investigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident relating to safety engineering, public health, research activities, and energy policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In response to a decision of the state secretaries on May 26, 1986, the Federal Government on September 3, 1986 launched a programme of activities intended to study and describe the situation in Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to safety engineering, public health, research and energy policy, and other aspects of public interest, and to provide for collaborative action at the national and European level. The report in hand explains the measures and activities carried out and their results within the last ten years following the reactor accident. (orig./SR)

270

Changed level of peripheral blood red cell total and membrane-bound catalase in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident and in residents pf a zone with increased radiation background  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and men permanently living in a zone with increased radiation background were examined 7.5 years after the accident. Use of tests characterizing the status of adaptation systems and defence reactions of the organism helped detect disorders in oxidative balance, to which the production of biooxidants by activated neutrophils and attenuated activity of blood catalase essentially contribute. The prooxidant shift results in injury to cell membranes manifested by the reduction of their enzyme-binding capacity. These shifts homeostasis disorders may create prerequisites for increase of morbidity of the examined populations due to disorders in the adaptation mechanisms

271

The evolutions of the nuclear industry after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After having recalled the scenario of the Chernobyl accident, discussed the safety of nuclear power stations in eastern European countries, presented the both types of reactors present in these countries (RBMK and VVER), this report describes the current status of the Chernobyl site. Then it gives an overview of technical improvements brought to eastern European countries, of the lessons drawn from this accident for western power stations. It describes what could be a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor and a reactivity accident, as well as clear water stopper scenarios on PWR. It evokes the CABRI-CIP program, describes phenomena that could lead to a sudden confinement failure, discusses the case of fast-neutron reactors and of experimental reactors, the inhibitions of safeguard system. It evokes research studies, calculation codes, experimental programs, safety probability studies, the EPR safety, and the notion of safety calculation

272

Environmental and agricultural impacts of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on April 26, 1986 resulted in large quantities of radioactive materials being released into the atmosphere. The environmental contaminations and agricultural impacts of the accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere were reviewed. Radiological consequences of the accident were briefly assessed. The data were presented on the results of radioactivity monitoring for air, ground and water, average individual effective dose commitment for each county, and levels of contamination on plant cover, milk, meat in live animals, food, aquatic, and other agricultural products etc. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides in grass-(cow)-milk were listed. Finally, problems on radioecology were discussed

273

[Nuclear-power-plant accidents: thyroid cancer incidence and radiation-related health effects from the Chernobyl accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the Chernobyl accident, enormous amounts of radioisotopes were released in the atmosphere and have contaminated surrounding populations in the absence of rapid protective countermeasures. The highest radiation doses were delivered to the thyroid gland, and the only direct consequence of radiation exposure observed among contaminated population is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among subjects who were children in 1986 and who lived at that time in Belarus, Ukraine or Russia. PMID:22920877

Schlumberger, Martin; Le Guen, Bernard

2012-01-01

274

Lessons for PHWRs learned from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada examined its criteria for licensing nuclear power plants following the accident to the Chernobyl reactor in 1986. The causes of the accident were studied to ascertain whether they revealed any deficiencies in the safety of CANDU PHWRs. A report published in 1987 contained nine recommendations, and this paper revisits these to indicate how they were dealt with by plant owners and the regulatory authority. (author)

275

Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

276

The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

277

Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident  

CERN Document Server

This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01

278

The accident at Chernobyl and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in Finnish women after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. DESIGN--Geographic and temporal cohort study. SETTING--Finland divided into three zones according to amount of radioactive fallout. SUBJECTS--All children who were exposed to radiation during their fetal development. Children born before any effects of the accident could be postulated--that is, between 1 January 1984 and 30 June 1986--served as controls. I...

Joffe, M.

1989-01-01

279

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author)

280

Assessing the risk from external irradiation after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of the research was to establish a relationship between the density of soil contamination by 137Cs in populated localities as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and to predict the risk of malignant tumors for the population

281

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

282

The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

283

Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

284

Chernobyl'-92. Reports of the 3. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 4. Part 1. Radioecological aspects of the accident effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Materials on the estimation of radioactive contamination effect on plants and animals are presented in the part: radiobiological consequence of Chernobyl' accident, the forest economy organization the arrangement of Chernobyl' monitoring on dose commitments, radioactivity and radionuclide migration in the soilplants - animals system, radioecological monitoring in phytocenoses, radioactive contamination of water NTTs Pripyat' in the pond-cooler, results of six-year coniferous forest research, population state of wild animals, fishes, birds, insects, mice, rats, hydrobionts

285

Documents used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

286

Documents, used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

287

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

288

Long term consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe and remediation programmes in the Russian Federation [Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Government of the Russian Federation has charged the Russian Ministry for Emergencies (EMERCOM) with coordinating activities for the mitigation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Ministry has undertaken the function of a State customer of federal target programmes for eliminating effects of radiological emergencies and catastrophes. Federal ministries and agencies, as well as executive authorities of the Russian Federation are involved in implementing the programmes. Joint Russian-Belarus projects to mitigate effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe have been under way since 1998

289

Cancer following the Chernobyl nuclear accident: what we have learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Twenty years later, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Ukraine remains the largest of its kind. Ukraine and Belarus in particular were heavily contaminated, principally with radioiodine which concentrate in the thyroid gland. Before Chernobyl, little was known about, the risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed to radioiodine as children, although there were some reports based on exposed adults. A number of epidemiologic studies have since been conducted to evaluate populations in Chernobyl-exposed areas. These have provided valuable information about the risks of Iodine-131 to children. I will summarize these studies and the lessons the international scientific and medical community have learned from this research on Chernobyl. Finally, I will describe progress with a seminal project: the Belarus-American Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases following the Chernobyl Accident. This collaborative effort has involved screening a cohort of approximately 12,000 individuals exposed as young persons at two year intervals for three consecutive cycles. This is the first study, cohort in design, to be based on individual, measured doses and thus can provide the best quantitative estimate of the dose-response relationship between Iodine-131 and risk of thyroid cancer

290

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

Eisler, R.

2003-01-01

291

Environmental consequences of releases from nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the results of a four-year Nordic cooperation project (AKTU-200). The results have impact upon many facets of accident consequence assessment, ranging from new computational tools to recommendations concerning food preparation methods to be utilized in a fallout situation. Some of the subprojects have approached areas where little or no research has been performed previously, like the project on winter conditions, the project on the physico/chemical form of radionuclides in the Chernobyl fallout, and the project on resuspension. The conclusion from the first of these projects is that the impact of an accident or fallout situation occuring during winter may be considerable smaller than in a similar situation during summer conditions. The most important conclusion from the second of these projects is that bioavailability of radiocesium in soil is significantly lower than that of radiocesium in plant material taken up via the roots. In the third project is was found that the resuspension factor is several orders of magnitude lower than the values traditionally cited, and that resuspension is a local phenomenon in a majority of weather conditions. The development of large-scale testing of mitigating actions to prevent uptake of radiocesium in animals in a fallout situation is also one of the projects where new ground has been sucessfully broken. 189 refs., 89 figs., 55 tabs

292

The Chernobyl reactor accident: First evaluation of the Soviet report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the IAEA conference of experts held in Vienna in late August the USSR presented detailed information about the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. This contribution is a first summary and evaluation of the information presented by the Soviet delegation in Vienna and covers the specific characteristics of the RBMK reactor, the planned test, the sequence of accident events, and some early countermeasures. GRS is at present preparing a comprehensive report about the reactor accident in the light of the most recent findings. (orig./HP)

293

The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

294

Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

NONE

2000-07-01

295

The Chernobyl reactor accident: Quantification and evaluation of the radiation risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper tries to evaluate the radiation risk emanating from the contamination of the environment after the Chernobyl reactor accident with a variety of radioactive substances. Main attention is given to the radioactivity taken up by the soil and vegetation as a consequence of the fall-out, and subsequently by the food, and to the radiation exposure of the population in general and fetuses in particular, as well as newborn babies and infants. (DG)

296

Chernobyl: the lessons learnt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident, a brief article examines the design of the Chernobyl reactor and the reasons why such a design would be unacceptable in any Western Country. The accident sequence is then described followed by a discussion of the consequences of the accident and the activities of the Defense Radiological Protection Service in the accident. Finally the lessons learnt from Chernobyl are outlined, particularly the medical lessons. (U.K.)

297

Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ?0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ?6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ?0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

298

Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

299

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

300

Topical problems of nuclear third party liability law as a consequence of the Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident and the consequences we had to cope with gave some hints as to the further development of the nuclear liability law, in order to enhance the protection of persons affected, and to make the necessary delimitation of the damage concept. The main items to be discussed include the building in of preventive measures into the liability provisions, the definition of the concept of damage, the volume of financial security, and the improvement of international nuclear liability system. (orig.)

301

Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological principles and criteria need detailed clarification. The specific aspect of this phase is the problem of social protection and social rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories has been considered as a combination of measures directed at improvement of environmental conditions and the quality of life. While planning decontamination for the long term, it is important to take into account the contribution of external dose to the total (external and internal) dose. The materialization of the social aspect is a very important characteristic of this phase. Unfortunately, in spite of all the efforts, the negative consequences of the accident have not been completely overcome. Nevertheless, the data array that has been accumulated since the accident allows unbiased assessment of not only the errors but also the achievements of the stupendous work on minimization of the consequences of the accident and drawing conclusions important for the future. (author)

302

Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

303

Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

1997-03-01

304

Health effects after the Chernobyl accident in Bulgaria: review of studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The current analysis is designed to address concern about possible health effects in Bulgaria following the Chernobyl accident (CA). The results of descriptive studies are analyzed for the period 1981-1996 and 1981-2003 on malignant diseases of lymph and haemopoietic system and thyroid cancer (TC) respectively. Analyses of the risk of TC in consequence of CA for analytical studies are based on detailed thyroid gland's dose of exposure. Comparative investigations are based on number of patients with surgery operation. Discussed are the results of studies among children received prenatal radiation exposure at the time of the CA. Overall, in none of the studies doesn't prove a significant increase in the malignant diseases of the hemopoietic system incidence as well as in leukemia that could be attributed to the Chernobyl accident. No increase in the leukemia incidence among children was registered. The descriptive and analytical studies reviewed doesn't prove CA as a risk factor for TC incidence. The number of congenital anomalies did not show a statistically significant increase in relation to the nuclear accident. It doesn't prove any influence of CA upon development of the chosen children's groups learning abilities. Exposure of Bulgarian population after the Chernobyl accident is not a risk factor increased incidence rate in oncohematological diseases and TC in our country

305

Chernobyl in the French mass media 14 years after the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents how the mass media have dealt with the fourteenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Nowadays Chernobyl epitomizes the hazards of nuclear energy. Public opinion has become extremely sensitive to topics concerning human health. This sensitivity is due to previous important affairs such as the scandal of the tainted blood, the mad cow disease or the syndrome of the Balkan war. Most media have broadened the debate to the sanitary impact of nuclear activities. The hyper-mediatization of the legal case of a man prosecuting the French state for no having taken adequate measures when the radioactive cloud spread over France, has given the feeling that French authorities have always wrongly minimized the consequences of the accident. (A.C.)

306

Signs of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen was investigated to evaluate the possible appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles living in the areas of Kaluga region affected by the Chernobyl accident. The percentage of positive sera varied from 4.8% to 1.2% over seven years. There is a significant difference in the frequency of antibody appearance between persons affected by radioactive iodine and those not affected. A greater quantity of the positive sera was recorded in the area with highest level of radioactive contamination. It is suggested that the elevated rate of autoimmune thyroiditis signs in children and juveniles is one of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

307

Environmental radioactivity in Finland - 20 years since the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Symposium on the Environmental radioactivity in Finland was held on the anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, on April 25 - 26, 2006. The Symposium was organised by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Laboratory of Radiochemistry at Helsinki University (HYRL), Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the Division of Radiochemists of the Finnish Union of Experts in Science (LAL). The Chernobyl accident is the worst nuclear reactor accident ever. It contaminated severely large areas in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. Radioactive substances also spread into other parts of Europe. These substances, especially the isotope 137Cs, can still be detected in the environment of Finland. The aim of the Symposium was to draw a general view on the environmental radioactivity and ionising radiation, radiation monitoring and radiation doses in Finland and the neighbouring areas. The Symposium included invited lectures as well as oral and poster presentations. The invited lecturers were Ph.Lic. Olli Paakkola (the Director of the Surveillance Department of STUK in 1986); Dr. Gabriela Voigt (the Director of IAEA Laboratories at Seibersdorf, Austria); Professor Peter Warwick (Environmental Radiochemistry at Loughborough University, UK); and Professor Timo Jaakkola (the Emeritus Professor of Radiochemistry at Helsinki University). The first session of the Symposium concentrated on the effects of the Chernobyl accident: how the environmental radioactivity dent: how the environmental radioactivity changed in Finland, what impact this had on Finns and Finnish food stuffs and to what extent the effect of the Chernobyl fallout can still be detected in the environment. The other sessions dealt with fallout research and analytics, natural radioactivity and stable isotopes, and radiation monitoring

308

The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

309

Chernobyl accident causes: Overview of studies over the decade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years have passed since the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP and during this time its causes have been investigated by many teams of scientists both in Russia and abroad. This paper reviews such efforts over the past decade. Russian studies of 1986 through 1990 were covered in a paper presented at the European Nuclear Society Conference in Paris in March, 1991. 30 refs, figs

310

Disturbances of mnestic functioning in victims of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with mnestic disturbances in 98 victims of Chernobyl accident. A statistically significant decrease in attention and memory (in particular of long-term verbal and visual ones) was found. The considerable asthenisation of patients and the insufficiency of active attention as well as the possible disturbances in turnover of some neurotransmitters which promote the consolidation of engrams (dophamin and norepinephrine) may underline the above disorders

311

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

312

Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

OpenAIRE

After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the correspond...

Rissanen, K.; Rahola, T.

1990-01-01

313

Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG)

314

Effects in Switzerland of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

April 1996 saw the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The current article takes advantage of this occasion to present, from today`s point of view, a summary appraisal of the radiological effects that this accident had in Switzerland, and to show how the warning and monitoring organisation in existence at the time coped with the event. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im April 1996 waren zehn Jahre seit dem Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl vergangen. Der folgende Artikel gibt aus diesem Anlass eine Zusammenfassung ueber die radiologischen Auswirkungen dieser Katastrophe auf die Schweiz, aus heutiger Sicht und zeigt, wie das Ereignis von der damaligen Alarm- und Messorganisation bewaeltigt wurde. (orig.)

Huber, O.; Jeschki, W. [Hauptabteilung fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen, Villigen (Switzerland); Pretre, S. [Hauptabteilung fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen, Villigen (Switzerland); Voelkle, H. [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheitswesen, Fribourg (Switzerland)

1996-11-01

315

Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

316

Belorussian population health state following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radioactivity peculiarities at the Belarussian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident are analysed. Main risk systems for human health and trends of potential pathology formation are determined. Growth in the disease incidence in adults and especially in children is marked. It covers thyroid cancer (due to 131I intake in the early period of the accident), chronic neoplasms in hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, immune system, digestive system, cardiovascular and neuromental diseases. Attention is paid to the genetic radiation effects, pregnancy and delivery pathology. 2 tabs

317

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant: One year after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant necessitated the mobilization of significant manpower and resources to limit or eliminate the consequences. By the end of 1986 the encasing structure was completed, and Units 1 and 2 of the Chernobyl plant were started up. Work during this period also included measures needed to provide normal living conditions for the evacuated population, medical, sanitary and agricultural measures, decontamination work on the power plant site and in the 30 km zone, and planning and implementation of radiation monitoring. The Chernobyl accident also necessitated critical analysis of the state of nuclear power safety with a view to achieving a higher level of such safety. Subjects of this analysis included the causes of the accident, its course and consequences, and the emergency action taken and its effectiveness. Immediate measures to improve the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors were worked out and carried through. In a broader context, all aspects of maintaining safety were reviewed, including: technical resources; personnel guidance and training; organizational and regulatory arrangements; scientific and technical support; emergency plans and resources for implementing them. On the basis of this analysis, a long term plan for the improvement of nuclear power safety was developed. The task was set of improving the scientific and methodological basis for the assessment, analysis and control of safety. The ment, analysis and control of safety. The critical analysis to which nuclear power was subjected after the Chernobyl accident did not lead to any change in positions regarding the development of nuclear power in the USSR and the world as a whole. (author). 6 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

318

Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their winter diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic

319

Chernobyl accident consequences: the unborn children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk of spontaneous abortion in 1-12 week gestation term among Kiev region women with desired pregnancy is considered. If cumulative dose of total irradiation among Kiev region women was more than 5.0 mSv, spontaneous abortion risk increased. Mother's age more than 34, smoking, chronic infections and sterility treatment in anamnesis also increased spontaneous abortion risk. The material well being does not influence spontaneous abortion risk among women

320

Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting

321

Some parameters of immune system in clean up workers of Chernobyl NPP accident suffering from peptic ulcer duodenum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some parameters of cellular and humoral immunity in 55 patients with Peptic Ulcer Duodenum are presented. All involved persons participated in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up. The immune status in patients with acute ulcer was characterised by statistically significant decreasing level of T-lymphocytes and T-helpers compared with healthy pearson

322

Proceedings of the first part of a joint OECD(NEA)/CEC workshop on recent advances in reactor accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of the Joint Workshop, organised by the NEA, is focused on the progress achieved in the work of CSNI's GRECA (Group of Experts on Accident Consequences). The program is composed of the following papers. Session 1: characteristics of the Chernobyl release and fallout that affect transport and behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment; Chernobyl accident and hot particles in the fallout; radionuclides associated with colloids and particles in the Chernobyl fallout; source term in the Chernobyl accident; long range transport of radionuclides; parameters in consequence calculations for an urban area. Session 2: review of evaluations concerning radionuclide transfer to foodstuffs via plants in view of the data available after the Chernobyl accident; GRECA review of Chernobyl data on transfer to animal products; Chernobyl accident radiometric data (Cs-137 in fresh water fishes of north Italy lakes); distribution of Cs-137 in water sediment and fish in the Ijsselmeer (Netherlands); uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl accident; radioactivity of people in the nordic countries following the Chernobyl accident; preparations for an international study to evaluate long-range transport models against the Chernobyl accident

323

Aspects of risk analysis application to estimation of nuclear accidents and tests consequences and intervention management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For assessment of accident consequences and a post-accident management a risk analysis methodology and data bank (BARD) with allowance for radiation and non-radiation risk causes should be developed and used. Aspects of these needs and developments are considered. Some illustrative results of health risk estimation made with BARD for the Bryansk region territory with relatively high radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident are presented

324

Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident considerable efforts have been made in Sweden to reduce radiocaesium intake via food by the general population. Countermeasures have been used especially in reindeer husbandry. In this investigation intake of radiocaesium via reindeer meat was estimated, and the corresponding collective radiation dose to humans was calculated for the first 10 years following the Chernobyl fallout. The transfer of radiocaesium and the collective dose were compared with the potential transfer and corresponding human dose, that would have occurred in the absence of radioactivity limits and countermeasures. According to the estimates, the collective dose for the first year after the Chernobyl accident (May 1986 to April 1987) was reduced from 193 man Sv (potential dose) to below 3 man Sv (actual dose). The cost for this was 117 million SEK. Because of the relatively rapid reduction of radiocaesium in reindeer pasture, both the potential and the actual dose decreased with time. For the reindeer slaughter period from July 1995 to June 1996, the potential dose was estimated to 18 man Sv and the actual dose to 7 man Sv. The total expenditure on control and countermeasures for that year was 17 million SEK.

Aahman, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics

1999-07-01

325

Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bio-indicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru and 110Agm were detected in F vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of 137Cs varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northernmost locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg at the south east cost. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocaesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and 99Tc the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily caesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (authors)

326

Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

327

The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long. (from conclusion)

328

Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

329

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives the results of radiation measurements in Denmark following the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. The results of the measurements as of 3 May show that the effect of the accident on Danish territory is comparable to 2 weeks of natural background radiation. The report has been prepared on behalf of a coordinating committee established by Danish authorities after the accident. The coordinating committee is chaired by the National Agency of Environmental Protection and consists of representatives from the National Board of Health, the National Food Agency, Risoe National Laboratory, the Civil Defense, the Meteorological Institute and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report measurements were performed by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (part of the National Board of Health) and by Risoe National Laboratory. (author)

330

Radioactivity in mushrooms in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide activities in common edible mushrooms, collected in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The highest levels were found in Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Cantharellus lutescens and Boletus cavipes. In addition, a large number of soil samples was collected in the same area. From the 137Cs/134Cs ratios, its was possible to differentiate the radiocesium contribution from pre-Chernobyl fallout in both fungi and soil. The contour maps for 137Cs and 134Cs distributions are reported. The radioactivity detected in the mushrooms is not related in a simple manner to the contamination level of the corresponding soil. Some species tend to concentrate cesium and silver nuclides, whilst others show little affinity for these and other nuclides. Explanations for the different behavioral characteristics of the species are suggested. (author)

331

Some results of liquidation of accident effects at the Chernobyl' NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of works dealing with liquidation of accident effects at the Chernobyl' NPP are generalized. Some measures realized are estimated. Suggestions directed to efficiency increase when eliminating such accident effects are formulated

332

Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

NONE

1998-04-01

333

External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which parameters were driving the computed results. The mean external effective dose for all individuals in the cohort due to exposure to radiocontamination from the Chernobyl accident between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009 was found to be 1.2 mSv; the geometric mean was 0.84 mSv with a geometric standard deviation of 2.1. The mean value is well below the mean external effective dose expected due to typical background radiation (which in the United States over this time period would be 12.0 mSv). Sensitivity analysis suggests that the greatest driver of the distribution of individual dose estimates is lack of specific information about the daily behavior of each individual, specifically the portion of time each individual spent indoors (and shielded from radionuclides deposited on the soil) versus outdoors (and unshielded).

Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

334

Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by {sup 137}Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of {sup 137}Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

2014-07-01

335

Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident (131I, 140Ba /140La, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Nb, 95Zr, 137Cs and 134Cs). They accumulate the long-living 90Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than 137Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of 137Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of 137Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of 137Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more 137Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of 137Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by 137Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of 137Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of 137Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

336

Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km2 (15 Ci/km2). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

337

Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

338

XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

339

Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

340

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

341

The animal kingdom in the Chernobyl NPP accident zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monograph has the review and analysis of data on the problem of estimation of the Chernobyl accident effect on animal world of the Republic of Belarus. Questions of ionizing irradiation influence on organisms, populations and ecosystems are considered. Features of radionuclides accumulation by the animals of various systematic groups are investigated. Characteristic of the parasitological situation in the 30-km zone is given, the effect of secondary radioecological factors stipulated by exception of economic activity in zone of alienation and moving away on forming of fauna complexes is analysed. The book is designed on zoologists, radio ecologists, experts in the field of nature protection. (authors). 326 refs., 35 tabs., 39 figs

342

Ukrainian NPP instrumentation and control systems after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the main factors that contributed to the development of I and C systems of Ukrainian NPPs after 1986. The period of time after the Chernobyl accident is divided into three phases: 1986-1991, when the implementation of typical WWER-1000 I and C design was continued; 1992-2000, when the regulatory system on nuclear and radiation safety was formed in Ukraine; and 2001-2010, when numerous new digital NPP I and C systems were designed by national companies and implemented at Ukrainian NPPs. The main problems related to NPP I and C systems are indicated

343

Contamination of fish in Austria after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since it is well known that certain fish species can accumulate radionuclides, in particular radiocesium, a surveillance program was started after the contamination of Austrian territory by fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The number of samples available was rather small, but it was found that contamination of fish dependend upon the extent of local contamination, species of fish and type of lake. The results of the surveillance are discussed. Some remarks will be made on attempts to derive a single transfer factor for 'fish'. (orig.)

344

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radioactivity monitoring is done in Bavaria by a system of monitoring stations distributed over the Land, and by the reactor remote monitoring systems. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, measuring activities have been intensified, and by the end of 1986 there have been available about 35.000 measured data records on radioactivity in the air, in water, land, and food and animal feeds. The report in hand presents the data measured in tables and explains their significance with regard to environmental radiation exposure. (DG)

345

HYSPLIT's Capability for Radiological Aerial Monitoring in Nuclear Emergencies: Model Validation and Assessment on the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident took place on 25 April 1986 in Ukraine. Consequently large amount of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The release was a widespread distribution of radioactivity throughout the northern hemisphere, mainly across Europe. A total of 31 persons died as a consequence of the accident, and about 140 persons suffered various degrees of radiation sickness and health impairment in the acute health impact. The possible increase of cancer incidence has been a real and significant increase of carcinomas of the thyroid among the children living in the contaminated regions as the late health effects. Recently, a variety of atmospheric dispersion models have been developed and used around the world. Among them, HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model developed by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)/ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) is being widely used. To verify the HYSPLIT model for radiological aerial monitoring in nuclear emergencies, a case study on the Chernobyl accident is performed

346

A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred. A corresponding effective deposition length for caesium, R-Cs, defined las the effective distance from Chernobyl to where the aerosols have been deposited, is found to be R-Cs approximate to 1000 km. From the observations of the regional variability of the Chernobyl fallout a simple probabilistic assessment method is proposed for the long-range radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

1999-01-01

347

Statistical evaluation of internal contamination data in the man following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main implications of the general interest derived from the statistical analysis of the internal human contamination data obtained by ENEA-PAS with Whole Body Counter mesurements performed in Bologna in consequence of the Chernobyl accident are presented. In particular the trend with time of the individual body activity of members of a homogeneous group, the variability of individual contamination in ralation to the mean contamination, the statistical distribution of the data, the significance of mean values concerning small, homogeneous groups of subjects, the difference between subjects of different sex and its trend with time, are examined. Finally, the substantial independence of the individual committed dose equivalent evaluation due to the Chernobyl contamination on the Whole from the hypothesized values of the metabolic parameters is pointed out when the evaluation is performed on the basis of direct measurements with a Whole Body Counter

348

Genomic instability in children born from the Chernobyl accident victims  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It seems in all probability that the radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of cell genome. Evidence has been presented in the previous reports of our laboratory that a chromosome instability could be found out in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and in children from the regions with a high radiation level. Data on a chromosome instability in children born from the Chernobyl victims are presented in this paper. We investigated women in 1986 within the limits of 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Children born from these women were a main subject of our studies. In some cases an examination of their fathers was also carried out. It seems to us that a genetic instability transmitted from the parents is realized as an increased sensitivity to the different environmental factors, including an enhanced radiation level, chemical mutagens et al. Latent hereditary disturbances in these children probably appear later as a result of their contact with mutagens of a different nature. (authors)

349

Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 ?Sv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 ?Sv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 ?Sv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

350

The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established Safety Culture, the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

351

Health Hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The most recent meeting in the Federal Republic of Germany reviewed the principal long-lived radionuclides emitted from the accident and concluded that 134Cs and 137Cs had the greatest potential for contributing to the human dose because they are still present, the dose will be delivered over a long term, and because of the accumulation in some edible plants and animal products. The observed contribution of radionuclides to the collective effective dose-equivalent in the first year is about 60-80% from ingestion, 30-40% from external irradiation, and 2-20% from inhalation

352

Deposition of the radiocaesium in soil at the Black Sea coastal area in Turkey after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was known that some of the Black Sea region received rainfall containing radioactive material after the Chernobyl accident. This region was the most affected area by wet deposition because rainfall occurred during radioactive cloud passage. The unfortunate event at Chernobyl is a unique accession for better defining the fate of radioactive pollutant in the environmental. Several papers have been published recently concerning radioactivity levels observed in part of Europe and Black Sea region as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. Indeed, the environmental central of Black Sea and its Turkish coast is of particular interest owing to the relative proximity of Turkey to Chernobyl. Not much information for the deposition rates of cesium radionuclides in soil of this area is available. Exceedingly high Cs-migration rates of 0.2-0.3 cm.h-1 in soils were found few days after deposition during a rain shower. However generally the deposited Cs was quickly fixed in the top soil and Cs migration agricultural soils decreased to values below 1 cm.a-1, levels which are known from the global fallout caesium. The fallout of radiocesium after the Chernobyl accident has renewed interest in its environmental behaviour. How it behaves in soils is important, for example, for the modelling of radiocesium transport and retention in soil and transfer from soil to plants and hence in to the food chain

353

Radionuclide deposition and exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses of air, water, and foodstuff samples, together with in situ gamma spectrometric measurements in the Federal Republic of Germany, have documented the deposition and exposure consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In some cases, exposure values are significantly higher than background levels. Data compiled for the period from the initial identification of excess atmospheric radioactivity to the present, represent a unique resource for testing and validating models of environmental transport and human exposure. These data will serve as the bases for future studies of organism response, both somatic and genetic, to nuclear radiation. They will also prove useful in suggesting modifications to environmental sampling and monitoring systems. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

354

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-07-01

355

Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears tollow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

356

Cancer morbidity among the emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on human health of exposures to ionizing radiation have long been the subject of dispute. In this paper we focus on the primary cancer morbidity in the cohort of 8745 men who worked in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1990 and were followed since exposure up to 1995. The official dosimetry data, mostly falling in the range of 0-25 cSv, are available for 75% of ameliorators. Annual cancer morbidity rates turned out to increase rapidly. However, trend analysis in the age-specific subgroups provides evidence that the observed temporal gradients are to be attributed to the ageing (regression coefficients for the age groups of 40-44; 45-49; 50-54 are 0.201; 0.793 and 1.223, correspondingly). In the five-year age groups cancer morbidity of the emergency workers (EWs) makes no statistically significant differences with that of the male populations of Russia and St-Petersburg. No evidence of an association between radiation dose and cancer morbidity was observed. The highest primary cancer morbidity is registered among those EWs, who arrived to Chernobyl region within 360 days followed the accident and had been working there during less than 30 or more than 180 days. The follow-up of the cohort is to be continued. (author)

357

Transport of radioactive particles from the chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

After the Chernobyl accident large and highly radioactive particles were found in several European countries. Particles > 20 ?m in aerodynamic diameter were transported hundreds of kilometres from the plant, and they were sufficiently active (> 100 kBq) to cause acute health hazards. Here, a particle trajectory model is used to identify the areas of large particle fallout. Effective release height of the particles and atmospheric phenomena related to their transport are investigated by comparing particle findings with locations given by trajectory calculations. The calculations showed that in the Chernobyl accident either the maximum effective release height must have been considerably higher than previously reported (> 2000 m) or convective warm air currents may have lifted radioactive material upwards during transport. Large particles have been transported to other areas than small particles and gaseous species. The particulate nature of the release plume must be taken into account in dispersion and transport analyses. Air parcel trajectories alone are not necessarily sufficient for identifying the fallout area of radioactive material.

Pöllänen, Roy; Valkama, Ilkka; Toivonen, Harri

358

Perinatal mortality in Bavaria, Germany, after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As has been shown by the authors of a paper recently published in this journal, a deviation from a long-term trend in perinatal mortality within the former Federal Republic of Germany occurred in 1987, i.e. 1 year following the Chernobyl disaster. It is the aim of this study to make a comparison between the areas of the state Bavaria, Germany, with different fallout levels as well as between the observed and expected numbers of perinatal deaths relating to these areas. The expected numbers of perinatal deaths, defined as external standard, were derived from the remainder of the former FRG. Testing an a priori formulated hypothesis revealed no differences in the temporal development of perinatal mortality between the areas with different fallout levels and subsequent exposures. Including May 1986 into the analysis revealed a significant increase during the first 3 months after the accident, which is due to an excess in May alone. Since no elevated radiation risks for the last days in utero are known, the additional Chernobyl radiation exposure is not plausible as a causative agent. Further analyses on stillbirths showed an increase in Southern Bavaria during the first 2 years following the accident. Later on, the rates were comparable to the expected values again. (orig.). With 7 figs., 5 tabs

359

The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

360

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster and its consequences for thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effectiveness of profilactic action consisting in iodine solution intake for children in Poland has been assessed. The population exposition to radioactive iodine in air after the accident has been discussed as well as its consequences for thyroid

361

Sources of contradictions in the evaluation of population genetic consequences after the chernobyl disaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

The review covers the analysis of our own and published data pertaining to population and genetic consequences in various mammalian species under conditions of high levels of ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The findings indicate that these conditions have promoted the reproduction of heterozygotes in polyloci spectra of molecular genetic markers and animals with a relatively increased stability of the chromosomal apparatus. The prospects of using the reproductive "success" of the carriers of these characteristics as an integral indicator of the selective influence of environmental stress factors are discussed. PMID:23556130

Glazko, V I; Glazko, T T

2013-01-01

362

[The assessment of remote cytogenetic effects in clean up workers of Chernobyl accident].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytogenetic study cohort of the liquidators of the consequences of Chernobyl accident over 4-6 years after clean-up working in the alienation zone was carried out by conventional method. For The results of study liquidators cohort of 1986-1987 years have shown decreasing the frequency of cells with unstable chromosome aberrations for 25-30% per each year of examination. The frequency of chromosomal and chromatid-type aberrations have been also decreasing. The increasing of frequency radiation markers (dicentrics and rings) was observed for liquidators who worked in Chernobyl in 1988 year. Significant distinctions on other cytogenetics parameters as well as for liquidators who worked in Chernobyl in 1989 year were not observed perhaps of small number of examined cohorts. Nevertheless level of chromosome aberrations observed in remote post radiation period was significantly higher then controls that may be caused by radiation-induced genome instability. Obtained data show the importance of cytogenetic examination of that cohort for estimation and the prognosis the risk of delayed negative consequences of exposure. PMID:19947519

Golub, E V

2009-01-01

363

The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contamopulation safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends

364

Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

365

Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

366

Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

367

Radioactivity in fungi in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Caesium (137Cs and 134Cs) concentrations in higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Slovenia, north-west Yugoslavia, are reported following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention was paid to the Cortinariaceae, already known as Cs accumulators. The highest levels were found in Cortinarius armillatus, C. traganus (both inedible species) and Rozites caperata. The median concentration of sup(137,124)Cs in R. caperata from over 40 sampling sites was about 22 kBq/kg dry weight. High levels were also found in Xerocomus badius and Laccaria amethystina. From the 137Cs/134Cs ratios, which reflect the depth of the mycelium and the excess 137Cs from historic pre-Chernobyl fallout, it may be surmised that radiocaesium levels in certain species will probably increase further next year and subsequently as Cs migrates down the soil profile. In addition, sup(110m)Ag was found at concentrations up to 500 Bq/kg dry weight in certain species known to be Ag accumulators, particularly Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae. (author)

368

Radioactivity in fungi in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, following the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Caesium (/sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs) concentrations in higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Slovenia, north-west Yugoslavia, are reported following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention was paid to the Cortinariaceae, already known as Cs accumulators. The highest levels were found in Cortinarius armillatus, C. traganus (both inedible species) and Rozites caperata. The median concentration of sup(137,124)Cs in R. caperata from over 40 sampling sites was about 22 kBqkg dry weight. High levels were also found in Xerocomus badius and Laccaria amethystina. From the /sup 137/Cs/sup 134/Cs ratios, which reflect the depth of the mycelium and the excess /sup 137/Cs from historic pre-Chernobyl fallout, it may be surmised that radiocaesium levels in certain species will probably increase further next year and subsequently as Cs migrates down the soil profile. In addition, sup(110m)Ag was found at concentrations up to 500 Bqkg dry weight in certain species known to be Ag accumulators, particularly Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae.

Byrne, A.R.

1988-01-01

369

Satellite change detection of forest damage near the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A substantial amount of forest within a few kilometers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor station was badly contaminated with radionuclides by the April 26, 1986, explosion and ensuing fire at reactor No. 4. Radiation doses to conifers in some areas were sufficient to cause discoloration of needles within a few weeks. Other areas, receiving smaller doses, showed foliage changes beginning 6 months to a year later. Multispectral imagery available from Landsat sensors is especially suited for monitoring such changes in vegetation. A series of Landsat Thematic Mapper images was developed that span the 2 yr following the accident. Quantitative dose estimation for the exposed conifers requires an objective change detection algorithm and knowledge of the dose-time response of conifers to ionizing radiation. Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation's Hyperscout trademark algorithm is based on an advanced, sensitive technique for change detection particularly suited for multispectral images. The Hyperscout algorithm has been used to assess radiation damage to the forested areas around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

370

20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

371

Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent review of existing models and methods for assessing potential consequences of accidents in the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system identifies economic consequence assessment methods as a weak point. Existing methods have mostly been designed to assess economic consequences of reactor accidents, the possible scale of which can be several orders of magnitude greater than anything possible in the HLW disposal system. There is therefore some question about the applicability of these methods, their assumptions, and their level of detail to assessments of smaller accidents. The US Dept. of Energy funded this study to determine needs for code modifications or model development for assessing economic costs of accidents in the HLW disposal system. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) review the literature on economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the HLW disposal system before closure. (2) Determine needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system. (3) Gather data that might be useful for the needed revisions for modeling economic impacts on this scale

372

The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

373

Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

374

Radioactive fallout measurements in India after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the levels of manmade radionuclides in air, water, leafy vegetables, milk and other environmental samples assessed at various places in India after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl on April 26, 1986. The fallout was consisting of mainly volatile radionuclides such as 103Ru, 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba- 140La etc. The levels attained their maximum during 3rd - 4th week of May, 1986. Short lived fission product 131I was also detected in tap water, grass, milk, leafy vegetables and goat's thyroid. The measured activity levels have been compared with the activity levels found during the period of atmospheric nuclear weapon testing. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs

375

Computer simulation of the Chernobyl' forth unit accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calculated estimates for positive reactivity created as a results of control rod insertion 125 cm deeper as compared with the initial level, which is determined according to the data registered before the Chernobyl-4 reactor accident are considered. The calculations are made in one- and two-group approximations using the DINA and CITATION programs for the reactor polycell model. It is shown that the calculated positive reactivity under these conditions does not exceed 0.6 ?, where ? is the efficient portion of delayed neutrons, ? = 5 x 10-3. The applicability of the data on neutron flux axial distributions obtained using the SKALA system standard technique for computer estimation of the positive reactivity is critically discussed. 18 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

376

Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

377

The radiological situation in south Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident at Chernobyl a radioactive cloud reached Bavaria on April 30th 1986 inducing activities in the air of 52 Bq iodine 131/m3 and 10 Bq cesium 137/m3 (measured in Munich on April 30th between 10am and 2pm). Further on, significant amounts of ruthenium 103, tellurium 132, iodine 132, iodine 133 and cesium 134 were found. Especially in the southern region of Bavaria the majority of the radioactivity in the air was washed out by heavy thundershowers and deposited on the ground. The local deposition was closely linked with the local precipitation rate between April 30th and May 2nd. The deposition of cesium 137 in Bavaria varied from less than 6000 to more than 40000 Bq/m2. This radioactive contamination of the environment adds a further radioactive exposure to man. The three major exposure pathways, direct radiation, inhalation, and ingestion, will be considered in this paper

378

Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: 131I, 132Te, 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and, to a lesser degree, 89Sr and 90Sr. Very quickly, 137Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of 137Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and 90Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is 137Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their 137Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of 137Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg-1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, 137Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

379

Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deliveries. In this connection, attempts were made to find out whether regional increases in radiation caused by the accident and the general uneasiness arising from this fact could be linked to higher rates of infants being born prematurely. A three-step procedure was followed for the survey, in which Step One hat the purpose of compiling basic data on the gestations and parturitions examined using information from patient records. In Step Two a biogramme was established on the basis of questionnaires filled in by pregnant women. Step Three was included for a post-partum ascertainment of material risk factors and data of paturition in women participating in the Step Two investigations. The information obtained from patient records pointed to no differences in the percentage shares of premature deliveries between the individual exposure regions examined, nor could any such discrepancies be revealed on the basis of the biogramme and post-partum survey. In areas showing elevated levels of radioactivity as a result of the Chernobyl fallout the proportion of women claiming to have fears about ecological afflictions invariably was 4 to 9% larger than that determined for areas, where radiation exposure remained within the range generally accepted as normal. Statistically significant increases in the percentage shares of premature deliveries could, however, be proven for groups of women showing additional risk factors other than radiation exposure. (orig./MG)

380

Health implications of the Chernobyl accident for Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimations of Chernobyl-related accidental exposures to the Bulgarian population indicated the doses received to be low-level. Possible deviations in individual subjects were likewise held to be within the low-level range. It was thus inferred that appearance of nonstochastic, threshold effects which become manifest after doses of a certain magnitude, were not to be expected as such effects are known to require doses well in excess of those attributable to the accident. So it is difficult to explain the increase in nonmalignant thyroid pathology noted for 1986 and 1987 and particularly marked in children, according to a recent analysis covering the period 1980-1990. The characteristics of radiation exposure experienced by the Bulgarian population point only to possible stochastic effects (carcinogenic or genetic) and some types of damage incurred during embryonic development. As regards carcinogenic risk predictions indicated that any accident-related malignancies would hardly be statistically demonstrable in a setting of high spontaneous frequencies. Attention is now centered on leukemias in children, myeloid leukemia in adults and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. No increase has been noted for the 1986-1990. Radiation-related lung cancer and breast cancer have a latent period of some 20-30 years, so that looking for them at this time does not appear to be warranted. Thyroid cancer which is closely related to 131-iodine exposure has thus far shown no elevation across the counhus far shown no elevation across the country. With respect to the genetic risk carried by the Chernobyl accident for our population predictions based on internationally accepted criteria indicated it to be extremely low-level in term of severe genetic effects. Our retrospective analysis of incidence of spontaneous abortions in 1986 and 1987 as well as of stillbirths, congenital malformations, perinatal and neonatal infant mortality in 1987 and 1988, revealed no deviations attributable to accidental radiation exposure. The group at highest risk from the accident was that of pregnant woman. The period from 8 to 15 gestation weeks has been found to be highly vulnerable to ionizing radiation. (author)

381

Migration and forecast of the radioactive contamination of the soil, water and air on the territory of Belarus after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl NPP is the largest technogenic accident of our epoch, the global consequences of which for whole mankind with the course of time will larger and larger significance. In spite of the fact, that the radioactive contamination owing to the Chernobyl accident affected the whole world, just Belarus was subjected to the most intensive radioactive contamination. In addition the radioactive contamination territory of Belarus more than 37 kBq/sq.m. by caesium-137 has made 23% from the whole of the Republic. At the same time as a result of the Chernobyl accident, 5,0% of a territory of the Ukraine and 0,6 % of Russia have been contaminated with radionuclides

382

Developments in the Swedish system for dealing with radiological emergencies since the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sweden's emergency preparedness organisation for accidents or incidents involving radiation has evolved over the years in response to new techniques, new events and new scenarios in a world with both increased use and increased availability of radioactive substances. The organisation has developed over the past four years to incorporate new scenarios. Vulnerabilities are being treated through goat-steered efforts that aim for an organisation with increased capacity for handling and reducing the consequences of accidents and other events involving radioactive substances. The development of the emergency preparedness organisation since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 is summarized here. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is responsible for coordinating activities in Sweden should an accident occur involving radiation. Its resources can be called upon at any time of the day or night. In the event of an accident, a special emergency preparedness organisation comes into operation. Early notification of emergencies is obtained from automatic alarm monitoring stations in Sweden and abroad and through international and bilateral agreements on early warning and information. (author)

383

Characteristics of thyroid hormonal homeostasis in thyroid hyperplasia in liquidators of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid hyperplasia the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident is pre disease either with preserved normal hypophyseo-thyroid interactions in a some of the patients or accompanied by hypophyseo-thyroid disbalance (disease) requiring the respective treatment

384

Core-melting accidents in Chernobyl and Harrisburg  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication deals with the essences of the reactor accident in Chernobylsk and the conclusions to be drawn from these with regard to reactor safety. Therein the technical differences between the reactor types in the West and the East play an important role. Also attention is spent to the now generally accepted philosophy that by simplification and making use of proven technologies, a further deminishing of the risks can be achieved step by step. In ch.'s 2 and 4 the origin and course of the accidents in respectively Chernobylsk and Harrisburg are analyzed; in the analysis of the Chernobylsk accident also date have been used which were provided by the Sovjet-Union, supplied with results of studies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In ch. 3 this information is compared with the insights which have grown at KEMA about these on the base of reactor physical and thermohydraulic considerations and of computer calculations reproducing the course of the accident. An important question is if, and if so: to which extent, an accident such as the one in Chernobylsk also can take place in the West. In order to answer that question as accurate as possible the consequences of core meltings accidents and the risk for such an accident taking place are pursued. In ch. 6 the legal frameworks are indicated by which the risk may be limited and by which eventually yet occurring damage may be arranged. Ch. 7 finally deals with the lessons which the accidents in Chernobylsk and Harrisburg have learnt us and with the possible consequences of these for the further application of nuclear power in the Netherlands. (H.W.). 105 refs.; 42 figs.; 17 refs

385

Experience of medical service of the Armed Forces during elimination of consequences of Chernobyl's disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article analyzes ten-years experience (1986-1996) of the Armed Forces medical service participation in elimination of consequences of Chernobyl's accidents. The system of medical supply created soon after accidents (management and interaction, forces and means, peculiarities of sanitary-hygienic, antiepidemic, treatment-and-prophylactic supply) has been described in breaf, its positive sides and main deficiencies and also the ways of there elimination, the place of military-medical service in modern sate system of disaster medical supply have been discussed. The results of prolonged dynamic observation of rescuers by the All-Army medical-and-dosimetric register materials, the main directions, results and prospects of scientific study about problems of radiative disaster have been analyzed. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

386

Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents

387

Radiation exposure to the population of Europe following the Chernobyl accident  

OpenAIRE

On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident an attempt has been made to evaluate the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the global burden of human cancer in Europe. This required the estimation of radiation doses in each of the 40 European countries. Dose estimation was based on the analysis and compilation of data either published in the scientific literature or provided by local experts. Considerable variability has been observed in exposure levels among the European ...

Drozdovitch, V.; Bouville, A.; Chobanova, N.; Filistovic, V.; Ilus, T.; Kovacic, M.; Mala?tova?, I.; Moser, M.; Nedveckaite, T.; Vo?lkle, Hansruedi; Cardis, E.

2007-01-01

388

Prevalence of bronchopulmonary pathology in the participants of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiologic examination of the participants of the Chernobyl accident response is performed. Fact of acute effect of the Chernobyl aerosol inhalation on respiratory organs is found. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary diseases in participants of accident response is almost 2 times higher than that in reference group. Further program of investigations includes the hospital stage and the preventive measures at prehospital stage under ambulatory conditions. Assessments of the efficiency of performed treatment - prophylactic measures and their economic benefit are made

389

Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed.

Baranov, A.; Gale, R.P.; Guskova, A.; Piatkin, E.; Selidovkin, G.; Muravyova, L.; Champlin, R.E.; Danilova, N.; Yevseeva, L.; Petrosyan, L. (Institute of Biophysics of the Ministry of Health and Clinical Hospital, Moscow (USSR))

1989-07-27

390

Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

391

Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

392

Preliminary calculation of the plume rise for the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculation of plume rise for the Chernobyl accident is made on assumption that at 1.23 a.m. on 26 April 1986 the reactor core started burning from the top in a cylindrical shape with radius at half of the core diameter and continued burning until it reached the bottom. Briggs formulae for a buoyant plume with the rise limited by ambient stability and ambient turbulence are used with the assumptions of atmospheric stability in inversion and neutral condition respectively. The results illustrate that even with very conservative assumption of the burning rate, the plume would rise beyond the inversion layer and penetrate the inversion layer to the mixed layer having turbulence domination. Therefore the plume rise calculated with the assumption of turbulence stability would give the more realistic results. If the core was burnt with the burning rate of about 7-12 cm/hr, the plume rise from the accident would be in the range of 650-1100 m

393

Chernobyl accident radiometric data: 137Cs in fresh water fishes of north italy lakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general radiometric survey of the Italian territory was started as a consequence on the Chernobyl Accident. This survey gave rise to a very extensive program of environmental sampling and measurements; consequently, data collection, processing and management of this was necessary. All laboratories, nuclear centers, universities, local public health units involved in this survey had a unique aim: radiological analysis to determine environmental contamination levels or to estimate preliminary population doses, finalized on short term, urgent protective measures, and on long term, in addition to protective measures, environmental studies. Some of these analyses are presented in this report, e.g. the results of 137Cs concentration in various fresh water fishes present in several Italian lakes. It is observed that the degrees of contamination vary widely in the same species and among different ones

394

Radioactivity levels in forests after the Chernobyl accident. What happens in berries, mushrooms and game?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the nuclear accident in Chernobyl occurred in april 1985, a cooperation was established between scientists at the National Defence Research Institute, FOA, and the Faculty of Forestry at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa, Sweden, to study uptake and redistribution in important food-chains of radioactive caesium (134Cs and 137Cs) deposited over forest ecosystems in the county of Vaesterbotten. As part of this cooperation recurrent sampling in vegetation, soil and water has been performed since 1986 at the Vindeln Experimental Forest about 60 km NW of Umeaa. In this report the changes in activity concentration of 137Cs in plants and fungi from 1986 to 2003 is described and discussed. Furthermore, results from these long-time series and from sampling annually (from one year prior to the Chernobyl accident until 1995) of moose meat during the autumn hunting season are also compared with predictions based on a radioecological model. Besides describing long-term trends in the material, another purpose with these series is to increase the knowledge about probable causes of the redistribution process during different periods after deposition - thereby providing increased reliability in identifying and assessing important radioecological consequences in different time-scales with focus on food-chains of particular interest to man

395

North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

396

The Chernobyl accident and the Spanish nuclear power plants. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the morning of April 26, 1986, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ukraine, USSR) suffered an accident of the greatest magnitude among those which have taken place in nuclear energy installations employed for peaceful uses. The accident reached a degree of severity unknown up to now in nuclear energy generating plants, both with respect to the loss of human lives and the effects caused to the neighboring population (as well as to other nations within a wide radius of radioactivity dispersal), and also with respect to the damage caused in the nuclear plant itself. In the light of the anxiety created internationally, the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy prepared a report (1), based on the conclusions of the Governmental Commission entrusted to study the causes of the accident, which was presented at the international meeting of experts held at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) headquarters in Vienna from August 25 to 29, 1986. The present technical report has been prepared by the Spanish nuclear power plants within the framework of UNIDAD ELECTRICA, S.A. (UNESA) - the Association of Spanish electric utilities - in collaboration with EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS, S.A. The report reflects the utilities' analyses of the causes and consequences of the accident and, based on similarities and differences with Spanish plants under construction and in operation, intends to: a. Evaluate the possibility of an accident with similar consequences occurring in a Spanish plant b. Identify possible design and operation modifications indicated by the lessons learned from this accident

397

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

2006-07-01

398

The Nordic safety program on accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One important part of Nordic cooperation is partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, namely the work performed within the Nordic Safety Program (often referred to as the NKA projects). NKA is the Nordic abbreviation of the Nordic Liaison Committee on Atomic Energy. One program area in the present four-year period is concerned with problems related to reactor accident consequence assessment, and contains almost twenty projects covering a wide range of subjects. The author is program coordinator for this program area. The program will be completed in 1989. The program was strongly influenced by Chernobyl, and a number of new projects were included in the program in 1986. Involved in the program are these Nordic institutions: Riso National Laboratory (Denmark). Technical Research Centre of Finland. Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Finnish Meteorological Institute. Institute for Energy Technology (Norway). Agricultural University of Norway. Meteorological Institute of Norway. Studsvik Energiteknik AB (Sweden). National Defence Research Laboratory (Sweden)

399

Economic consequences assessment for scenarios and actual accidents do the same methods apply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods for estimating the economic consequences of major technological accidents, and their corresponding computer codes, are briefly presented with emphasis on the basic choices. When applied to hypothetic scenarios, those methods give results that are of interest for risk managers with a decision aiding perspective. Simultaneously the various costs, and the procedures for their estimation are reviewed for some actual accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl,..). These costs are used in a perspective of litigation and compensation. The comparison of the methods used and cost estimates obtained for scenarios and actual accidents shows the points of convergence and discrepancies that are discussed

400

Chenge psychoneurological state in flyer-liquidators of the Chernobyl APS disaster consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

152 flyers, who took part in the Chernobyl NPP accident effect elimination, were examined in the period from 1986 up to 1988. The caracter of psychoneurological state in early (up to month) and delayed (up to 1-2 years) periods after work in the accident zone was determined. The dependence of stability to extremem factor effects on some personal and psychophysical peculiarities of flyers was studied. It was revealed that deviations in flyer psychoneurological sphere connected with effects of stressogenic factors on an organism during accident elimination and the information about radiation dose were observed in delayed period after the Chernobyl NPP accident

401

Radiological attacks and accidents. Medical consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Probability of the occurrence of radiological attacks appears to be elevated after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11 in 2001. There are a lot of scenarios of radiological attack: simple radiological device, radiological disperse device (RDD or dirty bomb), attacks against nuclear reactor, improvised nuclear device, and nuclear weapons. Of these, RDD attack is the most probable scenario, because it can be easily made and can generate enormous psychological and economic damages. Radiological incidents are occurring to and fro in the world, including several cases of theft to nuclear facilities and unsuccessful terrorist attacks against them. Recently, a former Russian spy has allegedly been killed using polonium-210. In addition, serious radiological accidents have occurred in Chernobyl, Goiania, and Tokai-mura. Planning, preparation, education, and training exercise appear to be essential factors to cope with radiological attacks and accidents effectively without feeling much anxiety. Triage and psychological first aid are prerequisite to manage and provide effective medial care for mass casualties without inducing panic. (author)

402

Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited. (author)

403

Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

K. Rissanen

1990-09-01

404

Chernobyl accident and hot particles in the fallout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive hot particles were observed in the fallout in Northern Europe after Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986. During the first few days the core debris matter was transported to Northwest over the cold Baltic Sea towards Finland, Sweden and Norway. Hot particles were first seen in the surface air when the main plume stayed still high airborne. Later these particles were found in ventilation filters, needles, lichen etc. especially in southwestern parts of Finland. The fallout was carefully surveyed and its radioactivity level did not give reason to any serious alarm. For the present study hot particles were isolated from Scots pine needles collected on 28 and 29 of april 1986 near the town Uusikaupunki in southwestern Finland by the sea. These particles represent the first dry deposition period. Hot particles on the needles were isolated by autoradiographic technique, and the radioactivity in the particles was determined by gamma spectroscopy. This report present the results from 21 isolated hot particles from this area: composition, size, shape, content and radioactivity level

405

Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig

406

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article summarizes the current controversial discussions in the public about the utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G., which has gained so much emotional impetus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The accident scenario and the causes of the disaster are outlined in order to show the difference between facts and conditions there, and design and conditions in our country, especially with regard to the LWRs. The main reason launching the disaster, it is said, lies in non-observance of orders and operating instructions; the article underlines the system of design features and instructions that has been established, and multiply checked, for reactor stations in the F.R.G., in order to prevent undue interference with the design-based safety equipment. Due to the high safety standard of the nuclear power plants in the F.R.G., Chernobyl cannot be used as an argument against further utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G. (HSCH)

407

Long-term consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe and remediation programs in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unprecedented scale of radiological emergency at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has set us a package of the most difficult tasks aimed to eliminate negative consequences and remediate a normal life in contaminated areas. Due to the accident, above 56,000 square meters of the Russian Federation's territ