Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the determination of the occurrence and prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk on three dairy farms. A one year study on a total of 1031 black-white breed cows with a total of 1267 lactations was performed. Each dairy farm implemented a different technology of rearing and was of different herd size (farm A - tie-stalls, 162 cows; farm B - loose-housing system with open shed and deep bedding, 357 dairy cows; and farm C - loosehousing system with enclosed shed, 512 cows. Clinical mastitis in cows was detected by clinical examination of the udder and determination of abnormalities in the milk. To distinguish two consecutive cases of clinical mastitis within the same lactation a time period of nine days was used. Annual prevalence rate of clinical mastitis for the entire population of cows was 34.13% on cow level, and 30.07% on lactation level. There was a high prevalence rate of clinical mastitis in primiparous cows, 21.43%, 40.77% and 12.55%, on farms A, B and C, respectively. Lactation incident risk for cows on farm A was 25.00%, farm B 95.58% and farm C 21.49%. The prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk tended to increase with increasing parity. The annual lactation risk for the entire population of cows was 45.86%. All indicators for the determination of the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy farms, which were observed during the research, showed the greatest values on farm B. Most of the cows manifested one (68.24% or two (18.63% cases of clinical mastitis during lactation. There was a long period in lactation until the appearance of the first case of clinical mastitis (112.21 ± 92.04 days. Generally, clinical mastitis was registered during the whole period of the survey, with some fluctuations between different seasons. The method of GLM (General Linear Model, univariate procedure, was used to analyze associations between the incidence of clinical mastitis and farm management, parity of cows and season of the year. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was performed for analysis of interdependence on variables in the model. There was statistical significance (p<0,001 between the season and incidence of clinical mastitis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31086
Perez-Cabal, M. A.; Yaici, S.; Alenda, R.
Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.
Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, Carsten
Danish organic dairy production is characterized by a low input of antibiotics for udder treatment and a high input of other mastitis control procedures. A study was conducted in 14 organic dairy herds with the objectives of obtaining a comprehensive description of clinical mastitis cases and identifying characteristic patterns in these results. Clinical signs, inflammatory reactions and microbiological identifications were obtained from 367 cases of clinical mastitis occurring over 18 months. Cow characteristics and preincident values such as milk yield and somatic cell count were obtained for each cow. Signs of previous udder inflammation were present in two-thirds of the clinical mastitis cases. Severe local inflammatory reactions were found in 21% of the cases and some indication of generalized signs such as fever and reduced appetite were found in 35% of the cases. Logistic regression analyses were performed based on the results of an initial (exploratory) multiple correspondence analysis. Coliform mastitis (6% of the cases) was rarely preceded by pathogen isolation or inflammatory reactions in the same quarter. Coliform mastitis cases usually occurred in one quarter only. Escherichia coli infections were typically (truly) acute cases. Bacteriologically negative mastitis (20% of the cases) showed strong similarities with clinical coliform mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus cases (18% of the cases) occurred most frequently in late lactation or around drying-off. Prior isolation of Staph. aureus and slight decreases in milk yield were two factors that interacted but both were strongly and positively related to clinical Staph. aureus. Staph. aureus mastitis typically had a subclinical debut, and increasing degrees and duration of inflammation decreased shedding of this pathogen. Streptococcus dysgalactiae (9% of the cases) mastitis was typically persistent, virulent and manifest in periods of lower cow resistance. More patterns of subclinical and clinical Str. uberis mastitis (23% of the cases) seemed to be present.
Hanna, Louisa; Cruz, Stacie A.
Breastfeeding has been demonstrated to have many benefits for both mother and child. Nipple pain in the breastfeeding woman is a common complaint; it is the second most common cause of breastfeeding discontinuation in the first six months after childbirth. This case report addresses the characteristics of breast pain induced by Candida mastitis and the risk factors for and treatment of mastitis. Educating family physicians and other clinicians about how to recognize and treat this often diffi...
Hanna, Louisa; Cruz, Stacie A
Breastfeeding has been demonstrated to have many benefits for both mother and child. Nipple pain in the breastfeeding woman is a common complaint; it is the second most common cause of breastfeeding discontinuation in the first six months after childbirth. This case report addresses the characteristics of breast pain induced by Candida mastitis and the risk factors for and treatment of mastitis. Educating family physicians and other clinicians about how to recognize and treat this often difficult-to-eradicate infection will hopefully increase the percentage of mothers who breastfeed their infants through the first six months of life. PMID:21505621
Thomas, Valérie; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; Simjee, Shabbir; El Garch, Farid; Morrissey, Ian; Marion, Hervé; Vallé, Michel
VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry not recently treated with antibiotics. Non-replicate milk samples were collected from cows with acute clinical mastitis in eight countries. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis were isolated by standardised methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined in a central laboratory by CLSI broth microdilution methodology; results were interpreted using clinical breakpoints where available. Among E. coli (n=280), resistance to tetracycline (14.3%) and cefapirin (11.1%) were most common. Resistance to other ?-lactam antibiotics was absent (ceftiofur) or very low (cefalexin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). The MIC90 of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin was 0.03 and 0.06?g/mL, respectively, with 0.7% of strains displaying a deviating high MIC. Staphylococcus aureus (n=250) were susceptible to most antibiotics tested, although 36.0% were resistant to penicillin G. For other ?-lactam antibiotics where a CLSI breakpoint was available, no resistance was detected. Tetracycline resistance was low (5.2%). Streptococcus uberis (n=282) were susceptible to all ?-lactam antibiotics, although 29.8% were intermediately susceptible to penicillin G; 18.8% of strains were resistant to erythromycin and 28.7% to tetracycline. This European study shows that bacteria associated with acute clinical mastitis are susceptible to most antibiotics with the exception of penicillin G against S. aureus, and erythromycin and tetracycline against S. uberis. The results of this study should serve as a reference baseline. This work also highlights the urgent need to set additional clinical breakpoints for antibiotics frequently used to treat mastitis. PMID:26003836
Mk, Sinha; Nn, Thombare
A cross sectional farm sample survey was conducted to assess the consequences of mastitis on farmers economy. Daily milk records of 187 animals from 28 farms were investigated by personal interview methods. Extra-resources used for the treatment and reduced revenues in terms of production were quantified and aggregated. The overall loss of mastitis from dairy animals was recorded Rs.1390.46 per lactation, in which 48.53 percent was from milk loss followed by veterinary expenses (36.57%), ...
Full Text Available Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defensins are particularly active against gram-positive bacteria and fungi but at higher concentrations they are also, capable of destroying gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, enveloped viruses and some protozoons. The aim of this study was to search for associations between the occurrence of clinical mastitis and Combined Defensin Genotypes (CDG and to investigate the possibility of using defensin gene polymorphisms in marker-assisted selection for immunity towards mastitis in dairy cows. This study included such indicators as the number of clinical cases of mastitis acuta and chronica, number of affected udder quarters and duration of the condition in 1,025 cows (Polish Holstein-Friesian breed kept on a farm located in the North-Western region of Poland. The cows were of different ages and in different lactations parities (from 1st to 6th. An analysis of associations between selected CDGs and susceptibility/immunity towards mastitis has showed statistically significant relations with regard to all the indicators under study and CDGs. Moreover, some genotypes have been found to have different effects on chronic and acute infections.
Objective: To investigate the clinical and mammographic features of plasma cell mastitis. Methods: Twenty-five patients (28 lesions) with histologically confirmed plasma cell mastitis, aged from 26 to 70 years (mean age 41 years), were examined with X-ray mammography. The clinical manifestations and imaging features were retrospectively reviewed. Results: No case was in lactation. The painful irregular masses, ranged from 1.3 to 8cm in size, were found in 22 patients, while 3 patients with acute episode. Recurrent episodes of breast masses were noted in 4 patients. Based on the mammographic appearances, the plasma cell mastitis were classified as the following four types: inflammation-like type (2/28), ductal ectasia type (3/28), focal infiltration type (10/28) and nodular type (13/28). The valuable radiographic signs: (1) An asymmetrically increased density along the lactiferous duct with a flame-like appearance, inhomogeneous low density tubular structures and scattered stick-shape calcifications. (2) Architectural distortion and oil cysts formation in adjacent area, (3) Subareolar ductal ectasia. Conclusions: The clinical and mammographic characteristics of plasma cell mastitis are critical to avoiding unnecessary surgery. Histopathological result is needed for the diagnosis in patients highly suspected of malignancy. (authors)
Suriyasathaporn, W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Nielen, M.; Brand, A.
A case-control study was conducted to evaluate factors measured at the udder inflammation-free state as risk factors for subsequent clinical mastitis. The factors including somatic cell count (SCC), body condition score, milk yield, percentages of milk fat and milk protein, and diseases were evaluated for their association with the results of udder inflammatory response. The results of the response were specified as presence (case) and absence (control) of clinical signs of mastitis. Data on ...
Full Text Available Problem statement: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis (GLM or autoimmune mastitis is a rare and benign disease which, except one case reported in an old man, is usually seen during pregnancy or lactation period. This disease was described for the first time by Kessler. Approach: Our case is a 34 year-old woman who has a child with a history of using OCP that primary complaint was swelling, heat and erythema in the right breast. She was diagnosed with mastitis and treated with antibiotics for one month, later on she had experienced stiffness in the breast and a mass was also palpable. The patient was performed surgical drainage and treated with wide spectrum antibiotics being diagnosed with abscess. After one month, a solid mass was palpable so, mammography was performed and the mass was surgically resected with a suspicion of tumor. Results: The pathology report revealed granulomatous mastitis with non caseified granuloma. For Anti-TB treatment was started as medication regime and after 40 days fistula with frequent secretions appeared. Antituberculosis medications stopped and other conditions resulting in none caseified granuloma. In microscopic view granulomatous mastitis along with abscess was reported. Corticosteroids were started and the mass became smaller gradually, the fistula also closed and secretions dried out. Conclusion: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis is a benign inflammatory breast disease. Cause of disease is still unknown, but some factors have been suggested such as local autoimmune, reaction to the delivery, previous use of contraceptives and infectious causes. The best treatment proposed is corticosteroid therapy in which the mass dwindle and the fistula is closed and secretions dried. The case is now under treatment with corticosteroids and all her symptoms have improved.
Full Text Available This study investigated the current status of clinical mastitis among dairy cattle in and around Bangalore. The prevalence of mastitis was assessed by the results of bacteriological evaluation of milk samples collected from clinical mastitis cases. A total of seventy five bacterial isolates were recovered from sixty clinical cases of mastitis affected cows. The prevalence of major pathogens isolated was twenty four per cent for Staphylococcus aureus twenty per cent for Escherichia coli followed by sixteen per cent for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus spp and ten per cent for Klebsiella spp. Antibiogram studies were also performed for these isolates and Gentamicin was found to be the most effective drug. It was concluded that microbiological and antibiogram studies are necessary for treatment and control of the disease. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 237-238
Sol, J; Sampimon, O C; Barkema, H W; Schukken, Y H
One hundred and fifty-nine cases of clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis were analyzed to detect factors associated with bacteriological cure after therapy. On 100 Dutch dairy farms, data were collected from four clinical trials with five intramammary treatment regimes designed to treat beta-lactamase-positive pathogens. Infected quarters were treated three times, with a 12-h interval between treatments. Treatment was extended for 2 d if results of the trial treatment were, according to the owner, not satisfactory. The overall bacteriological cure rate was 52%. The bacteriological cure rate of clinical beta-lactamase-negative S. aureus mastitis was significantly higher than that of clinical beta-lactamase-positive S. aureus mastitis. Bacteriological cure was also significantly higher if somatic cell count of the cow was low at the milk recording prior to the onset of the clinical mastitis. The bacteriological cure rate of clinical beta-lactamase-negative S. aureus mastitis was also significantly higher after an extended treatment compared with no extended treatment. The seriousness of the various clinical symptoms and the bacteriological cure rate of clinical S. aureus mastitis were not associated. PMID:10714861
Pandit, Gopal A.; Dantkale, Sunita S.; Thakare, Nisha V.; Pudale, Smita S.
Tuberculosis of breast is an uncommon diseaseclinically mimicking breast carcinoma. Wepresent a case of a 22 years old female whocomplained of a breast mass and axillary swell-ing of three months duration. Clinically she wasdiagnosed as having phyllodes tumour. Thebreast mass ultrasonography revealed a benigncystic hypoechoic lesion. Grossly the excisedmass was a cyst containing serous fluid alongwith a small solid yellowish white nodule withfoci of caseation. The axillary lymph nodes alsosho...
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest® for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69. Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91. Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91 while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90. Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353, while for bacteria and fungi it was 16 % and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n =67. The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.
R H, Mdegela; R, Ryoba; E D, Karimuribo; E J, Phiri; T, Løken; O, Reksen; E, Mtengeti; N A, Urio.
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clini [...] cal changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest® for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69). Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91). Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91) while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90). Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353), while for bacteria and fungi it was 16% and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n = 67). The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.
Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop
Mastitis results from invasion of infectious pathogens into a mammary gland and constitutes a significant problem in dairy herds around the world. In addition to economic consequences for the farmer, episodes of clinical mastitis in dairy cows are associated with discomfort and increased risk of culling and death. Although mastitis has received significant scientific attention, one aspect of bovine mastitis has only been touched upon very briefly; the characterization of the recovery period and its potential for modulation. Hence, in order to increase the understanding of the recovery period after bovine mastitis and to create a basis for future facilitation of recovery, the present thesis focussed on two selected aspects of recovery; a behavioural as well as an inflammatory aspect, aiming to 1) describe the behaviour of dairy cows in the days before, during and after antibiotic treatment for naturally occurring mastitis and to compare with behaviour of healthy cows; 2) describe the development within milk production and inflammatory markers before, during and after antibiotic treatment of naturally occurring mastitis, and to compare with healthy cows, with special focus on the expected post-mastitis stabilisation within these measures and 3) investigate a possible relationship between behaviour, milk production and inflammatory markers during naturally occurring bovine mastitis and its early recovery. Overall, the focus was on dairy cows housed in free stalls with automatic milking systems (AMS). This type of housing is gaining ground in the modern dairy farm. Furthermore, these settings are well suited for studies, like the present, where the use of automatically recorded measures are prioritised. The aims were achieved by two studies, the results of which are described in three papers included in this thesis. Study 1 was a cohort study using matched pair design where clinical registrations, production data and automatically recorded behavioural and inflammatory measures were collected prior to, during and after antibiotic treatment of naturally occurring mastitis. Based on 30 mild cases without systemic symptoms, the daily activity, feed intake and behaviour during milking of the infected animals were shown to differ from the healthy controls. For the majority of the examined behavioural measures, a lack of stabilisation during the week after finalisation of antibiotic treatment was found, suggesting that even within relatively mild cases of clinical mastitis, the cows were not recovered within this time frame. The description of the inflammatory aspect of mastitis focussed on changes in milk yield and inflammatory markers. Based on Study 1, the local clinical symptoms faded after antibiotic treatment but persisted for at least a week afterwards, which may have affected the welfare of the cows. The results of Study 2, involving automatically recorded measurements of milk yield and inflammatory markers from 174 mastitic and 858 control lactations, confirmed the findings of Study 1 and showed that milk yield, inter-quarter milk yield ratio and lactate dehydrogenase activity stabilised within one to three weeks post antibiotic treatment, but did not reach the pre-mastitis levels during the observation period of eight weeks post-mastitis. Hence, mastitis had a long-term effect on the measured variables and the infected cows were not fully recovered within eight weeks after antibiotic treatment. The presented combination of inflammatory as well as behavioural aspects of the recovery from bovine mastitis is new, and these results provide a more complete description of the recovery status of individual cows after a mastitis infection than what has been available until now. The co-development within the measures obtained in Study 1, which has been described in Paper III, e.g. showing a negative relationship between clinical score and lying time, has not been described before and may be considered as a first step to increase the understanding of the effect of mastitis infections in terms of animal welfare. Overall, the results
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on 322 local (n = 57 and crossbred (n = 265 lactating hand milked small holder cows in and around Gondar. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis and the associated risk factors by clinical examination and using california mastitis test. Bacterial culture was also conducted to determine the casual agents of mastitis. The prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis in the study area was 0.93 and 31.67%, respectively with an overall prevalence of 32.6%. Out of 1288 quarters examined 164 were infected while 39 were blind. The number of clinically and sub clinically infected quarters were 7 and 157, respectively. Several pyogenic bacteria have been isolated from cases of sub clinical mastitis during the study period. The major bacteria isolated in this study were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae with a prevalence of 16.5, 15.9 and 14.0%, respectively. Among the risk factors considered, breed, age, parity and stage of lactation have been shown statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in the prevalence of mastitis. Sub clinical mastitis in both breeds has been reported to be higher than clinical mastitis. The odds of occurrence of mastitis were two times more likely in crossbreds compared to local zebu. The present study disclosed that high prevalence of sub clinical mastitis and the occurrence Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp. as dominant bacterial species from mastitic milk of the study area. All the risk factors considered were significant effect on the prevalence of mastitis. Appropriate control and prevention methods should be applied to reduce the prevalence and effect of mastitis in dairy cows.
M. IQBAL, M. AMJED1, M. A. KHAN, M. S. QURESHI1 AND U. SADIQUE1
The present study was undertaken to compare five laboratory diagnostic tests for sub-clinical mastitis in cattle and buffaloes and to compute cost, time taken by each test and its ranking for availability, adoptability, interpretability and sensitivity. There were 352 cases with each test type viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT), White Side Test (WST), White Side + Dye (WSTD), Surf Test and Surf + Dye, and 880 cases with each species type (cattle and buffaloes). Result scores (1760 ) for sub...
Garland Suzanne M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design was used. Women with mastitis (cases, n = 100 were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (emergency departments, breastfeeding clinics and postnatal wards. Breastfeeding women without mastitis (controls, n = 99 were recruited from maternal and child health (community centres and the rooms of a private obstetrician. Women completed a questionnaire and nasal specimens were collected from mother and baby and placed in charcoal transport medium. Women also collected a small sample of milk in a sterile jar. Results There was no difference between nasal carriage of S. aureus in breastfeeding women with mastitis (42/98, 43% and control women (45/98, 46%. However, significantly more infants of mothers with mastitis were nasal carriers of S. aureus (72/88, 82% than controls (52/93, 56%. The association was strong (adjusted OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.30, 8.27 after adjustment for the following confounding factors: income, private health insurance, difficulty with breastfeeding, nipple damage and tight bra. There was also a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis (adjusted OR 9.34, 95%CI 2.99, 29.20. Conclusion We found no association between maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus and mastitis, but nasal carriage in the infant was associated with breast infections. As in other studies of mastitis, we found a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis. Prevention of nipple damage is likely to reduce the incidence of infectious mastitis. Mothers need good advice about optimal attachment of the baby to the breast and access to skilled help in the early postpartum days and weeks.
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
A dense SNP panel was used to predict the genetic merit of an individual for selection in livestock. The accuracy of genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular the number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip. A total of 648,219 SNPs passed the quality control criteria for genotypes from the high density SNP panel. All the 4,200 individuals genotypes were imputed to the high density SNP panel using the software Beagle. The associations between the phenotypes and SNPs were estimated by a linear mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis
Urio, N. A.; Mtengeti, E.; Reksen, O.; Loken, T.; Phiri, E. J.; Karimuribo, E. D.; Ryoba, R.; Mdegela, R. H.
A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was deter...
Full Text Available Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%.
Full Text Available Mastitis is probably the most common and costly disease in modern dairy cow husbandry. The aim of the present paper was to report the results concerning udder health after implementation of a specific strategy using both field and laboratory methods. During the period June 2010-December 2011 a total of 674 dairy cows from four dairy farms were included in the investigation. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed by detection of signs of inflammation in the udder, while subclinical mastitis was diagnosed at the animal level by an increased Somatic Cell Count (SCC using laboratory tests, and subsequently confirmed at quarter level by California Mastitis Test (CMT.Microbiological analysis of the milk samples was carried out by standard procedures using Gram staining, biochemical tests and automated identification system.The distribution of somatic cell counts on cow level (n=674 was:305 (45.3% with SCC less than 100,000SCC/mL, 236 (35.0% 100,001 - 350,000 SCC/mL, and 133 (18.7% with more than 350,000SCC/mL. From a total of 1684 quarters tested by CMT, 644 quarters (38.2% were positive and 1040 quarters (61.8% were negative. In 60 out of 101 quarters that had a positive CMT result and no current treatment and that were sampled for bacteriology, bacteria could be isolated. Main bacteria identified, were coagulase - negative staphylococci (40.0%, Streptococcus agalactiae was present in 25.0%, Escherichia coli in 16.6%, Proteus spp. in 11.7% and Staphylococcus aureus in 6.7% of the bacteriological positive samples. After introducing specific mastitis-control measures, focusing on milking hygiene, dry-off treatment, and antibiotic treatment of both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis cases, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was reduced from 38.2to 10.8%, while the incidence of clinical mastitis decreased from 21.0% to 4.9%.In conclusion, the implementation of a standard mastitis control plan based on a regular assessment of the somatic cell count can reduce the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in dairy herds.
Gonza?lez, R. N.; Cullor, J. S.; Jasper, D. E.; Farver, T. B.; Bushnell, R. B.; Oliver, M. N.
A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical c...
Garino Jr, F.; Matos, R. A. T.; Miranda Neto, E. G.; Bernardino, J. N. N.; Santos, E. D.; Aguiar, G. M. N.
This paper reports the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State - Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. Amastectomywasperformedasclinical treatment.
S. A. Hussein
Full Text Available A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulasenegative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium usually causing skin and soft tissue infections in immunocompetent patients following contaminated traumatic or surgical wounds or contaminated injected medications. Disseminated infections and pulmonary infections are usually reported in immunocompromised hosts. Case presentation We describe a 54-year-old Caucasian woman with mastitis due to M. abscessus. A few days after clinical evidence of mastitis, the patient was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Subsequently, due to persistence of symptoms, a percutaneous breast biopsy was performed followed by surgical drainage. Initial cultures failed to grow micro-organisms and tissue histology showed chronic inflammatory reaction with giant cells. Several days after surgery, her symptoms recurred. Finally, M. abscessus breast infection was diagnosed and the patient was treated successfully. Conclusion Rapidly growing mycobacteria need to be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with chronic mastitis having pus discharge and who do not respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Hussein, S. A.
A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus a...
Omaleki, Lida; Barber, Stuart R.; Allen, Joanne L.; Browning, Glenn F.
Mannheimia glucosida, M. haemolytica, and M. ruminalis were isolated from cases of acute mastitis in ewes. M. glucosida was found to be a common cause of clinical mastitis in sheep. Selected phenotypic tests in addition to genotyping were needed to definitively identify Mannheimia species causing ovine mastitis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.
Bar, D; Gröhn, Y T; Bennett, G; González, R N; Hertl, J A; Schulte, H F; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Schukken, Y H
Bovine clinical mastitis (CM) can be detrimental to a dairy farm's profitability, not only in terms of lost production and treatment costs, but also because of the loss of the cows themselves. Our objective was to estimate the effects of multiple occurrences of generic bovine CM on mortality and culling. We studied 16,145 lactations from 5 large, high-producing dairy herds, with 3,036 first, 758 second, and 288 third CM cases observed in the first 10 mo after calving. Generalized mixed models, with a random herd effect, were used to quantify the effect of CM on mortality and culling. Other control variables included in the models were parity, stage of lactation, and other diseases. Clinical mastitis in the current month significantly increased mortality in all parities. Among primipara, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 5.6 (1.7, 18.0), 23.3 (7.1, 76.2), and 27.8 (3.7, 209.9) for the first, second, and third CM episode, respectively. Among multipara, respective estimates were 9.9 (7.4, 13.2), 12.0 (8.0, 18.0), and 11.5 (6.1, 21.4). Clinical mastitis significantly increased the risk of a cow being culled for a period of at least 2 mo after any CM case. Our findings provide dairy producers with information on mortality and culling associated with CM cases without considering the causative agent, and can also be used for economic analysis of CM management options. PMID:18487642
Pinedo, Pablo; Karreman, Hubert; Bothe, Hans; Velez, Juan; Risco, Carlos
The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a botanical product (PHYTO-MAST®) for the intra-mammary treatment of clinical mastitis (CM) in dairy cows managed in an organic system. The study involved 194 naturally occurring cases of clinical mastitis. Treatment was applied every 12 hours for 3 days and cows were evaluated for clinical cure starting on day 4. Outcomes of interest consisted of mastitis resolution at day 4, time to resolution, somatic cell score (SCS) after recovery, and bacteriological cure at 14 and 28 d after treatment. There was no significant effect on clinical mastitis resolution at day 4 for treatment compared with the control group. However, there was a faster recovery for the treatment group compared to the control group with median intervals from end of treatment to recovery of 4.6 d and 6.5 d, respectively. There was no effect on the probability of a SCS < 4 (200 000 SC/mL) after treatment. No significant effects were found for treatment on bacteriological cure at days 14 and 28. PMID:24155432
Vijay Kumar; Rajneesh Rana; Somya Mehra; Pramod Kumar Rout
Association of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc) with natural goat mastitis has been studied earlier largely by detecting the Mmc DNA using molecular methods. However, report on detection of cultivable Mmc isolates from natural goat-mastitis milk is still very rare. In this study, Mmc was isolated from milk samples (n = 171) of goats with or without clinical signs of mastitis. Mmc isolates were further characterized by biochemical and species-specific PCR methods. Intra species strai...
Atanasov Branko; Mickov Ljupco; Angelovski Ljupco; Nikolovski Martin; Ratkova Marija; Jankuloski Dean; Petrovski Kiro; Dovenski Toni
Mastitis is probably the most common and costly disease in modern dairy cow husbandry. The aim of the present paper was to report the results concerning udder health after implementation of a specific strategy using both field and laboratory methods. During the period June 2010-December 2011 a total of 674 dairy cows from four dairy farms were included in the investigation. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed by detection of signs of inflammation in the udder, while subclinical mastitis was diagn...
Gaurav Charaya; Anshu Sharma; Ashok Kumar; Mahavir Singh; Parveen Goel
Aim: To determine the etiology of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes and to develop an antibiogram of organisms isolated. Materials and Methods: A total of 564 quarter milk samples of 144 buffaloes suffering from clinical mastitis received in Veterinary College Central Laboratory were inoculated on blood agar, MacConkeys lactose agar and sabouraud dextrose agar. Bacteria isolated were characterized to the species level and subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing. R...
Burriel, A R
During an experimental study of ovine subclinical mastitis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, an outbreak of contagious ecthyma occurred among ewes unvaccinated against parapox virus. The same group of ewes developed a high rate (43.7%) of clinical mastitis caused by Pasteurella haemolytica. The rate of clinical mastitis among ewes vaccinated against parapox virus was very low (3.7%) suggesting that the presence of orf in the unvaccinated ewes was contributing to the high rate of clinical mastitis. An examination of the iron, sodium, potassium and albumin concentration of milk collected from 16 unvaccinated and nine randomly selected vaccinated ewes before experimental infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci or their uninfected control mammary glands indicated significant differences in the iron (p < 0.0001) and sodium (p = 0.01) concentration. Increased iron concentration in the milk may have assisted in the development of udder infection caused by P. haemolytica as iron is easily utilised by this bacterium. PMID:9176868
Garland Suzanne M; Amir Lisa H; Lumley Judith
Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design...
Chung, Sun Yang [Pochon CHA Univ. College of Medicine, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Periductal mastitis arises from major ducts. Radiographic reports describing the phases of duct ectasia and secretory calcifications, have been published, but descriptions of the phases of periductal mastitis are rare. We report the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of periductal mastitis in a 30-year-old woman who presented with a breast lump.
Cristina Caetano Stefanon
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as características clínicas, mamográficas e ultra-sonográficas de três casos de mastite granulomatosa idiopática. Esta afecção pode simular câncer de mama nos exames clínico e mamográfico, porém os achados ultra-sonográficos de múltiplas imagens tubulares hipoecóicas, contíguas e confluentes em mulheres jovens com história de lactação recente sugerem o diagnóstico de mastite granulomatosa idiopática.The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings of three cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. This disease can mimic breast carcinoma on clinical and mammographic examinations. However, ultrasound examinations showing multiple clustered and often contiguous tubular hypoechoic lesions in young women with history of recent lactation suggest the diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.
Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis in cows, presents one of the most acute problems in intensive dairy production, inflicting huge economic losses. In the course of one year, 80 samples were taken at investigated farms from udder quarters of cows with clinical mastitis and 160 samples from udder quarters of cows with subclinical mastitis. The efficacy of three preparations, A, B, and C, was examined in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows. The investigations indicate that antibiotic preparation A (neomycin, polimixine B, oleandomycin and prednisolone exhibited a greater efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus sp., but a smaller efficacy in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation B (amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone exhibited a higher efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus, but a weaker effect in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation C (procaine penicillin G, streptomycin, neomycin sulfate and prednisolone acetate exihibited efficacy in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichie coli. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molekularno-geneti?ka i ekofizioloka istraivanja u zatiti autohtonih animalnih geneti?kih resursa, o?uvanju dobrobiti, zdravlja i reprodukcije gajenih ivotinja i proizvodnji bezbedne hrane
M. IQBAL, M. AMJED1, M. A. KHAN, M. S. QURESHI1 AND U. SADIQUE1
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare five laboratory diagnostic tests for sub-clinical mastitis in cattle and buffaloes and to compute cost, time taken by each test and its ranking for availability, adoptability, interpretability and sensitivity. There were 352 cases with each test type viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Side Test (WST, White Side + Dye (WSTD, Surf Test and Surf + Dye, and 880 cases with each species type (cattle and buffaloes. Result scores (1760 for sub-clinical mastitis in each category of negative, trace, single positive, double positive and triple positive by species, and laboratory tests, were analyzed using nonparametric tests. Chi-square statistics showed that CMT was equally effective at both locations (farm vs. laboratory. Correlation further suggested that the association was highly significant. Moreover, cases in category of negative, trace and single positive strongly differed (P0.05. The study further suggested that CMT was the most sensitive test, followed by WST/WSTD and Surf/Surf + Dye. Although, the five tests showed slight discrepancy in the trace category reaction, a strong relationship of Surf Test to CMT, its low cost, easy availability and readily adoptable qualities should spur the relevant authorities to recommend the use of Surf test as a routine practice in dairy farming and add this test in the curriculum of diploma and degree programmes.
Li, X; Ding, X Z; Wan, Y L; Liu, Y M; Du, G Z
Under the traditional grazing system on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the amount of milk in domesticated yak (Bos grunniens) with clinical mastitis decreases and the milk composition is altered. To understand the mechanisms of mammary gland secreted milk and disease infection, changes in the protein composition of milk during clinical mastitis were investigated using a proteomic approach. Milk whey from yak with clinical mastitis was compared to whey from healthy animals with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using a mass spectrometer. Thirteen protein spots were identified to be four differentially expressed proteins. Increases in the concentrations of proteins of blood serum origin, including lactoferrin, were identified in mastitic whey compared to normal whey, while concentrations of the major whey proteins, casocidin-I, a-lactalbumin, and b-lactoglobulin, were downregulated in mastitic whey. These results indicated significant differences in protein expression between healthy yaks and those with clinical mastitis, and they may provide valuable information for finding new regulation markers and potential protein targets for the treatment of mastitis. PMID:25177940
Bar, D; Tauer, L W; Bennett, G; González, R N; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Schulte, H F; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T
The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of generic clinical mastitis (CM) in high-yielding dairy cows given optimal decisions concerning handling of CM cases. A specially structured optimization and simulation model that included a detailed representation of repeated episodes of CM was used to study the effects of various factors on the cost of CM. The basic scenario was based on data from 5 large herds in New York State. In the basic scenario, 92% of the CM cases were recommended to be treated. The average cost of CM per cow and year in these herds was $71. The average cost of a CM case was $179. It was composed of $115 because of milk yield losses, $14 because of increased mortality, and $50 because of treatment-associated costs. The estimated cost of CM was highly dependent on cow traits: it was highest ($403) in cows with high expected future net returns (e.g., young, high-milk-yielding cows), and was lowest ($3) in cows that were recommended to be culled for reasons other than mastitis. The cost per case of CM was 18% higher with a 20% increase in milk price and 17% lower with a 20% decrease in milk price. The cost per case of CM was affected little by a 20% change in replacement cost or pregnancy rate. Changes in CM incidence, however, resulted from changes in these factors, thus affecting whole-farm profitability. The detailed results obtained from this insemination and replacement optimization model can assist farmers in making CM treatment decisions. PMID:18487643
Goelles, M.; Kopp, W.; Beaufort, F.
The clinic of radiology at the University of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made.
Lara M. de, Almeida; Mayra Zilta P.R.B. de, Almeida; Carla L. de, Mendonça; Elsa M., Mamizuka.
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent mastitis causative agents in small ruminants. The expression of most virulence genes of S. aureus is controlled by an accessory gene regulator (agr)locus. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups and to evaluate the oc [...] currence of encoding genes for cytotoxin, adhesins and toxins with superantigen activity in S. aureus isolates from milk of ewes with clinical and subclinical mastitis in sheep flocks raised for meat production The agr groups I and II were identified in both cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Neither the arg groups III and IV nor negative agr were found. The presence of cflA gene was identified in 100% of the isolates. The frequency of hla and lukE-D genes was high -77.3 and 82.8%, respectively and all isolates from clinical mastitis presented these genes. The sec gene, either associated to tst gene or not, was identified only in isolates from subclinical mastitis. None of the following genes were identified: bbp, ebpS, cna, fnbB, icaA, icaD, bap, hlg, lukM-lukF-PV and se-a-b-d-e.
Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T
The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM), occurring in different weekly intervals before or after artificial insemination (AI), on the probability of conception in Holstein cows. Clinical mastitis occurring in weekly intervals from 6 wk before until 6 wk after AI was modeled. The first 4 AI in a cow's lactation were included. The following categories of pathogens were studied: Streptococcus spp. (comprising Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and other Streptococcus spp.); Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level that can be detected from our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample and cases with contamination (? 3 pathogens in the sample); and other pathogens [including Citrobacter, yeasts, Trueperella pyogenes, gram-negative bacilli (i.e., gram-negative organisms other than E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter, and Citrobacter), Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium spp., Pasteurella, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, and others]. Other factors included in the model were parity (1, 2, 3, 4 and higher), season of AI (winter, spring, summer, autumn), day in lactation of first AI, farm, and other non-CM diseases (retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Data from 90,271 AI in 39,361 lactations in 20,328 cows collected from 2003/2004 to 2011 from 5 New York State dairy farms were analyzed in a generalized linear mixed model with a Poisson distribution. The largest reductions in probability of conception were associated with CM occurring in the week before AI or in the 2 wk following AI. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. had the greatest adverse effects on probability of conception. The probability of conception for a cow with any combination of characteristics may be calculated based on the parameter estimates. These findings may be helpful to farmers in assessing reproduction in their dairy cows for more effective cow management. PMID:25173468
Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq
The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and an environmental spread of Escherichia coli IMI in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were calculated into the total annual net costs of IMI during lactation per scenario and compared with a default scenario. Input parameter values were based on the scientific literature. The scenarios were 3-d intramammary lactational treatment (default), 5-d intramammary treatment, 5-d intramammary treatment and 3-d systemic treatment, 3-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows, and 5-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on parameter input values. The results showed that interventions including antibiotic treatment combined with culling unrecovered clinical IMI cows resulted in the lowest transmission, number of IMI cases, and persistent subclinical IMI cases. Nonetheless, the high associated costs of culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows made the other scenarios with a long and intensive antibiotic treatment, but without culling, the most cost effective. The model was sensitive to changes to the cure rate of clinical IMI following treatment, but the ranking of the intervention scenarios did not change. The model was most sensitive to the changes to the transmission rate of Staph. aureus. The ranking of the intervention scenarios changed at low transmission rate of this pathogen, in which the default scenario became the most cost-effective scenario. In case of high transmission of contagious IMI pathogens, long and intensive treatment of clinical IMI should be preceded by strategies that lower the transmission.
Bradley, A J; Green, M J
Data were collated for an independent scientific analysis from 2 international, multicenter studies that had compared the efficacy of 3 different cephalosporin-containing intramammary preparations in the treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle [cefalexin (first generation) in combination with kanamycin; cefquinome (fourth generation); and cefoperazone (third generation)]. Quarters were assessed using standard bacteriological techniques before treatment and at 16 and 25 d posttreatment. Additional data were also available on individual cows and study farms, including parity, breed, and cow somatic cell count histories, herd bulk milk somatic cell counts, and farm management regimens. Sufficient data for analysis were available from a total of 491 cases on 192 farms in 3 countries (United Kingdom, France, and Germany) with up to 16 cases being recruited from any one farm. Clinical cases were of diverse etiology, representing both contagious and environmental pathogens. Univariable analysis demonstrated that quarters in the cefalexin + kanamycin and cefquinome treatment groups were not significantly different from each other, but were both significantly more likely to be pathogen free posttreatment than quarters in the cefoperazone group. Multivariable analysis was undertaken using conventional random effects models. Two models were built, with the first incorporating only information available to the practitioner at the time of treatment and the second including all information collected during the study. These models indicated that country, pretreatment rectal temperature (above-normal temperature associated with an increased chance of being pathogen free posttreatment), individual cow somatic cell count (increased somatic cell count associated with a decreased chance of being pathogen free posttreatment), and pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus isolation associated with a decreased chance of being pathogen free posttreatment) were useful predictors of pathogen free status; parity, yield, bulk milk somatic cell counts, and other farm management factors were not. The importance of country in the analysis demonstrates the need to generate local data when assessing treatment regimens. In addition, these results suggest that the factors important in predicting the outcome of treatment of clinical mastitis cases may be dissimilar to those reported to affect the likelihood of cure when treating subclinical intramammary infections. PMID:19389951
Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner
Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3?d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment, this difference persisted until at least 10?d after diagnosis. Sick cows spent less time lying in the initial days after treatment, reversing to the level of the control cows within the 10?d posttreatment period. In the 48?h before antibiotic treatment, the mastitic cows showed increased restlessness during milking, as seen by a higher frequency of tripping and kicking. Mastitic cows continued to show increased kicking during milking even after the antibiotic treatment period. These results show that the behavioral changes induced by naturally occurring mastitis persisted beyond the days of antibiotic treatment, thereby calling for further investigation into management of mastitic dairy cows to optimize recovery and ensure animal welfare during the recovery period after clinical mastitis.
Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Msami, H M
Smallholder dairy herds around the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania supply 86% of raw milk consumed by the city dwellers. Previous studies have indicated that clinical mastitis is an important disease affecting smallholder dairy cows and an 18-month questionnaire-based longitudinal field-study was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005 to elucidate risk factors associated with the incidence. A total of 6057 quarter-level observations from 317 lactating cows on 87 randomly selected smallholder dairy herds were analysed at the quarter and cow level using logistic and Poisson regression models, respectively. At the quarter level, the average incidence rate of clinical mastitis was 38.4 cases per 100 quarter-years at risk whereas at the cow level the incidence rate was 43.3 cases per 100 cow-years at risk. The incidence was significantly (Pfactors (body condition score, parity, stage of lactation, and udder consistency), housing (floor type) conditions and milking (cow and udder preparation) practices. It was concluded that the extrapolation of the classic ten-point mastitis control plan into smallholder dairy herds should be undertaken cautiously. An integrated approach to dairy extension should focus more on the creation of mastitis awareness among smallholder producers and on the improvement of animal nutrition and reproduction indices-factors that may also have a direct impact on milk yield. PMID:16516505
Bradley, A. J.; Green, M. J.
Data were collated for an independent scientific analysis from 2 international, multicenter studies that had compared the efficacy of 3 different cephalosporin-containing intramammary preparations in the treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle [cefalexin (first generation) in combination with kanamycin; cefquinome (fourth generation); and cefoperazone (third generation)]. Quarters were assessed using standard bacteriological techniques before treatment and at 16 and 25 d posttreatment....
SHAZA ANWAR AL LAHAM; FRDOOS MOHAMMAD AL FADEL
Streptococcus is considered to be one of the most dangerous causes of Clinical mastitis in cows. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of extracts prepared from different parts of the flowing plants: Oleaeuropea Linn(Oleaceae), Myrtuscommunis Linn (Liliaceae) ,thymus vulgaris Linn (Laminaceae), Rosemery Linn(Laminaceae), Ficuscarica Linn (Moraceae), and Achilleafalcata Linn(Asteraceae) against resistant Streptococcus in 1371 Samples of milk. This work was achieved in four...
Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.
A model to calculate the economic losses of mastitis on an average Dutch dairy farm was developed and used as base for a tool for farmers and advisors to calculate farm-specific economic losses of mastitis. The economic losses of a clinical case in a default situation were calculated as ¿210, varying from ¿164 to ¿235 depending on the month of lactation. The total economic losses of mastitis (subclinical and clinical) per cow present in a default situation varied between ¿65 and ¿182/cow per ...
Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commercial dairy farms and 55 from backyards lactating dairy cows were considered. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM was determined using three different indirect screening tests: California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Slide Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. Sensitivity and specificity were also determined to measure the accuracy of those tests. Results: The prevalence of SCM by CMT, WST and SFMT were 32.43% (n=144, 33.56% (n=149 and 31.53% (n=140, respectively. Distribution of SCM in relation to different variables at quarter level and animal level was also recorded. The prevalence of SCM was significantly (P4 than others at quarter level. No significant difference (P>0.05 was found in relation to breed. Using CMT as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of WST and SFMT were also calculated at 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and disease prevalence by WST and SFMT were comparable. Conclusion: This study recommends that regular screening of sub-clinical mastitis will reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, dry cow therapy specially in high yielding dairy cows.
Ferns, Lyn; Dohoo, Ian; Donald, Alan
A case-control study was conducted to identify herd production, housing, and hygienic and therapeutic factors associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in dairy herds in Nova Scotia. The data were collected by on-farm interviews with owners of 54 case and 54 control herds.
Stark, Deborah A.; Anderson, Neil G.
A case-control study was conducted to identify milking hygiene and udder therapy factors associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in dairy herds from which milk samples are submitted to the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Veterinary Laboratory Services, Guelph laboratory. The data were collected by telephone interview from 31 case and 31 control herds.
Ververidis, H N; Mavrogianni, V S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Gougoulis, D A; Tzivara, A; Gouletsou, P G; Athanasiou, L; Boscos, C M; Fthenakis, G C
The objectives of the work were to study the features of experimentally induced canine mastitis and to present hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. The right caudal abdominal mammary gland of six bitches was inoculated on day 8 after whelping with Staphylococcus intermedius to induce mastitis; adjacent mammary glands were used as controls. Clinical examination, bacteriological and cytological (whiteside test, Giemsa) examination of mammary secretion, as well as haematological tests were performed from 5 days before until 34 days after challenge. Mastectomy was sequentially performed 1, 2, 4, 18, 26 and 34 days after challenge in each of the bitches, in order to carry out a pathological examination of mammary glands. All animals developed clinical mastitis: challenged glands became painful, hot, enlarged and oedematous; secretion was brownish, purulent, with flakes or clots, subsequently becoming yellowish and thick. Staphylococci were isolated from all inoculated glands (up to 22 days). WST was positive in 41/46 samples from inoculated glands and 66/138 samples from control glands; neutrophils predominated during the acute stage. Blood leukocyte counts increased, whilst platelet counts decreased. Gross pathological findings initially included congestion, purulent discharge and subcutaneous oedema; then abscesses, brownish areas and size decrease were seen. Salient histopathological features were initially neutrophilic infiltration, haemorrhages, destruction of mammary epithelial cells and alveoli, and then infiltration by lymphocytes, shrunken alveoli, loss of glandular architecture and fibrous tissue proliferation. We conclude that in bitches, intrammamary inoculation of Staphylococcus intermedius can induce clinical mastitis, followed by subclinical disease. The disorder is characterized by bacterial isolation and leukocyte influx in challenged glands, by leukocyte presence in adjacent mammary glands, by increased blood leukocyte counts and by destruction of mammary parenchyma. PMID:17481831
Mukti Barua; Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan; Kamrul Islam; Sharmin Chowdhury; Md. Hasanuzzaman; Mohammed Ashif Imtiaz; Goutam Buddha Das
Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commerc...
Schukken, Ynte H; Bar, Doron; Hertl, Julia; Gröhn, Yrjo T
Mastitis is the most prevalent production disease in dairy herds worldwide and is considered to be the most economically important disease of dairy cattle. Modeling the risk of cows contracting mastitis is therefore of great interest for both targeting prevention programs and evaluating treatment protocols. Clinical mastitis (CM) is a disease of recurrent nature, thus correlation between the subsequent events within one cow may be present. This would violate the assumption behind most statistical time-to-event models. In the case of time to event models, the semi-parametric Cox regression models have become the default tool in modeling the time to an event. Limited methods are currently available to evaluate marginal and random (frailty) effects to account for multiple correlation sources. The objective of this study was to explore the implications of using several Cox or related semi-parametric or parametric models to estimate the hazard for CM in the presence of correlation between events. We evaluated the Andersen-Gill model which uses robust standard errors to account for the correlation, the Conditional Anderson-Gill model that uses stratification to account for event dependence, the Frailty model that introduces a random term to account for unobserved (cow level) heterogeneity, and a related generalized linear mixed model that uses Poisson regression to allow multi-level modeling of time-to-event data. We analyzed data on the occurrence of CM from five dairy farms in New York State. Data were from 8206 cows with 721, 275, 119, and 57 first, second, third, and fourth occurrences of CM, respectively, in the same lactation. The analysis of our sample dataset demonstrated that both cow- and farm-level correlation are present in the case of CM. The Conditional Frailty model was able to model one source of correlation in a random effect and one in a fixed effect. Poisson modeling allowed for simultaneous estimation of within cow correlation and within herd correlation. PMID:21035216
Radaelli, E; Castiglioni, V; Losa, M; Benedetti, V; Piccinini, R; Nicholas, R A J; Scanziani, E; Luini, M
This report describes an outbreak of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis affecting 45 cows in a herd of 122 dairy cattle in Northern Italy. Clinically, the outbreak was characterized by agalactia, multiple swollen and painless quarters, high milk somatic cell count and unresponsiveness to conventional antibiotic therapy. M. bovis was isolated from the milk samples of all the 32 affected cows tested and from the mammary tissue of three affected cows that underwent necropsy. No other pathogens were isolated from these samples. Lesions in two of the necropsied cows were characterized by mild chronic suppurative mastitis and galactophoritis. The other necropsied cow showed a chronic necrosuppurative and pyogranulamaous galactophoritis, a condition not previously associated with M. bovis. M. bovis was detected immunohistochemically in the lumen of the affected mammary ducts suggesting that ascending infection via the teat canal was the likely route of transmission. No other intralesional pathogens were demonstrated microscopically. PMID:21300386
Taponen, S.; Simojoki, H.
The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP-typing of CNS was compared with the phenotypic identification. A total of 133 clinical or subclinical quarter cases of intramammary infection caused by CNS from the practice area of the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Helsinki were studied. Bacteriological diagnosis was based on biochemical (API) testing. Staphylococcus simulans (43.6%) followed by S. chromogenes (23.3%) were the most common CNS species isolated from the milk samples. Ninety-nine isolates were genotyped using AFLP-analysis. Only 75.0% of S. chromogenes and S. simulans isolates identified with API test were clustered with the type strains of these species. Approximately half of the mastitis cases were clinical, and in the majority clinical signs were mild. The severity and persistence of intramammary infection were unaffected by CNS species. Fifty-nine percent of the quarter cases were treated with antimicrobials, and the rest were left without treatment. Mastitis due to P-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were P-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as opposed to only 45.5% for untreated quarters. Bacterial cure rates for the most common CNS species or AFLP clusters were not statistically different. Further studies on identification of CNS species are needed.
Taponen, Suvi; Simojoki, Heli; Haveri, Maarit; Larsen, Helle D; Pyörälä, Satu
The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP-typing of CNS was compared with the phenotypic identification. A total of 133 clinical or subclinical quarter cases of intramammary infection caused by CNS from the practice area of the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Helsinki were studied. Bacteriological diagnosis was based on biochemical (API) testing. Staphylococcus simulans (43.6%) followed by S. chromogenes (23.3%) were the most common CNS species isolated from the milk samples. Ninety-nine isolates were genotyped using AFLP-analysis. Only 75.0% of S. chromogenes and S. simulans isolates identified with API test were clustered with the type strains of these species. Approximately half of the mastitis cases were clinical, and in the majority clinical signs were mild. The severity and persistence of intramammary infection were unaffected by CNS species. Fifty-nine percent of the quarter cases were treated with antimicrobials, and the rest were left without treatment. Mastitis due to beta-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were beta-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as opposed to only 45.5% for untreated quarters. Bacterial cure rates for the most common CNS species or AFLP clusters were not statistically different. Further studies on identification of CNS species are needed. PMID:16527434
This presentation is about clinical cases and the contribution of the PET - CT Fag application in the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer. The cases presented were: neck diseases, epidermoid carcinoma, liver damage and metastasize, lymphoma, thrombosis, colonic cancer and lung disease
Full Text Available Combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was compared to parenteral treatment only. Cows with clinical mastitis (166 mastitic quarters caused by S. aureus treated by veterinarians of the Ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine during routine farm calls were included. Treatment was based on in vitro susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolate. Procaine penicillin G (86 cases due to ?-lactamase negative strains or amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (24 cases due to ?-lactamase positive strains was administered parenterally and intramammarily for 5 days. Efficacy of treatments was assessed 2 and 4 weeks later by physical examination, bacteriological culture, determination of CMT, somatic cell count and NAGase activity in milk. Quarters with growth of S. aureus in at least one post-treatment sample were classified as non-cured. As controls we used 41 clinical mastitis cases caused by penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates treated with procaine penicillin G parenterally for 5 days and 15 cases due to penicillin-resistant isolates treated with spiramycin parenterally for 5 days from the same practice area. Bacteriological cure rate after the combination treatment was 75.6% for quarters infected with penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, and 29.2% for quarters infected with penicillin-resistant isolates. Cure rate for quarters treated only parenterally with procaine penicillin G was 56.1% and that for quarters treated with spiramycin 33.3%. The difference in cure rates between mastitis due to penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. aureus was highly significant. Combined treatment was superior over systemic treatment only in the ?-lactamase negative group.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between some teat and body measurements of lactating cows and sub-clinical mastitis and milk yield. The material was consisted of 125 Holstein cows. The teat diameter, length and height from floor surface, wither height, hip height and chest girth of cows were measured. The cows were grouped according to Californian Mastitis Test (CMT score as positive (CMT Score: 2-4 and negative (CMT Score: 0 and 1 and also according to the 305 days corrected milk yield as low (=5000 kg and high (>5000 kg milk production. The significant differences were found between sub-clinical mastitis groups in terms of teat height, left and right hind teat diameter and right hind teat length (p<0.05. About 305 days corrected milk yield means of positive and negative sub-clinical mastitis groups were 5185.91180.81 and 4994.94210.80 kg, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to milk yield and body measurement between sub-clinical mastitis groups. There were no significant differences between milk yield groups with regard to teat measurements except for right front and hind diameter means (p<0.05. The means of wither height, hip height and chest girth according to low and high milk yield groups were found significant (p<0.001.
The use of successive milking as a procedure for the elimination of infection on due to Prototheca spp in cases of bovine clinical mastitis. (A case report / Utilização de ordenhas sucessivas como procedimento para eliminação de infecção por prototheca spp de casos de mastite clínica bovina (relato de caso
Márcia Kiyoe Shimada
Full Text Available This work relates the case of two animals (Black and White Holstein from a bovine milking herd, from north of Paraná State, in which mastitis due Prototheca spp was diagnosed. As a procedure for the infection elimination, it was opted for the use of successive milking performed six times daily, during eight days. The animals were followed up through mycological cultures from milk Samples after 15, 30 and 60 days from the beginning of the procedure. The clinical signs regressed after three days and the mycologicai cultures were negative after the 15th day.O presente trabalho relata um caso de dois animais HPB de um rebanho bovino leiteiro, da região norte do Estado do Paraná, dos quais diagnosticou-se mastite clínica por Prototheca spp. Como procedimento para eliminação da infecção optou-se peta utilização de ordenhas sucessivas praticadas seis vezes diariamente durante oito dias. Os animais foram acompanhados através de culturas micológicas das amostras de leite após 15, 30 e 60 dias do inicio do procedimento. Os sinais clínicos regrediram após três dias, e a partir do 15° dia as culturas foram negativas.
A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1
Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.
Swinkels, J M; Hilkens, A; Zoche-Golob, V; Krömker, V; Buddiger, M; Jansen, J; Lam, T J G M
Clinical mastitis of dairy cows is a visible inflammation of the udder, which is usually caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics. Although pressure is increasing to reduce antibiotic usage in livestock in the European Union, feedback from the field suggests that clinical mastitis treatment is frequently repeated after the initial per-label treatment, thereby extending treatment duration. The aim of this study was to explore the social factors influencing farmers' decision-making on the duration of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis. In total, 38 dairy farmers in the Netherlands (n=17) and Germany (n=21) were interviewed in a qualitative semi-structured way. Extended treatment was defined as any treatment longer than that given in label directions. Of the 38 farmers, 30 reported routine and 7 occasional extended antibiotic treatment. The interviewed farmers were sensitive toward social norms of other farmers and recognition for good stockmanship. Extended treatment is perceived as part of the social norm of "being a good farmer." The participants' perception was that mastitis is not treated "thoroughly" if clinical symptoms were still visible at the time of cessation of treatment, because it may persist or recur. As a result, treatment was frequently extended by repeating the initial label treatment. Farmers, specifically the more "cow-oriented" farmers, expressed insecurity on how to treat mastitis effectively. This insecurity made them more sensitive to comply with other farmers' injunctive ("what ought to be") and descriptive ("what is done") norms and the perceived veterinarians' informational norm that extended treatment is better, resulting in an approved social norm. Social approval reduces the insecurity of being perceived as a poor farmer; thus, extended treatment is emotionally rewarded. This social reward apparently outweighs the higher costs of more waste milk and more antibiotic usage. Perceived positive reference groups with whom the farmer identifies and regularly communicates face to face, such as other farmers, the herd veterinarian, and other farm advisors, confirm the farmer's judgment on extending treatment and influences him or her toward socially accepted behavior. Society was the most negative reference group, barely influencing farmers' decision-making on treatment. The emotional gap between farmers and society is large and probably difficult to overcome. Legislation may reduce antibiotic usage, if doable and controllable. Evidence-based information on treatment efficacy or practical on-farm decision support indicating when to end treatment may be able to change social norms of "thorough" treatment, especially when communicated by a positive reference group such as veterinarians. Because prudent antibiotic use is hindered by perceived subjective norms on optimal duration of antibiotic treatment, more research is needed, particularly on the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment of specific pathogens as related to cure and recurrence of clinical mastitis. PMID:25682148
Steeneveld, W.; Gaag, L.C., van der; Ouweltjes, W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.
Automatic milking systems (AMS) generate alert lists reporting cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Dutch farmers indicated that they use non-AMS cow information or the detailed alert information from the AMS to decide whether to check an alerted cow for CM. However, it is not yet known to what extent such information can be used to discriminate between true-positive and false-positive alerts. The overall objective was to investigate whether selection of the alerted cows that need furt...
Gunduz, Yasemin; Altintoprak, Fatih; Tatli Ayhan, Lacin; Kivilcim, Taner; Celebi, Fehmi
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory, noncaseating, chronic granulomatous benign disease. The etiology of IGM is still unknown. It is postulated to be an autoimmune localized response. The use of a course of oral steroids provides an important regression of breast mass and skin lesions. Topical corticosteroids are used to treat many skin diseases, but no study is available on the sole use of topical steroids for treating IGM. Eleven women with IGM were treated with topical steroid and evaluated using mammography, ultrasonography, and dynamic MRI. At the end of the 12th week, patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated for the regression of breast and skin lesions. Pre- and post-treatment time-intensity curve patterns (TICs) were also compared. During the topical steroid treatment, the inflammation signs in the affected breast had markedly disappeared, the fistulas had become inactive, and the fistula orifices and/or skin erosions had closed in nine patients. The median follow-up period was 17 months (range: 12-48 months). Recurrence was observed in two patients (2/11) at 5 and 8 months, which were treated again topically. The inflammatory findings of the breast skin completely resolved after 8 weeks of treatment, and no side effects or steroid-related complications occurred. In the pretreatment period, TICs from enhancing areas showed a Type 1 pattern in three cases, a Type 2 pattern in five cases, and a Type 3 pattern in three cases. After topical steroid treatment, TIC was not changed only in one patient (Type 2). Type 1 patterns were determined in seven cases and Type 2 patterns in two cases. In addition, in two patients, TICs were not determined due to complete healing. Our MRI findings showed that topical steroid therapy may be useful because it affects mammary parenchyma as well as mammary skin. Further studies with a greater number of patients are needed to determine the topical steroid therapy dosing and duration, and to better understand the efficacy for treating IGM. PMID:25228089
Bergonier, Dominique; Sobral, Daniel; Feßler, Andrea T; Jacquet, Eric; Gilbert, Florence B; Schwarz, Stefan; Treilles, Michaël; Bouloc, Philippe; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in ruminants. In the present retrospective study, we evaluated the potential interest of a previously described automated multiple loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Assay (MLVA) comprising 16 loci as a first line tool to investigate the population structure of S. aureus from mastitis. We determined the genetic diversity of S. aureus strains from cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle (n?=?118, of which 16 were methicillin-resistant), sheep (n?=?18) and goats (n?=?16). The 152 strains could be subdivided into 115 MLVA genotypes (including 14 genotypes for the ovine strains and 15 genotypes for the caprine strains). This corresponds to a discriminatory index (D) value of 0.9936. Comparison with published MLVA data obtained using the same protocol applied to strains from diverse human and animal origins revealed a low number (8.5%) of human-related MLVA genotypes among the present collection. Eighteen percent of the S. aureus mastitis collection belonged to clonal complexes apparently not associated with other pathological conditions. Some of them displayed a relatively low level of diversity in agreement with a restricted ecological niche. These findings provide arguments suggesting that specific S. aureus lineages particularly adapted to ruminant mammary glands have emerged and that MLVA is a convenient tool to provide a broad overview of the population, owing to the availability via internet of databases compiling published MLVA genotypes. PMID:25315988
Full Text Available A Gircowaged 5 years was referred for the treatment with a history of anorexia. On investigation, it was reported that the animal was not taking feed since 10 days of its last calving. The animal was reported to be treated with various antibiotics and fluids without positive response. On clinical examination, the temperature was slightly elevated; tachycardia was noticed and sluggish in respiration. On examination of the udder, the left hind quarter was swollen and the milk was reddish in colour and blood mixed creamy in nature. All the other quarters were apparently normal and the milk was normal in colour and consistency. Samples such as blood smear, blood serum, milk were collected and sent to Central University Laboratory for bacteriological and parasitological examination. Among the samples screened the serum was found positive for Leptospira serovar: Tarassovi. Accordingly, the animal was treated with Amoxycillin for 5 days and the animal has recovered uneventfully. The incidence of rare case of Leptospira species affected mastitis was discussed in detail.
Espetvedt, Mari; Lind, Ann-Kristina
Previous studies have addressed the differences in registered disease incidence between the Nordic dairy disease recording systems. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic dairy farmers have varying intention to contact a veterinarian the same day as detecting signs of mild clinical mastitis (MCM) in a lactating dairy cow. This is the first, and necessary, step in the process leading to a disease event being recorded. The second objective was to study underlying behavioural components influencing this threshold for action. A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The questionnaire was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour from the field of social psychology. After performing qualitative face-to-face elicitation interviews a set of statements about treatment of MCM was identified. These were grouped into behavioural, normative and control beliefs. The most frequently mentioned beliefs were rephrased as questions. Behavioural intention, aproxy for the behaviour of interest, was assessed using case scenarios. The target and eligible herds were in milk recording and had an average herd size of at least 15 cows. The questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly sampled dairy producers per included country. The response rate was around 50% in all four countries. The hypothesis of differences in behavioural intention between the countries was tested using Wilcoxon's rank-sum tests. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the country-specific variability in behavioural intention as explained by attitude, subjective norm or perceived behavioural control alone, or in combination. The Spearman rank correlations between behavioural intention and each belief, weighted by its outcome evaluation or the motivation to comply, were estimated to find the most important drivers, constraints and social referents for the behaviour of interest. There were significant (p <0.01) differences in behavioural intention between all countries except Denmarkand Norway. Swedish farmers had the weakest behavioural intention and Finnish farmers the strongest. Attitude explained most of the variability in behavioural intention in all four countries. The most important driver in all countries was to achieve a quick recovery for the cow. The varying behavioural intention partly explain the differences in completeness of disease data in the Nordic countries: if farmers have different thresholds for contacting a veterinarian the registered incidence of clinical mastitis will be affected. Knowledge about the importance of attitudes and specific drivers may be useful in any communication about mastitis management in the Nordic countries. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tolboom, R K; Snoep, J J; Sampimon, O C; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M
The most important characteristics of Mycoplasma mastitis on dairy farms are described, based on two case studies. Clinical symptoms, diagnostics, epidemiology, and a plan of action are presented. In the herds investigated, Mycoplasma mastitis was characterized by multiple affected quarters unresponsive to treatment with antibiotic and/or anti-inflammatory agents. Most striking were a sandy sediment, brown colouring, and rice-like structure of the milk of affected animals. Clinical symptoms differed in the two affected herds. Diagnosis was based on bacteriological investigation of samples of milk and synovial fluid taken from infected cows. Affected animals were culled immediately, and the herds were monitored by repeated testing of bulk milk samples. It was concluded that a consequence of the increasing size of cattle herds in the Netherlands is that subclinical/clinical Mycoplasma mastitis may be diagnosed more frequently than in the past. In the case of Mycoplasma mastitis, farmers and veterinary practitioners are advised to draw up a plan of action together, incorporating aspects such as diagnostics at cow level, direct culling of affected animals, hygiene during milking, including post-milking teat disinfection, and routine monitoring of bulk milk. Unpasteurized milk should not be given to calves. PMID:18309823
Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Ayana, Z; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S
A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ?90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1.02-5.71)] were risk factors for quarters being blind. In conclusion, replacement of old cows, prevention of teat injuries/lesions, drying teats with 1 towel per cow before milking, improving fertility in order to shorten the lactation period, allowing (restricted) suckling, access to feed and water immediately after milking, and improving tick control could improve udder health in Jimma. PMID:26008577
Sekkin, S.; Bardakcioglu, H. E.; Oral Toplu, H. D.
The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between some teat and body measurements of lactating cows and sub-clinical mastitis and milk yield. The material was consisted of 125 Holstein cows. The teat diameter, length and height from floor surface, wither height, hip height and chest girth of cows were measured. The cows were grouped according to Californian Mastitis Test (CMT) score as positive (CMT Score: 2-4) and negative (CMT Score: 0 and 1) and also according to the 30...
Paulo César Moreira
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There is an estimate that the mastitis in dairy herds causes production losses between 5 and 35%, equivalent from 85 to 500 million dollars per year. 231 milk samples from 231 cows on different stages of lactation, with clinic mastitis, from 35 farms of Goiânia, were analyzed in order to map the pathogens implicated in these process and to discover the microorganisms with major prevalence. All the samples had positive growth. The principal agents were Staphylococcus coagulase positive (32.90%, Streptococcus sp. (22.07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12.12%, Enterobacter sp. (10.38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8.65%, Escherichia coli (8.22%, Bacillus sp. (8.22%, Proteus sp. (6.49%, Klebsiella sp. (4.32% and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (3.46%. The Nocardia genus was isolated in 0.86% of the cases.
KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; etiology; isolated microorganisms.
Estima-se que a presença de mastite bovina em rebanhos produtores provoque perdas de produção entre 5 e 35%, o que equivale de 85 a 500 milhões de dólares ao ano. Com o objetivo de mapear os patógenos envolvidos nesse processo e evidenciar os microrganismos com maior freqüência foram examinadas amostras de leite de 231 vacas, em diferentes estágios de lactação, que apresentaram sinais de mastite clínica e eram pertencentes a 35 propriedades rurais da bacia leiteira de Goiânia. Todas as amostras tiveram crescimento bacteriano positivo. Os principais agentes isolados foram o Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (32,90%, Streptococcus sp. (22,07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12,12%, Enterobacter sp. (10,38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8,65%, Escherichia coli (8,22%, Bacillus sp. (8,22%, Proteus sp. (6,49%, Klebsiella sp. (4,32% e Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (3,46%. O gênero Nocardia foi isolado em 0,86 % dos casos.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite bovina; etiologia; microrganismos isolados.
Fuenzalida, M J; Fricke, P M; Ruegg, P L
The objective of this prospective study was to determine associations between occurrence and severity of clinical (CM) and subclinical mastitis (SM) during a defined breeding risk period (BRP, 3d before to 32d after artificial insemination) on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service (P/AI1). Dairy cows (n=3,144) from 4 Wisconsin herds were categorized based on the occurrence of one or more CM or SM events during and before the BRP: (1) healthy, (2) mastitis before BRP, (3) SM during BRP, (4) chronic SM, (5) CM during BRP, or (6) chronic CM. Clinical mastitis cases were categorized based on etiology (gram-negative, gram-positive, and no growth) and severity (mild, moderate, or severe). Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.56, 0.67, and 0.75 for cows experiencing chronic CM, CM, or SM during the BRP, respectively. The occurrence of chronic SM was not associated with reduced probability of P/AI1. Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.71 and 0.54 for cows experiencing mild or moderate-severe cases of CM during the BRP, respectively. The odds of pregnancy for cows experiencing CM caused by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria during the BRP were 0.47 and 0.59, respectively. The occurrence of CM that resulted in no growth of bacteria in cultured milk samples was not associated with reductions in P/AI1. Regardless of etiology, microbiologically positive cases of CM with moderate or severe symptoms were associated with substantial reductions in P/AI1. Etiology, severity, and timing of CM were associated with decreases in the probability of pregnancy at first artificial insemination. Severity of the case was more important than etiology; however, regardless of severity, microbiologically negative cases were not associated with reduced probability of pregnancy. PMID:25795486
Kawai, Kazuhiro; Korematsu, Kiyoshi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Okita, Miki; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki
The aim of the present study was to examine changes in innate immune factors in the milk of mastitic dairy cows treated with antibiotics. Cows in the antibiotics group (n = 13) were infused into the mammary gland with cefazolin on the sixth day after mastitis was diagnosed (the day of the mastitis diagnosis = day -6). The control group (n = 12) was not treated. Milk samples were collected once every 2 days from days -6 to 12 and somatic cell count (SCC), lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), and lactoferrin (LF) concentrations and lactoperoxidase (LPO) activity were measured. SCC and LF concentrations in the antibiotics group markedly decreased after the antibiotic treatment. When cows in the antibiotics group were divided according to SCC on day 0, LAP concentrations and LPO activity in cows with a lower SCC on day 0 (<5 × 10(6) cell/mL) were significantly higher and lower than those in cows with a higher SCC, respectively. These results suggest that LF concentration decreased with decrease in SCC after treatment and that LAP concentration and LPO activity differed depending on the severity of mastitis. This is the first report to reveal the dynamics of innate immune factor in milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis. PMID:25185977
Full Text Available Mastitis means inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. Many infective agents have been implicated as causes of mastitis. Worldwide, farmers have achieved tremendous success in reducing the incidence of contagious mastitis by adopting the traditional methods of mastitis control. The greatest impact of these control measures has been on infections caused by the contagious bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactia. But this success has not been demonstrated for clinical mastitis caused by other agents. Organisms such as coagulase negative Staphylococci, environmental Streptococci, Mycoplasma spp and Serratia spp have increasingly been isolated from dairy herds that had low somatic cell counts. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 38-39
The present study was undertaken to determine the distribution and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from naturally occurring mastitis in cattle and buffaloes. For this purpose a total of 1445 lactating cattle (653) and buffaloes (792) present at two experimental livestock farms Okara (Bahadarnagar) and Sahiwal (Qadiarabad), in and around district Faisalabad and slaughtered at an abattoir due to low milk yield and were screened for mastitis. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to detect sub clinical mastitis. The positive quarter milk samples were collected for culturing of S. aureus isolates. taphylococcus aureus isolates were identified on the basis of growth features, biochemical characteristics, coagulase test and as well as amplification of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes specific to its virulence. S. aureus isolates (n=265) were characterized by Polymerase chain reaction to determine the frequency of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes. From these isolates the amplification of the coagulase (coa) gene yielded three different PCR products approximately 204bp to 490bp while spa (spa-X) gene produced five different products ranging in size from 190bp to 320bp. PCR revealed that from all the coagulase positive S. aureus isolates 261(98.5%) had spa (spa-X) gene. The results of the present study indicated that S. aureus isolates recovered from bovine mastitis were genetically different within and among the various herds which may provide essential and valuable strategies to control staphylococcal infections in future. (author)
A. Sakthivel Selvan
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize, identify DNA polymorphism in cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14 gene in Karan Fries (KF cattle and to analyze association between genetic variants with incidence of clinical mastitis in National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI herd, Karnal. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected hundred KF lactating cattle by phenol-chloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out using reported primers to amplify 832 base pair region covering nucleotide base position number 1012 to 1843 (part of promoter, 5UTR, exon 1, intron 1 and part of exon 2 of bovine CD14 gene. The PCR amplified target product was purified, sequenced and further ClustalW analysis was done to align edited sequence with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis was performed for each KF cow using HinfI restriction enzyme (RE. Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCR-RFLP analysis and association study was done using Chi-square (?2 test. Results: After PCR amplification, DNA sequencing of amplicon confirmed the 832 bases covering 1012 to 1843 nucleotide base position of bovine CD14 gene. ClustalW multiple sequence alignment program for DNA revealed six nucleotide changes in KF cows at positions T1117D, T1239G, T1291C, G1359C, G1361A, and G1811A. Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with HinfI RE, which revealed three genotypes CC, CD and DD that differed significantly regarding mastitis incidence. Within CC genotype, 72.73% of cows were in a mastitis non-affected group whereas, those in CD and DD genotypes 69.44% and 60.38% respectively were mastitis affected. Conclusion: KF cows with allele C of CD14 gene were less susceptibility to mastitis compared with D allele.
This presentation is about a case of a patient with liver tumor. The ultrasound scan and Tc technique were used for the diagnosis and treatment. The application of PET - CT FDG contributed to detect peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, the lymph node distance to guide the therapeutic and the recurrence in case of a negative morphological methods.
Vilkki, Johanna; Iso-Touru, Terhi
Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cattle, causing high economic losses each year. Studies to locate QTL affecting clinical mastitis and milk somatic cell counts have been carried out to increase our understanding of the disease. As part of the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we have used most recent genomic tools to characterize QTL affecting mastitis incidence in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Clinical mastitis diagnoses from -15 to 50 days and 51 to 300 days of first lactation and SCC (geometric mean of SCS observations between 5 to 170 days of first lactation) were included. In total, 1920 progeny tested bulls were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 chip. After quality control, 38473 SNPs were analyzed using a mixed linear model (software package DMU). Associations (5% Bonferroni threshold) were detected in 9 peaks on 5 chromosomes. A set of 238 of the bulls were re-genotyped with the BovineHD chip, and the remaining bulls imputed to high density genotypes using Beagle software. GWAS was repeated with the imputed HD-data with GRAMMAS (GenABEL in R). Thereby 17 peaks on 12 chromosomes were identified. Eight high priority peaks were defined based on both 50K and imputed HD results, and overlap with previous QTL findings. Eighteen ancestral Finnish Ayrshire bulls were sequenced to over 20X coverage, and this data was used to identify sequence variations in regions flanking 2.5 Mb each side of the high priority peaks. The variations were ranked according to estimated effect by a pipeline developed within the Quantomics project
Huang, Pin; Lu, Chunwan; Li, Jun; Xu, Jun; Liu, Zaiqun; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhao; Huo, Jiayan; Li, Honglin; Teng, Yong; Cai, Yafei
To select the molecular markers susceptible to mastitis and reduce the loss induced by mastitis, the PCR-SSCP method was adopted to investigate the correlation between SNPs of the HSP70-2 gene and mastitis in 103 Chinese Holstein. 25 new polymorphisms were detected in this study: 9 SNPs (g.-115 G?A, g.-98 T?C, g.117 C?A, g.156 A?C, g.1743 G?A, g.1746 C?T, g.1761 T?G, g.1770 C?G, g.1877 G?C) were found to be associated with mastitis; 2 key SNPs led to amino-acid changes: g.1770 C?G (590 Asp?Glu), g.1877 G?C (626 Gly?Ala). 626 Gly?Ala affected the protein secondary structure. 3 potential cow HSP70-2 proteins were found in all the 103 individuals, but predicted three-dimensional structures of 3 proteins are the same with each other. It is suggested that 9 SNPs increase the susceptibility to mastitis due to their low polymorphisms and can be used as molecular markers to breed the dairy cows resistant to mastitis. PMID:25592821
SØrensen, Lars Peter; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mastitis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second parity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL affecting SCS. The 5 most common mastitis pathogens in the Danish dairy population were analyzed: Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis. Data were analyzed using 2 approaches: an independence test and a generalized linear mixed model. Three different data sets were used to investigate the effect of data sampling: all samples, only samples that were followed by antibiotic treatment, and samples from first-crop daughters only. The results showed with high certainty that 2 QTL affecting SCS exhibited pathogen specificity against Staph. aureus and E. coli, respectively. The latter result might be explained by a pleiotropic QTL that also affects CM2 and CM3. Less certain results were found for QTL affecting CM. A QTL affecting CM1 was found to be specific against Strep. dysgalactiae and Staph. aureus, a QTL affecting CM2 was found to be specific against E. coli, and finally a QTL affecting CM3 was found to be specific against Staph. aureus. None of the QTL analyzed was found to be specific against coagulase-negative staphylococci and Strep. uberis. Our results show that particular mastitis QTL are highly likely to exhibit pathogen-specificity. However, the results should be interpreted carefully because the results are sensitive to the sampling method and method of analysis. Field data were used in this study. These kind of data may be heavily biased because there is no standard procedure for collecting milk samples for bacteriological analysis in Denmark. Furthermore, using only the mean SCS from d 10to 180 after parturition may lead to truncated effects of SCS-QTL when samples collected after d 180 are used. Additionally, repeated samples were used, which could boost the difference in incidence of pathogens between daughters of sires inheriting the positive and negative QTL allele, respectively. However, the magnitude of these effects in this study is unclear
To present the mammography findings in 8 patients with tuberculosis (TB) of the breast, with a review of the literature. This study is a retrospective data collection. Each chart with confirmed breast TB based on bacteriology or pathologic findings was analyzed for clinical presentation, gender, nationality, demographic data, prior history of TB, investigation, management, mammographic findings and ultrasound, when available. Mammograms were reviewed by 2 consultant radiologists without knowing the previous diagnosis or the nature of the study. The study was carried out at The State Tuberculosis Registry and Radiology Department, Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar, from 1990 to 2002. Out of 13 females with TB mastitis, only 8 cases had mammograms preoperatively. The incidence of breast TB in Qatar is rare (1/1000 mammograms per year). Three types of TB mastitis were identified in our study; the nodular (50%), the diffuse (37.5%) of which 77% were limited to one sector of the breast and the sclerosing (12.5%) mastitis. Three patients (43%) were reported as carcinoma. Although mammography identified 3 types of TB, it was not helpful in differentiating TB from carcinoma of the breast. However, the careful evaluation of the degree of density and trabecular thickening of the mass in relation to it size might reduce the number of false positive cases of carcinoma diagnosed with mammograms. Biopsy specimen remains the best diagnostic tool in TB mastitis. (author)stic tool in TB mastitis. (author)
Introduction: Neonatal mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast frequently associated with Staphylococcus aureus. While PantonValentine leucocidin (PVL), a B?pore?forming cytotoxin, is commonly associated with enhanced virulence in community?acquired methicillin?resistant S. aureus isolates, this is the first report to our knowledge of neonatal mastitis caused by PVL?positive S. aureus.\\r\
Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.
Won, Mi Sook; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Kim, Young Mook; Lee, Myung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included.
Cotrino Badillo Victor
Full Text Available In Colombia, the great diversity in management, methods of milking and breeds for milk production, makes very difficult to unify the rules for mastitis control; therefore the veterinarians job, according to the available resources in each herd is to advise the best procedures for both, milking routines and mastitis control. Influenced by the differences in management, the prevalence of each of the microorganisms that may cause mastitis varies from region to region and even from herd to herd within the same area. As a rule of thumb, the more basic the system, the less practices for mastitis control are present; this situation consequently leads to a high presentation of contagious mastitis by Streptococcus agalactiae. As the management improves, and dry cow therapy practices are implemented particularly in systems with milking machines, the mayor pathogen isolated is Staphylococcus aureus which is a regular resident in the skin. The number of cases caused by environmental microorganisms is very low, but maintains the clinical level of serious acute mastitis reported in dairy herds in other countries. Due to the indiscriminate and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics used for mastitis treatment, a high level of resistance to antibiotics has resulted to most of the antibiotics already in the market. It is imperative a close cooperation between the organizations for drug regulation and control, the pharmaceutical industry and the Veterinary medical profession to established rules and standards to safeguard this non-renewable resource.La diversidad en los sistemas de manejo, métodos de ordeño y aun de razas que se tienen en la producción de leche en Colombia, no permiten unificar las normas para el control de mastitis y será el veterinario quien, de acuerdo con los recursos disponibles en cada finca, establezca los procedimientos para el manejo del ordeño y el control de la mastitis. Influenciados por las diferencias de manejo, la prevalencia de cada uno de los microorganismos causantes de mastitis varía de región a región y aun de finca a finca en la misma zona. Como criterio general, entre más elemental sea el sistema de manejo o menos prácticas en el control de mastitis, predominan las mastitis contagiosas por Streptococcus agalactiae que van cediendo espacio a las producidas por Staphylococcus aureus cuando se implementan las prácticas de terapia de vaca seca, y en los hatos con ordeños mecánicos aumentan los casos por microorganismos localizados en la piel de los pezones. El número de casos por microorganismos ambientales es muy bajo, pero mantiene el comportamiento clínico de mastitis aguda grave que se reporta en los hatos estabulados en otros países. Por el uso indiscriminado y a veces inadecuado que caracteriza el manejo de los antibióticos para el tratamiento de mastitis se tiene un alto nivel de resistencia a la mayoría de los antibióticos existentes en el mercado para el tratamiento de la mastitis. Es urgente que en forma concertada entre el ente de control, la industria farmacéutica y el cuerpo médico veterinario se establezcan normas y criterios para salvaguardar este recurso no renovable.
Dinesh, Krishanender; Verma, Archana; Das Gupta, Ishwar; Thakur, Yash Pal; Verma, Nishant; Arya, Ashwani
Lactoferrin gene is one of the important candidate genes for mastitis resistance. The gene is located on chromosome BTA 22 and consists of 17 exons spanning over 34.5 kb of genomic DNA. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to identify allelic variants in exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene and to analyze association between its genetic variants and incidence of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffalo. The amplification of exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene yielded amplicons of 232- and 461-bp sizes. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 232-bp amplicon using BccI restriction enzyme revealed three genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) with frequencies of 0.62, 0.22, and 0.16, respectively. The frequencies of two alleles, A and B, were estimated as 0.73 and 0.27. Hpy188I-RFLP for 461-bp amplicon revealed polymorphism with three genotypes, CC, CD, and DD, with respective frequencies of 0.06, 0.39, and 0.56, whereas frequencies for C and D alleles were 0.25 and 0.75. The chi-square (?(2)) analysis revealed a significant association between incidence of clinical mastitis and genetic variants of exon 7, and animals of AA genotype of exon 7 were found to be least susceptible to mastitis. The findings indicate potential scope for incorporation of lactoferrin gene in selection and breeding of Murrah buffaloes for improved genetic resistance to mastitis. PMID:25677166
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions.
Nyman Ann-Kristin J; Persson Ylva; Grönlund-Andersson Ulrika
Abstract Background A nationwide survey on the microbial etiology of cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was carried out on dairy farms in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the microbial panorama and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were investigated. Methods In total, 583 quarter milk samples were collected from 583 dairy cows at 226 dairy farms from February 2008 to February 2009. The quarter...
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to study the use of cell counts as an early indicator of mammary health. Materials and Methods: Milk and blood cell counts were estimated from 8 healthy, 8 subclinical (SCM, and 8 clinically mastitis (CM groups of Karan Fries (KF cows. Results: Total leucocyte counts and neutrophil percent in blood and milk somatic cells and milk neutrophil percent of healthy cows increased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM cows and CM cows. Viability of blood and milk neutrophils was more in healthy cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM and CM cows. Significant (p<0.05 decrease were also observed in both the blood and milk lymphocytes and monocytes of SCM and CM cows. Phagocytic activity (PA of blood neutrophils also decreased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM cows. There was no difference between the PA of SCM and CM cows. Milk neutrophil percent was more in the SCM and clinically infected milk than in the blood of these cows. About 96-97% of the neutrophils had segmented nucleus in both healthy and subclinical milk, whereas, 2-3% were having band shaped or immature nuclei. There was a significant decrease in the segmented neutrophils, whereas, band neutrophils increase significantly to about 5% in the infected milk of mastitic cows. Viability of the milk neutrophils decreased more in case of subclinical and clinical milk as compared to that of blood. PA was found to be highest in the milk of healthy group of cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05 in subclinically infected cows. However, there was no difference between the PA of milk neutrophils of SCM and CM cows. PA of milk was also found to be significantly lower in the milk of healthy cows when compared to that of blood neutrophils. Conclusion: This study indicated that percent neutrophils and their type in conjunction with milk somatic cell counts can be used as a more reliable indicator of mammary health in cows.
Espetvedt, Mari N.; Rintakoski, Simo
National databases for dairy cows in the four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have been found to capture varying proportions of disease events on farm. A variation in the thresholds of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment may be a reason for this. Studying these thresholds may increase the understanding of prudent use of antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic veterinarians, on a between country-level, vary in their intention to start medical treatment of a dairy cow with mild clinical mastitis, on the same day as making the diagnosis. The threshold for initiating treatment was quantified as an intention score. Secondary, underlying behavioural components of the intention score was studied within each country. A social psychology model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), was used to design a questionnaire that was distributed to 1047 veterinarians in cattle practice in the four countries during autumn 2010. The response rate was around 50% in all the countries, and 543 observations were retained for analysis. The between-country differences in intention were tested with one-way analysis of variance. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the proportion of variability in intention explained by the three behavioural components, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The Spearman rank correlations between specific beliefs about the behaviour and intention scores were estimated to find beliefs of high influence on the decision to treat or not. Intention scores differed between all countries (p <0.05) except between NO and SE (p = 0.06). The mean intention scores were 0.71, 0.42, 0.58 and 0.50 in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. As measured by the adjusted R-2 in linear regression models, the underlying behavioural components of the TPB explained 0.37, 0.41, 0.40 and 0.48 of the variation in intention scores in OK, Fl, NO and SE, respectively. Attitude was the most important predictor in DK, NO and SE, but perceived behavioural control was most important in Fl. In all countries the specific attitude belief of highest influence was that starting treatment the same day as diagnosing a case of mild clinical mastitis gives the best result, compared to delaying treatment. The varying intentions of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment are likely to influence centrally registered mastitis incidence. This study has given an improved understanding of this behaviour, which may be useful in intervention studies or campaigns aiming at prudent use of antibiotics on dairy farms. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.
Full Text Available Effect of supplementation of Zinc, Copper and Levamisole on incidence of subclinical mastitis was studied. The level of zinc increases significantly after supplementation and 75% animals was recovered. However in copper supplemented animals (12 only two animals showed complete recovery. None of the animals in Zinc and Copper supplemented group developed clinical mastitis. In levamisole supplemented group, 50% cows remained in subclinical state while 50% converted in clinical mastitis. So, the zinc supplementation is better over other two supplementation [Veterinary World 2008; 1(2.000: 40-41
Department of Veterans Affairs The Clinical Case Registries (CCR) replaced the former Immunology Case Registry and the Hepatitis C Case Registry with local and national databases. The CCR:HIV and...
Priscilla F. V., Pereira; Erika S., Stotzer; Lucienne G., Pretto-Giordano; Ernst E., Müller; Júlio A. N., Lisbôa.
Full Text Available A mastite em ovelhas da raça Santa Inês apresenta-se como um problema de grande proporção e gravidade e é dificilmente tratada com sucesso. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e etiológicos da mastite clínica em ovelhas de corte criadas no norte do Paraná. O p [...] resente estudo foi realizado entre os meses de outubro de 2009 a setembro de 2010 envolvendo 54 rebanhos de ovinos de corte de diferentes raças. Durante as visitas às propriedades, um questionário foi preenchido com a finalidade de caracterizar o problema. Setenta ovelhas com mastite clínica foram examinadas e amostras de secreção láctea foram colhidas para exame microbiológico. A mastite foi considerada um problema relevante em 39 propriedades (72,3%), com frequência média de 6,74%. Casos crônicos e agudos de mastite foram observados em 69% e 31% das ovelhas examinadas, respectivamente. Em ambos os casos, a mastite flegmonosa foi a forma mais encontrada (65,5% dos casos). O agente etiológico mais prevalente foi Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (54,5%), seguido por S. aureus e A. pyogenes (11,5% cada). Mannheimia haemolytica foi isolada em dois casos. Sistema de criação não extensivo e raça Santa Inês foram identificados como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de mastite clínica. Secagem das fêmeas após 120 dias de lactação e separação de fêmeas doentes do rebanho foram associadas com menor ocorrência da doença. Recomenda-se a limpeza adequada das instalações e a secagem mais tardia, principalmente em rebanhos Santa Inês. Abstract in english Mastits is infrequent in meat ewes. However Santa Ines ewes have a high incidence of this disease and it is severe and difficult to treat. The goal of this study was to characterize clinical, epidemiological and etiological aspects of clinical mastitis in meat ewes reared in the north of Parana, Bra [...] zil. Fifith four farms were visited from October 2009 to September 2010. The surveyed data included frequency, breeds of sheep affected, lamb mortality rates, main clinical signs, attempts and outcome of treatment, method and period of weaning and management features. Seventy ewes with clinical mastitis were fully examinated and samples of mammary secretion were asseptically taken for bacteriological culture. Mastitis was identified in 39 farms (72.3%) as a relevant problem (mean frequency was 6,74%). Chronic and acute mastitis were observed in 69% and 31% of the examinated ewes, respectively. In both cases, phlegmonous mastitis was the most prevalent form (65.5%). Coagulase negative Staphylococccus (CNS) was the main isolated microorganism (54.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (11.5%, each one). Mannheimia haemolytica was found in two cases. The risk factors for clinical mastitis were intensive management system and Santa Ines breed. Weaning after 120 days of lactation and isolation of affected ewes were associated with lower frequency of mastitis. Preventive measures recommended are daily cleaning of facilities and delayed weaning, mainly in Santa Ines flocks.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Denmark, it has recently become mandatory for all dairy farmers with more than 100 cows to sign up for a herd health programme. Three herd health programmes are available. These differ in a number of aspects, including the frequency of veterinary visits and the farmers access to prescription drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy farmers behavioural intentions, i.e. to call a veterinarian or start medical treatment on the day that they detect a cow with mild clinical mastitis (MCM, are different depending on the type of herd health programme. Methods A questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was conducted. TPB proposes that a persons behavioural intention is strongly correlated with his or her actual behaviour. Three behavioural factors determine the behavioural intention: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Each of these factors is decided by a set of beliefs, each of which in turn is weighted by an evaluation: 1 the expected outcomes of performing the behaviour, 2 what a person believes that others think of the behaviour, and 3 the persons perceived power to influence the behaviour. A set of statements about the treatment of MCM based on interviews with 38 dairy farmers were identified initially. The statements were rephrased as questions and the resulting questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly selected Danish dairy farmers who use the two most restrictive herd health programmes, either Core or Module1, and to all 669 farmers with the least restrictive herd health programme, Module2. The association between intention and the herd health programme was modelled using logistic regression. Results The farmers with the Module2 herd health programme had a significantly higher behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, when compared to farmers with a more restrictive herd health programme (OR = 2.1, p Conclusion Danish dairy farmers who participate in Module2 herd health programme had a higher intention to treat cases of MCM, compared to farmers who participate in a more restrictive herd health programme in which the veterinarian initiates treatments.
Moyes, Kasey; Larsen, Torben
Our objective was to identify specific blood markers as risk factors for the development of mastitis during early lactation. We used a subset of cows from a larger experiment that consisted of a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows. Cows were of 3 breeds and ranged from parity 1 to 4. Blood samples were collected weekly from 56 d before expected calving date through 90 d in milk (DIM). Blood was analyzed for several hormones, metabolites, and enzymes, and energy intake and energy balance were calculated. Veterinary treatment records and daily composite milk somatic cell counts were analyzed and used to determine incidence and severity of mastitis in early lactation. Cows were separated into 2 groups: 1) WK0, consisting of cows that developed clinical mastitis (CM), cows that developed subclinical mastitis (SM), or cows that were healthy (H) during the first 7 DIM; and 2) EL, consisting of CM, SM, or H cows during wk 2 through 13 of lactation. Data were adjusted for numerous fixed effects (e.g., parity, breed, season, and DIM) before statistical analysis. The time of mastitis (TOM) was recorded as the DIM in which the first rise in somatic cell count was observed and was recorded as TOM = 0. The time before and after TOM was distinguished as ± n wk relative to TOM = 0. Healthy cows were paired with either a SM or CM cow and the TOM for each H cow was equal to the TOM for its paired SM or CM cow. Data from wk -1 and -2 relative to TOM were analyzed for group WK0 and EL, respectively. For all parameters, SM cows did not differ from H cows from either group. The CM cows had higher nonesterified fatty acid levels and a tendency toward higher ?-hydroxybutyrate levels than H cows before mastitis for both groups. For group WK0, glucose was higher -1 wk relative to calving in CM than H cows. For group EL, aspartate aminotransferase was higher -2 wk relative to mastitis in CM than H cows during 8 to 90 DIM. All other variables were similar among CM, SM, and H cows for both groups. Our results indicate that substances in blood, especially nonesterified fatty acids and aspartate aminotransferase, may be potential markers for the risk of mastitis in early lactation.
Heringstad, B; Chang, Y M; Andersen-Ranberg, I M; Gianola, D
The objective of this study was to infer genetic parameters and genetic change for number of clinical mastitis cases (NCM) and number of services to conception (STC) in first-lactation Norwegian Red (NRF) cows. Records on 620,492 daughters of 3,064 NRF sires, with first calving from 1980 through 2004, were analyzed with a bivariate threshold liability model that takes censoring into account. Posterior mean (SD) of heritability of liability was 0.08 (0.004) for NCM and 0.03 (0.002) for STC. The mean (SD) of the posterior distribution of the genetic correlation between the 2 traits was 0.21 (0.04). Posterior means of the correlation between herd-5-yr effects, and between residuals for NCM and STC were 0.17 and 0.05, respectively. To evaluate effects of taking censoring into account, the data were also analyzed with a bivariate ordered threshold model ignoring censoring. The genetic correlation between NCM and STC was lower than in the censored threshold model (0.09 vs. 0.21). Heritability of liability to NCM and STC from this model was also slightly lower, whereas the point estimates of herd-5-yr and residual correlations were 0.15, and -0.01, respectively. These results suggest that genetic (co)variance may be understated in models ignoring censoring. For comparison purposes, the data were analyzed with a bivariate linear sire model and standard REML-BLUP procedures. The correlation (rank correlation) between sire evaluations from the censored threshold model and sire predicted transmitting abilities from the linear model was 0.90 (0.90) for NCM and 0.87 (0.86) for STC. The evolution of average sire posterior means by birth year of daughters was used to assess genetic change, and results indicated genetic reduction (i.e., genetic improvement) of NCM and little or no genetic change for STC in the NRF population. PMID:16960080
García Lara. Tomás José
Full Text Available ResumenEn el presente trabajo se brindan algunas consideraciones clínicas, anatomopatológicas y epizootiológicas sobre un brote de Mastitis de Verano Arcanobacterium pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes sensible a la Penicilina, Cloranfenicol, Kanamicina y Propóleo en solución oleosa.Abstract The present paper gives some clinical, anatomopathological and epizootiological considerations on an outbreak of Summer Mastitis Arcanobectarium pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes sensitive to Penicillin, Chloramphenicol, Kanamycin and Propolis in oily solution.
Full Text Available Mastitis in cows represents one of the most actual problems in intensive dairy production. The prevention of pathogen penetration in the udder, its colonization and reproduction impose the constant need for regular milk check-ups, and preventive and therapeutic measures. Staphylococcus aureus causes subclinical and clinical mastitis, which when in the acute form can originate difficult and malignant udder infections with granulomatous and necrotic changes. Chronic forms of Staphylococcal mastitis most often pass as subclinical cases. An efficient commercial vaccine has not been introduced yet, though the application of autochthonous vaccines in the prevention of mastitis can give satisfactory results. In this study we have developed and applied an autochthonous vaccine prepared from S. aureus isolated from milk samples taken from an experimental farm, as well as from the referent capsular strain S. aureus. The vaccine was applied to experimental dairy cattle twice before calving in a dose of 5 mL. It consisted of inactivated bacterial S. aureus JR3 cells in a quantity of 1x1010 cfu/mL and 5 mg SM capsule of the strain S. aureus 2286. This vaccination of dairy cows has resulted in a significant decrease of subclinical and clinical manifested mastitis in the treated group, when compared to the vaccinated group of experimental animals. .
Full Text Available La mastitis en los bovinos es una enfermedad que afecta la calidad y la cantidad de la leche, teniendo un impacto directo sobre la salud pública. Muchos tratamientos han sido utilizados, con el fin de disminuir la inflamación y la infección, causados por este problema; sin embargo, la utilización de [...] casi todos los fármacos conlleva a residuos en la leche. Se evaluaron extractos fitoterapéuticos, con capacidad antibacteriana reportada, contra tres bacterias causantes de mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae y Escherichia coli. Los extractos empleados fueron obtenidos de Thymus vulgaris, Calendula officinalis y Salvia officinalis. Los hallazgos in vitro revelaron efecto bactericida con C. officinalis, en diluciones Â½, Â¼ y 1:8, en comparación con un efecto bactericida de los otros extractos, en las dos primeras diluciones. Con el grupo control con vehículo de propilenglicol, se obtuvo un menor efecto bactericida. Con base en los efectos in vitro, se intentó disminuir las células somáticas en bovinos con mastitis diagnosticada. Los resultados en los grupos tratados fueron en promedio un 23% de tasa de curación de los cuartos infectados. Se obtuvieron reacciones adversas en el 60% de los cuartos tratados. Con lo anterior, se concluyó que, a pesar de existir un comportamiento bactericida in vitro, no se puede asegurar que se obtendrán resultados antiinflamatorios en la glándula mamaria y que las reacciones adversas a la mezcla de extractos se deben más al uso per se de los extractos que al vehículo, tomando en cuenta que el propilenglicol es un vehículo común de preparaciones farmacéuticas tópicas y parenterales. Abstract in english Mastitis in cattle is a disease that affects the quality and quantity of milk, having a direct impact on public health. Many treatments have been used to reduce inflammation and infection caused by this problem. However, the use of almost all drugs needs a withdrawal time. Using herbal extracts with [...] reported antibacterial capacity, were used against three common mastitis-causing bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli. Extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Calendula officinalis and Salvia officinalis were evaluated. In vitro findings revealed bactericidal effect in all dilutions of C. officinalis Â½, Â¼ and 1:8, as compared with the bactericidal effect of other extracts in the first two dilutions. Control group using propylene glycol demonstrated lower bactericidal effect. Based on these in vitro effects minimization of somatic cell count in bovine mastitis was attempted. The results in the treated groups were of an average of 23% cure rate of infected quarters. Adverse reactions were obtained in 60% of treated quarters. With the above it was conclude that the behavior of the extracts in vitro and in vivo is different. Adverse reactions to the mixture of extracts apparently were not due to the vehicle, taking into account that propylene glycol is a common vehicle for topical and parenteral pharmaceutical preparations.
Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector
Hospido, Almudena [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Sonesson, Ulf [Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK), PO Box 5401, SE-402 29 Goeteborg (Sweden)
Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector.
Yu Jian-jun; Bao Shan-lin; Yu Sheng-lin; Zhang Da-Qing; Ty, Loo Wings; Wc, Chow Louis; Su Li; Cui Zhen; Chen Kai; Ma Li-Qiong; Zhang Ning; Yu Hui; Yang Yun-Zhen; Dong Yu; Ys, Yip Adrian
Abstract Background Plasma cell mastitis is distinct from the common form of mastitis and clinically resembles breast carcinoma. The lesion occurs in non-lactating young women, and the incidence rate is rising. Surgical resection is the main treatment, but cannot prevent recurrence of the disease. Disfigurement or removal of breast after the operations can cause marked physical and psychological distress. The etiology of plasma cell mastitis is unclear up till now. It is therefore necessary t...
The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients. (orig.)
Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Jung Im; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Woo Chan; Hahn, Seong Tai [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination.
Overhagen, H. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Lameris, J.S.
The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical mastitis limits milk production and represents an important barrier to profitable livestock economics worldwide. Milk production from cows in Nigeria is not at optimum levels in view of many factors including sub-clinical mastitis. Results The overall herd-level prevalence rate for SCM was 85.33% (256/300 heads of cows while the quarter-level prevalence rate of SCM was 43.25% (519/1,200 quarters. The prevalence of SCM was 50.67%, 43.67%, 39.67% and 39.13% for the left fore-quarter, right hind-quarter, left hind-quarter and right fore-quarter, respectively. The Rahaji breed had the highest prevalence of SCM with 65.91% (29/44, while the White Fulani breed had the least with 32.39% (57/176. A total of 32.33% (97/300 had only one mammary quarter affected, 30.33% (91/300 had two quarters affected, 16.00% (48/300 had three quarters affected while 6.67% (20/300 had all the four quarters affected. A total of 53.00% had SCM in multiple quarters (159/300. The risk of SCM decreased significantly among young lactating cows compared to older animals (OR?=?0.283; P?P?=?0.013; 95% CI?=?1.557; 43.226. Improved sanitation (washing hands before milking will decrease the risk of SCM (OR?=?0.173; P?=?0.003; 95% CI?=?0.054; 0.554. Conclusion SCM is prevalent among lactating cows in the Nigerian Savannah; and this is associated with both animal characteristics (age, breed and individual milk quarters and milking practices (hand washing.Good knowledge of the environment and careful management of the identified risk factors with improved sanitation should assist farm managers and veterinarians in implementing preventative programmes to reduce the incidence of SCM.
Jamrozik, J; Schaeffer, L R
Test-day (TD) records of milk, fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) and somatic cell score (SCS) of first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows were analysed by a three-trait finite mixture random regression model, with the purpose of revealing hidden structures in the data owing to putative, sub-clinical mastitis. Different distributions of the data were allowed in 30 intervals of days in milk (DIM), covering the lactation from 5 to 305 days. Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling was used for model inferences. Estimated proportion of TD records originated from cows infected with mastitis was 0.66 in DIM from 5 to 15 and averaged 0.2 in the remaining part of lactation. Data from healthy and mastitic cows exhibited markedly different distributions, with respect to both average value and the variance, across all parts of lactation. Heterogeneity of distributions for infected cows was also apparent in different DIM intervals. Cows with mastitis were characterized by smaller milk yield (down to -5 kg) and larger F:P (up to 0.13) and SCS (up to 1.3) compared with healthy contemporaries. Differences in averages between healthy and infected cows for F:P were the most profound at the beginning of lactation, when a dairy cow suffers the strongest energy deficit and is therefore more prone to mammary infection. Residual variances for data from infected cows were substantially larger than for the other mixture components. Fat-to-protein ratio had a significant genetic component, with estimates of heritability that were larger or comparable with milk yield, and was not strongly correlated with milk and SCS on both genetic and environmental scales. Daily milk, F:P and SCS are easily available from milk-recording data for most breeding schemes in dairy cattle. Fat-to-protein ratio can potentially be a valuable addition to SCS and milk yield as an indicator trait for selection against mastitis. PMID:22225580
Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %, followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 % and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1 %, whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2 % and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2 % the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 % of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95 % of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9 %, S. epidermidis (7.4 % and S. hominis (5.9 %. They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90 %of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6 %, followed by lincomycin (13.7 %. About 8 % of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.
Full Text Available In this study the authors want to present a case of a premature newborn who presented an extremely rare disease for medical practice. Low prevalence of the perinatal leukodystrophy, the difficulty of the clinical diagnosis and the echography resemblance with other diseases of the periventricular white matter is the subjects of this presentation.
Dana Mihut; Aniko Manea; Daniela Iacob; V Botiu; ES Boia; Marioara Boia
In this study the authors want to present a case of a premature newborn who presented an extremely rare disease for medical practice. Low prevalence of the perinatal leukodystrophy, the difficulty of the clinical diagnosis and the echography resemblance with other diseases of the periventricular white matter is the subjects of this presentation.
Full Text Available A field study was conducted in 6 cross bred dairy cows suffering from acute clinical mastitis preceded by FMD in all animals. After thorough clinical and laboratory examination of the affected animals were confirmed as the cases of clinical mastitis. Cows were diagnosed for mastitis by clinical examination and Modified California mastitis test, somatic cell count and cultural examination of milk. After confirmation of disease and antibiotic sensitivity test all cows were subjected to precise and supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 2 quarters were positive to + and one quarter to trace reaction by MCMT after the completion of treatment (on 5th day with enrofloxacin and melonex along with supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 3 quarters showed 2.5x105 cells mL-1 to 3.25x105 somatic cells mL-1 of milk and remaining quarters showed 5 somatic cells mL-1 of milk. It is concluded that the result of enrofloxacin and mammitel are considerable in the treatment of clinical mastitis.
Muhammad, A. Z. Khan And G.
The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical...
Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)
Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.
Nyman Ann-Kristin J
Full Text Available Abstract Background A nationwide survey on the microbial etiology of cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was carried out on dairy farms in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the microbial panorama and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were investigated. Methods In total, 583 quarter milk samples were collected from 583 dairy cows at 226 dairy farms from February 2008 to February 2009. The quarter milk samples were bacteriological investigated and scored using the California Mastitis Test. Staphylococci were tested for betalactamase production and presence of resistance was evaluated in all specific udder pathogens. Differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were statistically investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results The most common isolates of 590 bacteriological diagnoses were Staphylococcus (S aureus (19% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; 16% followed by Streptococcus (Str dysgalactiae (9%, Str. uberis (8%, Escherichia (E. coli (2.9%, and Streptococcus spp. (1.9%. Samples with no growth or contamination constituted 22% and 18% of the diagnoses, respectively. The distribution of the most commonly isolated bacteria considering only bacteriological positive samples were: S. aureus - 31%, CNS - 27%, Str. dysgalactiae - 15%, Str. uberis - 14%, E. coli - 4.8%, and Streptococcus spp. - 3.1%. There was an increased risk of finding S. aureus, Str. uberis or Str. dysgalactiae in milk samples from chronically infected cows compared to findings in milk samples from newly infected cows. Four percent of the S. aureus isolates and 35% of the CNS isolates were resistant to penicillin G. Overall, resistance to other antimicrobials than penicillin G was uncommon. Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus and CNS were the most frequently isolated pathogens and resistance to antimicrobials was rare.
Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele
BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that if inappropriately managed, may lead women to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. The aim of this paper is to report the incidence of mastitis in the first six months postpartum in a Scottish population, its impact on breastfeeding duration and to describe the type and appropriateness of the support and management received by affected women from health professionals. METHODS: A longitudinal study of 420 breastfeeding women was undertaken in Glasgow in 2004/05. Participants were recruited and completed a baseline questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice they received from health professionals. RESULTS: In total, 74 women (18%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis. More than one half of initial episodes (53%) occurred within the first four weeks postpartum. One in ten women (6/57) were inappropriately advised to either stop breastfeeding from the affected breast or to discontinue breastfeeding altogether. CONCLUSION: Approximately one in six women is likely to experience one or more episodes of mastitis whilst breastfeeding. A small but clinically important proportion of women continue to receive inappropriate management advice from health professionals which, if followed, could lead them to unnecessarily deprive their infants prematurely of the known nutritional and immunological benefits of breast milk.
Nielsen, C; Østergaard, SØren
The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted bulk tank SCC exceeded 220 000, 200 000 or 180 000 cells/ml, and on cow-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted SCC in an individual cow's milk exceeded 1 000 000, 750 000 or 500 000 cells/ml. The accuracy with which SCC was measured and predicted was assumed to affect the profitability of withdrawing milk with high SCC and this was investigated by applying high, low or no uncertainty to true SCC. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis was estimated at 8235, assuming that the initial incidence of mastitis could be reduced by 50%. This cost corresponded to 5% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was 55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at 278 and 60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk withdrawal that was not offset by a sufficient increase in the average price per delivered kg milk. It had the most negative impact on net return when high incidence of mastitis was simulated. Withdrawing milk with high SCC based on low-uncertainty information reduced the amount of withdrawn milk and thus resulted in less negative effect on net return. It was concluded that the current milk-pricing system makes it more profitable for farmers to sell a larger amount of milk with higher SCC than to withdraw milk with high SCC to obtain payment premiums, at least in herds with mastitis incidences within the simulated ranges. Udgivelsesdato: 21. May 2010
Hager, W. David; Barton, John R.
Objective: The purposes of this study were to compare the efficacy of amoxicillin and cephradine for the treatment of sporadic acute puerperal mastitis (SAPM) and to evaluate the microbiology and clinical parameters of this infection.
Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.
Seegers, Henri; Fourichon, Christine; Beaudeau, Franc?ois
Mastitis is the most prevalent production disease in dairy herds world-wide and is responsible for several production effects. Milk yield and composition can be affected by a more or less severe short-term depression and, in case of no cure, by a long-acting effect, and, sometimes, an overlapping effect to the next lactation. Summary values in the literature for losses of milk production were proposed at 375 kg for a clinical case (5% at the lactation level) and at 0.5 kg per 2-fold increase ...
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL
Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.
A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems. A questionnaire was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms were very low. Farmers had no knowledge on sub-clinical mastitis. Staphylococcus species were the most common isolates and more than 50% of the isolates were resistant to the commonly used antibiotics penicillin and tetracycline.
Mastitis means inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. Many infective agents have been implicated as causes of mastitis. Worldwide, farmers have achieved tremendous success in reducing the incidence of contagious mastitis by adopting the traditional methods of mastitis control. The greatest impact of these control measures has been on infections caused by the contagious bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactia. But this success has not been demonstrated ...
Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre los métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina que se utilizan más comúnmente en el mundo. La mastitis bovina es la inflamación de la glándula mamaria causada por una infección por patógenos. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la producción que afecta a la industria lechera en todo el mundo. Puede presentarse de manera clínica y subclínica. La mastitis subclínica es de larga duración y es mucho más frecuente que la mastitis clínica. Dentro de los métodos que se usan con mayor frecuencia a nivel de campo para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas, se encuentran el método de observación y palpación de la ubre y las pruebas físicas, como la prueba de escudilla de ordeño, prueba del paño negro y taza probadora. Las pruebas químicas, como la prueba de conductividad eléctrica de la leche, papel indicador de mastitis y prueba de whiteside que sirven también para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas y subclínicas. Las pruebas biológicas, como son la prueba de California para mastitis, la prueba de Wisconsin, el diagnóstico bacteriológico por los métodos de aislamiento, cultivo, tinción, pruebas bioquímicas e identificación y el conteo de células somáticas por microscopia directa y el somaticell. Otros métodos utilizados actualmente por su rapidez y efectividad son los electrónicos como el fossomatic y el counter coulter, los cuales tienen una aplicación universal sobre todo en laboratorios de control lechero o dedicados al diagnóstico e investigación de la mastitis y el DeLaval cell counter. Los métodos de detección de mastitis son una herramienta que permite identificar el tipo de infección clínica o subclínica que puede presentarse dentro de un hato lechero, por lo que el método que se elija para determinar las pruebas será esencial para tener un diagnóstico más preciso.AbstractThis article is a bibliographical revision on the methods of detection of the bovine mastitis that is used more commonly in the world. The bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland caused by an infection by pathogens. Is one of the most frequent diseases of the production that affects the milk industry anywhere in the world. It can appear of clinical and subclinical way. The subclinical mastitis is long play and is much more frequent that the clinical mastitis. Within the methods that are used most frequently at field level to diagnose clinical mastitis, are the method of observation and palpation of udder and the physical tests, as the container of milking test, the black cloth test and cup test. The chemical tests, like the electrical conductivity of milk test, paper test of mastitis and whiteside test that they also serve to diagnose clinical and subclinical mastitis. The biological tests, as they are the California mastitis test, the Wisconsin test, the bacteriological diagnosis by the methods of isolation, culture, biochemical stain, tests and identification, the count of somatic cells by direct microscope and somaticell. Other methods used at the moment by their rapidity and effectiveness are the electronic ones like the fossomatic, the counter coulter and the, which mainly have a universal application in laboratories of control milk or dedicated to the diagnosis and investigation of the mastitis and the DeLaval cell counter. The methods of detection of mastitis are a tool that allows to identify the type of clinical infection or subclinical that can appear within a milk cattle ranch, reason why the method that is chosen to determine the tests will be essential to have a more precise diagnosis.
Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma bovis were diagnosed in Ardabil State, Iran. An investigation was carried out with the aim of establishing the extent of mycoplasma infections in dairy cows in Ardabil State. Milk samples obtained from 80 cows with clinical mastitis were cultured in the laboratory for the presence of mycoplasmas. Similarly, 48 bulk-tank milk samples were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. A modified Hayflick broth was used to isolate the mycoplasmas and an immunoperoxidase test used for the species identification of the isolates. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 39 (48.75 % of the clinical mastitis samples and from 48 of the bulk-tank milk samples tested. This indicated that mycoplasma udder infections were more prevalent in dairy cows in Ardabil State than previously thought.
S.C., Jingar; R.K., Mehla; M., Singh.
Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado para hallar la influencia estacional sobre la incidencia de la mastitis a lo largo del año, en vacas indígenas, vacas cruzadas y búfalas Murrah. Se analizaron los registros de lactación correspondientes a un periodo de 12 años, la incidencia de mastitis fue comparada con l [...] os climogramas de la zona de Karnal, Haryana, India. El clima cálido y húmedo afectó negativamente a la incidencia de mastitis en todas las razas bovinas y los búfalos. La incidencia fue afectada significativamente por la estación (p Abstract in english The study was conducted to find out the effect of different seasons on incidence of mastitis throughout the year in Indigenous cows, crossbred cows and Murrah buffaloes. Lactation records pertaining to the 12 year period were collected and incidence of mastitis was plotted against the climograph of [...] the Karnal zone, Haryana, India. The hot humid climate was found to adversely affect the incidence of mastitis in all the breeds of cows and Murrah buffaloes. The incidence was significantly affected by the season (p
Borne, B.H.P., van den; Lam, T.G.J.M.; Sampimon, O.C.; Jansen, J.; Schalk, G.
A 5-year national mastitis control program was initiated in the Netherlands in 2005. Knowledge transfer and improvements of dairy farmers motivation towards udder health were used as means to decrease mastitis occurrence in Dutch dairy herds. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the control program on (sub)clinical mastitis occurrence and on farmers mindset and behaviour in relation to clinical mastitis. Two identical surveys were conducted in the same herds at the beginning...
Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis, in cows presents one of the most acute problems in intensive milk production, incurring huge economic losses which reach from 20-80% even in developed countries in the past decade. On the grounds of the programme of the respective Ministry, the Veterinary Service of the Republic of Serbia is obliged to monitor, detect, curb and control infective inflammation of the mammary gland caused by staphylococcus and streptococcus. Long-term different approaches to mastitis treatment did not result in the required solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. In order to prevent the infiltration of the pathogenic cause into the mammary gland, its populating and multiplication, it is necessary to maintain constant and regular controls of milk, as well as undertake of preventive and therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the incidence of mastitis. Immunization and immunotherapy of mastitis are new and very interesting areas for scientific investigations and work. In the recent decades vaccines against staphylococcal mastitis are being successfully developed, whose success is reflected in the reduced incidence of clinical and subcilinical mastitis.
Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were ? hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.
Full Text Available Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT; R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins and herbs (Terminalia spp. are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant or chimeric (pauA; live (S. uberis 0140J stain based and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR 2 and 4, interleukin (IL 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1 and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1 are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition.
Buch, Line HjortØ; SØrensen, Anders Christian
Hoof diseases are a problem in many dairy herds. To study one aspect of the problem, genetic correlations between 4 hoof diseases, protein yield, clinical mastitis, number of inseminations, and days from calving to first insemination were estimated in first-parity Swedish Red cows using trivariate linear animal models. Occurrence of dermatitis, heel horn erosion, sole hemorrhage, and sole ulcer were reported by hoof trimmers. The data set contained about 314,000 animals with records on at least one of the traits; among these, about 64,000 animals had records on hoof diseases. Heritabilities were low for all hoof diseases (0.03 to 0.05). The hoof diseases fell into 2 groups: (1) dermatitis and heel horn erosion (i.e., diseases related to hygiene) and (2) sole hemorrhage and sole ulcer (i.e., diseases related to feeding). The genetic correlations between traits within the 2 groups were high (0.87 and 0.73, respectively), whereas the genetic correlations between traits in different groups were low (?0.23). Theseresults indicate that the 2 groups of hoof diseases are partly influenced by the same genes. All genetic correlations between hoof diseases and protein yield were low to moderate and unfavorable. Moderate and favorable genetic correlations were found between the feed-related hoof diseases and clinical mastitis (0.35 and 0.32), whereas the genetic correlations between the hygiene-related hoof diseases and clinical mastitis were low and not significantly different from zero. The genetic correlations between the hygiene-related hoof diseases and number of inseminations were low to moderate and favorable (0.32 and 0.22), and the genetic correlations between the feed-related hoof diseases and number of inseminations were low and not significantly different from zero. A moderate genetic correlation was found between sole ulcer and days from calving to first insemination (0.33), whereas the genetic correlations between days from calving to first insemination and sole hemorrhage and the hygiene-related hoof diseaseswere low and not significantly different from zero. In general, the 2 groups of hoof diseases showed different patterns of genetic correlations to the other functional traits, but both were unfavorably correlated to protein yield. A simulation study showed that inclusion of hoof diseases in the selection index will not only reduce the genetic decline in resistance to hoof diseases but also be favorable for other functional traits and improve overall genetic merit
Maria Ángeles Carrasco García
Full Text Available Introduction: Puerperal mastitis or mastitis Breastfeeding is a postpartum condition that represents one of the main reasons for abandoning breastfeeding. Mainly usually occurs between weeks 2 and 3 ª postpartum. The scientific evidence confirms that the stop breastfeeding before an attack of mastitis is not conducive to recovery and that of exclusive breastfeeding and no restrictions are effective measures to prevent milk stasis and the spread of infection.Objective: The main objective is to unify criteria for the care and integrated health care levels of care through continuity of care to promote breast-specific care to prevent the emergence of this disease.Methodology: Development of a standardized care plan to enable effective communication between professionals and implementation of quality care.Conclusions: The midwife and the nurse plays an important role in identifying those women with early-onset symptoms of postpartum mastitis in the middle, both in the maternity ward and in the primary care clinic.
Tiezzi, Francesco; Parker-Gaddis, Kristen L.; Cole, John B.; Clay, John S.; Maltecca, Christian
Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the health disorders with large impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CM in first-lactation Holstein. Producer-recorded mastitis event information for 103,585 first-lactation cows were used, together with genotype information on 1,361 bulls from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Single-step genomic-BLUP methodology was used to incorporate genomic data into a threshold-liability model. Association analysis confirmed that CM follows a highly polygenic mode of inheritance. However, 10-adjacent-SNP windows showed that regions on chromosomes 2, 14 and 20 have impacts on genetic variation for CM. Some of the genes located on chromosome 14 (LY6K, LY6D, LYNX1, LYPD2, SLURP1, PSCA) are part of the lymphocyte-antigen-6 complex (LY6) known for its neutrophil regulation function linked to the major histocompatibility complex. Other genes on chromosome 2 were also involved in regulating immune response (IFIH1, LY75, and DPP4), or are themselves regulated in the presence of specific pathogens (ITGB6, NR4A2). Other genes annotated on chromosome 20 are involved in mammary gland metabolism (GHR, OXCT1), antibody production and phagocytosis of bacterial cells (C6, C7, C9, C1QTNF3), tumor suppression (DAB2), involution of mammary epithelium (OSMR) and cytokine regulation (PRLR). DAVID enrichment analysis revealed 5 KEGG pathways. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway (cell proliferation and apoptosis) and the Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (cytokine and interleukines response to infectious agents) are co-regulated and linked to the ABC transporters pathway also found here. Gene network analysis performed using GeneMania revealed a co-expression network where 665 interactions existed among 145 of the genes reported above. Clinical mastitis is a complex trait and the different genes regulating immune response are known to be pathogen-specific. Despite the lack of information in this study, candidate QTL for CM were identified in the US Holstein population. PMID:25658712
Tiezzi, Francesco; Parker-Gaddis, Kristen L; Cole, John B; Clay, John S; Maltecca, Christian
Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the health disorders with large impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CM in first-lactation Holstein. Producer-recorded mastitis event information for 103,585 first-lactation cows were used, together with genotype information on 1,361 bulls from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Single-step genomic-BLUP methodology was used to incorporate genomic data into a threshold-liability model. Association analysis confirmed that CM follows a highly polygenic mode of inheritance. However, 10-adjacent-SNP windows showed that regions on chromosomes 2, 14 and 20 have impacts on genetic variation for CM. Some of the genes located on chromosome 14 (LY6K, LY6D, LYNX1, LYPD2, SLURP1, PSCA) are part of the lymphocyte-antigen-6 complex (LY6) known for its neutrophil regulation function linked to the major histocompatibility complex. Other genes on chromosome 2 were also involved in regulating immune response (IFIH1, LY75, and DPP4), or are themselves regulated in the presence of specific pathogens (ITGB6, NR4A2). Other genes annotated on chromosome 20 are involved in mammary gland metabolism (GHR, OXCT1), antibody production and phagocytosis of bacterial cells (C6, C7, C9, C1QTNF3), tumor suppression (DAB2), involution of mammary epithelium (OSMR) and cytokine regulation (PRLR). DAVID enrichment analysis revealed 5 KEGG pathways. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway (cell proliferation and apoptosis) and the 'Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction' (cytokine and interleukines response to infectious agents) are co-regulated and linked to the 'ABC transporters' pathway also found here. Gene network analysis performed using GeneMania revealed a co-expression network where 665 interactions existed among 145 of the genes reported above. Clinical mastitis is a complex trait and the different genes regulating immune response are known to be pathogen-specific. Despite the lack of information in this study, candidate QTL for CM were identified in the US Holstein population. PMID:25658712
Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus LØnne
Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective antimicrobial treatment in mastitis cases caused by gram-negative bacteria.
Shafran, R.; Lee, M.; Fairburn, CG
The aim of this case report is to describe the impact of an intervention for clinical perfectionism, derived from a new cognitive-behavioural analysis, in a patient with binge eating disorder. It was hypothesized that clinical perfectionism was contributing to the maintenance of the eating disorder, and on this basis it was predicted that reducing clinical perfectionism would improve eating disorder psychopathology. Standardized independent assessments were found to be consistent with this hy...
Britten, Allan M
There are a number of important issues for the dairy practitioner to consider in designing the most appropriate mastitis microbiological service for his or her clients. These include the decision to use enhancement tools or selective agars to optimize sensitivity and specificity. The service should include a monthly BTC service that monitors for the important contagious mastitis organisms: S aureus, S agalactia, and Mycoplasma. At the cow level, a zero tolerance program to protect healthy cows from exposure to contagious mastitis will require a routine culture service to monitor for these pathogens in new herd additions, clinical cases, and all fresh cows and heifers. A wide variety of additional benefits for maintaining good udder health and the production of quality milk can come from a more comprehensive diagnostic service that looks at both individual cow and bulk tank milk. Finally, more practitioners can help their clients economically by implementation of an on-farm TNT culture service and significantly reducing the use of intramammary therapy. PMID:22664202
Full Text Available Mastitis manda yeti?tiricili?inde ekonomik kay?plara neden olan önemli bir hastal?kt?r. Hastal???n ?iddeti, süresi ve birincil nedenine göre mastitis, genel olarak klinik ve subklinik olmak üzere ikiye ayr?lmaktad?r. Subklinik mastitis, sürüdeki di?er hayvanlardan bula?mas? nedeni ile önemli bir sürü problemidir. Ancak, klinik mastitis ise memede deformasyonlar ve süt veriminin azalmas? ile ?ekillenen klinik bir olgudur. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactia ve Streptococcus dysgalactia klinik, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus agalactia ve Streptococcus dysgalactia ise subklinik mastitis olaylar?nda en yayg?n olarak izole edilen mikroorganizmalard?r. Mandalarda bu mikroorganizmalar?n neden oldu?u mastitis olgular? sonucu, sütün yap?s?nda anormallik gözlenmekte ve sütün miktar?nda meydana getirdi?i dü?ü?le üreticileri ekonomik kayba u?ramaktad?r. Bu nedenle mastitis üzerine etkili faktörlerin tespit edilmesi ve gerekli önlemlerin al?nmas? büyük önem ta?maktad?r. Bu derlemede, mandalarda mastitis olgusu ve etkileri üzerinde durulmu?tur.
Halasa, T.; Nielen, M.; Roos, S.; Hoorne, R.; Jong, G.; Lam, T. J. G. M.; Werven, T.; Hogeveen, H.
Milk, fat, and protein loss due to a new subclinical mastitis case may be economically important, and the objective of this study was to estimate this loss. The loss was estimated based on test-day (TD) cow records collected over a 1-yr period from 400 randomly selected Dutch dairy herds. After exclusion of records from cows with clinical mastitis, the data set comprised 251,647 TD records from 43,462 lactations of 39,512 cows. The analysis was carried out using a random regression test-day m...
Silva, Vitor O; Soares, Larissa O; Silva Júnior, Abelardo; Mantovani, Hilário C; Chang, Yung-Fu; Moreira, Maria Aparecida S
Escherichia coli is a highly adaptive microorganism, and its ability to form biofilms under certain conditions can be critical for antimicrobial resistance. The adhesion of four E. coli isolates from bovine mastitis to bovine mammary alveolar (MAC-T) cells, biofilm production on a polystyrene surface, and the expression profiles of the genes fliC, csgA, fimA, and luxS in the presence of enrofloxacin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, and ampicillin at half of the MIC were investigated. Increased adhesion of E. coli isolates in the presence of antimicrobials was not observed; however, increased internalization of some isolates was observed by confocal microscopy. All of the antimicrobials induced the formation of biofilms by at least one isolate, whereas enrofloxacin and co-trimoxazole decreased biofilm formation by at least one isolate. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that all four genes were differentially expressed when bacteria were exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials, with expression altered on the order of 1.5- to 22-fold. However, it was not possible to associate gene expression with induction or reduction of biofilm formation in the presence of the antimicrobials. Taken together, the results demonstrate that antimicrobials could induce biofilm formation by some isolates, in addition to inducing MAC-T cell invasion, a situation that might occur in vivo, potentially resulting in a bacterial reservoir in the udder, which might explain some cases of persistent mastitis in herds. PMID:25063668
Betül Tu?cu; Ceren Gürez; Erdal Yüzba??o?lu; F?rat Helvac?o?lu; Ahmet A?açhan
Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics of amblyopic cases Material and Methods: The records of 254 amblyopic cases followed in our orthoptic clinic were reviewed retrospectively. Age, visual acuity, type of strabismus, age at diagnosis of patients were analysed in details. Results: The mean age of the patients was 10.2±3.4 years. 149 (%58.6) of them were female, 105 (%41.4) were male. The underlying amblyogenic causes were anisometropia (%37.8), strabismus (%30.7), mixed strabismus...
Kutushev, F Kh; Shubik, Iu G; Libov, A S; Andreev, A V
The effectiveness of heterologic antistaphylococcal gammaglobulin was studied in the clinic in 67 cases of acute lactogenous mastitis. The activity of the preparation was 200 A. E/ml. The Bezredko method of injection was used--l ml once a day during 5 days. The treatment resulted in the decrease of intoxication, purification of the surgical wound, normalization on non-specific protection factors, rise of antistaphylococcal antitoxin titers and decrease of autosensitization phenomena. PMID:81560
Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis in two Uruguayan dairy farms / Caracterización de Staphylococcus aureus aislados a partir de casos de mastitis subclínicas en dos tambos de Uruguay
R, de los Santos; M, Fernández; S, Carro; P, Zunino.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la prevalencia y evolución de mastitis bovina subclínica (MBS) a lo largo de un año en dos tambos comerciales localizados en un área de producción lechera (Sur) de Uruguay e identificar y caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus aisladas de la leche de vaca [...] s con resultados de trazas, 1, 2 o 3 correspondientes a la escala del California Mastitis Test (CMT). Producción de coagulasa, presencia de cápsula, producción de limo, formación de biofilms, autoagregación, hemaglutinación y sensibilidad a diferentes antibióticos fueron evaluadas en el caso de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas. La incidencia de MBS a lo largo del estudio fue baja y no se correlacionó con variables climáticas. El número de aislamientos de S. aureus de las muestras de leche fue bajo en comparación con estudios previos y la mayoría de ellos se obtuvo de muestras que presentaban un resultado de CMT de 1. La formación de cápsula, limo y biofilms así como la ocurrencia de autoagregación en todas las cepas confluyen en la habilidad bacteriana para adherirse y persistir en la glándula contribuyendo a la cronicidad de la infección y a la adhesión a superficies inertes. La resistencia bacteriana frente a distintos antibióticos fue baja. La evaluación de la expresión de factores de virulencia de S. aureus en el contexto de mastitis subclínica en tambos puede ser de utilidad para desarrollar acciones precisas y tratamientos para el control de mastitis y la promoción de la salud animal y la producción de leche. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to identify and to characterise Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with subclinical mastitis obtained from milk of lactating cows showing a California Mastitis Test (CMT) score result of traces, 1, 2, or 3. Coagulase, hemolysis, presence of capsule, slime formation, b [...] iofilm production, autoaggregation, hemagglutination and antibiotic susceptibility were assessed to evaluate S. aureus virulence factors expression potentially associated to bovine subclinical mastitis isolates. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis along the study was low and did not correlate with months or climatic variables. Most of S. aureus (20) were isolated from milk samples showing a CMT score result of 1. Formation of capsule, slime, biofilms and the occurrence of bacteria aggregation in all the tested isolates converged in the bacterial ability of adherence and persistence in the mammary gland and probably contribute to the further chronicity of the infection and even the colonization of dairy installations. Resistance against a set of commonly used antibiotics was low. The evaluation of virulence factors of S. aureus isolates in the context of subclinical mastitis in dairy farms may be useful to develop precise actions and treatments to control mastitis and to improve animal health and milk production in dairy bovine herds.
Lakew, Matios; Tolosa, Tadele; Tigre, Worku
A cross sectional study was conducted in and around Asella town from November 2007 to April 2008 on dairy cows to determine the prevalence of mastitis, impact of risk factors and isolate the dominant mastitis causing bacteria on total of 223 lactating cows, of which 92 were indigenous Arsi, and 131 Holstein Zebu cross by using clinical examination and California mastitis test (CMT). Of these 144 (65.6 %) were positive by clinical examination and CMT for clinical and sub clinical mastitis, with prevalence of 26.5 % and 38 %, respectively. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) on the prevalence of mastitis between cows kept under different hygiene of milking process. Similarly a significant difference on the prevalence of mastitis between the two breeds (P < 0.05) was also observed. From 144 CMT and clinically positive milk samples analyzed microbiologically, 133 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and while 11 were negative. The dominant bacterial isolates in the study animals were Staphylococcus species (41.4 %), Streptococcus species (24.8 %), and other gram positive rods and gram negative enteric bacteria (33.8 %). Good hygiene in milking process, milking clinically infected cows at last, culling chronic mastitis carriers, treating clinically infected cows and dry period therapy could reduce the prevalence of contagious mastitis in the study area. PMID:19333772
Østerås O; Sølverød L
Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd leve...
Aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais da mastite induzida por inoculação intramamária de Staphylococcus aureus em vacas e búfalas / Clinical and laboratory aspects of mastitis induced by intramammary inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in cows and buffaloes
A.M., Lazzari; M.V.S., Oliveira; B., Moreti; G., Guimarães; F., Krug; G., Noleto; A.J., Mesquita; J.P., Neves.
Full Text Available Vários aspectos relacionados à mastite bubalina precisam ser esclarecidos. Muitas condutas são adaptadas a essa espécie pelo conhecimento adquirido com a espécie bovina. Com este experimento, objetivou-se evidenciar particularidades da mastite em búfalas e vacas que tiveram uma glândula inoculada co [...] m 1,0 x 103 UFC de S. aureus. Os animais foram monitorados por cultura bacteriana do leite, California Mastitis Test (CMT), e escores para avaliação da severidade da mastite. Foram utilizados os seguintes critérios: temperatura retal, apetite, produção de leite (resposta sistêmica à inflamação), contagem de células somáticas (CCS), aparência/consistência da glândula e aparência da secreção láctea (resposta localizada à inflamação). Todos os animais desenvolveram mastite clínica superaguda. A bactéria foi recuperada de todas as glândulas desafiadas, sem diferença significativa no percentual de isolamento entre as espécies até o 11º dia pós-inoculação, porém com diferença (P Abstract in english Several aspects related to bubaline mastits need to be clarified. Many conducts are adapted to this species by the knowledge adquired with the bovine species. This experiment aimed to evidence particularities of mastits in buffaloes and cows submitted to one-gland inoculation with 1.0 x 103 CFU of S [...] . aureus. The animals were monitored through bacterial culturing milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and scores to assess the severity of mastitis. The following criteria were used: rectal temperature, appetite, milk production (systemic response to inflammation), somatic cell count (SCC), appearance/consistency of the gland and appearance of the milk secretion (localized response to inflammation). All animals developed hyperacute clinical mastitis. The bacteria was recovered from all challenged glands, with no significant difference in the percentage of isolation between the species until day 11 after inoculation, but with a difference (p
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Neonatal breast hypertrophy is a common phenomenon in term infants, superadded infection can lead to mastitis and that can progress to breast abscess with short and long term detrimental effects. Our effort is to study the prevalence, risk factors, the current microbial profile and sensitivity pattern in these infections in order to suggest an optimal treatment plan for these patients. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Hospital based study conducted in Kashmir on the native population. DURATION: 2011 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 neonates with features of mastitis or abscess were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data, laboratory work-up were recorded for all these patients in a patient form. Gram stain of the purulent nipple discharge or pus obtained on drainage was done and the specimens were culture plated. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined by disk diffusion and categorized by current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Most babies were full term, the age range was 6-48 days. Peak incidence for mastitis was in the 2nd week and for abscess in the 4th week. The ratio of male: female was 1:2 in the entire group, there was greater preponderance of female involvement with increasing age. Massage for expression of secretions a common practice in the study population had been done in 15 patients, especially in male babies. The babies were generally well and associated skin pustulosis was common. Laboratory workup showed polymorphonuclear leucocytosis and CRP positivity. Gram staining showed gram positive cocci in 13 patients and gram negative rods in 1 patient. Culture revealed Staphylococcus aureus in 18, E.col in 2, klebsiella in 1 patient and was sterile in 2 patients. Most strains of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to macrolides and penicillins. Fifteen were methicillin sensitive and 3 were resistant but were sensitive to amikacin, ofloxacin and vancomycin. Gram negative rods were sensitive to, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, quinolones, piperacillin-tazobactum and cefoperazone-sulbactum, but were resistant to cephalosporins including third generation cephalosporins. Treatment with oral antibiotic was not successful. Patients responded well to open drainage via a stab incision away from the breast mound; 4 patients were managed by repeated needle aspirations. IV antibiotics were prescribed in all patients for 2-5 days, followed by oral continuation therapy of 7-14 days. CONCLUSIONS: From our study, we can conclude that parental counseling to avoid massage, and early treatment for pustulosis is important to prevent mastitis. Intravenous antibiotics should be used for this condition guided by gram stain or culture sensitivity once available. Empirically a drug with good anti-staph cover may be instituted till appropriate reports are available. Incision drainage gives uniformly good results, though; multiple sittings of needle drainage may obviate the need for incision drainage. Therapy can be shifted to oral drugs once clinical improvement is seen.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32 or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31. Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast inflammation before entering the study. The outcome of treatment was evaluated using the same index at 24, 48 and 72 hours of starting the treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics such as age (p=0.361 and duration of lactation (p=0.551. After 72-hour of therapy, patients in curcumin groups had significantly lower rate of moderate (p=0.019 and mild (p=0.002 mastitis. Patients in curcumin group had significantly lower scores for tension (p<0.001, erythema (p<0.001 and pain (p<0.001, after 72-hour of treatment. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that topical preparation of curcumin successfully decrease the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration without side effects. Thus, topical preparation of curcumin could be safely administered for those suffering from lactational mastitis after excluding infectious etiologies.
Full Text Available Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is the most common complication of Herpes Zoster, characterized by the presence of neuropathic-type pain limited to a dermatomic area after outbreak of Herpes Zoster (commonly known as shingles, usually a month after the appearance of vesicles on the skin . The aim of this report is to present two cases of PHN and their responses to different treatments. The first case presented intolerance to amitriptyline and a good clinical response to gabapentin at a dose of 900 mg/day. The second case showed intolerance to capsaicin but responded well to the combination of pregabalin and topical lidocaine. Gabapentin, pregabalin and lidocaine are effective for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. All these recommendations are consistent with those treatments used by the family physicians in the two cases study presented.
Azmi D. Hawari
Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7% had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pathological lesions and change in udder secretion, in addition to that 276 quarters (31.4% showed subclinical mastitis. The incidence of mastitis was found to be increased in older cows. Staphylococcus aurous was considered to be the most common cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis and followed by coli forms, streptococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., proteus spp. and pseudomonas spp. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains using tertracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim.
The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis
A literature review is conducted on endodontic surgery. The report of a clinical case is facilitated. The technique chosen according to the clinical and radiographic examination was endodontic microsurgery, the case has presented a positive evolution of four years
Bradley, A J; Breen, J E; Payne, B; White, V; Green, M J
Vaccination can play a useful role in mastitis control programs, although there is a relative dearth of large, well-controlled field efficacy studies. This paper presents the findings on the use of a commercially available vaccine (Startvac, Hipra UK Ltd., Nottingham, UK) on commercial units under UK field conditions. In total, 3,130 cows were recruited from 7 farms and were randomly allocated, within farm, to 1 of 3 groups. The first group received the vaccine following the label regimen, the second group was vaccinated every 90 d following an initial vaccination course, and the third group was left unvaccinated to act as controls. Vaccine efficacy was assessed in the first 120 d of lactation. Data were available for analysis from 1,696 lactations in 1,549 cows. In total, 779 cases of clinical mastitis occurred in the 3 study groups, and we detected no significant difference in the incidence or prevalence of clinical or subclinical mastitis between any of the 3 groups. Mastitis vaccination following the label regimen was associated with a significant reduction in the severity of clinical cases. Cows in this group were at significantly decreased odds of developing clinical mastitis presenting with more than just milk changes [odds ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-0.98]. Similarly, each additional vaccination resulted in a cow being at decreased odds of developing clinical mastitis presenting with more than just milk changes (odds ratio: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.98). Although no cows were culled because of severe mastitis in either of the vaccinated groups, we detected no significant difference in the mastitis-related culling rate between groups. Analysis of milk production data demonstrated that, on average, cows on the label regimen produced a higher volume of milk (231 L; 95% CI: 104.1-357.4) and more milk solids (12.36 kg; 95% CI: 3.12-21.60) than unvaccinated cows in the first 120 d of lactation. Conservative analysis suggested that a return on investment of 2.57:1 could be expected under UK conditions based on increased milk yield alone. PMID:25529419
Lyons, Nicholas A; Alexander, Neal; St?rk, Katharina D C; Dulu, Thomas D; Rushton, Jonathan; Fine, Paul E M
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible viral infection of cloven hooved animals associated with severe economic losses when introduced into FMD-free countries. Information on the impact of the disease in FMDV-endemic countries is poorly characterised yet essential for the prioritisation of scarce resources for disease control programmes. A FMD (virus serotype SAT2) outbreak on a large-scale dairy farm in Nakuru County, Kenya provided an opportunity to evaluate the impact of FMD on clinical mastitis and culling rate. A cohort approach followed animals over a 12-month period after the commencement of the outbreak. For culling, all animals were included; for mastitis, those over 18 months of age. FMD was recorded in 400/644 cattle over a 29-day period. During the follow-up period 76 animals were culled or died whilst in the over 18 month old cohort 63 developed clinical mastitis. Hazard ratios (HR) were generated using Cox regression accounting for non-proportional hazards by inclusion of time-varying effects. Univariable analysis showed FMD cases were culled sooner but there was no effect on clinical mastitis. After adjusting for possible confounders and inclusion of time-varying effects there was weak evidence to support an effect of FMD on culling (HR?=?1.7, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.88-3.1, P?=?0.12). For mastitis, there was stronger evidence of an increased rate in the first month after the onset of the outbreak (HR?=?2.9, 95%CI 0.97-8.9, P?=?0.057). PMID:25889460
Hogan, Joe; Smith, K Larry
Many of the practices and principals of management for reducing the exposure of dairy cows to environmental mastitis pathogens were introduced a quarter of a century ago2225 and have been the subject of numerous reviews.1,3,21 The common theme for reducing mastitis pathogens in the cows environment is reducing moisture and organic contamination.1 Frequent manure removal, avoiding overstocking of cows, taking precautions to eliminate stagnant water around cows, and providing clean, dry inorganic bedding for cows to lay on are important management considerations. These factors of environmental hygiene transcend stall barns, manure pack barns, open corrals, and pasture systems. The emphasis of control should center on protecting periparturient animals during wet, hot periods of the year when mastitis pathogen growth in the environment is greatest. As the dairy industry in North America changes and progresses to adapt to economic, social, and environmental demands, the old adage of keeping cows cool, dry, and comfortable remains paramount in managing environmental mastitis. PMID:22664204
Behling, H.; Reich, W.; Schmeisser, G. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (German Democratic Republic))
70 patients with mastitis were treated by low dose irradiation with soft X-rays and by secondary inhibition of the lactation by conservative physical measures. Breast abscesses were observed only in 6 of 70 patients. Therefore the antiinflammatory irradiation with low dose X-rays is a suitable method of treatment.
Sonia Isabel, Cuervo; Diego Andrés, Bonilla; Martha Isabel, Murcia; Johana, Hernández; Julio César, Gómez.
Full Text Available Se informa un caso de mastitis granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis en una paciente inmunocompetente con lesiones inflamatorias crónicas de la mama, diagnosticada por la detección de ADN de la micobacteria mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de la secuencia de [...] inserción IS6110 presente en el complejo M. tuberculosis , en una biopsia de mama embebida en parafina. La tuberculosis primaria de la mama es rara, incluso en países con alta prevalencia de tuberculosis, y debe sospecharse en pacientes con mastitis granulomatosa crónica de causa no clara. El pilar del tratamiento es la quimioterapia antituberculosa y, ocasionalmente, la cirugía. Abstract in english We report a case of granulomatous mastitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an immunocompetent woman with chronic inflammatory lesions of the breast. It was diagnosed by detection of mycobacteria DNA using polymerase chain reaction technique targeting IS6110 insertion element of M. tuberculos [...] is complex in a paraffin-embedded histological specimen. The primary breast tuberculosis is rare, even in countries where the incidence and prevalence of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis are high. It should be suspected in female patients with chronic granulomatous mastitis with no apparent cause. The cornerstone of treatment is antituberculous chemotherapy, and surgery is rarely required.
Whist, Anne Cathrine; Osterås, Olav; Sølverød, Liv
Cows with isolation of Staphylococcus aureus approximately 1 week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis (CM), and culling risk through the remaining lactation were assessed in 178 Norwegian dairy herds. Mixed models with repeated measures were used to compare milk yield and SCC, and survival analyses were used to estimate the hazard ratio for CM and culling. On average, cows with an isolate of Staph. aureus had a significantly higher SCC than culture-negative cows. If no post-milking teat disinfection (PMTD) was used, the mean values of SCC were 42,000, 61,000, 68,000 and 77,000 cells/ml for cows with no Staph. aureus isolate, with Staph. aureus isolated in 1 quarter, in 2 quarters and more than 2 quarters respectively. If iodine PMTD was used, SCC means were 36,000; 63,000; 70,000 and 122,000, respectively. Primiparous cows testing positive for Staph. aureus had the same milk yield curve as culture-negative cows, except for those with Staph. aureus isolated in more than 2 quarters. They produced 229 kg less during a 305-d lactation. Multiparous cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter produced 94-161 kg less milk in 2nd and >3rd parity, respectively, and those with isolation in more than 2 quarters produced 303-390 kg less than multiparous culture-negative animals during a 305-d lactation. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratio for CM and culling in cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter was 2.0 (1.6-2.4) and 1.7 (1.5-1.9), respectively. There was a decrease in the SCC and in the CM risk in culture-negative cows where iodine PMTD had been used, indicating that iodine PMTD has a preventive effect on already healthy cows. For cows testing positive for Staph. aureus in more than 2 quarters at calving, iodine PMTD had a negative effect on the CM risk and on the SCC through the remaining lactation. PMID:18922193
Lora-Fernández Alberto Carlos
Full Text Available The Lisfranc fracture dislocation is a serious lesion occur in tarsometatarsian joint and produce importants consequence, for anatomic complexiti of this foot area. The injury mechanisms ocasionality is asociated to automovilistic accidents. Our report of a clinical case into a patient endure fall since 8 meter altitud. Quirurgical manegement was make, open reduction and osteosíntesis with Kirschner nails. Favorable evolution and adecuate reponse to rehabilitation.RESUMENLa luxofractura de Lisfranc es una lesión grave que compromete la articulacióntarsometatarsiana, generando secuelas importantes, dada la complejidad anatómica de esta zona del pie. Los mecanismos de lesión en general han sido asociados a accidentes en automotores. Se reporta un caso clínico, en el cual el paciente sufre caída de una altura de ocho metros. Realizado el manejo quirúrgico con reducción abierta más osteosíntesis con clavos de Kirschner. Evolución favorable y adecuada respuesta a la rehabilitación.
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2008 to April 2009 to estimate prevalence of mastitis and to see associated bacterial pathogens in lactating dairy cows in Holeta town. A total of 107 cross bred milking cows were tested using California Mastitis Test (CMT. Prevalence of mastitis at cow level was 71.0% (76/107, out of which 22.4% (24/107 and 48.6% (52/107 were clinical and subclinical, respectively. The quarter level prevalence was 44.9% (192/428; from this the clinical and subclinical forms were 10.0% (43/428 and 34.8% (149/428, respectively. Out of the 43 quarters with clinical cases, 31 had blind teats while 12 of them revealed active cases of mastitis. Samples from all 12 active clinical cases and 90.0% (134/149 of the CMT positive subclinical quarters were found to be culture positive. From 146 culture positive samples, a total of 153 bacteria were isolated, the most prevalent being S. aureus (47.1% followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS (30.1%. Other bacterial isolates included Streptococcus (7.2%, E.coli (4.6%, Micrococcus species (3.3%, Klebsella pneumonae (3.3%, Enterobater aerogen (1.3%, Corynebacterium species (2.0% and Bacillus (1.3%. Risk factors analysis revealed that prevalence significantly differed with the age (P < 0.05, parity (P < 0.05 and udder hygiene condition (P < 0.03. Thus, prevalence was relatively higher in adult cows (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.15, 3.64, cows with moderate calves (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.6, cows with injured teat (OR = 7.7, 95%CI = 0.9, 64.1 and cows with unwashed udder (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 0.8, 6.4 than those corresponding animals. In conclusion, this study revealed the importance of mastitis and associated bacterial pathogen in the study area. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 397-403
Simbarashe, Katsande; Gift, Matope; Masimba, Ndengu; Davies M, Pfukenyi.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composi [...] te milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 10³ cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal-and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1% (123/584) had mastitis, 16.3% (95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%), Escherichia coli (25.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were I: associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.
Full Text Available Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es una patología benigna del seno, de carácter inflamatorio y de etiología desconocida. Sus principales manifestaciones clínicas se semejan a las del cáncer mamario. Dado que los hallazgos clínicos y de imágenes diagnósticas no son específicas, el diagnóstico inequívoco recae en el estudio histopatológico de 0 lesión. Objetivos: Describir las principales manifestaciones clínicas, los resultados de los métodos diagnósticos y hallazgos importantes de patología en los casos de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Materiales y métodos: Desde enero del año 2004 los autores establecieron el registro personal de tumores benignos, mastitis no lactacional y enfermedad inflamatoria ductal. Hasta septiembre de 2006, este registro recolectó información clínica, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento en 77 pacientes, 20 de los cuales correspondieron al diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo por las siguientes variables: 1. Edad. 2. Cuadro clínico. 3. Enfermedades asociadas. 4. Métodos diagnósticos utilizados. 5. Hallazgos histopatológicos. 6. Curso clínico. Resultados: El diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular se hizo inicialmente en 30 pacientes. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática en 20 pacientes, dado que en 10, se identificó la causa específica de la inflamación granulomatosa del seno. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue de 36 años; la más joven tenía 22 años. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue la aparición de masa inflamatoria en el seno. El hallazgo principal del estudio fue la asociación de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática con cáncer del seno contralateral y la infección con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, asociación no descrita en la literatura mundial. Conclusión: El diagnóstico de mastitis granu-lomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es un reto clínico formidable. Debido a que sus manifestaciones clínicas son yerras y se observa resolución espontánea de la enfermedad, esta patología posiblemente es dejada sin diagnosticar en una proporción importante de casos. La identificación de la causa subyacente de la inflamación granulomatosa en más de un tercio de los pacientes, hace que el estudio histopatológico sea considerado por nosotros como el método diagnóstico de escogencia para el diagnóstico incuestionable de esta patología.Background: Chronic idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (ICGM is a benign disease of the breast, of inflammatory nature and unknown etiology. The main clinical features of this entity resemble those of mammary cancer. Given that the clinical and diagnostic imaging findings are not specific, the correct diagnosis falls in the histopathologic study. Objectives: To describe the main clinical manifestations, the results of the diagnostic studies, and the most important findings in the pathlogical study of ICGM. Materials and methods: Beginning in January 2004, the authors implemented the personal registry of benign breast tumors, nonlactational mastitis, and ductal inflammatory disease; 77 patients were registered until September 2006, with data including clinical information, diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities. In this group of 77 patients, 20 had the diagnosis of ICGM. A descriptive statistical analysis based on the following variables was carried out: 1. Age; 2. Clinical presentation; 3. Associated illnesses; 4. Diagnostic methods employed; 5. histopathologic findings; 6. Clinical course. Results: The diagnosis of ICGM was initially made in 30 patient, and the diagnosis was confirmed in 20, while in the other 10 a specific inflammatory cause was identified. The average age of this group patients was 36 years, the youngest being 22.The most frequent clinical presentation was an inflammatory mass in the breast, while the outstanding finding was the association of ICGM w
Eduardo, Torregroza-Diazgranados; María Constanza, Gómez Cruz; Luis Fernando, Viaña; Juan David, Figueroa.
Full Text Available Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es una patología benigna del seno, de carácter inflamatorio y de etiología desconocida. Sus principales manifestaciones clínicas se semejan a las del cáncer mamario. Dado que los hallazgos clínicos y de imágenes diagnósticas no son e [...] specíficas, el diagnóstico inequívoco recae en el estudio histopatológico de 0 lesión. Objetivos: Describir las principales manifestaciones clínicas, los resultados de los métodos diagnósticos y hallazgos importantes de patología en los casos de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Materiales y métodos: Desde enero del año 2004 los autores establecieron el registro personal de tumores benignos, mastitis no lactacional y enfermedad inflamatoria ductal. Hasta septiembre de 2006, este registro recolectó información clínica, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento en 77 pacientes, 20 de los cuales correspondieron al diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo por las siguientes variables: 1. Edad. 2. Cuadro clínico. 3. Enfermedades asociadas. 4. Métodos diagnósticos utilizados. 5. Hallazgos histopatológicos. 6. Curso clínico. Resultados: El diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular se hizo inicialmente en 30 pacientes. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática en 20 pacientes, dado que en 10, se identificó la causa específica de la inflamación granulomatosa del seno. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue de 36 años; la más joven tenía 22 años. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue la aparición de masa inflamatoria en el seno. El hallazgo principal del estudio fue la asociación de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática con cáncer del seno contralateral y la infección con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, asociación no descrita en la literatura mundial. Conclusión: El diagnóstico de mastitis granu-lomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es un reto clínico formidable. Debido a que sus manifestaciones clínicas son yerras y se observa resolución espontánea de la enfermedad, esta patología posiblemente es dejada sin diagnosticar en una proporción importante de casos. La identificación de la causa subyacente de la inflamación granulomatosa en más de un tercio de los pacientes, hace que el estudio histopatológico sea considerado por nosotros como el método diagnóstico de escogencia para el diagnóstico incuestionable de esta patología. Abstract in english Background: Chronic idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (ICGM) is a benign disease of the breast, of inflammatory nature and unknown etiology. The main clinical features of this entity resemble those of mammary cancer. Given that the clinical and diagnostic imaging findings are not specific, the corre [...] ct diagnosis falls in the histopathologic study. Objectives: To describe the main clinical manifestations, the results of the diagnostic studies, and the most important findings in the pathlogical study of ICGM. Materials and methods: Beginning in January 2004, the authors implemented the personal registry of benign breast tumors, nonlactational mastitis, and ductal inflammatory disease; 77 patients were registered until September 2006, with data including clinical information, diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities. In this group of 77 patients, 20 had the diagnosis of ICGM. A descriptive statistical analysis based on the following variables was carried out: 1. Age; 2. Clinical presentation; 3. Associated illnesses; 4. Diagnostic methods employed; 5. histopathologic findings; 6. Clinical course. Results: The diagnosis of ICGM was initially made in 30 patient, and the diagnosis was confirmed in 20, while in the other 10 a specific inflammatory cause was identified. The average age of this group patients was 36 years, the youngest being 22.The most frequent clinical presentation was an inflammatory mass in the breast, while the outstanding f
SUSCEPTIBILITIES/RESISTANCE OF Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVE AND Streptococcus sp. ISOLATED FROM THE MILK OF COWS PRESENTING CLINICAL MASTITIS IN MILK BASIN OF GOIÂNIA RESISTÊNCIA DE Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVA E Streptococcus sp. ISOLADOS DO LEITE DE VACAS COM MASTITE CLÍNICA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA
Luiz Antônio Franco da Silva
Full Text Available
It was verified the spectrum of susceptibilities/resistance of 76 samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive and 51 samples of Streptococcus sp., isolated from milk of 231 cows presenting clinical mastitis. The diffusion method was used in plate of Kirby-Bauer, being tested ten active principles used in cases of clinical mastitis. Natural penicillin, chloranphenicol, tetraciclyne, kanamicyn, gentamicyn, nitrofurantoin, trimetopryn + sulfametoxazol, enrofloxacyn, perlimicyn and ceftiofur were tested. The samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive presented a spectrum of larger resistance for the penicillin (78.9%, followed by trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (59.2% and nitrofurantoin (57.8%. The largest susceptibility frequency was found in enrofloxacyn (96%, in perlimicyn (94% and in ceftiofur (94%. For the samples of Streptococcus sp. there was a profile resistance for penicillin (92%, chloranphenicol (74.5% and trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (52%. A sensibility profile was also verified for enrofloxacyn (96%, ceftiofur (92% and perlimicyn (92%.
KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; resistance; susceptibilities.
Verificou-se o espectro de sensibilidade/resistência de 76 cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e 51 cepas de Streptococcus sp., isolados do leite proveniente de 231 vacas que apresentaram mastite clínica. Utilizou-se o método de difusão em placa, segundo Kirby-Bauer, testando-se 10 princípios ativos: penicilina natural, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, kanamicina, gentamicina, nitrofurantoína, trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol, enrofloxacina, perlimicina e ceftiofur. As cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva apresentaram um espectro de resistência maior para a penicilina (78,9%, vindo a seguir trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (59,2% e nitrofurantoína (57,8%. A maior freqüência de sensibilidade foi encontrada frente à enrofloxacina (96%, secundada pela perlimicina (94% e ceftiofur (94%. Já para as cepas de Streptococcus sp. encontrou-se um perfil de resistência para a penicilina de 92%, para o cloranfenicol de 74,5% e para o trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol de 52%, enquanto o perfil de sensibilidade para enrofloxacina foi de 96%, para ceftiofur, de 92%, e para perlimicina, de 92%.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite bovina; sensibilidade; resistência.
Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; de Koning, D J
Abstract Text: Better models of genetic evaluation for mastitis can be developed through longitudinal analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) which usually is used as a proxy for mastitis. Mastitis and recovery data with weekly observations of SCC were simulated for daughter groups of 60 and 240 per sire. Data were created to define cases: 1 if SCC was above a pre-specified boundary, else 0. A transition from below to above the boundary indicates probability to contract mastitis, and the other way indicates recovery. The MCMCglmm package was used to estimate breeding values. In the 60 daughters group, accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 for mastitis and 0.22 to 0.23 for recovery. Whereas, in the 240 daughters group accuracies ranged from 0.83 to 0.85 for mastitis and 0.57 to 0.65 for recovery. Reasonable accuracies can be achieved from SCC based estimates.
M.A., Lopes; F.A., Demeu; C.M.B.M. da, Rocha; G.M. da, Costa; A., Franco Neto; G. dos, Santos.
Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram simular, analisar e quantificar o impacto econômico da frequência média anual de mastite clínica em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros. A pesquisa foi realizada por meio de simulação no sistema computacional CU$TO MASTITE, considerando rebanhos leiteiros com 1, 7 e 15% de m [...] astite clínica. Foram consideradas como prevenção as despesas com monitoramento (cultura e antibiograma, contagem de células somáticas no tanque e contagem de células somática individual), pré e pós dipping, vacinação, tratamento de vacas secas e manutenção de ordenhadeira. Como medida curativa considerou-se apenas tratamento de casos clínicos. O impacto da mastite foi estimado como sendo o total em perdas acrescido das despesas com prevenção e tratamento de casos clínicos. O aumento da frequência média anual de mastite influenciou diretamente no impacto econômico da mastite, evidenciando a necessidade de monitoramento da mastite clínica e subclínica e adoção de medidas preventivas para diminuir os prejuízos ocasionados por essa enfermidade. As despesas com tratamento preventivo representaram, no máximo, 19,7% do impacto econômico, o que demonstra vantagens em investir nessa prática, pois ela irá contribuir significativamente para reduzir o impacto econômico da mastite. Abstract in english The objectives of this research were to analyze and quantify the economic impact of the annual average frequency of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The research was carried through data simulation in the CU$TO MASTITE computational system, considering dairy cattle with 1, 7 and 15% of clinical ma [...] stitis. The expenditures considered as prevention included those of monitoring (culture and antibiogram, bulk tank somatic cell count and individual somatic cell count) pre- and post-dipping, vaccination, treatment of dry cows and maintenance of the milking machine. The measures considered as healing consisted only of the treatment of clinical cases. The impact of the mastitis was estimated as being the total in losses in addition to the expenditures with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. The increase of the annual average frequency of mastitis directly influenced the economic impact of the mastitis. The higher economic impact evidences the need for the monitoring of clinical and subclinical mastitis and the adoption of preventative measures to diminish the damages caused by this disease. The expenditures with preventive treatment represented, at maximum, 19.7% of the economic impact, which demonstrates the advantages of investing in this practice, since it contributes significantly toward reducing the economic impact of mastitis.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis at the beginning of the rainy season to define the factors associated with subclinical mastitis caused by various pathogens and to identify antibiotic susceptibility and resistance. About 42 farms from the Mae-On Dairy Cooperative participating in the Herd Health Management Program (HHPM, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University were included in the study. The study was conducted in June, 2008. From the protocol of HHPM, all farms had to collect a milk sample from each milking cow for measurement of Somatic Cell Counts (SCC once a month. At the cut-off point of SCC = 200,000 cells mL-1 the cows were deemed to haveintramammary infection. Cows in 3 groups were checked for subclinical mastitis in quarter levels using the California mastitis test within 2 weeks after SCC measurement. A cow with CMT score ?+1 for at least one quarter was identified as a subclinical mastitis cow and was included into the study. Milk samples from subclinical mastitis quarters were collected with aseptic techniques. The fisher exact ?2-tests were used to evaluate the association of pathogens with antibiotic resistant and the associated factors. The significant levels were defined at pC. bovis (28% and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS (28% were the main bacteria isolated in this study. Stap. aureus (8% and St. agalactiae (2% as contagious pathogens were at low levels. An occurrence of subclinical mastitis from S. aureus was significantly associated with subclinical mastitis status in which most S. aureus subclinical mastitis showed chronic status of subclinical mastitis. Most subclinical cases occurred during late lactation (54%. Occurrences of subclinical mastitis from Stap. aureus and C. bovis were associated with period of lactation (pSt. uberis, S. aureus and S. dysgalactaie. Subclinical mastitis with St. uberis was resistant to most antibiotics (pStap. aureus and CNS wassusceptible for most antibiotics.
Frequência de Staphylococcus aureus em casos de mastite bovina subclínica, na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul / Frequency of staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
F.S., Bandeira; T., Picoli; J.L., Zani; W.P. da, Silva; G., Fischer.
Full Text Available A mastite bovina é uma doença importante na exploração leiteira, não apenas pelas perdas econômicas diretas que promove, mas também pelas perdas indiretas e o potencial risco à saúde pública. Dentre as principais causas de infecções intramamárias, destacam-se as bactérias do gênero Staphylococcus sp [...] p., sendo que Staphylococcus aureus é o agente etiológico predominante em mastite subclínica. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar a frequência de mastite subclínica em oito rebanhos localizados na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) e a relação da enfermidade com a presença de S. aureus. Adicionalmente, pesquisou-se a presença de S. intermedius e S. hyicus nas amostras de leite obtidas. Para identificação da doença, utilizou-se o California Mastitis Test (CMT). A identificação da espécie de Staphylococcus spp. foi feita em meio de cultura ágar Baird-Parker, com posterior confirmação das colônias suspeitas em coloração de gram, prova de catalase, pesquisa de coagulase livre e pesquisa de termonuclease. A mastite subclínica foi constatada em 53,6% dos animais testados. A presença de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva foi identificada em 12,6% dos animais com mastite subclínica. Nesses mesmos animais, a bactéria identificada como S. aureus foi o agente etiológico presente em 17,6% dos casos. Adicionalmente, pode-se perceber que, dentre o grupo identificado como coagulase positiva, 85,7% corresponderam a S. aureus, enquanto 8,5% mostraram características bioquímicas compatíveis com S. intermedius e 5,8% foram consideradas S. hyicus. Abstract in english Bovine mastitis is an important disease in dairy farming, not only by promoting direct economic losses, but also for indirect losses and the potential risk to public health. The main causes of intramammary infections include the bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus being [...] the predominant etiologic agent in subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of subclinical mastitis in eight herds from southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and the relationship of the disease with the presence of S. aureus. In addition, we checked for the presence of S. intermedius and S. hyicus in the milk samples obtained. For identification of the disease, we used the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Identification of Staphylococcus spp. species was made in Barid-Parker agar culture medium, with subsequent confirmation of suspected colonies by way of Gram stain and catalase test along with free-coagulase and thermonuclease research. Subclinical mastitis was identified in 53.6% of animals tested. The presence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was identified in 12.6% of animals with subclinical mastitis. In these same animals, bacteria identified as S. aureus were the etiologic agent present in 17.6% of cases. Additionally, it was revealed that among the group identified as coagulase positive, 85.7% corresponded to S. aureus, while 8.5% had biochemical characteristics consistent with S. intermedius and 5.8% were considered S. hyicus.
Hiitiö, Heidi; Riva, Rauna; Autio, Tiina; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Holopainen, Jani; Pyörälä, Satu; Pelkonen, Sinikka
Reliable identification of the aetiological agent is crucial in mastitis diagnostics. Real-time PCR is a fast, automated tool for detecting the most common udder pathogens directly from milk. In this study aseptically taken quarter milk samples were analysed with a real-time PCR assay (Thermo Scientific PathoProof Mastitis Complete-12 Kit, Thermo Fisher Scientific Ltd.) and by semi-quantitative, in-depth bacteriological culture (BC). The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the real-time PCR assay in routine use. A total of 294 quarter milk samples from routine mastitis cases were cultured in the national reference laboratory of Finland and examined with real-time PCR. With BC, 251 out of 294 (85·7%) of the milk samples had at least one colony on the plate and 38 samples were considered contaminated. In the PCR mastitis assay, DNA of target species was amplified in 244 samples out of 294 (83·0%). The most common bacterial species detected in the samples, irrespective of the diagnostic method, was the coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) group (later referred as Staphylococcus spp.) followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for the PCR assay to provide a positive Staph. aureus result was 97·0 and 95·8% compared with BC. For Staphylococcus spp., the corresponding figures were 86·7 and 75·4%. Our results imply that PCR performed well as a diagnostic tool to detect Staph. aureus but may be too nonspecific for Staphylococcus spp. in routine use with the current cut-off Ct value (37·0). Using PCR as the only microbiological method for mastitis diagnostics, clinical relevance of the results should be carefully considered before further decisions, for instance antimicrobial treatment, especially when minor pathogens with low amount of DNA have been detected. Introducing the concept of contaminated samples should also be considered. PMID:25704849
MÉTODOS DE ESTIMACIÓN DEL NIVEL DE MASTITIS EN VACAS LECHERAS A PARTIR DE LA DETERMINACIÓN DEL TEST DE CALIFORNIA PARA MASTITIS (CMT DE SUS CUARTOS INDIVIDUALES Estimation methods for mastitis level in dairy cows using the California Mastitis Test (CMT in each quarter
Alberto Mansilla M.
Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estimar el nivel de mastitis subclínica de vacas lecheras, definido en términos del recuento de células somáticas de la leche (RCS, a partir de la determinación del Test de California para Mastitis (CMT a través de correlación y regresión, y un modelo logit. Se utilizó la información existente en la base de datos generada por cinco rebaños lecheros de la zona central del país, con una masa de 1200 vacas principalmente de raza Holstein Friesian Americana. La información se sistematizó calculando la suma de los CMT de los cuartos (SCMT, transformando RCS en rangos celulares RC, y agregando, además, el CMT del recipiente graduado de ordeña (CMTM. Se calcularon correlaciones lineales entre estas variables, regresiones de CMTM y RC y el modelo logit que expresa la relación en términos probabilísticos: p = 1 / (1 + EXP(b SCMT - c k. Las correlaciones fueron significativas al 1%, con valores situados entre 0,37 y 0,78. Las regresiones lineales estimadas fueron RC = 0,74 SCMT en los dos tipos de animales. La función logit dio estimaciones del parámetro b de 0,335 y R² = 0,83 para vaquillas y de b = 0,30 y R² = 0,63 para vacas. El modelo logit se muestra como un instrumento muy certero para la estimación del RCS en casos extremos, que no exista mastitis o que la mastitis esté muy cerca de un nivel abiertamente clínicoThe objective of this study was to estimate the sub-clinical incidence of mastitis on dairy cows, defined as the count of somatic cells in milk (RCS based on the California Mastitis Test (CMT using correlation, linear regression and logit models. A database of five dairy herds from central Chile composed of 1200 mainly Holstein Friesian dairy cows was used. Information was systematized for each cow calculating the sum of CMT for individual quarters (SCMT, and transforming RCS in cellular ranges (RC, adding the average CMT value of the graduated milking recipient (CMTM. Linear correlations were calculated among these variables, linear regression CMTM and RC and the logit model that indicates the relationship in probabilistic terms: p j = 1 / (1 + EXP(b SCMT - c k. Correlations were significant (P < 0.01 with values between 0.37 and 0.78. Estimated linear regressions were RC = 0.74 SCMT for both kinds of animals. The logit function estimated a parameter b of 0.335 and R² = 0.83 for heifers and b = 0.30 and R² =0.63 for cows. The logit model proves to be a very accurate instrument for RCS estimation in extreme cases, with no mastitis presence, or mastitis close to clinical levels.
L, Zaror; K, Valenzuela; J, Kruze.
Full Text Available El género Prototheca está formado por microalgas unicelulares sin clorofila, ampliamente distribuidas en el medio ambiente, algunas de las cuales pueden ser patógenas para el hombre y animales. Sin embargo, no existen antecedentes bibliográficos previos sobre la existencia de estas algas patógenas p [...] ara el hombre y animales en Chile. Se examinó bacteriológicamente un total de 200 muestras de leche provenientes de 150 vacas lecheras con mastitis clínica, las cuales fueron sembradas en medio PIM modificado, selectivo para Prototheca. Se aisló Prototheca spp. en dos ocasiones consecutivas de una misma vaca muestreada con un intervalo de dos meses. El examen microscópico directo de las muestras de leche en fresco reveló la presencia células características de Prototheca spp. Mediante asimilación de fuentes de carbono se identificó la especie como P. zopfii, constituyendo el primer aislamiento de este agente a partir de un cuadro de mastitis clínica bovina en Chile. Este hallazgo es relevante para los programas de control de mastitis bovina en los rebaños lecheros ya que es un organismo poco frecuente y desconocido que no responde a los tratamientos antibióticos convencionales. Abstract in english The genus Prototheca includes unicellular achlorophyllous microalgae widely distributed in the environment, some of which could be pathogenic for human and animals. However, there is no previous report regarding these pathogenic microalgae causing infections in man or animals in Chile. Two-hundred m [...] ilk samples collected from 150 dairy cows with clinical mastitis were inoculated onto PIM modified medium. Prototheca spp was isolated on two consecutive occasions from one cow sampled two months apart. Direct microscopic examination of wet smears made from milk samples revealed typical Prototheca cells. Biochemical tests based on carbon source assimilation identified the organism as Prototheca zopfii. This finding represents the first isolation of this environmental alga from bovine mastitis in Chile. This could be of great importance for mastitis control programs in dairy herds as Prototheca is an uncommon mastitis pathogen that does not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.
L. ALI, G. MUHAMMAD, M. ARSHAD1, M. SAQIB AND I. J. HASSAN2
Full Text Available Two hundred fore-milk samples collected from 200 mastitis quarters of buffaloes (clinically mastitis quarters n = 17, sub-clinically mastitis quarters n = 183 were subjected to microbiological examination. The diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis was based on the results of Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. A total of 214 isolates of 13 different microbial species were recovered. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently recovered bacterial species accounting for 49.53% of all the isolates, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23.83%, Staphylococcus hyicus (8.88%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.54%, Bacillus spp. (3.74%, Staphylococcus hominis (1.40%, Escherichia coli (1.40%, Staphylococcus xylosus (0.93%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (0.93% and Corynebacterial spp. (0.93%. Yeast and prototheca each accounted for 0.47 percent of isolates. Two (0.93% isolates were identified as coagulase negative staphylococci species. In view of preponderance of the contagious pathogens (S. aureus, Str. agalactiae, it is recommended that mastitis control in the area of study should be based on contagious mastitis control practice.
Hommez, Jozef; Devriese, Luc A.; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Riegel, Philippe; Butaye, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy
Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkali...
Around parturition dairy cows are at increased risk for intramammary coliform infections. A high proportion of these infections may develop disease characterized by inflammatory signs and sepsis during the first 60-70 days of lactation. The clinical picture is reputed as toxic mastitis. There is a r...
HØjsgaard, S; Friggens, N C
This paper has 2 objectives. First, it argues that it is beneficial to regard degree of infection with respect to mastitis as a latent quantity varying continuously from 0 (truly healthy) to 1 (full-blown clinical mastitis). This quantity is denoted as degree of infection (DOI). The DOI is based on extracting common characteristics from a panel of indicators measured repeatedly over time. The indicators used in this paper are electrical conductivity (EC), somatic cell count (SCC), and the immune response related enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Second, this paper presents a statistical model for such data and a corresponding method for estimating the DOI from a panel of indicators. An empirical proof of concept is provided. Using DOI, there was a significant difference between the DOI of mastitic and healthy control cows beginning 5 d before the mastitic cows were treated for mastitis. Udgivelsesdato: February
Thompson-crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.
Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of ...
Azlina, Aziz Firzah; Ariza, Zakaria; Arni, Talib; Hisham, Abdullah Noor
To review the clinical presentation, histopathological features, and optimal treatment of chronic granulomatous mastitis, the authors conducted a retrospective study of 25 women admitted to a teaching hospital in Malaysia between January 1998 and December 2000 who met the required histologic criteria. The primary outcome measures were morbidity and recurrence of the disease. Thirteen patients presented with a breast mass clinically mimicking breast cancer, and 12 patients had breast induration and abscess formation. In addition, 8 of these patients had recurrent breast disease. Clinical and imaging diagnosis has often been difficult and inconclusive, so histopathology remains the optimal diagnostic tool. Of interest, 50% of patients experience recurrences, and long-term follow-up is therefore necessary. The authors concluded that, because chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare benign breast condition that may be misdiagnosed as breast carcinoma, complete resection should be accomplished whenever possible. Steroid therapy may be an adjuvant for optimal treatment. Awareness among surgeons and pathologists should also be emphasized to avoid unnecessary misdiagnosis and treatment. PMID:12715214
Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A
Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from the estimated effect: creating stop gain/loss, affecting splice site or RNA structure (RNAsnp), predicted disruptiveness (SIFT), occurring in miRNA or miRNA target site, or in UTR or ncSNP overlapping with a GERP element. Their effects on mastitis traits were estimated in new validation samples from Finnish Ayrshire (SCC, clinical mastitis, udder conformation) and Valdostana (SCC, milk bacteriological results). Furthermore, association analysis across the regions was performed with a linear mixed model using imputed sequence for 845 Danish Red sires with nine mastitis phenotypes. Associations in five regions (on BTA3, BTA6, BTA8, BTA19, and BTA27) agreed across the breeds, but no identical associated SNPs were detected. Higher power (imputation to bigger population samples) will be needed to confirm results. On BTA6 the results indicate several QTL within a 5 Mb region. The results provide a basis for functional studies of promising candidates. The information can also be used for prior weighting of genomic segments in genomic selection
A. Bento; H. Baptista; Oliveira, FJ
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review the congenital malformation known as agenesis of the dorsal pancreas (ADP) and other pancreatic birth defects, based on a rare and exemplary clinical case of pancreatic malformations. The intent was to review the latest information published in the national and international literature on pancreatic birth defects, and to investigate the diversity of clinical presentations of ADP and other congenital pancreas abnormalities. The purpose was to identify w...
Mastitis remains the most prevalent disease in dairy cattle. The economic impact of mastitis on the dairy industry is estimated to be $2 billion per year. Mastitis involves a complex set of interactions between an invading pathogen and the hosts immune systems. Proteomics is a new tool used to s...
Flores, Maria; Filteau, Suzanne
Subclinical mastitis, defined as raised milk sodium/potassium (Na/K) in the absence of clinical symptoms, is associated with poor infant weight gain and increased risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Similarly to clinical mastitis, subclinical mastitis appears to have multiple causes, one being poor lactation practice. We investigated whether a single session of lactation counselling around the time of delivery could decrease subclinical mastitis among women in rural Bangladesh. The counselling messages included the importance of giving colostrum, exclusive breastfeeding, feeding on demand and how to achieve good positioning and attachment. Women who had delivered prior to our instituting the counselling intervention (mean 1 month) constituted the uncounselled group. At 1 month postpartum, sodium and potassium were measured in spot milk samples from each breast by flame photometry and interleukin-8 (IL8) by ELISA. Geometric mean Na/K ratios and the proportion of milk samples with raised Na/K ratio were significantly (p 0.6] than in the non-counselled group [mean 0.49, 95% CI 0.45-0.53, n = 127; 25% Na/K ratio > 0.6]. Milk IL8 concentration did not differ between groups. The results show that among Bangladeshi women a simple lactation counselling intervention could improve lactation practice in ways likely to improve infant health. PMID:11926056
Swinkels, J. M.; Hogeveen, H.; Zadoks, R. N.
linical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is rarely treated during lactation because it is widely believed to be uneconomical, although there are no economic studies that support this view. Partial budgeting was used to develop a deterministic simulation model to estimate the net cost or benefit of antibiotic treatment of subclinical S. aureus mastitis during lactation. Direct and indirect effects of treatment were taken into account, including prevention of clinical flare-ups and contagious tra...
Bellavia, Maurizio; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Spinelli, Gabriele; Tomasello, Giovanni; Marrazzo, Antonio; Ficarella, Silvia; Bruno, Antonio; Sammartano, Antonino; Fiorentini, Tiziana; Scio, Antonio; Maione, Carolina; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio
Granulomatous mastitis is a rare benign inflammatory disease of the breast with multiple etiologies such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, foreign body reaction, and mycotic and parasitic infections. In contrast, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is characterized by the presence of chronic granulomatous lobulitis in the absence of an obvious etiology. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma and so awareness of surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists is essential to avoi...
Parker, Richard I.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna
The movement toward evidence-based treatments, interventions, or practices pressures single case research (SCR) to use statistical summaries which have broad credibility. These summaries also need to be easily understood and useful in schools and clinics. To date the effect size families, "proportion of variance" ("R"[superscript 2],
Murgoci, G; Galbenu, P; Anastasatu, O; Nichita, E; Ene, V
A new case of alveolar microlithiasis is reported, demanding for the diagnosis besides the radio-clinical investigations, complete respiratory function tests, also the pathologic proof. Authors recall the diagnostic approach and our present ignorance of the pathogenesis of this curious entity; no valid therapy is presently able to check the relentless course toward progressive respiratory failure. PMID:9654968
Molalegne Bitew; Jemal Hussien; Tariku Sori
Cross sectional experimental study was conducted to assess the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis to commonly used antibacterial agents in Jimma town dairy farms, South West Ethiopia from January-July, 2010. Milk samples were collected aseptically and California Mastitis Test (CMT) was carried out to identify subclinical mastitis from dairy cows. All CMT high scored and clinically positive samples were investigated microbiologically. R...
SØrensen, L P; Madsen, P
The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Also groups of pathogens were investigated, Gram-negative v. Gram-positive and contagious v. environmental pathogens. Data from 168 158 Danish Holstein cows calving first time between 1998 and 2006 were used in the analyses. Variances and covariances were estimated using uni- and bivariate threshold models via Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of heritabilities of pathogen-specific mastitis were lower than the heritability of unspecific mastitis, ranging from 0.035 to 0.076 for S. aureus and S. uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations among the pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteristics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study should be considered as different traits. Genetic evaluation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance may be beneficial despite lower heritabilities than unspecific mastitis because a pathogen-specific mastitis trait is a direct measure of an udder infection, and because the cost of a mastitis case caused by different pathogens has been shown to differ greatly. Sampling bias may be present because there were not pathogen information on all mastitis treatments and because some farms do not record pathogen information. Therefore, improved recording of pathogen information and mastitis treatments in general is critical for a successful genetic evaluation of udder health. Also, economic values have to be specified for each pathogen-specific trait separately
SØrensen, Lars Peter; Madsen, P.
The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Also groups of pathogens were investigated, Gram-negative v. Gram-positive and contagious v. environmental pathogens. Data from 168 158 Danish Holstein cows calving first time between 1998 and 2006 were used in the analyses. Variances and covariances were estimated using uni- and bivariate treshold models via Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of heritabilities of pathogen-specific mastitis were lower than the heritability of unspecific mastitis, ranging from 0.035 to 0.076 for S. aureus and S. uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations amongthe pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteritics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study should be considered as different traits. Genetic evaluation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance may be beneficial despite lower heritabilities than unspecific mastitis because a pathogen-specific mastitis trait is a direct measure of an udder infection, and because the cost of a mastitis case caused by different pathogens has been shown to differ greatly. Sampling bias may be present because there were not pathogen information on all mastitis treatments and because some farms do not record pathogen information. Therefore, improved recording of pathogen information and mastitis treatment sin general is critical for a successful genetic evaluation of udder health. Also, economic values have to be specified for each pathogen-specific trait separately.
Koeck, A; Miglior, F; Kelton, D F; Schenkel, F S
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for mastitis and its predictors [mean somatic cell score (SCS) in early lactation, standard deviation of SCS, excessive test-day somatic cell count (SCC), udder depth (UD), fore udder attachment (FUA), and body condition score (BCS)]. Mastitis data recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Mastitis was defined as a binary variable based on whether or not the cow had at least 1 mastitis case in the period from calving to 305 d after calving. A Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling was applied. Threshold liability models were applied for binary traits (mastitis and excessive test-day SCC), and linear models were used for other normally distributed traits. For mastitis, a heritability of 0.07 was obtained. Heritability estimates for mean SCS in early lactation, standard deviation of SCS, excessive test-day SCC, UD, FUA, and BCS were 0.10, 0.04, 0.06, 0.41, 0.21, and 0.18, respectively. Mastitis was highly correlated with mean SCS in early lactation (0.63), standard deviation of SCS (0.74), and excessive test-day SCC (0.76). Moderate genetic correlations of -0.36, -0.24, and -0.28 were found between mastitis and UD, FUA, and BCS, respectively. As much as 72% of the genetic variation in mastitis resistance was explained by all the indirect predictor traits, whereas the most commonly used indirect measures of mastitis resistance (SCS in early lactation, UD, and FUA) explained together only 46% of the genetic variation in mastitis resistance. A combination of mean and standard deviation of SCS seem to be more successful in improving udder health than the traditional indirect measures. The results of the present study highlight that although routine cow SCC is the best measurement to monitor udder health, it cannot explain all the genetic variation in mastitis resistance and, therefore, direct information on mastitis resistance can be expected to yield to a more accurate genetic evaluation for this trait. PMID:23021760
Santos, V J C; Simplício, K; Sanchez, D; Coutinho, L; Teixeira, P; Barros, F; Almeida, V; Rodrigues, L; Bartlewski, P; Oliveira, M; Feliciano, M; Vicente, W
This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B-mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey-scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats. PMID:25601226
Abaineh, D; Sintayehu, A
The possible remedial effect of Persicaria senegalense in bovine subclinical mastitis was studied by in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial tests, using crude extracts and the leaf in different forms. The in vitro test showed that isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Corynebacterium bovis from subclinical cases and an isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a clinical case of mastitis were all inhibited by the three crude extracts at 820 micrograms concentration. An in vivo trial feeding 1.5 kg of the cooked leaf per day for 5 days did not give a significant cure rate, whereas a second trial in which 0.77 kg of leaf powder, equivalent to 3 kg of wet leaf, was fed per day for 5 days resulted in an apparent cure rate of 92.8% (52.8% actual as there was a 40% spontaneous cure rate in the negative control group, in contrast to 80% (40% actual) in the positive control group treated with an intramammary antibiotic preparation. The difference in cure rate between the negative control group and the experimental group given 0.77 kg leaf powder was significant (p = 0.008). PMID:11770205
Lavric, Alenka; Urbancic, Mojca
Purpose To report two cases of solitary unilateral vitreous cyst. Methods A complete ocular examination, fundus photography, B-scan ultrasound and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed in both patients. Results The first patient (a 39-year-old man) presented with transient blurred vision in the right eye. The second patient (a 78-year-old man) reported transient blurred vision in the right eye when changing head position. He was referred to the Eye Hospital because of vitreomacular traction in the other eye. After examination, a diagnosis of vitreous cyst was made in both cases. Conclusions Vitreous cysts are rare clinical findings. They can occur in normal eyes or in eyes with certain ocular pathologies. When a cyst floats into the visual axis area, it can disturb visual function; therefore, patients usually report transient blurring of vision. A prompt clinical examination is necessary for differentiating this rare condition. PMID:24348410
Full Text Available External cervical resorption (ECR is an invasive type of resorption that begins below the gingival epithelium and affects mineralized tissues, e.g., cementum and dentin. Most authors refer to dental trauma, whitening agents, and orthodontic treatment as etiologic factors of ECR; clinical diagnosis is performed via inspection of the gingival groove and margin. In this scenario, cone beam computed tomography has become a highly valuable ancillary method, as it allows to assess the proximity between the resorption and the pulp cavity, and thus, plan treatment. This article describes, in the form of a clinical case report, the diagnosis and treatment of a case of ECR affecting tooth no. 11, classified as Class III according to Heitersays classification. Surgical approach, restoration and clinical follow-up over 2-years of follow-up are described. In view of the clinical and radiographic findings observed during follow-up, it can be concluded that treatment was successful in healing periodontal tissues, suggesting a good prognosis.
Entwistle Vikki A; Snowdon Claire; Garcia Jo; Knight Rosemary C; Shakur Haleema; Elbourne Diana R; Roberts Ian; Francis David; McDonald Alison M; Grant Adrian M; Campbell Marion K
Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, o...
Tamara, Ramírez P; Alejandra, López P; Patricia, Arancibia H; Carla, Sáez T; Lorena, Díaz C; Teresa, Taub E; Leonor, Moyano S.
Full Text Available La mastitis granulomatosa idiopática es una patología inflamatoria de la mama poco frecuente, de etiología desconocida. Dado su forma de presentación clínica e imágenes puede simular tanto patología infecciosa como neoplásica, por lo que es importante sospecharla con el fin de realizar un diagnóstic [...] o adecuado y oportuno. La mayoría de los reportes en la literatura sobre esta patología corresponden a series de pocos casos. En este estudio se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos, ima-genológicos y de manejo de 36 casos diagnosticados mediante biopsia Core bajo ecografía en el Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile entre los años 2004 y 2014. En este reporte, al igual que en la literatura, los hallazgos clínicos e imagenológicos de la mastitis granulomatosa se superponen con los de la patología maligna e infecciosa. Si bien no observamos hallazgos patognomónicos, existen signos que hacen sospechar esta patología. En nuestro estudio encontramos que la presentación clínica más frecuente fue la masa o nódulo palpable, seguida de fístulas a la piel y engrosamiento cutáneo. Imagenológicamente el hallazgo mamográfico más frecuente fue la asimetría y en ecografía fue el área irregular con extensiones tubulares hipoecogénicas. Se revisan además aspectos histológicos, fisiopatológicos y del manejo de esta patología. Abstract in english Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is an infrequent inflammatory disease of the breast, with etiology still unknown. Clinical presentation and images can simulate both infectious and neoplastic disease so it's important to suspect it to make a proper and timely diagnosis. Most reports in the literatu [...] re on this topic correspond to small case series. This study is a retrospective analysis of the clinical, histopathological and imaging features and its management of 36 cases diagnosed by core biopsy under ultrasound at the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile between 2004 and 2014. In this report, as in the literature, clinical and imaging findings in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis overlap with malignant and infectious diseases. Although we observed no pathognomonic findings, there are signs that make you suspect this condition. In our study we found that the most common clinical presentation was a palpable mass or nodule, followed by cutaneous fistula. Radiologically the most common mammographic finding was lobulated or irregular area and in ultrasound the most frecuent is the distorted breast parenchyma with posterior acoustic shadowing. Histological, pathophysiological and management aspects of this pathology was also reviewed.
Seifu, Eyassu; Donkin, Edward Francis; Buys, Elna M.
This study was conducted to determine the potential of lactoperoxidase (LP) for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in goats. The activities of LP and somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined in the milk of clinically healthy Saanen and South African Indigenous goats and the correlation between LP activity and SCC was measured. An increase in LP activity was observed with increasing number of somatic cells in the milk of the two goat breeds. A significantly (p < 0.01) positive correlation ...
Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil
Laerte Francisco Filippsen
Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.
Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná / Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil
Laerte Francisco, Filippsen; Fernanda Barros, Moreira; Adauto Taiti, Sakashita; Daniéla Regina, Bittencourt.
Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros [...] , na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test) em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados. Abstract in english Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams an [...] d CMT (California Mastitis Test) were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.
Vacinação com Escherichia coli J5 no pré-parto e ocorrência de mastite e produção de leite de vacas mestiças leiteiras / Escherichia coli J5 vaccination during pre-calving and mastitis and milk production of crossbred cows
P.V., Maia; L.R., Molina; E.J., Facury Filho; R.L., Gonçalves; L.P.V., Moreira; A.Ú., Carvalho.
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 no período pré-parto e a ocorrência de mastite e de produção de leite. Foram utilizadas 93 vacas, sendo 43 vacinadas e 50 não vacinadas. Para a análise dos dados de produção e CCS (contagem de células somáticas), utilizou-se delineamento inteir [...] amente ao acaso em sistemas de parcelas subdivididas. Os dados de CCS e duração de casos clínicos de mastite foram transformados em Log10CCS. Para as médias de CCS e a duração de casos clínicos, usou-se o teste t. Para comparações de médias de recidivas de casos clínicos, usou-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. Para frequência de microrganismos e de mastite subclínica, usou-se o teste de qui-quadrado. A interação dessas variáveis foi analisada pelo teste de McNemar. Não houve redução na prevalência de infecções por coliformes entre a secagem e o parto nos dois grupos. A duração total dos casos clínicos de mastite em animais que apresentaram mastite clínica foi menor em vacas vacinadas. O número de episódios clínicos e a intensidade dos casos clínicos não diferiu entre os grupos. A prevalência de animais com mastite subclínica no pós-parto e a (CCS) nos 100 primeiros dias de lactação foram mais baixas no grupo de animais vacinados. Não foi observada diferença na produção de leite entre os grupos. A vacinação de vacas com E. coli J5 melhora a saúde da glândula mamária de vacas leiteiras e, consequentemente, reduz a prevalência de animais com mastite subclínica no pós-parto, bem como a duração dos casos clínicos de mastite e a CCS nos 100 primeiros dias de lactação. Abstract in english The effect of immunization with Escherichia coli J5 vaccine in the pre-partum on the occurrence of mastitis and milk production in crossbred dairy cows was evaluated. Ninety-three cows were used as follows: forty-three were vaccinated and fifty cows were unvaccinated. For the production analysis, da [...] ta and CCS were used in a completely randomized split-plot system. CCS data and duration of clinical cases of mastitis were transformed into Log10CCS. For the CSS averages and duration of clinical cases we used the t test. For comparisons of means of recurrences of clinical cases we used the Mann-Whitney test. For frequency of subclinical mastitis organisms and we used the chi-square test. The interaction of these variables was analyzed using the McNemar test. There was no reduction in the prevalence of infections caused by coliforms between drying-off and parturition in both groups. The total duration of clinical mastitis in animals with clinical mastitis was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. The number of clinical episodes and intensity of clinical cases did not differ between groups. The prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum and somatic cell count (SCC) in the first 100 days of lactation was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. However, there was no difference in milk production between groups. Vaccination of cows with E. coli J5 improves mammary gland health by reducing the prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum, as well as the duration of the clinical cases of mastitis and SCC in the first 100 days of lactation.
Foote Robert L
Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.
José Luis, Parada; Dicezar, Gonçalves; Vanete Tomaz, Soccol; Marisa, Lima; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.
Full Text Available A study from cows with mastitis was performed and Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen in 46.4 % among 153 studied strains from 276 milk samples of infected cows. Antibiotic resistance of 71 S. aureus isolates was determined in order to search resistant strains to antibiotics of clinic [...] al interest, as well as to determine their degree of multi-resistance. It was found that 60% of the S. aureus strains presented resistance to ?-lactams, but none to oxacillin, teicoplamin or vancomycin. On the other hand, with the aim of reducing the use of current antibiotics and their associated resistance, a new formulation was introduced. The antimicrobial compounds (P22-P32), demonstrated to be effective in 55% of the 76 mastitis cases studied. The use of P22-P32 reduced the number of somatic cell to less than 300,000 SCC/mL-1 in 75.2 % of milk samples analyzed, normalizing the milk quality, fat and lactose levels and increasing the volume of production in 10.1 %.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to measure the relationship of the pH value to the somatic cell count as a parameter of sub clinical mastitis detection. Two hundreds quarter milk samples were used in this research and the test (the pH value, IPB-1 mastitis test and Breed method was done in parallel way. The results showed that 152 samples from 200 samples (76% tested with Breed method came from the herds which suffered from sub-clinical mastitis and with IPB-1 test showed that 145 (72.5% of the samples had positive reaction. Using pH meter, it showed that 44 samples (22 % had pH > 6.75, presumed suffered from sub-clinical mastitis and 2 samples (1% showed pH < 6.30 (6.25 and 6.28. At the same time, these two samples showed a negative reaction with IPB-1 test and had somatic cell count of 360,000/ml and 280,000/ml, each. It also showed that there was a close relationship between pH value and IPB-1 test. The conclusion of this research was that the measurement of pH value was not a sensitive method for detecting sub-clinical mastitis.
Halimi, S; Lévy, M; Amghar, H
From the clinical case of a 52-Year old, type 2 diabetic obese woman, muslim algerian native, an endocrinologist and a religious representative discuss the influences of religion, beliefs and environment, on compliance to the diabetes diet and therapeutic management, with a particular emphasis on the Ramadan period. Inadequate behaviours, result in a worsening in glucose control. This, should be avoided through an appropriate patient's education, all along the Year, not only through the healthcare team, but involving patient's family and friends too, as well as the community and religious Authorities. PMID:15163926
Mu?at, O; Cristescu, R; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Gu?u, Tatiana; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R
We present the case of a 57 years old woman which was admitted for the amputation of the infero-nasal visual field of the right eye, change observed by the pacient for 2 weeks. Clinical examination and lab exams revealed the cause of this change: a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the superior temporal quadrant. Surgical treatement was warranted. We did a posterior vitrectomy with trans-scleral crioapplications and injection of silicone oil 1000. We followed the patient's evolution post-operative and we observed the development of a complicated cataract which was treated in a second surgery together with the extraction of the silicone oil. The evolution was favorable. PMID:22642139
Clinical case studies facilitate the development of clinical reasoning strategies through knowledge and integration of the basic sciences. Case studies have been shown to be more effective in developing problem-solving abilities than the traditional lecture format. To enhance the learning experiences of students in biomechanics, clinical case
G. R. Imametdinova
Full Text Available The annual incidence of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD worldwide is 0.16 cases per 100,000 persons. Its leading symptoms are joint involvement, fever, skin rash, and neutrophilic leukocytosis in the absence of rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in serum and synovial fluid. In its initial stage, there may be monoarthritis more commonly of the wrist, hip, or knee. Then the lesion assumes the pattern of oligo- or polyarthritis. Musculoskeletal involvement appearing as arthralgia, arthritis, and myalgia is noted in all patients. In the majority of patients, articular involvement progresses and destructive polyarthritis develops. Symmetric involvement of the carpophalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints is frequently detected. Skin lesion manifests itself as maculopapular or roseolous rashes on the chest, back, shoulders, occasionally on the legs, or in the areas of mechanical irritation. A sore throat with the signs of pharyngitis is a characteristic early symptom of the disease. There may be involvements of the liver, cardiovascular system, lung, as well as lymphadenopathy, or splenomegaly. The chronic course of the disease is more frequently noted.The paper describes two cases of AOSD. One case demonstrates that the physician has no experience in diagnosing and managing patients with AOSD, resulting in the misinterpretation of the increase in disease activity when the subclinical doses of methotrexate (MT are used, which has been regarded as a therapeutic complication. The use of the adequate dose of MT could achieve a clinical and laboratory remission and discontinue glucocorticoids (GC.In the other case of recurrent AOSD and mild clinical symptoms, the unreasonable use of high GC doses gave rise to adverse reactions.
A, Jiménez-Martín; FJ, Santos-Yubero; M, Zurera-Carmona; FJ, Najarro-Cid; FJ, Chaqués-Asensi; S, Pérez-Hidalgo.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Superior Labrum Anterior and Posterior injuries or SLAP injuries have a frequency of 3.9% to 12%, and up to 35% in contact sportsmen. Our purpose is to check this pathology in our centre and to value clinical and working final results after its treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observa [...] tional, descriptive and retrospective study of 63 patients. Medium age, sex, laterality, profession, type of SLAP, associated injuries, surgical techniques, complications, and Rowe, Constant and UCLA tests among other data, are analysed. RESULTS: 89% men, 11% women. Median age 45.3 ± 9.8 years. Right shoulders: 68%; left 32%. Intra-operative data: predominant SLAP type was type II (59.5%). We achieved subacromial decompression in 43.5% of cases. Rowe's test: 84.5 ± 18.3 points; Constant's test 72 ± 20.4 points; UCLA test: 29.5 ± 9.1 points. CONCLUSION: SLAP injuries constitute an important reason for shoulder pain in the labour world, although it is probably unsuspected. Treatment by means of shoulder arthroscopy with bioabsorbable bioknotless anchors is successful in many cases in allowing patients to show clinical improvement and return to work. Other concomitant injuries to SLAP must be investigated to optimise the results of surgical treatment.
Hommez, J; Devriese, L A; Vaneechoutte, M; Riegel, P; Butaye, P; Haesebrouck, F
Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkaline phosphatase. Absence of growth at 20 degrees C and lack of alpha-glucosidase and 4MU-alpha-D-glycoside hydrolysis activity differentiated C. amycolatum from C. pseudotuberculosis and C. ulcerans. The mastitis C. pseudotuberculosis strains differed from the biovar equi and ovis reference strains and from caprine field strains in their colony morphologies and in their reduced inhibitory activity on staphylococcal beta-hemolysin. C. amycolatum was the most frequently isolated nonlipophilic corynebacterium. PMID:10074508
Fabiana Alves, Demeu; Marcos Aurélio, Lopes; Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da, Rocha; Geraldo Márcio da, Costa; Glauber dos, Santos; Agnelo Franco, Neto.
Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram analisar e quantificar a influência da escala de produção no impacto econômico da mastite em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros. A pesquisa foi realizada, por meio de simulação, no sistema computacional CU$TO MASTITE, com rebanhos leiteiros de 50, 100 e 150 vacas em lactaçã [...] o. Foram consideradas como de prevenção as despesas com monitoramento (cultura e antibiograma, CCST e CCSI), pré e pós dipping, vacinação, tratamento de vacas secas e manutenção de ordenhadeira. Como medidas curativas, consideraram-se os tratamentos com casos clínicos, cuja percentagem foi de 7% das vacas em lactação. O impacto da mastite foi estimado como sendo o total de perdas, acrescido das despesas com prevenção e tratamento de casos clínicos. O aumento da escala de produção resultou em menor impacto econômico da mastite por vaca em lactação. Quando se analisou o efeito da escala de produção, os maiores responsáveis pelo impacto econômico foram, em ordem decrescente, as perdas com descarte de leite, o tratamento curativo de animais acometidos clinicamente e a redução da produção de leite. As despesas com tratamento preventivo representaram, no máximo, 11,7% do impacto econômico, o que demonstra vantagens em investir nessa prática, que irá contribuir significativamente para diminuição do impacto econômico da mastite Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to analyze and to quantify the influence of the production scale on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds. The study was conducted through a simulation in the computer system 'CU$TO MASTITE' ('MASTITIS CO$T'), considering dairy cattle with 50; 100 and [...] 150 lactating cows. Monitoring expenses (culture and antibiogram, CCST and CCSI), pre and post dipping, vaccination, treatment of dry cows and milking maintenance, were considered as prevention. The treatments with clinical cases, which had a 7% percentage of lactating cows were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as the total of losses plus expenses with prevention and the treatments of clinical cases. The increase of the production scale resulted in a lower economic impact of mastitis per lactating cow. When the effect of the production scale was analyzed, the losses with milk disposal, curative treatment of clinically affectedanimals and a decrease in milk production were the factors that most affected the economic impact, in a descending order. Expenses with preventive treatment accounted for, at maximum, 11.7% of the economic impact, which demonstrates advantages of investing on that practice because it will contribute significantly for the reduction of the economic impact caused by mastitis
Associação deagentes patogênicos isolados emanálise microbiológica da água, coma presença de mastite clínica ou subclínica, em vacas de propriedades leiteiras da região de Cerqueira César - SP / Association of pathogenic agents isoladed from microbiological analysis of water with the presence of clinical or subclinical mastitis in cows of dairy farms of Cerqueira Cesar region SP
Maria Izabel Merino de, Medeiros; Luiz Carlos de, Souza.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, pesquisar a relação entre os microrganismos patogênicos isolados e identificados em água utilizada na ordenha, com o isolamento e identificação dos mesmos em amostras de leite, de quartos mamários apresentando mastite clínica ou subclínica nas mesmas propriedades. Foram [...] utilizadas 16 propriedades rurais leiteiras, escolhidas aleatoriamente, na região de Cerqueira César - SP, que utilizavam ordenha mecânica. A água utilizada na ordenha foi classificada em relação à presença de coliformes totais e fecais, como dentro dos padrões ou fora dos padrões de potabilidade humana. Nos resultados obtidos, 94% das amostras foram classificadas como fora dos padrões em relação a coliformes totais e fecais. Os microrganismos identificados foram: Escherichia coli (51%), Enterobacter spp. (25%), Enterobacter cloacae (8%) Edwardsiella tarda (8%) e Klebsiella oxytoca (8%). Em relação ao leite, foram analisadas 373 amostras provenientes de vacas em lactação, com mastite clínica (n=19; 5%) e subclínica (n=354; 95%). Os animais com mastite subclínica foram identificados pela contagem de células somáticas (CCS), utilizando-se o aparelho eletrônico (Somacount 300, Bentley), onde a média observada foi de 1.631 x 10³ células/mL. Os principais microrganismos identificados foram: Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Corynebacterium bovis (23%) e Staphylococcus spp. (15%). Conforme os dados obtidos, os agentes coliformes encontrados na água, utilizada na ordenha, não estavam presentes nas análises das amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica das respectivas propriedades, demonstrando não haver associação entre a qualidade da água e a ocorrência de mastite. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to research the relation between the isolated and identified pathogenic microorganisms in the water used in the milking, with the isolation and identification of the same in milk samples of teats showing clinical or subclinical mastitis. Sixteen dairy farms were rand [...] omly chosen, in Cerqueira Cesar town - SP, which used mechanical milking. Water of the farms was classified in relation to the presence of total and fecal coliforms such as in the standard or out of the standard of human potability. In the results obtained, 94% of the samples were classified as being out of the standards in relation to total and fecal coliforms. The identified microorganisms were Escherichia coli (51%), Enterobacter spp. (25%), Enterobacter cloacae (8%), Edwardsiella tarda (8%) and Klebsiella oxytoca (8%). Regarding the milk samples, 373 samples from suckling cows were analyzed, presenting clinical mastitis (n=19; 5%) and subclinical mastitis (n=354; 95%).Animals presenting subclinical mastitis were identified by somatic cell count (SCC), utilizing electronic equipment (Somacount 300 - Bentley), where the mean found was 1,631 x 10³ cells/mL. The main identified microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Corynebacterium bovis (23%) and Staphylococcus spp. (15%). According to the results obtained, coliform agents found in the water used in the milking were not present in the analysis of the milk samples of quarters presenting clinical or subclinical mastitis from the respective farms, showing that there was not an association between water quality and mastitis occurrence.
Associação deagentes patogênicos isolados emanálise microbiológica da água, coma presença de mastite clínica ou subclínica, em vacas de propriedades leiteiras da região de Cerqueira César - SP Association of pathogenic agents isoladed from microbiological analysis of water with the presence of clinical or subclinical mastitis in cows of dairy farms of Cerqueira Cesar region SP
Maria Izabel Merino de Medeiros
Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, pesquisar a relação entre os microrganismos patogênicos isolados e identificados em água utilizada na ordenha, com o isolamento e identificação dos mesmos em amostras de leite, de quartos mamários apresentando mastite clínica ou subclínica nas mesmas propriedades. Foram utilizadas 16 propriedades rurais leiteiras, escolhidas aleatoriamente, na região de Cerqueira César - SP, que utilizavam ordenha mecânica. A água utilizada na ordenha foi classificada em relação à presença de coliformes totais e fecais, como dentro dos padrões ou fora dos padrões de potabilidade humana. Nos resultados obtidos, 94% das amostras foram classificadas como fora dos padrões em relação a coliformes totais e fecais. Os microrganismos identificados foram: Escherichia coli (51%, Enterobacter spp. (25%, Enterobacter cloacae (8% Edwardsiella tarda (8% e Klebsiella oxytoca (8%. Em relação ao leite, foram analisadas 373 amostras provenientes de vacas em lactação, com mastite clínica (n=19; 5% e subclínica (n=354; 95%. Os animais com mastite subclínica foram identificados pela contagem de células somáticas (CCS, utilizando-se o aparelho eletrônico (Somacount 300, Bentley, onde a média observada foi de 1.631 x 10³ células/mL. Os principais microrganismos identificados foram: Staphylococcus aureus (30%, Corynebacterium bovis (23% e Staphylococcus spp. (15%. Conforme os dados obtidos, os agentes coliformes encontrados na água, utilizada na ordenha, não estavam presentes nas análises das amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica das respectivas propriedades, demonstrando não haver associação entre a qualidade da água e a ocorrência de mastite.The aim of the present study was to research the relation between the isolated and identified pathogenic microorganisms in the water used in the milking, with the isolation and identification of the same in milk samples of teats showing clinical or subclinical mastitis. Sixteen dairy farms were randomly chosen, in Cerqueira Cesar town - SP, which used mechanical milking. Water of the farms was classified in relation to the presence of total and fecal coliforms such as in the standard or out of the standard of human potability. In the results obtained, 94% of the samples were classified as being out of the standards in relation to total and fecal coliforms. The identified microorganisms were Escherichia coli (51%, Enterobacter spp. (25%, Enterobacter cloacae (8%, Edwardsiella tarda (8% and Klebsiella oxytoca (8%. Regarding the milk samples, 373 samples from suckling cows were analyzed, presenting clinical mastitis (n=19; 5% and subclinical mastitis (n=354; 95%.Animals presenting subclinical mastitis were identified by somatic cell count (SCC, utilizing electronic equipment (Somacount 300 - Bentley, where the mean found was 1,631 x 10³ cells/mL. The main identified microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (30%, Corynebacterium bovis (23% and Staphylococcus spp. (15%. According to the results obtained, coliform agents found in the water used in the milking were not present in the analysis of the milk samples of quarters presenting clinical or subclinical mastitis from the respective farms, showing that there was not an association between water quality and mastitis occurrence.
Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.
Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying an internal quality control strain, i.e. including the same strain of Streptococcus agalactiae in all iterations of the proficiency test, served to gauge the bias caused by the year-to-year variation in the selection of test strains. A total of 73% of all uploaded results over the years were correct, with the internal quality control strain exhibiting a statistically significant ascending trend from 54% correct identifications in 2006 to 91% in 2011 (p-value=0.0082; n=13).Even if specifics were not recorded as regards the laboratory methods employed at the veterinary clinics for identification of mastitis pathogens, the results from this study indicate that the practices application of basic biochemical analyses in this context could be optimized. In addition, dissemination of information on new methods and updated nomenclature appeared to be an area which future efforts with advantage could aim at.
EVALUACIÓN DE LA SENSIBILIDAD Y ESPECIFICIDAD DEL DIAGNÓSTICO MOLECULAR DEL Staphylococcus aureus EN LECHE DE VACAS AFECTADAS POR MASTITIS / EVALUATION OF SENSITIVITY AN SPECIFICITY OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS FOR Staphylococcus aureus IN MILK OF COWS AFFECTED BY MASTITIS
Juan, Restrepo; Luisa, Ortiz; Ximena, Cardona; Martha, Olivera.
Full Text Available Entre los agentes contagiosos que inducen mastitis severas en la vaca, se encuentra el Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), de difícil cura bacteriológica y alta resistencia antimicrobiana. Debido a que el cultivo microbiológico de las muestras clínicas, solo ofrece resultado en un 50% de los casos (1 [...] ) el diagnóstico por PCR es una alternativa. El objetivo de este estudio fue probar si los cebadores descritos por Cremonesi et al. (2) para el diagnóstico de S. aureus, como de buena sensibilidad y especificidad, sirven para ser usados en muestras clínicas. Los resultados demostraron que las siguientes secuencias de nucleótidos como cebadores: F 5' AGC TGT GGA TTG TCC TTT GG 3' y R 5' TCG CTC GCT CAC CTT AGA A 3', para obtener un amplificado de 499 pb no sirven en muestras clínicas por su baja especificidad (62,95%). Se requiere buscar nuevos cebadores que amplifiquen regiones del S. aureus que no se compartan con otras bacterias, en especial aquellas que producen mastitis en vacas productoras de leche. Abstract in english Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the infectious agents that induce severe mastitis in cows with a difficult bacteriological cure and high antimicrobial resistance. Because the microbiological culture of clinical samples only shows results in 50% of the cases (Koskinen et al., 2009), diagn [...] ostic through PCR is an alternative. The aim of this study was to prove if the primers described by Cremonesi et al. (2006) for the S. aureus diagnosis, with good sensitivity and specificity, could be used in clinical samples too. The results showed that the following nucleotide sequences can be used as primers: F 5' AGC TGT GGA TTG TCC TTT GG 3' and R 5' TCG CTC GCT CAC CTT AGA A 3' in order to obtain a 499 pb enlargemenr are not useful in clinical samples due their low specificity (62.95%). It is required to search new primers to amplify S. aureus regions not shared with other bacteria, especially those cauding mastitis in dairy cows.
Panigrahi, Manjit; Sharma, Arjava; Bhushan, Bharat
Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Mutations in TLR4 can compromise the host immune response to certain pathogens, so it may be a potential candidate for marker assisted selection to enhance mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Hence, in this study role of bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance was investigated by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle. The animals were divided into mastitis affected and unaffected groups on the basis of history of animals and California Mastitis Test (CMT). PCR-SSCP and Sequence analysis revealed three genotypes of coreceptor binding region 1 (CRBR1) fragment of TLR4 gene namely AA, AB, and BB in both groups of cattle. The logistic regression model did not show any significant effect of these genotypes on the occurrence of clinical mastitis. Moreover, in vitro challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with LPS failed to show any association of the genotypes with TLR4 gene expression. In a nutshell, in the present study enough evidence was not found for association of the SNP variants of CRBR1 fragment of TLR4 gene with mastitis susceptibility in crossbred cattle. PMID:24669869
Full text: Two hundreds and forty lactating Friesian cows on the 1st to 8th of lactation and different stages of lactation were used to study some factors affecting on somatic cell count and its effects on milk yield and composition. Also, 12 normal cows, 15 subclinical and 15 clinical mastitis cows were used to study the effect of zinc methionine supplementation on somatic cell count and mastitis. Cows were divided into three similar groups, the first groups was unsupplemented, while the second and third groups were supplemented with 5 and 10 gm zinc methionine / head / day, respectively. Subclinical and clinical mastitis cows were intramammary injected by antibiotic Gentamast (Gentamicin 100 mg) till complete recovery. The obtained results showed that winter season showed significantly (P < 0.05) the highest somatic cell count followed by summer season, while the lowest value was in autumn season. Somatic cell count tended to decrease with the progress of lactation up to the peak period and increased significantly (P < 0.05) thereafter and also with the progress number of lactation. The percentages of normal, subclinical and clinical mastitis cows were 77.71, 15.82 and 6.46%, respectively. Milk yield and composition and its output decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing somatic cell count. Zinc methionine supplementation resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decrease in somatic cell count in milk. Zinc methionine supplementation for subclinical and clinical plementation for subclinical and clinical mastitis cows led to significant decrease (P < 0.05) on somatic cell count, electrical conductivity, recovery time and the cost of therapy compared with unsupplemented group. It could be concluded that increasing somatic cell count decreased milk yield and composition. Zinc methionine supplementation at the level of 5 g per head daily to lactating Friesian cows reduced somatic cell count in milk, recovery time and therapy cost of mastitis. (author)
Rasmussen, Ditte B; Jensen, Katrine Fogsgaard
Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables.
Pankaj P Taviad, T. B. Javadekar
Objective: To study the sociodemographic profile of malaria cases admitted on the basis of clinical features. Methods: With purposive sampling 100 cases were taken in these studies who were admitted with clinical findings of fever at Sayajirav Gyakwad Hospital, Vadodara. The indoor patients from April 2006 to October 2006 were retrieved using a prepared case sheet performa on the basis of patients demographic profile and clinical findings. Results: Out of 100 cases 66 patients were male an...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is the most important disease in dairy cows and it causes significant lost of profit to producers. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis. The progeny of dairy cows would benefit from receiving favourable alleles that support greater resistance to infection, thus reducing antibiotic use. This study aims to identify a key gene in the innate immune response to mastitis, led us to evaluate its genetic association with somatic cell score (SCS, which is an indicator of clinical mastitis, and to evaluate its impact on other traits related to milk production. Results The osteopontin transcript (SPP1 was identified in the somatic cells from cows experimentally infected with Escherichia coli. By selecting bulls with extreme estimated breeding values (EBVs for SCS, which is an indicator of mammary gland health, four DNA polymorphisms in the SPP1 genomic sequence were found. Statistical analysis revealed that the SNP SPP1c.-1301G>A has an impact on EBV for SCS (P SPP1c.-1251C>T, SPP1c.-430G>A, and SPP1c.*40A>C have an impact on SCS whereas SPP1c.-1301G>A has an effect on the EBVs for milk yield (second and third lactations, fat and protein percentages (all three lactations. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences between haplotype groups at a comparison-wise level with sire EBVS for SCS for the first (P = 0.012, second (P P Conclusion This study reports the link between DNA polymorphisms of SPP1, the number of milk immune cells and, potentially, the susceptibility to mastitis. These SNPs were identified by in silico search to be located in transcription factor recognition sites which factors are presumably involved in the Th1 immune response and in the Th2 regulation pathway. Indeed, one SNP abolished the SP1 recognition site, whereas another SNP affected the transcription binding factor IKAROS. All together, these findings support the genetic potential of these variants in terms of selection for the improvement of mastitis resistance in dairy cows.
Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio
Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609
Alfonso, Calderón; Margarita Rosa, Arteaga; Virginia Consuelo, Rodríguez; Germán Javier, Arrieta; Diana Carolina, Bermudez; Viviana Patrícia, Villareal.
Full Text Available La inflamación de las glándulas mamarias produce un descenso en la síntesis de los diferentes componentes de la leche, como respuesta para neutralizar agentes infecciosos, reparar el epitelio alveolar y retornar a la función normal. En la mastitis clínica y subclínica, hay un aumento del número de c [...] élulas somáticas cuya función es fagocitar, lisar a los patógenos, remover los deshechos producidos en el foco de infección mediante enzimas bacterianas que se incorporan a la leche reduciendo la vida útil de los diferentes derivados. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la mastitis subclínica sobre el rendimiento del queso costeño. Se realizó un estudio observacional transversal, en una empresa ganadera con dos grupos, seleccionando cinco cuartos con resultados grado 3 del CMT y 5 cuartos con reacciones negativas al CMT. Se minimizó la variabilidad por raza y lactancia. Los análisis fisicoquímicos se efectuaron por triplicado y se llevaron a cabo, teniendo en cuenta los métodos referenciados, el RCS se realizó en un contador electrónico de células somáticas. Los resultados de la calidad fisicoquímica de la leche con y sin mastitis, se compararon por medio de la prueba t-Student y se procesaron en el software SAS 9.0. Los quesos elaborados con leches sin mastitis subclínicas mostraron un 5.8 % de mayor rendimiento sobre los quesos elaborados con leches provenientes de vacas con mastitis subclínica. El rendimiento de la leche en la elaboración de queso costeño está directamente relacionado con el número de células somáticas. Abstract in english The mammary gland inflammation diminishes the synthesis of different milk compounds as a response to neutralize pathogens, repair the alveolar epithelium and return to normal functioning. In clinical and subclinical mastitis there is a significant increase of somatic cell count whose function is to [...] phagocytose, lyse pathogens, and to remove wastes in the infection focus through bacterial enzymes that are added to milk, reducing the life span of different derivates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical mastitis on coastal cheese production efficiency. A cross sectional observational study was carried out in a cattle enterprise having two groups from which five quarters with California Mastitis Test grade 3 and five quarters with negative California Mastitis Test reaction were selected. The variability by breed and lactation was minimized. The physical and chemical milk analyses were done in triplicate and were carried put considering reference methods. The somatic cells count was measured with an electronic somatic cell counter. The results of the physicochemical quality of the milk with and without mastitis were compared using the t-Student test and were processed using the SAS software 9.0. The cheese made using milk without sub clinic mastitis showed 5.8% better output over the cheese prepared with milk coming from cows with sub clinic mastitis. The efficiency of milk in the production of coastal cheese is directly related with somatic cell counts.
Koskinen, M T; Wellenberg, G J; Sampimon, O C; Holopainen, J; Rothkamp, A; Salmikivi, L; van Haeringen, W A; Lam, T J G M; Pyörälä, S
Fast and reliable identification of the microorganisms causing mastitis is important for management of the disease and for targeting antimicrobial treatment. Methods based on PCR are being used increasingly in mastitis diagnostics. Comprehensive field comparisons of PCR and traditional milk bacteriology have not been available. The results of a PCR kit capable of detecting 11 important etiological agents of mastitis directly from milk in 4h were compared with those of conventional bacterial culture (48h). In total, 1,000 quarter milk samples were taken from cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis, or from clinically healthy quarters with low somatic cell count (SCC). Bacterial culture identified udder pathogens in 600/780 (77%) of the clinical samples, whereas PCR identified bacteria in 691/780 (89%) of the clinical samples. The PCR analysis detected major pathogens in a large number of clinical samples that were negative for the species in culture. These included 53 samples positive for Staphylococcus aureus by PCR, but negative by culture. A total of 137 samples from clinical mastitis, 5 samples from subclinical mastitis, and 1 sample from a healthy quarter were positive for 3 or more bacterial species in PCR, whereas culture identified 3 or more species in 60 samples from clinical mastitis. Culture identified a species not targeted by the PCR test in 44 samples from clinical mastitis and in 9 samples from subclinical mastitis. Low SCC samples provided a small number of positive results both in culture (4/93; 4.3%) and by PCR (7/93; 7.5%). In conclusion, the PCR kit provided several benefits over conventional culture, including speed, automated interpretation of results, and increased sensitivity. This kit holds much promise as a tool to complement traditional methods in identification of pathogens. In conventional mastitis bacteriology, a sample with 3 or more species is considered contaminated, and resampling of the cow is recommended. Further study is required to investigate how high sensitivity of PCR and its quantitative features can be applied to improve separation of relevant udder pathogens from likely contaminants in samples where multiple species are detected. Furthermore, increasing the number of species targeted by the PCR test would be advantageous. PMID:21094742
Athanasiadis, A; Sechtem, U
Syncope is defined as a transient, self-limiting loss of consciousness and postural tone due to transient global cerebral hypoperfusion. After syncope the following questions have to be answered: was it a syncopal episode, has the etiological diagnosis been determined, are there data suggestive of a high risk of cardiovascular events or death and what are the therapeutic options? Therefore, a standardized diagnostic work-up is necessary. This diagnostic work-up with differential diagnostic considerations is given for three clinical cases: a 52-year-old man experienced syncope while driving a car and on the morning of the same day syncope had previously occurred while in a standing position. The initial cardiological and neurological evaluation revealed no pathological findings but after implantation of a loop recorder a further syncope with a sinus arrest of 17 s occurred 1 year later. The patient received a single chamber pacemaker. The second case is a 79-year-old female with Parkinson's disease for many years and a primary autonomic dysfunction leading to dizziness and syncope due to pronounced blood pressure fluctuations with hypertensive and hypotensive phases. The last patient is a 22-year-old female with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and recurrent syncope. The diagnostic evaluation and treatment proved to be difficult. PMID:24898287
Beguelin, C; Genne, D; Varca, A; Tritten, M-L; Siegrist, H H; Jaton, K; Lienhard, R
Actinobaculum schaalii is a new species that has so far been isolated from human blood, urine and pus. Its importance has probably been underestimated and other Actinobaculum spp. may also have been underdiagnosed. This retrospective study comprises all known cases of A. schaalii infections identified since 2004 in the canton of Neuchâtel (170,000 inhabitants), Switzerland. Strains were cultivated and isolated in the bacteriology laboratory using its routine procedure. Identification included a Rapid ID 32 A strip (bioMérieux) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Twenty-one positive samples were found in 19 patients (11 male, 8 female) of all ages (range 16-91 years): 10 from urine (50%), six from blood (30%), one from both blood and urine (5%), and three from pus (15%). Thirteen out of 17 (76%) cases with either blood or urine specimens had underlying genitourinary tract pathologies. When urine cultures were positive for A. schaalii, leucocytes were found in all samples (10/10, 100%) but all nitrite tests were negative (10/10, 100%). The onset of appropriate treatment was delayed due to the diminished sensitivity of A. schaalii to the antibiotics commonly used for UTIs (i.e. ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) and to the delay in microbiological diagnosis. A. schaalii should specifically be searched in all cases of leukocyturia with a negative nitrite test but with Gram-positive rods in the Gram stain, in patients with underlying genitourinary tract pathology, instead of dismissing these findings as clinically irrelevant colonization by coryneform bacteria. This infection may be much more common than previously thought. PMID:20854424
Kemper, Nicole; Bardehle, Danilo; Lehmann, Jörg; Gerjets, Imke; Looft, Holger; Preissler, Regine
Even in modern piglet production, mastitis and lactation failure in sows represent a considerable health problem post partum, affecting in its consequences both the sow and her piglets. Known as a multifactorial syndrome, Mastitis-Metritis-Agalactia (MMA) has been topic of several studies investigating possible influencing factors at farm and sow level in the recent past. However, there is a lack of current investigations on the causative pathogens, especially with advanced laboratory methods and with an adequate control group of healthy animals. Therefore, 1026 milk samples from coliform mastitis (CM)-affected, and 972 samples from healthy sows on six farms were examined bacteriologically in this study. The spectrum of isolated bacteria did not differ significantly between diseased and healthy animals for most species, with Escherichia coli as predominant species with 70.4% positive samples from diseased, and 78.0% positive samples from healthy animals. Furthermore, other Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Streptococcaceae and Enterococcaceae were isolated both from CM-affected and non-affected animals.The similar bacteria distribution underlines the multifactorial pathogenesis of CM: Only with further adverse--endogen or exogen--factors being present, ubiquitous bacteria from the sow's environment can contribute to the development of clinical signs of infection. PMID:23540195
Zadoks, R N; Allore, H G; Barkema, H W; Sampimon, O C; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H
An outbreak of Streptococcus uberis mastitis was described to gain insight into the dynamics of Strep. uberis infections at a herd level. Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on a commercial Dutch dairy farm with good udder health management. Quarter milk samples for bacteriological culture were routinely collected at 3-wk intervals from all lactating animals (n = 95 +/- 5). Additional samples were collected at calving, clinical mastitis, dry-off, and culling. During the 78-wk observation period, 54 Strep. uberis infections were observed. The majority of infections occurred during a 21-wk period that constituted the disease outbreak. The incidence rate was higher in quarters that had recovered from prior Strep. uberis infection than in quarters that had not experienced Strep. uberis infection before. The incidence rate of Strep. uberis infection did not differ between quarters that were infected with other pathogens compared with quarters that were not infected with other pathogens. The expected number of new Strep. uberis infections per 3-wk interval was described by means of a Poisson logistic regression model. Significant predictor variables in the model were the number of existing Strep. uberis infections in the preceding time interval (shedders), phase of the study (early phase vs. postoutbreak phase), and prior infection status of quarters with respect to Strep. uberis, but not infection status with respect to other pathogens. Results suggest that contagious transmission may have played a role in this outbreak of Strep. uberis mastitis. PMID:11286411
Khandkar Muhammad Alimul Razi
Full Text Available The prevalence of caprine subclinical mastitis in Mymensingh area was assessed by California Mastitis Test (CMT. Milk samples were also analyzed for the isolation and identification of bacterial agents that might be associated with caprine subclinical mastitis including their antibiotic sensitivity pattern against commonly used antibiotics. In addition, the influence of certain risk factors such as age of animal, parity, length of lactation period, type of farming system and type of housing floor, on the prevalence of caprine subclinical mastitis was also evaluated. Milk samples were collected from 59 goats (113 udder halves. The overall prevalence of caprine subclinical mastitis as determined by CMT was 18.64%. On an udder half basis the prevalence was 15.04%. Certain risk factors associated with caprine subclinical mastitis were identified. The prevalence was higher in older animals, with greater parity and longer lactation period. The prevalence was also higher in farms where goats were raised under traditional farming system with earthen floors. The predominant bacterial species isolated from milk that were collected from the subclinical mastitis positive cases were Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis, that showed various degrees of sensitivity to the antibiotics used in the study.
Domingo J. Palmero
Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente HIV negativa de 39 años con una mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum, sin antecedentes patogénicos previos. Fue tratada en base a las pruebas de susceptibilidad a antibióticos y quimioterápicos y a la evidencia empírica citada por la bibliografía, con kanamicina, doxiciclina, ciprofloxacina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se obtuvo la remisión completa de sus lesiones luego de 15 meses de tratamiento. Se comenta la capacidad de producir lesiones de esta micobacteria de crecimiento rápido, su diagnóstico y tratamiento.A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented.
Domingo J., Palmero; Marta G., Ambroggi; Susana E., Poggi.
Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente HIV negativa de 39 años con una mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum, sin antecedentes patogénicos previos. Fue tratada en base a las pruebas de susceptibilidad a antibióticos y quimioterápicos y a la evidencia empírica citada por la bibliografía, con kanamicina, [...] doxiciclina, ciprofloxacina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se obtuvo la remisión completa de sus lesiones luego de 15 meses de tratamiento. Se comenta la capacidad de producir lesiones de esta micobacteria de crecimiento rápido, su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Abstract in english A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sul [...] fametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented.
Full Text Available The present study was performed to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of clinically health quarters submitted to milking and also to observe the distribution of contagious and environmental agents between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year. During nine months 734 quarters from 37 buffalo cows were submitted monthly to udder inspection, palpation and strip cup test before milking. 734 asseptic milk samples were inoculated in 10% ovine blood agar and in MacConkey agar media, then incubated for 72 hours at 37oC. Among the 580 isolated microrganisms, 182 (31,38% were recovered from samples collected during the rainy season and 398 (68,62% from the dry season. In the rainy period the most prevalent agents were: bacteria from the genus Corynebacterium sp (53,30%, Staphylococcus sp (19,78% and Rhodococcus equi (13,74%. In the dry period, the commonest ones were: Corynebacterium sp (44,97%, Staphylococcus sp (18,84% and Micrococcus sp (9,55%. The results demonstrated that the methods used to select health quarters in brazilian dairy buffalo farms allow the transmission of contagious bacteria during both seasons of the year, maintaining Ital.J.Anim.Sci. vol. 6, (Suppl. 2, 896-899, 2007 897 VIII World Buffalo Congress agents known to cause mainly subclinical inflammatory reactions that compromise cronically the physiology and production of the mammary gland.
Factores asociados a mastitis en vacas de la microcuenca lechera del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia / Factors Associated to Mastitis in Cows from the Dairy Production Basin in the Northern Highlands of Antioquia, Colombia
Nicolás, Ramírez Vásquez; Ofelia, Arroyave Henao; Mario, Cerón-Muñoz; Manuel, Jaramillo; Juan, Cerón; Luis Guillermo, Palacio.
Full Text Available Fatores associados à mastite em vacas da microbacia leiteira do altiplano norte da Antioquia, Colômbia [...] Abstract in spanish Se efectuó un estudio de corte sobre la prevalencia de mastitis bovina en una muestra representativa de las granjas lecheras del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia. Se evaluaron los resultados del California Mastitis Test (CMT), Recuento de Células Somáticas (RCS) y cultivo bacteriológico de lec [...] he, y se analizaron los factores de riesgo asociados a mastitis bovina. El análisis estadístico de la información se efectuó por medio de estadística descriptiva, análisis de razón de prevalencias y regresión logística multinivel. Con la prueba de CMT se detectó un 20% de cuartos afectados con mastitis, la prevalencia de mastitis sub-clínica por vaca fue del 39,5% y la de mastitis clínica fue del 1,7%. Se efectuaron 648 cultivos de muestras de leche, de las cuales 23,9% fueron negativas, 34% positivas a Streptococcus agalactiae y 10,2% a Estafilococo coagulasa negativo. El análisis de regresión reveló que las vacas que tuvieron más de seis meses de lactancia presentaron una Odds Ratio (OR) de 2,65 en comparación con las de un mes de lactancia (p Abstract in english A study was conducted on the prevalence of bovine mastitis in a representative sample from dairy farms in the northern highlands of Antioquia, Colombia. The results of California Mastitis Test (CMT) were evaluated, as well as the Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and the bacteriological culture of milk. The [...] risk factors associated with bovine mastitis were also analyzed, and the statistical analysis of the information was made through descriptive statistics, prevalence ratio analysis and multilevel logistic regression. The CMT test detected that 20% of the cow were affected with mastitis, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis per cow was of 39.5%, and of clinical mastitis was 1.7%. Six hundred and forty eight (648) cultures were made of milk samples, 23.9% of which came out negative, 34% positive with Streptococcus agalactiae, and 10.2% with coagulase-negative staphylococci. The regression analysis revealed that cows that had more than six months of lactation showed an Odds Ratio (OR) of 2.65 compared to cows that had one month of lactation (p
Lo?pez-lo?pez, Jose?; Garcia-vicente, Laia; Jane?-salas, Enric; Estrugo-devesa, Albert; Chimenos-ku?stner, Eduardo; Roca-elias, Josep
The most common types of orofacial pain originate at the dental or periodontal level or in the musculoskeletal structures. However, the patient may present pain in this region even though the source is located elsewhere in the body. One possible source of heterotopic pain is of cardiac origin. Objectives: Report two cases of orofacial pain of cardiac origin and review the clinical cases described in the literature. Study Design: Description of clinical cases and review of clinical cas...
Preliminary study of homeopathic treatment of subclinical mastitis evaluated through somatic cells count (SCC) and California mastitis test (CMT) Estudio preliminar del tratamiento homeopÃÂ¡tico de la mastitis sublÃÂnica evaluado mediante recuento de cÃÂ©lulas somÃÂ¡ticas (SCC) y California Mastitis Test (CMT) Estudo preliminar do tratamento homeopÃÂ¡tico da mastite subclÃÂnica avaliado por contagem de cÃÂ©lulas somÃÂ¡ticas (SCC) e California Mastitis Test (CMT)
Carlos Dias Barzon; Franciele de Medeiros; Roberson Eduardo Moraes; Luiz ClÃÂ¡udio Monteiro da Silva; Carlos Massambani; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Zilda Cristiani Gazim
The present paper presents the results of homeopathic treatment of 25 Holstein breed cows aged 3 to 8 years old diagnosed with subclinical mastitis through California Mastitis Test (CMT). Animals were divided into 3 groups according with infection level. A homeopathic complex was developed on the grounds of clinical aspects, including Phosphorus 30x, Phytolacca 30x, Silicea 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x and biotherapic of Staphylococcus aure...
Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the influence of prepartum vitamin A supplementation on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Forty two cows were randomly distributed into blocks according to the parity and divided in two treatments: control and supplemented with 180,000IU vit.A/day. The supplementation started 30 days before probable parturition date up to parturition. The Tamis test was performed weekly for clinical mastitis detection, and milk samples were collected for somatic cell counts. Vitamin A treatment decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis (P<0.05, however no effect on milk somatic cell count was observed.
Wyder, A B; Boss, R; Naskova, J; Kaufmann, T; Steiner, A; Graber, H U
Streptococcus spp. and related bacteria form a large group of organisms which are associated with bovine intramammary Infections (IMI). Some of them are the well-known mastitis pathogens Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae. In addition, there are a considerable number of these gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci (PNC) with unclear mastitic pathogenicity such as Aerococcus viridans which make the conventional diagnostics of PNC difficult. One diagnostic, API 20 Strep (API, Biomérieux) is recommended which, as a phenotypic assay, involves a series of miniaturized biochemical tests. Recently, preference is given to genotypic identification methods. In particular, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allows highly reproducible and accurate identification of bacteria and permits discovery of novel, clinically relevant bacteria. As a consequence, the aim of the present study was to compare identification of IMI-associated PNC by the API method as well as by sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene (16S). Furthermore, the correlation of these bacteria to bovine chronic mastitis and their phylogeny was investigated. 102 PNC isolated from single quarter milk samples were identified by API and 16S sequencing. Considering Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and Streptococcus agalactiae, both methods generated fully concordant results. In contrast, a very high disconcordance was observed for most of the other PNC, in particular Enterococcus spp., Aerococcus viridans and the viridans streptococci were shown as apathogenic. Lactococcus garvieae was found to be an opportunistic pathogen causing IMI during late lactation. In addition, PNC isolated from milk were frequently observed together with other bacteria, in particular with Staphylococcus spp. In these cases, the levels of somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined by the specific PNC present in the sample. Considering PNC phylogeny based on 16S sequencing, 3 major clusters were observed. They included all the common mastitis pathogens (cluster I), the Lactococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Aerococcus spp. (cluster II) and all the viridans streptococci (cluster III). PMID:20971488
Sakr, Ayman A. E-mail: email@example.com@hotmail.com; Fawzy, Rawya K.; Fadaly, Gylan; Baky, Moustafa Abdel
From December 1999 to April 2001, 10 cases of tuberculous mastitis were presented to the Radiology Unit at the Medical Research Institute of Alexandria University for mammographic and sonographic evaluation. Sixty percent presented with masses, 50% mastalgia, 40% discharge, and 10% complained of skin sinus. In 30% of the patients the complaint was bilateral. All cases underwent full mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) studies, and US-guided fine needle aspiration. Also pathological, bacteriological analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done to all patients to prove the tuberculous nature of their lesions. Thirty percent of the cases had surgical excision on their masses. On mammography 30% were found to have mass lesion mimicking malignant tumors, 40% smooth bordered masses, 40% axillary or intramammary adenopathy, 30% asymmetric density, 30% duct ectasia, 20% with skin thickening and nipple retraction, 20% with macrocalcification, and 10% with skin sinus. On US 60% had hypoechoic masses, 40% focal or sectorial duct ectasia, and 50% axillary adenopathy. History of tuberculosis was found in 30% of the cases. Chest X-ray was positive in 20% and breast magnetic resonance imaging was done to one patient who had skin sinus.
Mariela Dura Gontijo de, Moura; Davidson Fróis, Madureira; Luiz Cláudio, Noman-Ferreira; Evandro Neves, Abdo; Evandro Guimarães de, Aguiar; Freire, Addah Regina da Silva.
Full Text Available El tonsilolito es una calcificación distrófica rara que surge como consecuencia de la inflamación crónica de las amígdalas. Se relatan tres casos asintomáticos de tonsilolitos, descubiertos durante el examen radiográfico de rutina por medio de radiografías panorámicas, que mostraron distintos tamaño [...] s de imágenes radiopacas, que variaron entre 2 y 5 mm. Los casos I y III presentaron imágenes que no se sobrepusieron a la línea de la mandíbula, lo que condujo a un diagnóstico probable de calcificación de tejido suave. El caso II tenía una imagen radiopaca unilateral, con densidad ósea, sobreponiéndose a la línea de la mandíbula, conduciendo a una lesión benigna intra-ósea, que fue considerada como el diagnóstico diferencial. No se encontraron síntomas en ningún caso. Sólo el caso I tenía características clínicas, mostrando unas placas blancas, visibles a través de la mucosa. Fueron solicitadas tomografías computarizadas de la región maxilo-facial para averiguar la ubicación exacta de estas imágenes, ya que la mayor parte de la superposición de las imágenes radiopacas en la línea mandibular era muy similar a anormalidades intra-óseas. Las tomografías computarizadas mostraron imágenes hiperdensas en las amígdalas palatinas, confirmando el diagnóstico de tonsilolitos. Los pacientes están actualmente en seguimiento. No se requiere tratamiento si no existen síntomas. Concluyendo que los tonsilolitos pueden mostrar imágenes en las radiografías panorámicas similares a alteraciones intra-óseas. El diagnostico es relativamente fácil cuando la tomografía computarizada es solicitada, a pesar de que las imágenes no son patognomónicas. Abstract in english Tonsillolith is a rare dystrophic calcification as a result of chronic inflammation of the tonsils. Three asymptomatic cases of tonsillolith are reported, incidentally discovered through panoramic radiographs, which showed different sizes of radiopaque images, varying from 2 to 5mm; cases I and III [...] images did not overlap the mandible ramus, which led to a probable diagnosis of soft tissue calcification. Case II had radiopaque unilateral images, with osseous tissue density, overlapping the mandibular ramus, leading to a benign intra-osseous lesion, which was considered as differential diagnosis. No symptoms were reported in any case. Only case I had clinical characteristics, showing highly consistent white plaques partially visible through the mucosa. Computed tomography of the maxillofacial region/head and neck were requested to find out the exact location of these images, since most of the overlapping radiopaque images in the mandibular ramus were very similar to intra-osseous abnormalities. The computed tomography showed hyperdense images in the palatine tonsils, confirming the diagnosis of tonsillolith. The patients are currently under follow-up. No treatment is required if there is no symptom. In conclusion, tonsillolith might show images on panoramic radiographs similar to intra osseous abnormalities. The diagnosis is relatively easy when computed tomography is requested, although the images are not pathognomonic. Therefore, clinicians should consider other pathologies as differential diagnosis.
Beekhuis-Gibbon, Lies; Devitt, Catherine; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Redmond, Bairbre; Quin, Suzanne; Doherty, Michael L
Part 1 of the study described the development of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) based programme and accompanying handbook for the control of mastitis. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of customised HACCP-based programmes, which were developed from the handbook and assessed on six Irish dairy farms. Both quantitative and qualitative (action research) research methodologies were used to measure the success of implementation and efficacy of control of sub-clinical mastitis as measured by Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and the degree of compliance by farmers in adopting and maintaining recommendations throughout the course of the study period. No overall differences in SCC before and during the implementation of the study were found when all six farms were considered together. Three of the six study farms experienced a significant decrease in herd milk recorded SCC during the implementation of the control programme. An essential part of the study was achieving initial agreement on recommendations as well as ongoing monitoring of compliance during the study. This pilot study shows that HACCP can be implemented on farms as a means of working towards the control of mastitis and that farmer attitude, and understanding of mastitis are crucial in terms of motivation irrespective of practical approaches used to manage mastitis. PMID:21777494
Full Text Available Abstract Part 1 of the study described the development of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP based programme and accompanying handbook for the control of mastitis. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of customised HACCP-based programmes, which were developed from the handbook and assessed on six Irish dairy farms. Both quantitative and qualitative (action research research methodologies were used to measure the success of implementation and efficacy of control of sub-clinical mastitis as measured by Somatic Cell Counts (SCC and the degree of compliance by farmers in adopting and maintaining recommendations throughout the course of the study period. No overall differences in SCC before and during the implementation of the study were found when all six farms were considered together. Three of the six study farms experienced a significant decrease in herd milk recorded SCC during the implementation of the control programme. An essential part of the study was achieving initial agreement on recommendations as well as ongoing monitoring of compliance during the study. This pilot study shows that HACCP can be implemented on farms as a means of working towards the control of mastitis and that farmer attitude, and understanding of mastitis are crucial in terms of motivation irrespective of practical approaches used to manage mastitis.
Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani
Full Text Available We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL?1 against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect, but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis.
Radhwane, Saidi; Djamel, Khelef; Rachid, Kaidi.
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the [...] positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%).
Azmi D. Hawari
Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish data on mastitis in she-camels in Jordan. Milk samples were collected from 90 dromedary camels in south province of Jordan. California Mastitis Test (CMT gave results with 70 milk samples; 42 samples (60% showed positive CMT. Infection with some bacterial species was associated with positive CMT. About 21% of the camels revealed clinical signs of mastitis. The highest percentage of bacterial count, which range from 3.0x102 to <3.0x103 cfu mL-1, was founded in the milk samples. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Gentamycin, Ampicillin and Tetracycline were the most effective antimicrobial agents against the bacterial isolates.
Metzner, Moritz; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Seemueller, Andrea; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm
The study aimed to use infrared thermography (IRT) to evaluate the changes in udder surface temperature after induction of Escherichia coli mastitis in the right hind quarter. Over a time period of 24?h before to 24?h post-inoculation, thermograms of both hind quarters were taken every 2?h to determine maximum (Tmax) and average (Tavg) temperatures. Differences in both maximum and average temperatures (DTmax and DTavg) were calculated, as well as temperature differences between both hind quarters. All cows developed signs of clinical mastitis with a significant increase in DTmax and DTavg with Tmax at 13?h post-inoculation for the (non-infected) left hind quarters. The results demonstrate that detection of mastitis using IRT is possible if the interval between examinations does not exceed 2?h. PMID:25957921
Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis, the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67% in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%, Enterobacter spp. (15.00%, C. pyogenes (10.00%, Micrococcus spp. (5.00%, Pasteurells spp. (5.00% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%. Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.
The integration of evidence into reflective health care practice has been on the rise in recent years and is a phenomenon that has affected all health care professions, including massage therapy. Clinical case studies are a research design that follows one patient or subject, making the studies ideal for use in clinical practice. They are valuable for communicating information from clinical practice to the broader community. Case studies have face validity that may be more valuable to individ...
Theron, Léonard; Reding, Edouard; Detilleux, Johann; Rao, Anne-Sophie; Bertozzi, Carlo; Hanzen, Christian
Mastitis is the most antibiotic consuming pathology in dairy medicine. Though antibiotics and antibiograms are known to vets since the early fifties, our practices did not evolved a lot from empiric antibiotic therapy. Indeed, the need for a treatment, the cost and the delay for an antibiogram are most of the time incoherent with a routine practice. Nevertheless, there is a surge for rational use of antibiotics. Our study was based on 1100 mastitis events from 30 Belgian farms collected...
Megersa, Bekele; Tadesse, Chala; Abunna, Fufa; Regassa, Alemayehu; Mekibib, Berhanu; Debela, Etana
Mastitis prevalence and related risk factors were studied in 1,072 udder halves of 536 lactating goats from October, 2008 to February, 2009. Clinical and subclinical mastitis were prevalent in 4.3% (95% CI = 2.8, 6.5) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7, 14.3) of the studied animals, respectively, resulting in an overall prevalence of 15.5% (95% CI = 12.6, 18.9). Univariate analysis of the potential risk factors has depicted that mastitis was more prevalent in does with previous mastitis history, increased parity, poor body conditions, increased milk production, late lactation stage, long teat, and housed goats. Furthermore, prevalence was significantly higher (p 0.05) were observed in mastitis prevalence with udder tick infestation, mixing goat with sheep and flock size. With multivariable analysis, lactation stage, teat length, body condition, and season (wet months) have showed significant association with mastitis prevalence, and these factors maintained significant in the stepwise elimination of multivariable logistic regression model. As a result, does in late stage of lactation (OR = 4.3, 1.8, 10.4), poor body condition (OR = 5.0, 1.7, 10.0), long teats (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1, 4.2) and does examined in wet period were at higher risk of udder infections than early lactation, good body condition, short teat, and examined in dry period, respectively. The study showed occurrence of mastitis and associated risk factors in studied goats, which suggests the need for control intervention. Further investigations into pathogens involved in goat mastitis will optimize our knowledge of causative agents and control interventions. PMID:20373022
Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart Hp; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michèle
Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case-control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One control herd with no history of clinical mycoplasmosis, matched for herd size, was randomly selected within a 10 km range for each case herd. Animal health data, production data, information on milking and feeding-management, housing and presence of potential stress- factors were collected. Composite quarter milk samples were aseptically collected from all lactating cows and 5% of all animals within each herd were sampled by nasal swabs. Organ samples of culled diseased cows were collected when logistically possible. All samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In case herds, incidence risk of pneumonia, arthritis and clinical mastitis prior to the first visit and incidence rates of clinical mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two visits was estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis infection. In case herds, incidence risk of M. bovis mastitis prior to the first visit ranged from 2 to 15%, whereas 2 to 35% of the cows suffered from clinical pneumonia within the 12 months prior to the first herd visit. The incidence rates of mycoplasmal mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two herd visits were low in case herds (0-0.1 per animal year at risk and 0.1-0.6 per animal year at risk, respectively). In the retrospective-case-control study high mean milk production, appropriate stimulation until milk-let-down, fore-stripping, animal movements (cattle shows and trade), presence of stress-factors, and use of a specific brand of milking equipment, were identified as potential herd-level risk factors. The prospective cohort study revealed a decreased incidence of clinical disease within three months and prolonged colonization of the nasal cavity by M. bovis in young stock. PMID:25884203
Nenova, M; Gantcheva, T
The history of a six-year-old girl, hospitalised in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Medical University of Varna with diagnosed meningoencephalitis, obs. rabies, and epidemiological data of dog bite without adequate prophylaxis is presented. The clinical course was unusual: the symptoms of aero- and hydrophobia were not clearly demonstrated, choreic hyperkynesias, torsion seizures and high initial pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid were present. The pathological picture is described. Ethiological diagnosis was proven by immunofluorescence test of brain tissue. PMID:12078128
Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Sa Rah; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [CHA University, Bundang CHA Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)
The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis.
Efectos de la mastitis subclínica en algunos hatos de la cuenca lechera del Alto Chicamocha (departamento de Boyacá) / Subclinical mastitis effects in some dairy herds in the Upper Chicamocha River (Boyacá Department)
Andrey, Pinzón Trujillo; Fausto Camilo, Moreno Vásquez; Germán, Rodríguez Martínez.
Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue realizar un estudio de los efectos de la mastitis subclínica en las vacas de 34 hatos ubicados en la región del alto Chicamocha (Departamento de Boyacá) y registrados en la Federación de Ganaderos de Boyacá (FABEGAN), con el fin de conocer el estado de infección de l [...] os animales y establecer los agentes patógenos causantes de la enfermedad, además de su relación con la rutina de ordeño. Para tal fin se aplicaron pruebas de comparación pareadas para las variables productivas relacionadas con la Prueba California para Mastitis California (CMT) y la caracterización microbiológica, un diseño de bloques bajo arreglo factorial 2 x 4 para analizar la existencia de diferencias significativas entre los grados de mastitis, la época de muestreo y su interacción, y un diseño de bloques bajo arreglo factorial 2 x 4 para analizar la existencia de diferencias significativas entre los grados de mastitis subclínica, la época de muestreo y su interacción. Se sometieron al diagnóstico de la Prueba California para Mastitis California (CMT) 6616 cuartos en dos repeticiones con diferente estación climática, pero no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las épocas de muestreo. Las muestras positivas a la prueba de CMT (CMT-2 y CMT-3) fueron sometidas a análisis microbiológicos que evidenciaron, en la mayoría de los casos de mastitis, la presencia de Streptococcus agalactiae y Staphylococcus aureus, principales agentes infecciosos causantes de la enfermedad en los cuartos analizados. Los resultados indican la estrecha relación que existe entre la rutina de ordeño y la presentación de mastitis. Las deficientes prácticas en el proceso de ordeño son la causa de la diseminación y prevalencia de la mastitis en los hatos Abstract in english The purpose of this work was to carry out a study about the effects of subclinical mastitis in cows of 34 dairy farms in the Upper Chicamocha region (Boyacá department).The farms are registered in the livestock farmers association of Boyacá (FABEGAN). This study was done with the aim to know about t [...] he infection status of cows and establish which are the principal etiologic agents associated with the disease and its relation with the milking routine. To this aim, applied comparison even tests for the productive variables to relate with the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the microbiological characterization, a blocks design under factorial 2 x 4 array to analyze the existence of significant differences between the mastitis grades, the sample season and its interaction, and blocks design under factorial 2 x 4 array to analyze the existence of significant differences among the mastitis subclinical grades, the sampling season and its interaction. 6616 quarters were submitted to the California Mastitis Test (CMT) in two times and different season. The results did not show any significant differences between the two times of sampling. The positive samples according with CMT (CMT-2 and CMT-3) were submitted to microbiological tests where, in the most of the cases of mastitis, the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus was detected. They are the main etiologic agents in the disease. The results indicate the close relation between the milking routine and mastitis. The deficient practices in the milking process are the cause of dissemination and prevalence of mastitis in farms.
Klaas Ilka C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables. Methods Seven Danish Holstein-Friesian cows were kept in tie-stalls, where the E. coli associated mastitis was induced and laser stimulations were conducted. Measurements of rectal temperature, somatic cell counts, white blood cell counts and E. coli counts were conducted. Furthermore, scores were given for anorexia, local udder inflammation and milk appearance to quantify the local and systemic disease response. In order to quantify the nociceptive threshold, behavioral responses toward cutaneous NLS applied to six skin areas at the tarsus/metatarsus and udder hind quarters were registered at evening milking on day 0 (control and days 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 after experimental induction of mastitis. Results All clinical and paraclinical variables were affected by the induced mastitis. All cows were clinically ill on days 1 and 2. The cows responded behaviorally toward the NLS. For hind leg stimulation, the proportion of cows responding by stepping was higher on day 0 than days 3 and 6, and the frequency of leg movements after laser stimulation tended to decrease on day 1 compared to the other days. After udder stimulation, the proportion of cows responding by stepping was higher on day 1 than on all other days of testing. Significant correlations between the clinical and paraclinical variables of disease and the behavioral responses toward nociceptive stimulation were found. Conclusions Changes in behavioral responses coincide with peaks in local and systemic signs of E. coli mastitis. During the acute stage of E. coli mastitis nociceptive thermal stimulation on hind leg and mammary glands results in decreased behavioral responses toward nociceptive stimulation, which might be interpreted as hypoalgesia.
J.F, Micheloud; V, Neder; F, Nuovo; V.H, Suarez; L, Calvinho.
Full Text Available Las infecciones mamarias son un problema grave para la producción lechera en cabras a nivel mundial. Staphylococcus spp. es el patógeno más prevalente en las infecciones intramamarias de los pequeños rumiantes, sin embargo, es escasa la información acerca de mastitis caprinas en LA Argentina. El obj [...] etivo de esta comunicación es describir un brote de mastitis clínica que afectó a 12 de 24 cabras lecheras. Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococus dysgalactiae fueron aislados en forma pura de las muestras de leche. Todos los aislamientos fueron identificados bioquímicamente y sometidos a prueba de sensibilidad antibiótica. Abstract in english ntramammary infections are a serious problem for goats milk production worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the most prevalent pathogens responsible for intramammary infection in small ruminants; however, there is only little information about goat mastitis in Argentina. The objective of this communi [...] cation was to describe an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 12 of 24 lactating goats. Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates were identified by biochemical tests and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests.
Sahana, G; Lund, M S
A QTL affecting clinical mastitis and/or somatic cell score (SCS) has been reported previously on chromosome 9 from studies in 16 families from the Swedish Red and White (SRB), Finnish Ayrshire (FA) and Danish Red (DR) breeds. In order to refine the QTL location, 67 markers were genotyped over the whole chromosome in the 16 original families and 18 additional half-sib families. This enabled linkage disequilibrium information to be used in the analysis. Data were analysed by an approach that combines information from linkage and linkage disequilibrium, which allowed the QTL affecting clinical mastitis to be mapped to a small interval (BM4208 and INRA084. This QTL showed a pleiotropic effect on SCS in the DR and SRB breeds. Haplotypes associated with variations in mastitis resistance were identified. The haplotypes were predictive in the general population and can be used in marker-assisted selection. Pleiotropic effects of the mastitis QTL were studied for three milk production traits and eight udder conformation traits. This QTL was also associated with yield traits in DR but not in FA or SRB. No QTL were found for udder conformation traits on chromosome 9
Niken Wulandari; Ryo Tanaka; Hiroaki Hayashi; Jiro Hata; Wataru Fujimoto
Ultrasonography has been recognized as an important diagnostic modality in medicine and has entered the area of clinical dermatology. Its non-invasive characteristics have made it easily use and completely safe. It provides important diagnostic information in evaluating skin tumors. It also outlines the subcutaneous lesions and their relation to its adjacent tissue. Another ultrasound technique is color Doppler which is useful to assess vascularization of skin lesion. In this article, we woul...
Alves Pereira, Daniela; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme
Pycnodysostosis is a rare clinical entity, first described in 1962 by Maroteaux and Lamy. It is a genetic disorder, usually diagnosed at an early age. However, the diagnosis is sometimes late, made as a result of bone fracture, given the severe bone fragility resulting from increased bone density. Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of this disease are very clear. The head is usually large, the nose beaked, the mandibular angle obtuse, and both maxilla and mandible hypoplastic. Dental abnor...
Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel
Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study.
The integration of evidence into reflective health care practice has been on the rise in recent years and is a phenomenon that has affected all health care professions, including massage therapy. Clinical case studies are a research design that follows one patient or subject, making the studies ideal for use in clinical practice. They are valuable for communicating information from clinical practice to the broader community. Case studies have face validity that may be more valuable to individual practitioners than homogeneous randomized controlled trials, as the practitioner may recognize a complex patient in the case report. At Humber College, Student Massage Therapists (SMTs) create, conduct, and communicate results of a clinical case study prior to graduation. This article describes the process and experience. PMID:23730397
Hartady, Tyagita; Saad, Mohd Zamri; Bejo, Siti Khairani; Salisi, Mohd Shahrom
Clinical human brucellosis is quite rare in Malaysia although seroconverters are relatively more. This report describes a case of clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia. This case involved a 29-year-old research assistant in a veterinary microbiology laboratory. She complained of intermittent fever, anorexia, profuse sweating, malaise, headache, normotensive (110/60 mm Hg), muscle pain, and arthralgia for 3 d. Blood tests against dengue and malaria were negative thus she was prescribed vitami...
Transition from the dry period to lactation is a high risk period for the modern dairy cow. The biggest challenge at that time is mastitis. Environmental bacteria are the most problematic pathogens around parturition. Coliforms are able to cause severe infections in multiparous cows, and heifers are likely to be infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci. During the periparturient period, hormonal and other factors make the dairy cows more or less immunocompromised. A successful mastitis control programme is focused on the management of dry and calving cows and heifers. Clean and comfortable environment, proper feeding and adequate supplementation of the diet with vitamins and trace elements are essential for maintaining good udder health. Strategies which would enhance closure of the teat canal in the beginning of the dry period and would protect teat end from bacteria until the keratin plug has formed decrease the risk for mastitis after calving. Dry cow therapy has been used with considerable success. Yet, a selective approach could be recommended rather than blanket therapy. Non-antibiotic approaches can be useful tools to prevent new infections during the dry period, in herds where the risk for environmental mastitis is high. Vaccination has been suggested as a means to support the immune defence of the dairy cow around parturition. In some countries, implementation of Escherichia coli core antigen vaccine has reduced the incidence of severe coliform mastitis after calving. PMID:18638132
H. Bodaghi; M. KHAKPOUR; Z. Ostadi; T. Jalili; S. Mosaferi
Mastitis is an inflammation of the parenchyma of mammary gland regardless of the causes. Mastitis is characterized by a range of physical and chemical changes in the glandular tissue. The most important changes in milk include discoloration, the present clots and the present of large number of leucocytes. There is a swelling, heat, pain and edema in mammary gland in many clinical causes. Coagulase positive S. aurousis a major pathogen of the bovine mammary gland and a common cause of contagio...
From 1998 to 2006, the Ministry of Public Health of the Republic of Cuba maintained a balanced collaboration with the Social Security Fund (CCSS) of the Republic of Costa Rica with the objective of providing professional services in radiotherapy. As part of the Cuban mission in the 2003-2005 period was conducted clinic design and implementation of a dynamic rotational technique with electron beams for treatment of a neoplastic lesion from the neuro ectoderm early in the first linear accelerator belonging to the CCSS and installed in Hospital Mexico, San Jose. The objective was to achieve locoregional control of the lesion by treatment Radiant surgical bed in the chest wall. We discuss different options settings for the treatment values arch therapy the best choice taking into account the cylindrical geometry of the treatment area and the superficiality of its location. For the determination of the absolute dose used Khan's recommendations. Treatment planning was done following the methodology suggested by Podgorsak et al. We performed a quality control of patient-specific planning and dosimetry in anthropomorphic dummy radiographic, resulting in isodose distribution of very good uniformity in the area of clinical interest. The electron arch therapy technique proved to be superior to alternative proposals for the treatment of superficial lesions with cylindrical symmetry frankly, with regard to dose homogeneity in the target volume and lower dose in critical organs. (alume and lower dose in critical organs. (author)
Hudson, Christopher D; Bradley, Andrew J; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J
Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) is a simulation-based technique for evaluating the relative importance of different inputs to a complex process model. It is commonly employed in decision analysis and for evaluation of the potential impact of uncertainty in research findings on clinical practice, but has a wide variety of other possible applications. In this example, it was used to evaluate the association between herd-level udder health and reproductive performance in dairy herds. Although several recent studies have found relatively large associations between mastitis and fertility at the level of individual inseminations or lactations, the current study demonstrated that herd-level intramammary infection status is highly unlikely to have a clinically significant impact on the overall reproductive performance of a dairy herd under typical conditions. For example, a large increase in incidence rate of clinical mastitis (from 92 to 131 cases per 100 cows per year) would be expected to increase a herd's modified FERTEX score (a cost-based measure of overall reproductive performance) by just £4.50(1) per cow per year. The herd's background level of submission rate (proportion of eligible cows served every 21 days) and pregnancy risk (proportion of inseminations leading to a pregnancy) correlated strongly with overall reproductive performance and explained a large proportion of the between-herd variation in performance. PSA proved to be a highly useful technique to aid understanding of results from a complex statistical model, and has great potential for a wide variety of applications within the field of veterinary science. PMID:25744810
Acilegna do Nascimento Sales
Full Text Available Objetivos: conhecer as características clínicas e bacteriológicas da mastite, classificação e tratamento. Métodos: as pacientes foram inquiridas sobre dados pessoais, pré-natal, atendimento no parto, no puerpério e quadro clínico. A mastite foi classificada pelos critérios de Vinha. Nos casos que evoluíram para abscesso, foi realizada análise bacteriológica, utilizando-se o meio de cultura caldo de enriquecimento Tryptone Soya Broth. Resultados: das 70 lactantes, 57% eram primíparas, 57% com idade entre 20 e 29 anos e 51% com 1º grau incompleto. A renda era menor que um salário mínimo em 63% dos casos. Exerciam atividade domiciliar sem apoio em 66% dos casos. Em 50%, as mamas não foram examinadas. No pré-natal não tiveram orientação sobre aleitamento e ordenha em respectivamente 50% e 58% dos casos. Em 63% o parto não foi em hospitais Amigos da Criança. Ocorreu ingurgitamento em 46% e fissura mamilar em 47% dos casos. Na classificação citada: 44% eram do tipo lobar, 39% ampolar e 17% glandular. No material de cultura houve crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus em 55%. Conclusões: fatores como baixa escolaridade, baixa renda, atividade familiar sem apoio, primiparidade e falta de orientação são fatores de risco para o aparecimento da mastite.Purpose: to investigate clinical and bacteriological aspects, follow-up and treatment of mastitis in our clinic. Methods: this study was performed at Cleriston Andrade General Hospital. Patients were interviewed regarding personal data, prenatal care, care received during delivery and puerperium and clinical aspects. Their mastitides were classified by Vinha's criteria. The patients with abscesses had them drained for bacteriological study. Culture medium Tryptone Soya Broth was used. Results: seventy nursing mothers were interviewed; 57% of them had given birth for the first time, 57% were between 20 and 29 years old, 51% had not finished elementary school, 63% had income less than the minimum wage, 66% of them had nobody to help with the housework. Out of the seventy females, 50% had not had their breasts examined. Approximately half of them had not been told how to breastfeed (50% or how to express breast milk (58%. Sixty-three percent had not delivered in institutions designated by WHO as "Children's Friends Hospitals". Engorgement occurred in 46% of the cases and nipple fissures in 47%. According to Vinha's criteria, 44% had lobar, 39% ampular and 17% glandular locations. Presence of Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 55% of the cases. Conclusion: factors such as low schooling, low incomes, no assistance in housework, giving birth for the first time and lack of professional help contributed to occurrence of mastitis.
Avaliação da efetividade de um programa de controle de mastite bovina em fazendas produtoras de leite B do estado de São Paulo Evaluation of the effectiveness of a mastitis control program in grad B milk farms of the state of São Paulo
Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi correlacionar a adoção ou não de seis práticas de manejo, higiene e terapia que compõem um Programa de Controle de Mastite com os coeficientes indicadores da prevalência e dinâmica de incidência da doença. O estudo foi desenvolvido em 7 fazendas produtoras de leite B no Estado de São Paulo durante um período de 11 meses (Março/91 a Fevereiro/92 envolvendo 1683 vacas. As medidas de controle analisadas foram as seguintes: 1 Tratamento de vacas secas, 2 Tratamento das mastites clínicas, 3 Bom manejo da ordenha, 4 Bom funcionamento do equipamento de ordenha, 5 Descarte/segregação de vacas com mastite crônica, 6 Bom conforto e higiene na área de permanência dos animais. Para fins de avaliação da prevalência e dinâmica da incidência de mastite foram analisados os coeficientes: % DE VACAS CMT ++/+ + + ,% DE NOVAS INFECÇÕES E % DE INFECÇÕES CRÔNICAS. Os resultados demonstraram que o Programa de Controle de Mastite que envolvia as 6 práticas analisadas, conhecido como Programa dos 6 pontos, mostrou-se bastante efetivo no controle da doença.The present work aimed to establish relationships between management practices, hygiene and therapy, that are components of a Mastitis Control Program with indication coefficients of prevalence and incidence of mastitis. Data were collected from seven grade "B" milk producing dairy farms, during eleven months (March/91 to February/92, comprising 1,683 lactating cows. Management, hygiene therapy practices evaluated, that are included in a Mastitis Control Program were: 1 Intramammary antibiotic treatment of all dry cows, 2 Instant treatment of clinical mastitis cases, 3 Proper milking management, with special emphasis on teat dipping after milking, 4 Good working condition of milking equipment, 5 Culling/segregation of cows with chronic mastitis, 6 Good hygiene conditions and confort for the cows in the management area. The coefficient used for mastitis prevalence and incidence evaluation were % of cows scored CMT ++/+ + + ,% of new infections and % of chronic infections. Results clearly suggest that all mastitis control practices were effective. Hence, those farms that adopted control practices, most of them showed lowest infection prevalence coefficient.
Full Text Available Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM is a rare inflammatory pseudotumor. No therapeutic modality for this disease has been established because of its rarity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment strategies of GLM. Twelve women who met the histological criteria for GLM were retrospectively studied. The clinical data and the presentation, histopathology, and management of the disease were analyzed by reviewing the patients medical records. The diagnosis of GLM was confirmed histologically by core needle biopsy in 9 cases, by vacuum-assisted biopsy in 2 cases, and by excisional biopsy in 1 case. Ten patients received corticosteroid treatment and another two patients were treated with local excision or incision and drainage. The median initial dosage of corticosteroid (Prednisolone was 30 mg/day (range: 1560 mg/day, and the dosages were tapered according to improvement. The median duration of corticosteroid treatment was 5 months (range: 112 months. The median follow-up period was 22 months (range: 6104 months, and no patient treated with corticosteroid demonstrated recurrence. However, patients treated with excision or incision and drainage had recurrences. These results suggest that steroid treatment may be the first choice in treatment strategies for GLM.
Sampimon, O C; Sol, J; Kock, P A
A serious outbreak of mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae is described. Shortly after drying off, three cows died of mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and five other cows became seriously ill but survived. Sawdust contiminated with Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified as the most likely source of these infections. In addition to detection of possible sources of infection, another important aspect of eradication is the detection of quarters infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Rigorous application of these measures led to resolution of the outbreak within a few months. PMID:16430158
Priddy, Kristen D; Crow, Mary Lynn
The Attribute Listing Matrix Case Study (ALMCS) is an active instructional strategy for use in the classroom or clinical laboratory designed to engage the learner at the analysis, synthesis, and evaluation levels of Bloom's cognitive domain. Random numbers are used to generate multiple versions of case studies within a matrix that contains categories of real-world variables. Nursing students, either individually or in small groups, can then use the nursing process to analyze the patient case and design an individualized care plan. The ALMCS can be readily adapted to any level of nursing education and to any clinical specialty. It can be used in the classroom to show students how they will apply theoretical knowledge to real clinical situations, or it can be used for summative assessment by generating a random case for students to respond to in an examination. PMID:21710962
Full Text Available Mastitis is an inflammation of the parenchyma of mammary gland regardless of the causes. Mastitis is characterized by a range of physical and chemical changes in the glandular tissue. The most important changes in milk include discoloration, the present clots and the present of large number of leucocytes. There is a swelling, heat, pain and edema in mammary gland in many clinical causes. Coagulase positive S. aurousis a major pathogen of the bovine mammary gland and a common cause of contagious mastitis in cattle. The aim of this study was the evaluation of outbreaks of Staphylococcus aurous mastitisand its sensitivity to Co-amoxiclavein Tabriz dairy herd. This study is conducted in ten dairy herd of Tabriz on about 1,000 cows. After doing CMT and identifying of infected cows, the milk samples obtained from infected quarters and transport to microbiological laboratories. After microbial culture of milk samples and isolated of S. aurous, antimicrobial sensitivity test with disk diffusion method perform by co-amoxiclav, penicillin, oxytetracyclin, co-trimoxazole, lincomycin and cefquinome. This study defined that the outbreak of subclinical coagolase positive staphylococcus mastitis in Tabriz dairy herd was 4.43% (3.35% S. aureus and 1.08% S. intermedicus. The antimicrobial sensitivity test shown that 41.17% of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Tabriz dairy herd were susceptible to co-amoxiclav, 94.1% to cefquinome, 85.29 to sulfonamides (Co-trimoxazole, 32.35 lincomycin, 14.7% to oxytetracyclin and 5.88% to penicillin. Results of this study defined that Co-amoxiclav has a moderate effect on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis in Tabriz dairy herd. It seems that cefquinome and sulfonamides has a great effect on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis at in vivo.
Shafi M; Khatri M; Mashina M; Ben-Ghazeil M
From 1981 to 1992, 109 cases (90 females and 19 males) of pemphigus were seen in the Department of Dermatology, Central Hospital Tripoli, Libya. Age of onset of the disease varied from 17 to 85 years, while duration of the disease at the time of presentation varied from 3 days to 13 days. On the basis of clinical features and routine histological findings the cases were divided into various subtypes as : pemphigus foliaceus 65 cases, pemphigus vulgaris 34 patients, pemphigus erythematosus 5, ...
Onescu, A; Albu, A; Niculescu, A
The present paper reports on two cases of congenital malformation of the lungs, in young adults, treated surgically. Each case had particular clinical features: left pulmonary aplasia with residual thymus and herniation of the right lung in the left pleural cavity in one case, and left pulmonary hypoplasia with aberrant pulmonary circulation, secondary cystic bronchiectasia, serofibrinous pleurisy. The necessity of an early diagnosis and surgical treatment is emphasized. PMID:188113
Aline Artioli Machado Yamamura
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca spp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2% vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, perman?ncia das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imers?o dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa.This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and milk cans, and herds with somatic cells count over 5x105cel mL-1. The samples collected consisted of: milk, water, soil, manure and swabs of teat cup rubbers. Prototheca spp. was isolated from mammary quarters with clinical and subclinical mastitis of milk samples in one herd and from the environment and cows in four herds. Out of 383 cows examined, Prototheca spp. was isolated in 20 (5.2% cows with mastitis, and 18 of them were characterized as P. zopfii. In four herds when Prototheca spp. was identified from mammary quarters and environment the agent was isolated from the following samples: water in the waterers, puddled water in the stalls and the milking parlour, supply, sewage, cow pen and pasture soil, teat cup rubbers and manure from calves and swines. The risk factors associated with P. zopfii mastitis consisted of: pasture system, pasture and silage feeding, use of milking machine in stalls, cow pen without fresh feed after milking, raising of swines near bovine housing, existence of dogs, cats and rodents, absence of teats hygienization with water, use of pre-immersion devices with return and without change of antiseptic, calves fed with milk of clinical mastitis cases and the Holstein breed.
Aline Artioli Machado, Yamamura; Ernst Eckhardt, Müller; Roberta Lemos, Freire; Júlio César de, Freitas; Lucienne Garcia, Pretto-Giordano; Roberta dos Santos, Toledo; Márcio Garcia, Ribeiro.
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca s [...] pp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2%) vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, permanência das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imersão dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa. Abstract in english This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening [...] of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and milk cans, and herds with somatic cells count over 5x105cel mL-1. The samples collected consisted of: milk, water, soil, manure and swabs of teat cup rubbers. Prototheca spp. was isolated from mammary quarters with clinical and subclinical mastitis of milk samples in one herd and from the environment and cows in four herds. Out of 383 cows examined, Prototheca spp. was isolated in 20 (5.2%) cows with mastitis, and 18 of them were characterized as P. zopfii. In four herds when Prototheca spp. was identified from mammary quarters and environment the agent was isolated from the following samples: water in the waterers, puddled water in the stalls and the milking parlour, supply, sewage, cow pen and pasture soil, teat cup rubbers and manure from calves and swines. The risk factors associated with P. zopfii mastitis consisted of: pasture system, pasture and silage feeding, use of milking machine in stalls, cow pen without fresh feed after milking, raising of swines near bovine housing, existence of dogs, cats and rodents, absence of teats hygienization with water, use of pre-immersion devices with return and without change of antiseptic, calves fed with milk of clinical mastitis cases and the Holstein breed.
The case of a 7-year-old Uruguayan boy with recurrent episodes of fever, oral aphthas lesions and meningoencephalitis with elevated protein levels and lymphocytic pleocytosis is presented. Other diagnoses were excluded. MRI showed in acute stages CNS involvement in iso- or hipointense in T1- weighted images and hyperintense in T2-weighted or fluid- attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in mesodiencephalic junction, cerebellar peduncles, pons, corpus callosum, basal ganglia and internal capsule, and cerebral hemispheres. In the evolution skin lesions appeared, fulfilling the International Study Group Criteria for the Diagnosis of Behcet' Disease. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressant treatment was done.The main difficulty in children is having all the criteria for diagnosis; especially when recurrent genital ulceration and eye lesion rarely appear at this age. (author)
M., Valverde-Gubianas; J.F., Ramos-López; J.A., López-Torres; M., Toribio-García; C., Milla-Peñalver; J., Gálvez Torres-Puchol; S., Medialdea-Marcos.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la etiología y las alteraciones funduscópicas más frecuentes de las neurorretinitis. Métodos: Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 24 años con disminución de la agudeza visual (AV) bilateral, indolora y progresiva cuyo examen funduscópico mostraba un edema de disco óptico bilatera [...] l sin hemorragias ni exudados, edema retiniano en polo posterior y zonas de flebitis. El estudio sistémico fue normal excepto el hemograma (18.000/mm³ leucocitos con 79% de neutrófilos) y la serología positiva frente a Chlamydia. Presentamos también el caso de una mujer de 64 años de edad con disminución de la AV en el ojo derecho de 1 semana evolución. En el fondo de ojo (FO) se aprecia una estrella macular y edema de papila. Resultó estudio sistémico normal y serología positiva a Bartonella henselae. Resultados: La enfermedad por arañazo de gato es la causa más común de neurorretinitis. Los hallazgos habituales consisten en una pérdida de AV, discromatopsia, defecto pupilar aferente y anormalidades en el campo visual. Otros hallazgos frecuentes en el FO son hemorragias en la capa de fibras nerviosas, exudados algodonosos, edema de papila, estrella macular e inflamación vítrea. El papel de la terapia antibiótica es cuestionable. Parece que el ciprofloxacino oral tiene buenos resultados. Abstract in english Objective: Evaluate the etiology and the most frequent funduscopic alterations of the neuroretinitis. Methods: We present the case of a woman 24 years old with a bilateral decrease of visual sharpness (AV), painless and progressive, the funduscopic examination of which reveals a bilateral optical di [...] sc edema, with no hemorrhages or exudates, retina edema of the posterior pole and phlebitic areas. The systematic study was normal except for the hemogram (18,000/mm³ leucocytes with 79% neutrophils) and the positive serology next to a Chlamydia. We also present the case of a 64 years old woman with a decrease of AV at the right eye of one week duration. At the back of the eye a macular star can be seen, and papilla edema. A systematic study gave normal results and positive serology at Bartonella henselae. Results: The illness produced by a cat scratch is the most common cause of neuroretinitis. The customary findings are a loss of AV, discromatopsia, afferent papillary defects and abnormality on the visual field. Other frequent findings at the back of the eye are hemorrhagic nerve fibers, cotton-like exudates, papilla edema, macular star and glassy inflammation. The roll of antibiotic therapy is questionable. Oral ciprofloxacine seems to give good results.
Fairburn, CG; Welch, Sl; Norman, Pa; O Connor, Me; Doll, Ha
OBJECTIVE: Since patients being treated for bulimia nervosa constitute only a minority of persons with the disorder, the cases seen in clinics may be subject to sampling bias. The aim of this study was to investigate sampling bias as it affects secondary referrals for bulimia nervosa. METHOD: The personal and family characteristics of a consecutive series of 60 women with secondary referrals for bulimia nervosa (clinic subjects) were compare with those of 83 subjects with bulimia who were rec...
Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay
Background Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Results Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.58 ?g/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (2135-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Conclusion Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows. PMID:25653501
Full Text Available Las cuantiosas pérdidas económicas por mastitis en los rebaños lecheros, especialmente de carácter subclínica, por menor producción y menor calidad higiénica y nutricional de la leche, justifican plenamente el control de la enfermedad. Durante el proceso de la ordeña existe un alto riesgo de infección intramamaria y de transmisión de los agentes causantes de mastitis, especialmente, de los patógenos contagiosos. En consecuencia, para reducir los riesgos de infección es necesario realizar una buena rutina de ordeño extremando las medidas de higiene y evitando al máximo los factores predisponentes por el inadecuado uso de la máquina de ordeño. Una adecuada rutina de ordeño involucra una serie de procedimientos que deben realizarse cuidadosamente en cada período de ordeño en forma correcta y consistente que se pueden resumir en los siguientes aspectos: proporcionar un ambiente limpio y tranquilo a las vacas evitando el estrés; extraer y examinar los primeros chorros de leche para detectar mastitis clínica y estimular la bajada de la leche; lavar y secar completamente los pezones con toallas individuales desechables para reducir la transmisión de los patógenos mamarios y minimizar la contaminación de la leche; colocar las pezoneras dentro de 1 minuto de iniciada la estimulación para lograr una ordeña completa; observar y ajustar cuando sea necesario las unidades de ordeño para evitar la entrada de aire al sistema; cortar el vacío antes de retirar las pezoneras; y desinfectar los pezones al término de la ordeña con una solución desinfectante segura y eficaz. Opcionalmente, en determinados rebaños se puede agregar a esta rutina la desinfección de los pezones antes de la ordeña (pre"dipping" y la desinfección de las pezoneras al pasar de una vaca a otra durante la ordeñaEconomic losses due to mastitis in dairy herds, in particularsubclinical mastitis, because of less milk yield and poor milk quality,make its control a goal to be achieved in every dairy herd. The risk of intramammary infection and transmission of mastitis pathogens,mainly contagious organisms, is higher during milking. Consequently, agood milking routine and udder preparation greatly reduces the risk ofinfection, being specially important the hygiene and the milking machineinducing factors. A good milking routine involves a number of procedures which must be properly and carefully practised at every single milking. These procedures can be summarised as follows: provide cows with a clean environment, free of stress; check foremilk using a strip-cup to detect clinical mastitis and stimulate milk let-down; wash and thoroughly dry the surface of the teats with an individual disposable paper towel to reduce the spread of mastitis pathogens and to avoid milk contamination during milking; attach the teat cups within 1 minute after initiating udder preparation to get the maximum effect of oxytocin; check and adjust the milking units, as needed, to avoid air admission and prevent liner slip; shut off the vacuum before detaching the milking units to prevent impact; disinfect teats after milking with a safe and effective teat dip to destroy mastitis pathogens remaining on the teat. In some herds, other optional measures can be added to this routine, mainly teat disinfection before milking (predipping and disinfection of clusters between cows during milking
Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee
The dairy industry is a multi-billion dollar industry catering the nutritional needs of all age groups globally through the supply of milk. Clinical mastitis has a severe impact on udder tissue and is also an animal welfare issue. Moreover, it significantly reduces animal value and milk production. Mammary tissue damage reduces the number and activity of epithelial cells and consequently contributes to decreased milk production. The high incidence, low cure rate of this highly economic and so...
MASATO NAGINO; HIROKO SATAKE; SHIGEO NAKAMURA; SATOKO ISHIGAKI; YOSHIE SHIMOYAMA; MASAMICHI KATO; SUMIYO NODA; NOBUYUKI TSUNODA; KAZUHISA AKAHANE
Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a rare inflammatory pseudotumor. No therapeutic modality for this disease has been established because of its rarity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment strategies of GLM. Twelve women who met the histological criteria for GLM were retrospectively studied. The clinical data and the presentation, histopathology, and management of the disease were analyzed by reviewing the patients medical records. The diagnosis of GLM was confirmed...
Full Text Available An uncommon outbreak of mastitis caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 26 cows is reported. The epidemiological findings, clinical signs, microbiological exams, somatic cell count, in vitro susceptibility profile of strains, efficacy of intramammary treatment and control measures were discussed. Florfenicol (96.2%, cefoperazona (92.3%, cefaloxin (84.6% and ceftiofur (84.6% were the most effective antimicrobials, and neomicin (27.0% and enrofloxacin (17.4% the least effective antimicrobials.
Beytullah Kenar, Yahya Kuyucuog?lu And Esra S?eker
A total of 572 California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive milk samples were collected from 423 lactating cows on 18 private farms in the Middle Western Anatolia. Coagulasenegative staphylococci colonies and CNS species identification was performed based on conventional biochemical techniques and using the API Staph test. Slime production was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA) method. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standar...
Moore, Michael M.; Brian, James M.; Methratta, Sosamma T.; Hulse, Michael A.; Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Eggli, Kathleen D.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States)
As utilization of MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis becomes more common, there will be increased focus on case interpretation. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to share our institution's case interpretation experience. MRI findings of appendicitis include appendicoliths, tip appendicitis, intraluminal fluid-debris level, pitfalls of size measurements, and complications including abscesses. The normal appendix and inguinal appendix are also discussed. (orig.)
Albano Lilian M. J.; Sugayama Sofia S. M. M.; Bertola Débora R.; Andrade Carlos E. F.; Utagawa Cláudia Y.; Puppi Flávia; Nader Helena B.; Toma Leny; Coelho Janice; Leistner Sandra; Burin Maira; Giugliani Roberto; Kim, Chong A.
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a heterogeneous group of inborn errors of lysosomal glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism. The importance of this group of disorders among the inborn errors of metabolism led us to report 19 cases. METHOD: We performed clinical, radiological, and biochemical evaluations of the suspected patients, which allowed us to establish a definite diagnosis in 19 cases. RESULTS: Not all patients showed increased GAG levels in urine; enzyme assays should be performed in a...
In the radiological clinic of the Goettingen university, 23 945 patients were mammographed from 1971 to 1977. For 612 patients with existing clinical findings, a negative radiological finding was established; as for the 202 patients who are dealt with in this paper, in 192 of these cases a histological or cytological clarification was carried out; 10 other cases were observed over a longer period. The average age of the patients examined was 39.7 years. The maximum frequency with regard to the age lies in the 5th life decade with 26.2%. Corresponding to the Goettingen model, the patients examined were assigned to 4 main groups in accordance to their parenchymal structure. In relation to the mamma structure, the clinical finding in 53.9% is hardening and in 46.1% nodes. As for the nodes, most have the size of cherry or plum (21.3%), this is followed by those with the size of beans (13,8%) and lenses (10.9%). A coherence between age and size of the clinical finding cannot be manifested definitely. In nearly half of the cases, the histological or cytological examination revealed a masthopathy (48.9%). In 10.4% a fibroadenoma was found and in 2.1% a carcinoma. In the remaining 32,8% the finding referred to lipomas, mastitis, atypical cells or negative cytological results. Related to the age, mastopathy is dominant in women between 20 and 60 years of age. In women below 20 years, fibroadenomas are dominant, in women in their 7th decade other benign diagnoses which in the 8cade other benign diagnoses which in the 8th decade are of the same frequency as carcinomas. With increasing age, the number of fibroadenomas decreases. (orig./MG)
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of hemochromatosis(HC,and provide references for HC diagnosis and treatment.Methods Liver specimens were obtained via needle biopsy from 20 cases of HC.Histological specimens were stained with haematoxylin eosin.Pathological changes of liver tissues were analyzed together with the clinical data.Results Ten cases of hereditary hemochromatosis(HHC and 10 cases of secondary hemochromatosis(SHC were randomly selected.Fatigue(18/20,hepatomegalia(18/20 and splenomegalia(17/20were the common clinical manifestations.The 20 HC cases characterized by iron overload and fibrosis may be divided into HHC type(17 cases and non-HHC type(3 cases according to the region of iron deposition.All the 10 cases of HHC showed HHC type,while 7 of the 10 SHC cases showed HHC type,and the other 3 SHC cases showed non-HHC type.Steatosis,eosinophile granulocyte infiltration and vacuolus nucleus were also observed frequently in the liver tissues of HC,and their distribution coincided with the region of iron deposition.Statistically,fibrosis was significantly associated with iron deposition and serum iron in HHC patients(P < 0.05,but not associated with steatosis and duration of HHC.Additionally,fibrosis was not associated with iron deposition,serum iron,steatosis and duration of SHC in SHC patients.Conclusions The final diagnosis of HC depends mainly on histological changes in liver tissues.Meanwhile,it is necessary to distinguish HHC from SHC according to case history and biochemical detection.HHC might be a metabolic disease with multi-organ damage due to the disruption of homeostasis by iron overload.To avoid multi-organ failure,patients with HHC should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.
Zachhuber, C; Leblhuber, F; Bancher, C; Jellinger, K; Drlicek, M
Frontal lobe dementia (FLD) is characterised clinically by personality changes and a progressive speech disorder finally leading to mutism. In the course of the disease also other neurological syndromes may occur such as parkinsonism, a partial Klüver-Bucy-syndrome or a degeneration of motoneurons (FLD + MND). The latter leads to death within about three years. The clinical diagnosis of FLD is supported by functional (SPECT) and morphological (CT, MRI) investigations. From 1988 to 1997, 9 cases of FLD (6 female, 3 male) were clinically diagnosed at our department of Gerontology, LNK Linz. In two of these cases the clinical diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. Characteristically, all except one patients showed a presenile beginning of the disease. The clinical course was slowly progressive with a mean duration of about 10 years. Special attention was given to additional signs and symptoms of motor neuron disease, parkinsonism and hyperorality. Six patients suffered from FLD + MND; parkinsonism (rigid-akinetic type) and a partial Klüver-Bucy-syndrome were diagnosed in 5 cases each. In histopathological investigations the incidence of FLD seems to increase. This type of dementia should be considered as an important diagnosis differential of presenile dementia-syndromes. PMID:10093779
Full Text Available Background and design: DRESS (Drug Rash with Eoshinophilia and Systemic Symptoms syndrome is a severe reaction induced by drugs and accompanied by cutaneous, hematologic and solid organ involvement. Since the syndrome requires specific treatments and has high mortality rates, early diagnosis is very important. In our country, any descriptive study has not been reported about patients with DRESS syndrome except for a few case presentations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with DRESS syndrome diagnosed and treated in our inpatient clinic. Material and method: The records of patients diagnosed as DRESS syndrome or drug eruption were retrospectively analyzed. Scoring system created by a RegiSCAR group was used. Patients with certain, probable and possible DRESS syndrome were identified. Clinical features, laboratory findings and etiological factors were noted. Results: Seven males and 4 females with DRESS syndrome were enrolled. Nine patients were identified as definite case and two were probable DRESS syndrome. Aromatic anticonvulsants were the only responsible drugs (phenytoin in 5, carbamezepine in 3, lamotrigine in 3 patients. All patients had cutaneous manifestations and hematological abnormalities. Fever, liver function impairment, lymphadenopathy, renal disease and pneumonia were the clinical findings in order of frequency. Cessation of responsible drugs and treatment with systemic corticosteroids achieved full remission in all patients. Conclusion: DRESS syndrome may present with various clinical manifestations. Because signs and symptoms form the basis for recognition of the disease, good knowledge of clinical features is important in early diagnosing of DRESS syndrome and reduction of mortality and morbidity.
Gamil S. G. Zeedan
Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis is the most economically important disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide from an economic, diagnostic and public-health point of view. The present study aimed to isolate and identify of bacteria causes mastitis in dairy cows and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of some selected medicinal plants extracts comparing antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 203 milk samples of dairy cows were collected during the period from February to June 2013 at different Governorates in Egypt. The use clinical inspection and California mastitis test examination were provided efficient diagnostic tool for detection of clinical, subclinical mastitis and apparently normal health cattle. The collected milk samples were cultured on Nutrient, Blood agar, Mannitol salt, Edwards and MacConkey agar plates supporting the growth of various types of bacteria for their biochemical studies and isolation. The antimicrobial activity of plants extracts (Jasonia montana and Artemisia herb albawith different solvent (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetonewere studied in vitro against isolated bacteria from mastitis by paper desk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC. Results: The prevalence of clinical, subclinical mastitis and normal healthy animals were 34.50%, 24.7% and 40.8% respectively. The major pathogens isolated from collected milk samples were Escherichia coli (22.16%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.19%, Streptococcus spp. (13.3%, Streptococcus agalactiae (12.8%, Streptococcus dysgalactia (0.5%, Pasteurella spp. (2.45%, Klebsiella spp. (1.47%and Pseudomonas spp. (0.45%. The highest antibacterial activity of J. montana plant extracted with acetone solvent against S. agalactiae, E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococci with zone of inhibition values ± standard deviation (SD, ranging from 4.33±0.57 to 25.6±0.60 mm. The MIC values for the extracts ranged from 0.01 to 1.56 mg/ml. when comparing antibacterial activity of A. herb alba plant extracted with acetone solvent on the same bacteria with zone of inhibition values ± SD, ranging from 00±00 to 5.6±0.60 mm. Both extracts from J. montana and A. herb alba plant extracts with petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform solvent were less antibacterial activities than acetone solvent extract. Conclusion: The present study spot highlight on isolation and identification of mastitis pathogens that are fundamental aspects of milk quality, udder health control programs and public health and food safety issues associated with food borne pathogens. J. montana and A. herb alba plants have antibacterial effects more than antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis. Finally, the medicinal plant extracts can be used to discover bioactive natural product in the form of antibacterial that may be serve the development of new pharmaceutical products. But still need further research necessary to identify active compounds and research to mechanism and drug interaction.
This work is about the two clinical cases about the unknown primitive metastatic cancer. The main techniques used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of different s carcinomas are: Electronic microscope, molecular biology and genetics, especially histopathological study, topographic survey, ultrasound, radiography, chemotherapy, radiotherapy
Balqees A. Ali
Full Text Available California mastitis tests (CMT and white side test (WST were used to determine the occurrence rate of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok province of Iraq. The rate of subclinical mastitis was 40.5% and 37.5% by CMT and WST respectively. The Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolate with 72.38% followed by Klebsiella spp. (29.79% and Escherichia coli (27.65%. This is the first report on subclinical mastitis report in Duhok area of Iraq.
Eating epilepsy is an uncommon form of reflex epilepsy. The authors present a case report of a patient with clinical diagnosis of eating epilepsy who was submitted to clinical tests, neuroimaging studies (MRI and SPECT) and surface EEG. Multiple intercritical EEGs showed sharp discharges in the posterior left temporal area. The MRI did not show any abnormality. The intercritical brain SPECT showed clear hypoperfusion in the posterior left temporal area; so confirming the epileptogenic focus in producing the partial complex seizures triggered by eating. (author)
FERRARI Maria de Lourdes de Abreu
Full Text Available Whipple's disease (WD is a rare systemic disease of infectious etiology which involves the small intestine but can virtually affect any organ. We present here five cases (four males and one female ranging in age from 20 to 59 years. All patients had intestinal involvement associated or not with clinical manifestations linked to this organ. Vegetation in the tricuspid valve was observed in one patient, suggesting endocarditis caused by Tropheryma whippelii, with disappearance of the echocardiographic alterations after treatment. In one of the male patients the initial clinical manifestation was serologically negative spondylitis, with no diarrhea occurring at any time during follow-up. Ocular involvement associated with intestinal malabsorption and significant weight loss were observed in one case. In the other two cases, diarrhea was the major clinical manifestation. All patients were diagnosed by histological examination of the jejunal mucosa and, when indicated, of extraintestinal tissues by light and electron microscopy. After antibiotic treatment, full remission of symptoms occurred in all cases. A control examination of the intestinal mucosa performed after twelve months of treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim revealed the disappearance of T. whippelii in four patients. The remaining patient was lost to follow-up.
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and operative treatment of pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumor (PIP). Method: The clinical data of 23 cases PIP were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of all the cases, 10(43.4%) were correctly diagnosed as PIP, while 13 were misdiagnosed, among them 11(47.8%) as lung cancer, 1 as tuberculoma and 1 mediastinal tumour. Operative resections were carried out in all cases with 14 lobectomies, 1 segmental resection, 6 wedge-shaped resections and 2 enucleation of pseudo-tumors. All cases were recovered smoothly and discharged in good condition. Conclusion: It is difficult to differentiate PIP from lung cancer in respect of clinical symptoms and imaging manifestations. Fiberoptic bronchoscope examination and trans-skin puncture biopsy of lung lesion under X-CT guiding are important preoperative diagnostic measures. The proper kind of lung resection should be determined by preoperative or operative pathological biopsy diagnosis of lung lesion and excessive resection of normal lung tissues should be avoided
Paviour, Sue; Musaad, Sahar; Roberts, Sally; Taylor, Graeme; Taylor, Susan; Shore, Keith; Lang, Selwyn; Holland, David
Corynebacteria were isolated from breast tissue, pus, or deep wound swabs of 24 women; the most common species isolated was the newly described Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, followed by Corynebacterium amycolatum and Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum. Gram-positive bacilli were seen in samples sent for culture or in histological specimens for 12 women, and 9 of the 12 women from whom adequate histological specimens were obtained had conditions that met the criteria for granulomatous lobular mastitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. PMID:12439810
Fatih Altintoprak; Engin Karakece; Taner Kivilcim; Enis Dikicier; Guner Cakmak; Fehmi Celebi; Ciftci, Ihsan Hakk X.
Purpose. This study aimed to investigate the autoimmune basis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) by determining the anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) levels of patients diagnosed with IGM. Material and Methods. Twenty-six IGM patients were evaluated. Serum samples were analyzed for autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using a substrate kit that induced fluorescein-conjugated goat antibodies to human immunoglobulin G (IgG). IIF patterns we...
G. Calaresu; Leori, G.; N. Rubattu; L. Secchi; G. Marogna; Testa, C
Meat coming from suckling lambs (max 12 Kg BW) is a typical Sardinian taste dish, normally consumed during the religious linked feasts. The aim of this work is to evaluate drug residues in suckling lambs meat as consequence of antibiotics mastitis therapy in their mothers during lactation. The study was performed on twelve Sardinian ewes, that had lambed within two days of one another, with suckling lambs from a single flok of 150 animals. Milk bacteriological screening showed tha...
Full Text Available ResumenPara nada la foto que se muestra se corresponde con una Mastitis felina, sino con una muy típica mastopatía, aunque no frecuente cuya denominación más común es Hiperplasia mamaria fibroadenomatosa o fibroepitelial, hipertrofia mamaria, hipertrofia mamaria fibroglandular (no adecuado ya que el común denominador es el estado súper proliferativo y no hipertrófico. Esa hiperplasia está dada por tejido mamario especialmente ductal con el agregado masivo de fibroblastos.
Pereira De Godoy, J M; De Moura Álvares, R; Simon Torati, J L; De Fátima Guerreiro Godoy, M
The aim of the current study was to alert about dermatological alterations in the clinical evolution of lipo-lymphedema. The case of a 48-year-old patient is reported with clinical diagnosis of stage II lipo-lymphedema treated in the Angiology and Vascular Surgery Service of FAMERP. On physical examination the edema was hard, not reversible during rest, with nodules in the lower one-third of the limbs and a positive Stemmer's sign. The sizes of the nodules were different between legs. This report stresses the clinical findings and the differences in each disease. Additionally a review of publications is presented. The dermatological changes occurring in the evolution of lipedema may be associated with the evolution of lipo-lymphedema. PMID:20823797
JØrgensen, Mette Warming; Niemann, I.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between the genetic constitution and the phenotype in triploid pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred fifty-eight triploid pregnancies were identified in hospitals in Western Denmark from April 1986 to April 2010. Clinical data and karyotypes were collected retrospectively, and archived samples were retrieved. The parental origin of the genome, either double paternal contribution (PPM) or double maternal contribution (MMP) was determined by an analysis of methylation levels at imprinted sites. RESULTS: There were significantly more PPM than MMP cases (P <.01). In MMP cases, the possible karyotypes had similar frequencies, whereas, in PPM cases, 43% had the karyotype 69, XXX, 51% had the karyotype 69, XXY, and 6% had the karyotype 69, XYY. Molar phenotype was seen only in PPM cases. However, PPM cases with a nonmolar phenotype were also seen. For both parental genotypes, various fetal phenotypes were seen at autopsy. Levels of human chorionic gonadotropin in maternal serum were low in MMP cases and varying in PPM cases, some being as low as in the MMP cases. CONCLUSION: In a triploid pregnancy, suspicion of hydatidiform mole at ultrasound scanning, by macroscopic inspection of the evacuated tissue, at histology, or because of a high human chorionic gonadotropin in maternal serum level each predict the parental type PPM with a very high specificity. In contrast, the sensitivity of these observations was <100%.
Joergensen, Mette W; Niemann, Isa
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between the genetic constitution and the phenotype in triploid pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: 158 triploid pregnancies identified in hospitals in Western Denmark from April 1986 to April 2010. Clinical data and karyotypes were collected retrospectively and archived samples were retrieved. The parental origin of the genome, either double paternal contribution (PPM) or double maternal contribution (MMP) was determined by analyzing methylation levels at imprinted sites. RESULTS: There were significantly more PPM than MMP cases (p<0.01). In MMP cases the possible karyotypes had similar frequencies, whereas in PPM cases 43% had the karyotype 69,XXX, 51% the karyotype 69,XXY, and 6% the karyotype 69,XYY. Molar phenotype was only seen in PPM cases. However, PPM cases with a non-molar phenotype were also seen. For both parental genotypes, various fetal phenotypes were seen at autopsy. Levels of human chorionic gonadotropin in maternal serum (MS-hCG) were low in MMP cases and varying in PPM cases, some being as low as in the MMP cases. CONCLUSIONS: In a triploid pregnancy, suspicion of hydatidiform mole at US, by macroscopic inspection of the evacuated tissue, at histology, or due to a high MS-hCG level each predict the parental type PPM with a very high specificity. In contrast the sensitivity of these observations is less than 100%.
Full Text Available From 1981 to 1992, 109 cases (90 females and 19 males of pemphigus were seen in the Department of Dermatology, Central Hospital Tripoli, Libya. Age of onset of the disease varied from 17 to 85 years, while duration of the disease at the time of presentation varied from 3 days to 13 days. On the basis of clinical features and routine histological findings the cases were divided into various subtypes as : pemphigus foliaceus 65 cases, pemphigus vulgaris 34 patients, pemphigus erythematosus 5, herpetiform pemphigus 3 and vegetans type 2 cases. Three of our patients had diabetes mellitus preceding pemphigus, while 12 patients developed steroid induced diabetes. Significant secondary bacterial infection occurred in all cases at some stage of the disease while oral candidiasis occurred in 15 cases. Eczema herpeticum was seen in 4 patients, while 2 had extensive tinea corporis. One of 4 patients of pemphigus vulgaris had complete shedding of nail and 1 female patient had alternate phases of pemphigus foliaceus and generalized pustular psoriasis. The features in our cases of pemphigus foliaceus were somewhat similar to Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus and we had more cases of pemphigus foliaceus, almost exclusively affecting females.
We experienced 46 cases of radiation cystitis between 1973 and 1990, 10 of which showed intractable bleeding and 17 recurrent bleeding. We clinically analyzed these cases to determine the factors responsible for intractable and recurrent bleeding. Intractable bleeding was suggested to be related to the aggravation of the local condition of the urinary tract and recurrent bleeding with an increase of complications, especially diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In conclusion, long-term follow up of local conditions and complications is important in the prevention of intractable and recurrent bleeding of radiation cystitis. (author)
Guglielmi, A; Boni, M; Pelosi, G; De Manzoni, G; Frameglia, M; Girlanda, R
Castelman disease (CD) is a rare lymphadenopathy that usually presents as a solitary, slow growing mass; its etiology is still unknown. The authors described a case of CD localized in the retro-pancreatic space. A 33-year old patient, female, underwent abdominal ultrasonography because of upper right abdominal pain. The ultrasound showed gallbladder stones and a mass of 4 cm in diameter behind the pancreatic head, modifying the shape of the inferior vena cava. The patient underwent surgical excision and histological examination showed a hyaline type of CD. In the 70% of the cases, the disease is located in the mediastinum, only in 14% of the cases in the retroperitoneal space. The case we report is a hyaline type of CD that is the most frequent histological type, constitutes 90% of the cases, occurs usually in the young population and after surgical excision has a very good prognosis. Different is the clinical behaviour of the plasma cell type of CD that has an aggressive and often fatal clinical outcome. The patient we treated is still free of any symptoms one year after the operation. PMID:9005777
Ksouri, Samir; Djebir, Somia; Hadef, Youcef; Benakhla, Ahmed
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of mycotic mastitis in different mammary gland statuses. The study was conducted on 304 dairy cows from ten farms in two north-eastern regions in Algeria; Guelma and Souk Ahras with 922 and 199 samples, respectively, forming thus a total number of 1,121 milk samples. A total of 321 milk samples were collected from clinical mastitis, 544 milk samples from subclinical mastitis and 256 milk samples from healthy mammary glands. Mycological analyses revealed that 10.17% of the treated samples were positive recording 114 species of fungi including 88 yeasts and 26 moulds. The most frequent species was Candida kefyr followed by C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. colliculosa, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. inconspicua, Trichosporon sp., Rhodotorula glutinis and Saccharomyces fragilis. Mould species have also been isolated from samples of both healthy milk and clinical mastitis milk. Aspergillus amstelodami (from glaucus group), A. fumigatus and Geotrichum candidum were identified, while the other species including Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. were not identified. PMID:25481847
Guerrero-Sánchez, Verónica; Hernández-Hernández, Jorge Luis; García-Montero, Adriana
Nutcracker syndrome is a rare cause of hematuria due to compression of renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. This phenomenon results in renal venous hypertension and unilateral hematuria. We report a typical case of nutcracker syndrome in a male 18 year old with a characteristic clinical picture. The diagnosis was finally established by constrated computed tomography studies. We review the literature that explains this pathology. PMID:23282270
Anca Chiriac; Liliana Foia; Tudor Pinteala; Chiriac, Anca E.
We present a case of acne inversa Hurley clinical stage II, to a 28 year-old patient non-obese, smoker, with a long history of firm nodules, large abscesses and sinous tracts, small scars, distributed in the axillary, groin, perianal and infraumbilical areas, associated with lesions on the face. Any therapeutic schemas ( antibiotics, Isotretinoin orally, Dapsone, UVB,cryotherapy) was unsuccesfully and we sent the patient to Surgery Department for wide excisions.
Full Text Available We present a case of acne inversa Hurley clinical stage II, to a 28 year-old patient non-obese, smoker, with a long history of firm nodules, large abscesses and sinous tracts, small scars, distributed in the axillary, groin, perianal and infraumbilical areas, associated with lesions on the face. Any therapeutic schemas ( antibiotics, Isotretinoin orally, Dapsone, UVB,cryotherapy was unsuccesfully and we sent the patient to Surgery Department for wide excisions.
The Sneddon's syndrome affects preponderant the female sex, until or during the middle age (40-50 years), with first cerebrovascular events up to 45 years. 'Livedo racemosa' may precede the onset of the ischemic stroke. The presented clinical case emphasized the importance of early approach of skin manifestations within the Sneddon's Syndrome and avoiding the combination of risk factors such as contraceptives and hypertension. (authors)
MÉTODOS DE ESTIMACIÓN DEL NIVEL DE MASTITIS EN VACAS LECHERAS A PARTIR DE LA DETERMINACIÓN DEL TEST DE CALIFORNIA PARA MASTITIS (CMT) DE SUS CUARTOS INDIVIDUALES / Estimation methods for mastitis level in dairy cows using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) in each quarter
Alberto, Mansilla M.; Carlos, Pedraza G.; Paola, Fajardo R.; Hernán, Aguero E..
Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estimar el nivel de mastitis subclínica de vacas lecheras, definido en términos del recuento de células somáticas de la leche (RCS), a partir de la determinación del Test de California para Mastitis (CMT) a través de correlación y regresión, y un modelo logit. Se util [...] izó la información existente en la base de datos generada por cinco rebaños lecheros de la zona central del país, con una masa de 1200 vacas principalmente de raza Holstein Friesian Americana. La información se sistematizó calculando la suma de los CMT de los cuartos (SCMT), transformando RCS en rangos celulares RC, y agregando, además, el CMT del recipiente graduado de ordeña (CMTM). Se calcularon correlaciones lineales entre estas variables, regresiones de CMTM y RC y el modelo logit que expresa la relación en términos probabilísticos: p = 1 / (1 + EXP(b SCMT - c k)). Las correlaciones fueron significativas al 1%, con valores situados entre 0,37 y 0,78. Las regresiones lineales estimadas fueron RC = 0,74 SCMT en los dos tipos de animales. La función logit dio estimaciones del parámetro b de 0,335 y R² = 0,83 para vaquillas y de b = 0,30 y R² = 0,63 para vacas. El modelo logit se muestra como un instrumento muy certero para la estimación del RCS en casos extremos, que no exista mastitis o que la mastitis esté muy cerca de un nivel abiertamente clínico Abstract in english The objective of this study was to estimate the sub-clinical incidence of mastitis on dairy cows, defined as the count of somatic cells in milk (RCS) based on the California Mastitis Test (CMT) using correlation, linear regression and logit models. A database of five dairy herds from central Chile c [...] omposed of 1200 mainly Holstein Friesian dairy cows was used. Information was systematized for each cow calculating the sum of CMT for individual quarters (SCMT), and transforming RCS in cellular ranges (RC), adding the average CMT value of the graduated milking recipient (CMTM). Linear correlations were calculated among these variables, linear regression CMTM and RC and the logit model that indicates the relationship in probabilistic terms: p j = 1 / (1 + EXP(b SCMT - c k)). Correlations were significant (P
Full Text Available Purpose: If measurements of the increased total count of somatic cells in the individual udder quarter or in the whole udder could be determined with electric conductivity by means of the microprocessor-controlled device Mastitron LF 3000 enough precisely to predict the presence of subclinical mastitis.Design/methodology/approach: The occurrence of increased count of somatic cells in milk was found out group by group by the method of measuring the electric conductivity of milk. For the milk conductivity the average measurement from all four udder quarters was taken into account. The population of 102 lactating cows (Black and white, Simmental and Brown Swiss breed on seven farms fore three summer months was observed.Findings: It was established that higher average electric conductivity than 6.5 mS/cm confirmed in 80% also the increased count of somatic cells in milk. When evaluating the differences between the quarters exceeding 1 mS/cm also a higher total count of somatic cells was confirmed in 73.7%. Moreover, statistically significant relation (P<0.01 between the CMT test and the ECM was found out so it can be claimed that the two methods do not exclude themselves mutually.Research limitations/implications: It was found that the reliability of the ECM in our case was 80% depending to a large extent on the milk composition which changed depending on the stage of lactation, type of feed and general health condition of animals. For a more reliable, accurate and faster implementation of the ECM method further researches will be necessary.Practical implications: Though the ECM method of determination of the subclinical mastitis of the milch-cows is well established in the world, it is not yet known well enough in the Slovene practice as a method of diagnosing the subclinical mastitis.Originality/value: It was found that the results of our research in production circumstances were comparable with the indications of the maker and foreign researchers.
Haigh, R; Scott-Coombes, D; Seckl, J R
A 30 year old female with previous Crohn's disease presented with recurrent cutaneous vasculitis and polyarthritis. She subsequently developed recurrent transient bilateral mastitis with auricular and laryngotracheal chondritis typical of relapsing polychondritis. Acute mastitis is a previously unrecognized association of this disorder. PMID:3451226
Haigh, R.; Scott-coombes, D.; Seckl, J. R.
A 30 year old female with previous Crohn's disease presented with recurrent cutaneous vasculitis and polyarthritis. She subsequently developed recurrent transient bilateral mastitis with auricular and laryngotracheal chondritis typical of relapsing polychondritis. Acute mastitis is a previously unrecognized association of this disorder.
Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.
Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the etiology, therapeutic effects,risk of relapse and prognosis of acute anterior uveitis.MEHTODS: Medical history of 215 patients with acute anterior uveitis who underwent treatment in Department of Ophthalmology, People's Hospital of Fenghua was collected, together with results of clinical examinations and auxiliary examinations. The data were studied in terms of therapeutic effects, etiological factors, prognosis and relapse rate. RESULTS: In 85 cases(39.5%, the cause was identified, and among the among the most frequent causes were traumatic or surgical injury, viral infection and glaucomatocyclitic crisis. After treatment, the best corrected visual acuity was no less than 1.0 in 153 cases(71.2%, between 0.5 and 1.0 in 55 cases(25.6%, between 0.3 and 0.5 in 4 cases(1.9%, between 0.05 and 0.3 in 2 cases(0.9%, and less than 0.05 in 1 case(0.5%. During the follow-up of more than 6 months, relapse occurred in 4 cases(1.9%during 4-6 months, in 7 cases(3.2%during 7-12 months, in 10 cases(4.7%during 13-24 months, and in 3 cases(1.4%during 25-60 months. CONCLUSION: The etiology of acute anterior uveitis is complicated and mostly idiopathic. Vision prognosis is good after treatment, but therelapse rate is high and can cause visual impairment, so better understanding should be gained of its relapse and its prevention and early treatment should be emphasized.
Femoral hernia is a surgical disease that is frequently associated with incarceration and necessitates emergency surgery. However, there are only a few studies referred which have compared emergency and elective surgery for femoral hernias. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed as having femoral hernia between 2005 and 2009 in our institution. The clinical features of emergency repairs were compared with those of elective ones, and diagnostic values of preoperative diagnostic modalities were studied. The mean age of the patients was 73±12 years. Females comprised 68% of the cases, and right femoral hernias comprised 70% of the cases. Incarceration was associated with 66% of the cases (29 patients), and emergency surgery was performed in 52% of the patients (23 patients). Bowel resection was performed in 32% of the cases (14 patients). The mean age, body temperature, white blood cell (WBC) count, and LDH value were higher in the emergency repairs than in the elective one, and most of the hernias were repaired with McVay's procedure. CT scans had a high diagnostic value in detecting femoral hernias (44%) and incarceration (88%). It was confirmed that femoral hernias were frequently associated with incarceration and CT scan has a high diagnostic value in femoral hernias. (author)
Full Text Available Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE a life-threatening condition that can lead to death at any age. PTE is not an independent disease, but it is a complication of venous thromboembolism. Conflicting opinions about the possibility of using tissue plasminogen activator (tenekteplase expressed in the literature. Clinical case of the tenekteplase use in 42 years old woman with acute massive PTE and its results are described. PTE in the case was observed simultaneously with diabetic ketoacidosis. Full resolution of this thrombus according to computer pulmonary angiography was observed in patient hospitalized within 24 hours after symptom onset. This is one of the first cases of effective application of the tenekteplase in patients with massive PTE and diabetic ketoacidosis.
Fabiana Alves, Demeu; Marcos Aurélio, Lopes; Geraldo Márcio da, Costa; Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da, Rocha; Glauber dos, Santos; Agnelo, Franco Neto.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa, analisar e quantificar a influência do descarte involuntário de matrizes no impacto econômico da mastite em rebanhos leiteiros. A pesquisa foi realizada por meio de simulação no sistema computacional CU$TO MASTITE, considerando rebanhos leiteiros com taxas de descarte [...] de 2, 4 e 6%. Foram considerados como prevenção as despesas com monitoramento (cultura e antibiograma, contagem de células somáticas no tanque e contagem de células somáticas individuais), pré e pós dipping, vacinação, tratamento de vacas secas e manutenção de ordenhadeira. Como medidas curativas consideraram-se os tratamentos de casos clínicos, cuja percentagem foi de 7% das vacas em lactação. O impacto da mastite foi estimado como sendo o total de perdas acrescido das despesas com prevenção e tratamento de casos clínicos. O aumento da taxa de descarte influenciou diretamente no impacto econômico da mastite. O elevado impacto econômico evidencia a necessidade de monitoramento da doença, para diminuírem os prejuízos causados pela mesma. As despesas com tratamento preventivo representaram, no máximo, 9,2% do impacto econômico, o que demonstra vantagem em investir nessa prática, pois ela irá contribuir significativamente para diminuição da contagem de células somáticas no tanque e, consequentemente, para reduzir o impacto econômico da mastite. Abstract in english The objectives of this research were to analyze and quantify the influence of the percentage of involuntary culling of matrices on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy herd. The work was conducted by means of a simulation in the CU$TO MASTITE software, taking into account dairy herds with cullin [...] g rates of 2, 4 and 6%. The expenditures on monitoring were considered as prevention (culture and ambiogram, bulk tank somatic cell count and individual somatic cell count) pre- and post-dipping, vaccination, treatment of dry cows and maintenance of milking machine. As curative measurements, the treatments of clinical cases (7% of the lactating cows) were considered. The impact of mastitis was estimated as being the total of losses plus expenses with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. The increase of culling rate influenced directly the economic impact of mastitis. The elevated economic impact stresses the need for monitoring the disease to decrease loss. The expenses on preventive treatment account a maximum 9.2% of the economic impact, which demonstrates the advantages of investing in that practice, which it will contribute significantly towards the decrease of the bulk tank somatic cell count and thus reducing the economic impact of mastitis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical scrapie is a recently recognised form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep that differs from classical scrapie in its neuropathological and biochemical features. Most cases are detected in apparently healthy sheep and information on the clinical presentation is limited. Case presentation This report describes the clinical findings in two sheep notified as scrapie suspects and confirmed as atypical scrapie cases by immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblotting. Although both sheep displayed signs suggestive of a cerebellar dysfunction there was considerable variation in the individual clinical signs, which were similar to classical scrapie. Conclusion Any sheep presenting with neurological gait deficits should be assessed more closely for other behavioural, neurological and physical signs associated with scrapie and their presence should lead to the suspicion of scrapie.
Shimodaira, Kentaro; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Sadatomo, Ai; Miyazaki, Chieko; Sasanuma, Hideki; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Hozumi, Yasuo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu
We report a rare case of acute mastitis caused by enteric organisms passing through a cystoperitoneal shunt catheter, which had penetrated into the colon. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who underwent shunt placement for cyst formation after surgery for meningioma at the age of 29. After 26 years, she suffered from a brain abscess and an attempt was made to surgically remove the indwelling catheter. Only part of the catheter could be removed, leaving a divided and ligated catheter in situ. A year later, she described right-breast pain. CT showed that the catheter had migrated into the colon, followed by colonoscopy confirming that the catheter had indeed penetrated the colon. The breast to the abdomen segment of the catheter was exteriorized through the right-anterior chest wall without laparotomy. A patient who presents with acute mastitis and has previously undergone shunt surgery should have a careful assessment of the entire catheter. PMID:24964447
Among 129 patients with moderate and severe head injuries, subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) were observed in 21 cases on initial CT scans. These 21 cases were classified into 4 groups as follows according to the CT findings: Type 1. SAH were seen diffusely in basal cisterns (8 cases). Type 2. SAH were seen dominantly in the interhemispheric fissure or along the tentorium cerebelli (8 cases). Type 3. SAH were seen in the unilateral Sylvian cistern (4 cases). Type 4. SAH were seen in the parietal sulci (1 case). A clinical analysis was undertaken based on this classification; the following results were obtained: (1) In Type 1, the prognosis was poor, and it was frequently accompanied by other intracranial lesions, such as cerebral contusions and intracerebral hemorrhages. (2) In the other 3 types, the prognosis was relatively good. (3) In Type 1 of traumatic SAH, it should always be kept in mind that cerebral vasospasm and hydrocephalus can occur after a certain period of time. (author)
Buneski, G.; Petrovski, K. R.; Trajcev, M.
Mastitis is one of the most prevalent production diseases affecting the dairy cattle industry worldwide. Its occurrence is associated with direct and indirect losses and expenditures. When estimating the cost of mastitis to the dairy industry the cost of the control programmes must be added. The direct losses of mastitis are the only costs obvious to the farmer. The difference between the costs of mastitis on one side and the benefits of mastitis control on the other side will give us a pictu...
Haghkhah, Masoud; Ahmadi, Mohammad Rahim; Gheisari, Hamid Reza; Kadivar, Ali
Mastitis is a widely occurring and costly disease in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to isolate bacterial causes of subclinical mastitis and investigate the relationship between subclinical mastitis and teat condition in dairy herds located around Shiraz, Fars province, Iran. From 7 commercial dairy herds around Shiraz 354 lactating cows were selected randomly. Subclinical mastitis was evaluated by the California Mastitis Test (CMT), electrical conductivity (EC), and somatic ce...
Cohen, Marta C; Whitby, Elspeth; Fink, Michelle A; Collett, Jacquelene M; Offiah, Amaka C
The purpose of the postmortem examination is to offer answers to explain the cause and manner of death. In the case of perinatal, infant and paediatric postmortem examinations, the goal is to identify unsuspected associated features, to describe pathogenic mechanisms and new conditions, and to evaluate the clinical management and diagnosis. Additionally, the postmortem examination is useful to counsel families regarding the probability of recurrence in future pregnancies and to inform family planning. Worldwide the rate of paediatric autopsy examinations has significantly declined during the last few decades. Religious objections to postmortem dissection and organ retention scandals in the United Kingdom provided some of the impetus for a search for non-invasive alternatives to the traditional autopsy; however, until recently, imaging studies remained an adjunct to, rather than a replacement for, the traditional autopsy. In 2012, Sheffield Children's Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust set up the service provision of minimally invasive fetal, perinatal and neonatal autopsy, while a postmortem imaging service has been running in Melbourne, Australia, since 2008. Here we summarise the essentials of a business case and practical British and Australian experiences in terms of the pathological and radiologic aspects of setting up a minimally invasive clinical service in the United Kingdom and of developing a clinical postmortem imaging service as a complementary tool to the traditional autopsy in Australia. PMID:25828353
Cohen, Marta C.; Whitby, Elspeth; Fink, Michelle A.; Collett, Jacquelene M.; Offiah, Amaka C. [Western Bank, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)
The purpose of the postmortem examination is to offer answers to explain the cause and manner of death. In the case of perinatal, infant and paediatric postmortem examinations, the goal is to identify unsuspected associated features, to describe pathogenic mechanisms and new conditions, and to evaluate the clinical management and diagnosis. Additionally, the postmortem examination is useful to counsel families regarding the probability of recurrence in future pregnancies and to inform family planning. Worldwide the rate of paediatric autopsy examinations has significantly declined during the last few decades. Religious objections to postmortem dissection and organ retention scandals in the United Kingdom provided some of the impetus for a search for non-invasive alternatives to the traditional autopsy; however, until recently, imaging studies remained an adjunct to, rather than a replacement for, the traditional autopsy. In 2012, Sheffield Children's Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust set up the service provision of minimally invasive fetal, perinatal and neonatal autopsy, while a postmortem imaging service has been running in Melbourne, Australia, since 2008. Here we summarise the essentials of a business case and practical British and Australian experiences in terms of the pathological and radiologic aspects of setting up a minimally invasive clinical service in the United Kingdom and of developing a clinical postmortem imaging service as a complementary tool to the traditional autopsy in Australia. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic farming as well as conventional. Preliminary studies of organic dairy herds have indicated better udder health in such herds, as compared to conventional herds. The aim of this paper was to further study mastitis and management related factors in certified organic dairy herds. Methods An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional and incidence of disorders. Results The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis. The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage. Conclusion Udder health in Swedish organic herds appears to be better than in conventional herds of comparable size and production. The major difference in management between the two types of farms is the proportion of concentrates fed. The mechanisms explaining the association between intensity of feeding and udder health in dairy cows require further research.
Rodolfo de M., Peixoto; Rinaldo Aparecido, Mota; Mateus M. da, Costa.
Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou revisar as informações recentes sobre mastite em pequenos ruminantes, abrangendo etiologia, epidemiologia, aspectos de controle e profilaxia. Houve a preocupação em reunir resultados de estudos desenvolvidos no Brasil, uma vez que a mastite tem a interferência de uma série de f [...] atores, como fatores ambientais e outros decorrentes dos sistemas de manejo empregados, condições essas determinantes para etiologia e epidemiologia da enfermidade. A prevalência da mastite em caprinos varia entre 22 e 75%, sendo que os casos de mastite subclínica são os mais frequentes. Existe uma carência de trabalhos voltados para os aspectos epidemiológicos da enfermidade no nosso país. Contudo, observa-se que a mastite vem assumindo importância cada vez maior nos rebanhos voltados para produção de carne, sendo encontrados resultados de pesquisa, principalmente na espécie ovina. A mastite estafilocócica corresponde à maior fração nas infecções intramamárias em pequenos ruminantes. O caráter zoonótico de alguns patógenos, a exemplo do Staphylococcus aureus ressalta a importância da implantação de programas de controle em propriedades leiteiras. Algumas das ferramentas de diagnóstico ainda necessitam de padronização, principalmente para espécie caprina que apresenta uma série de particularidades. Ainda são discutidas as principais estratégias de controle como o manejo de fêmeas e suas crias, os procedimentos de ordenha e a utilização de vacinas. Abstract in english The present reviews mastitis in small ruminants, focusing important aspects of etiology, epidemiology, diagnose, control, and prophylaxis. There was a special concern in review studies developed in Brazil, since mastitis results from a combination of many factors such as environmental and management [...] conditions that concur for the action of etiological agents and for the epidemiology of this relevant disease. The prevalence mastitis in goats varies from 22 to 75%, with higher frequency of subclinical cases. In Brazil there are few studies about epidemiologic aspects of mastitis in small ruminants. In the other hand, the disease has growing in importance in meat producing small ruminants, mainly sheep. The mastitis caused by staphylococci is the most prevalent in small ruminants. The zoonotic importance of some milk pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus emphasizes the importance of the elimination this bacteria by carriers between goat and sheep milk farms. Some diagnostic techniques need more standardization, especially those used in goats that demonstrated some peculiarities. Mastitis control strategies will be discussed include the management of the females and their offspring, milking procedures and vaccination protocols.
Rodolfo de M. Peixoto
Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou revisar as informações recentes sobre mastite em pequenos ruminantes, abrangendo etiologia, epidemiologia, aspectos de controle e profilaxia. Houve a preocupação em reunir resultados de estudos desenvolvidos no Brasil, uma vez que a mastite tem a interferência de uma série de fatores, como fatores ambientais e outros decorrentes dos sistemas de manejo empregados, condições essas determinantes para etiologia e epidemiologia da enfermidade. A prevalência da mastite em caprinos varia entre 22 e 75%, sendo que os casos de mastite subclínica são os mais frequentes. Existe uma carência de trabalhos voltados para os aspectos epidemiológicos da enfermidade no nosso país. Contudo, observa-se que a mastite vem assumindo importância cada vez maior nos rebanhos voltados para produção de carne, sendo encontrados resultados de pesquisa, principalmente na espécie ovina. A mastite estafilocócica corresponde à maior fração nas infecções intramamárias em pequenos ruminantes. O caráter zoonótico de alguns patógenos, a exemplo do Staphylococcus aureus ressalta a importância da implantação de programas de controle em propriedades leiteiras. Algumas das ferramentas de diagnóstico ainda necessitam de padronização, principalmente para espécie caprina que apresenta uma série de particularidades. Ainda são discutidas as principais estratégias de controle como o manejo de fêmeas e suas crias, os procedimentos de ordenha e a utilização de vacinas.The present reviews mastitis in small ruminants, focusing important aspects of etiology, epidemiology, diagnose, control, and prophylaxis. There was a special concern in review studies developed in Brazil, since mastitis results from a combination of many factors such as environmental and management conditions that concur for the action of etiological agents and for the epidemiology of this relevant disease. The prevalence mastitis in goats varies from 22 to 75%, with higher frequency of subclinical cases. In Brazil there are few studies about epidemiologic aspects of mastitis in small ruminants. In the other hand, the disease has growing in importance in meat producing small ruminants, mainly sheep. The mastitis caused by staphylococci is the most prevalent in small ruminants. The zoonotic importance of some milk pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus emphasizes the importance of the elimination this bacteria by carriers between goat and sheep milk farms. Some diagnostic techniques need more standardization, especially those used in goats that demonstrated some peculiarities. Mastitis control strategies will be discussed include the management of the females and their offspring, milking procedures and vaccination protocols.
Rato, Márcia G.; Bexiga, Ricardo
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. The aims of this study were the evaluation of antimicrobial drug resistance patterns, particularly important for streptococcal mastitis control and the identification of strain molecular features. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by disk diffusion against amoxicillinclavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefoperazone, pirlimycin-PRL, rifaximin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin-ERY, gentamicin, tetracycline-TET and vancomycin. Genotypic relationships were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), macrolide and/or tetracycline resistance gene profiling, GBS capsular typing, GBS virulence gene profiling and GBS and S. uberis multi locus sequence typing (MLST). The majority of the isolates were susceptible to all drugs except to aminoglycoside, macrolide, lincosamide and tetracycline. Close to half of the TET resistant isolates have tetO and tetK and almost all ERYPRL resistant isolates have ermB. A high degree of intra-species polymorphism was found for GCS. The GBS belonged to ST-2, -554, -61, -23 lineages and five new molecular serotypes and human GBS insertion sequences in the cpsE gene were found. Also, GBS of serotype V with scpB and lmb seem to be related with GBS isolates of human origin (same ST-2 and similar PFGE). Overall our results suggested that different therapeutic programs may have been implemented in the different farms and that in most cases clones were herd-specific.
Swinkels, J M; Hogeveen, H; Zadoks, R N
Subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is rarely treated during lactation because it is widely believed to be uneconomical, although there are no economic studies that support this view. Partial budgeting was used to develop a deterministic simulation model to estimate the net cost or benefit of antibiotic treatment of subclinical S. aureus mastitis during lactation. Direct and indirect effects of treatment were taken into account, including prevention of clinical flare-ups and contagious transmission. Input variables were based on literature and on 2003-2004 prices in the Netherlands. When contagious transmission of S. aureus was likely (reproductive ratio R = 5.3), 3- and 8-d treatments resulted in an average net profit of 95.62 euros and 142.42 euros, respectively, compared with no treatment. When the probability of S. aureus transmission was low (R = 0.32), the average economic benefit of 3- or 8-d treatment was -21.12 euros and -57.70 euros, respectively. On low-transmission farms, 3-d treatment was profitable when the appropriate cows were selected for treatment using known risk factors for cure. Sensitivity analysis showed that the 6 most influential input variables in the model were chance of bacteriological cure, R, probability of culling, retention pay-off, and cost of antibiotics and bacterial culture. Although the economic outcome of lactational treatment of subclinical S. aureus mastitis is highly herd-, cow-, and strain-dependent, treatment is economically justified in many situations. PMID:16291618
Gunawardana, Suraj; Thilakarathne, Dulari; Abegunawardana, Indra S; Abeynayake, Preeni; Robertson, Colin; Stephen, Craig
A study of the risk factors associated with mastitis in Sri Lankan dairy cattle was conducted to inform risk reduction activities to improve the quality and quantity of milk production and dairy farmer income. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected dairy farms was undertaken to investigate 12 cow and 39 herd level and management risk factors in the Central Province. The farm level prevalence of mastitis (clinical and subclinical) was 48 %, similar to what has been found elsewhere in South and Southeast Asia. Five cow level variables, three herd level variables, and eight management variables remained significant (p?milk yield, milking practices, access to veterinary services, use of veterinary products, stall structure, and stall hygiene. Many of the risk factors could be addressed by standard dairy cattle management techniques, but implementation of mastitis control programs as a technical approach is likely to be insufficient to achieve sustainable disease control without consideration of the social and political realities of smallholder farmers, who are often impoverished. PMID:24894437
Prevalencia de mastitis en siete hatos lecheros del oriente antioqueño Prevalência da mastite em sete rebanhos leiteiros na região leste da Antioquia Prevalence of mastitis in dairy herds in Eastern Antioquia
Carlos M Trujillo
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte, y se hizo un muestreo no probabilístico de conveniencia, en siete fincas de ganado de leche localizadas en el oriente antioqueño. Se evaluó cada cuarto de 290 vacas en producción láctea mediante la realización del California Mastitis Test (CMT con el fin de determinar la prevalencia de mastitis por cuarto y por vaca. A la leche proveniente de los cuartos positivos mayores a trazas, se les realizó recuento de células somáticas (RCS, cultivo y antibiograma. La prevalencia de mastitis subclínica por cuarto fue de 19.9% (228 cuartos y 11 cuartos (0.95% presentaron mastitis clínica. El promedio del RCS para todos los cuartos fue de 1.105.733 céls/ml. En los 226 cultivos, Streptococcus dysgalactiae fue la bacteria más común (29.5%, le siguieron estafilococos coagulasa negativo (ECN (23% y Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%. La frecuencia de patógenos contagiosos fue 37.8%, entre tanto que la de ambientales fue 49.3%.Foi realizado um estudo de corte, e se realizou uma amostragem não probabilística em sete fazendas de gado leiteiro localizado no leste da Antioquia. Foram avaliados trimestralmente 290 vacas em produção de leite mediante a implementação do California Mastitis Test (CMT para determinar a prevalência de mastite subclínica em cada quarto da vaca. Nos quartos positivos foi realizada a contagem de células somáticas (CCS no leite, o cultivo microbiológico e análises de sensibilidade. A prevalência de mastite subclínica por quarto foi de 19.9% (228 quartos e 11 (0.95% apresentaram mastite clínica. A CCS média para todas os quartos foi 1.105.733 células / ml. Em 226 cultivos, o Streptococcus dysgalactiae foi a bacteria mais comum (29.5%, seguido por estafilococus coagulase negativo (ECN (23% e Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%. A reqüência de agentes patogénicos contagiosos foi de 37.8% e patógenos ambientais foi de 49.3%.Seven dairy cattle farms from eastern Antioquia were tested for mastitis in a cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling procedure. Each udder quarter of 290 lactating cows was evaluated through the California Mastitis Test in order to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk from positive quarters underwent somatic cell count (SCC, cell culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis per quarter was 19.9% (228 quarters. Only 11 quarters (0.95% had clinical mastitis. The average SCC for all quarters was 1,105,733 cells/mL. Streptococcus dysgalactiae was the most common bacteria observed (29.5% in the 226 cultures evaluated, followed by coagulasenegative staphylococci (CNS, 23%, and Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%. The frequency of contagiouspathogens and environmental pathogens was 37.8% and 49.3%, respectively. This study confirms that mastitis remains elevated in this region, suggesting a continuous lack of milking hygiene and education of farm personnel.
Prevalencia de mastitis en siete hatos lecheros del oriente antioqueño / Prevalence of mastitis in dairy herds in Eastern Antioquia / Prevalência da mastite em sete rebanhos leiteiros na região leste da Antioquia
Carlos M, Trujillo; Andrés F, Gallego; Nicolás, Ramírez; Luis G, Palacio.
Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de corte, e se realizou uma amostragem não probabilística em sete fazendas de gado leiteiro localizado no leste da Antioquia. Foram avaliados trimestralmente 290 vacas em produção de leite mediante a implementação do California Mastitis Test (CMT) para determinar a prevalênci [...] a de mastite subclínica em cada quarto da vaca. Nos quartos positivos foi realizada a contagem de células somáticas (CCS) no leite, o cultivo microbiológico e análises de sensibilidade. A prevalência de mastite subclínica por quarto foi de 19.9% (228 quartos) e 11 (0.95%) apresentaram mastite clínica. A CCS média para todas os quartos foi 1.105.733 células / ml. Em 226 cultivos, o Streptococcus dysgalactiae foi a bacteria mais comum (29.5%), seguido por estafilococus coagulase negativo (ECN) (23%) e Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%). A reqüência de agentes patogénicos contagiosos foi de 37.8% e patógenos ambientais foi de 49.3%. Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte, y se hizo un muestreo no probabilístico de conveniencia, en siete fincas de ganado de leche localizadas en el oriente antioqueño. Se evaluó cada cuarto de 290 vacas en producción láctea mediante la realización del California Mastitis Test (CMT) con el fin [...] de determinar la prevalencia de mastitis por cuarto y por vaca. A la leche proveniente de los cuartos positivos mayores a trazas, se les realizó recuento de células somáticas (RCS), cultivo y antibiograma. La prevalencia de mastitis subclínica por cuarto fue de 19.9% (228 cuartos) y 11 cuartos (0.95%) presentaron mastitis clínica. El promedio del RCS para todos los cuartos fue de 1.105.733 céls/ml. En los 226 cultivos, Streptococcus dysgalactiae fue la bacteria más común (29.5%), le siguieron estafilococos coagulasa negativo (ECN) (23%) y Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%). La frecuencia de patógenos contagiosos fue 37.8%, entre tanto que la de ambientales fue 49.3%. Abstract in english Seven dairy cattle farms from eastern Antioquia were tested for mastitis in a cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling procedure. Each udder quarter of 290 lactating cows was evaluated through the California Mastitis Test in order to determine the prevalence of subclinical [...] mastitis. Milk from positive quarters underwent somatic cell count (SCC), cell culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis per quarter was 19.9% (228 quarters). Only 11 quarters (0.95%) had clinical mastitis. The average SCC for all quarters was 1,105,733 cells/mL. Streptococcus dysgalactiae was the most common bacteria observed (29.5%) in the 226 cultures evaluated, followed by coagulasenegative staphylococci (CNS, 23%), and Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%). The frequency of contagiouspathogens and environmental pathogens was 37.8% and 49.3%, respectively. This study confirms that mastitis remains elevated in this region, suggesting a continuous lack of milking hygiene and education of farm personnel.
The acute pancreatitis is a reversible inflammatory process. Hypertriglyceridemia as etiology of the acute pancreatitis reaches frequencies between 1,3 to 11% according to literature when the triglycerides levels of reach values over 1000 mg/dl nevertheless hypertriglyceridemia is observed in 12 to 39% of the acute pancreatitis like factor associate. The objective of the medical treatment is to increase the activity of lipoproteinlipasa and to increase the degradation of vhylomicrones; diminishing therefore the serum triglycerides values of a levels smaller to 500 even to less of 200 mg/dl if is possible with different strategies among of them the insulin. In the present article, we presented two clinical cases of severe pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia, handled with therapy of insulin infusion with suitable evolution and clinical answer given by significant diminution of the levels of triglycerides, 48 hours post treatment
Iraurgi, Ioseba; Gorbeña, Susana; Martínez-Cubillos, Miren-Itxaso; Escribano, Margarita; Gómez-de-Maintenant, Pablo
Evaluation of therapeutic results and of the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments is an area of interest both for clinicians and researchers. In general, randomized controlled trial designs have been used as the methodology of choice in which intergroup comparisons are made having a minimum of participants in each arm of treatment. However, these procedures are seldom used in daily clinical practice. Despite this fact, the evaluation of treatment results for a specific patient is important for the clinician in order to address if therapeutic goals have been accomplished both in terms of statistical significance and clinical meaningfulness. The methodology based on the reliable change index (Jacobson y Truax)1 provides an estimate of these two criteria. The goal of this article is to propose a procedure to apply the methodology with a single case study of a woman diagnosed with major depression and treated with electroconvulsive therapy. PMID:25282427
Full Text Available Background: Prurigo pigmentosa is a rare inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology.It is characterized by a recurrent pruritic rash and netlike pigmentation. Mostof the reported cases have been from Japan; however, here we report on severalcases from Taiwan.Methods: This was a single hospital-based retrospective study conducted in a tertiarymedical center in Southern Taiwan, recruiting 14 patients with a clinicaldiagnosis of prurigo pigmentosa between January 1, 2000 and December 31,2007. Clinical information was collected and reviewed, and skin biopsieswere performed for all cases.Results: Of the 14 cases, 11 exhibited clinical and histopathological correlation withprurigo pigmentosa and were enrolled in our study. The age of the patients atdiagnosis ranged from 16 to 30 years (mean, 22.3 with female predominance(female: male ratio, 8:3. Patient lesions were primarily distributedsymmetrically over the chest and back area and they responded well to doxycyclinetreatment. The biopsy specimens of all patients showed nonspecificlymphocytic infiltration; folliculitis was noted in 7 specimens and bothsuperficial and deep perivascular lymphocytic infiltration was found in 8specimens.Conclusion: Although far more prevalent in Japan, prurigo pigmentosa can be seen inTaiwan. In our study, patients were predominantly young females who hadbeen initially diagnosed as having eczema. Therefore, young females whopresent with intractable eczema distributed symmetrically over the trunkshould prompt physicians to consider prurigo pigmentosa.
Márcio Garcia Ribeiro; Tatiana Salerno; Ana Luiza Mattos-Guaraldi; Thereza Cristina Ferreira Camello; Hélio Langoni; Amanda Keller Siqueira; Antonio Carlos Paes; Marta Catarina Fernandes; Gustavo Henrique Batista Lara
Phenotypic characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and clinical-epidemiological features of 28 Nocardia strains isolated from 19 cases of bovine mastitis, eight cutaneous-subcutaneous lesions and one case of pneumonia in dogs were evaluated. Microbiological, biochemical, cytological and scanning electron microscopy methods were used in diagnosis. Nocardia asteroides type IV, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum,Nocardia nova (type III) and Nocardia farcinica (type V) were isolated from bo...
Rocío, Vayas Abascal; Luis, Carrera Romero.
Full Text Available La interrupción precoz de la lactancia tiene un origen multifactorial, pero dentro de las causas médicas es la mastitis el primer motivo de abandono prematuro e indeseado de la lactancia materna. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido realizar una revisión actualizada acerca de la etiología, diagnóstic [...] o y manejo clínico-terapéutico de esta enfermedad. Hemos constatado la escasez de estudios acerca de la microbiología de la leche humana y una falta de ensayos controlados aleatorizados para evaluar el tratamiento eficaz de la enfermedad. En la práctica clínica habitual el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la mastitis no se sustentan sobre una base científica, lo que conduce a un infradiagnóstico y frecuentemente a un manejo incorrecto que puede acarrear consecuencias relevantes, como el abandono de la lactancia o complicaciones como el absceso mamario o la septicemia. El diagnóstico sigue basándose en la inspección visual de la mama, siendo excepcional la realización de cultivos de leche materna. El tratamiento debería basarse en una extracción efectiva de la leche, sin interrumpir la lactancia, medicación analgésica/antiinflamatoria y antibióticos usados racionalmente. Sin embargo, el tratamiento habitualmente se pauta de forma empírica, siendo el factor que más influye en su elección la preferencia del médico sin pruebas científicas que sustenten la decisión. La conclusión principal de la revisión realizada es que el cultivo de la leche es una herramienta objetiva fundamental, que debería solicitarse en toda mujer lactante con dolor mamario. El cultivo facilita un diagnóstico correcto de la mastitis, nos permite conocer su etiología y es clave para instaurar un tratamiento adecuado basado en la sensibilidad a los antibióticos del agente causal. Abstract in english Premature termination of breastfeeding is of multifactorial origin, but mastitis is the most important medical reason for early, unwanted weaning. The current study is an updated review of etiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of this disease. We found few studies on the microbiology of human milk an [...] d a lack of randomized, controlled trials evaluating effective treatment of mastitis. In routine clinical practice, diagnosis and treatment of this disease are not based on scientific evidence, leading to underdiagnosis and frequent therapeutic mismanagement, with harmful consequences: cessation of breastfeeding, breast abscess or sepsis. Diagnosis of mastitis continues to be based on visual inspection of the breast and breastmilk cultures are rarely performed. Treatment should be based on effective extraction of the milk, with continued breastfeeding, analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs and rational use of antibiotics. However, the drug regimen is usually empirically chosen, based on physician´s preference and without scientific evidence to support the decision. The main conclusion of our review is that breastmilk culture is an essential diagnostic tool that should be used for all breastfeeding women with breast pain. It facilitates correct diagnosis of mastitis, its etiology and is the key to establishing proper treatment based on antibiotic sensitivity of the causative agent.
Full Text Available Cross sectional experimental study was conducted to assess the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis to commonly used antibacterial agents in Jimma town dairy farms, South West Ethiopia from January-July, 2010. Milk samples were collected aseptically and California Mastitis Test (CMT was carried out to identify subclinical mastitis from dairy cows. All CMT high scored and clinically positive samples were investigated microbiologically. Rate of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus was determined and susceptibility of 11 antibiotics against S. aureus was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and the result was expressed as sensitive, intermediate and resistant. From total of 218 milk samples collected, 164 CMT high score milk samples were cultured of which 86 (52.4% of pure strains of S. aureus were isolated. Out of 86 pure isolates of S. aureus resistance was detected for Penicillin (87.2%, Nalidixic acid (92%, Amoxicillin (46%, Chloramphenicol (16%, Clindamycin (4% and Vancomycin (3%. The study also revealed that S. aureus was found to be sensitive for Norfloxacilin, Gentamycin, Tetracycline and Bacitracin. The present finding indicates that these isolates exhibited the highest degree of resistance to Nalidicic Acid, Penicillin, Amoxicillin and Chloramphenicol of among the tested anti microbial agents in comparison to previous studies reported. Furthermore, resistance follow-up, appropriate selection and use of antibiotic is recommended in the treatment of mastitis.
Andressa Mussi, Soares; Edmar, Atik; Tâmara Martins, Cortêz; Angela Maria T., Albuquerque; Claudia P., Castro; Miguel, Barbero-Marcial; Munir, Ebaid.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aortopulmonary window (APW) is an uncommon congenital malformation. Its clinical presentation is dependent on the size of the defect and on the associated lesions. We evaluated our experience with this anomaly and compared it with 296 cases reported in the literature. METHODS: Retrospecti [...] ve study of 18 patients diagnosed as having APW (age range from 13 days to 31 years, 13 (72.2%) females), divided into two groups: Group A (GA): 10 patients with isolated APW, and Group B (GB): 8 patients with associated lesions. RESULTS: Heart failure occurred in 14 patients, and cyanosis in 3: 2 from GB (tetralogy of Fallot - TF, and double outlet right ventricle - DORV), and one from GA with pulmonary hypertension. In 5 patients from GA the diagnosis of mitral regurgitation was made based on a systolic murmur and LV hypertrophy on the EKG. In GB, clinical findings were determined by the associated defect. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography in 11 (61.2%) of the patients. In 3 patients, a wrong diagnosis of mitral regurgitation was made, in 1 a patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed and in 3 others, the diagnosis of APW was masked by other important associated defects (2 cases of DORV and 1 case of TF). The diagnosis was made by catheterization in 3 (16.6%) patients, by surgery in 3 (16.6%) and by necropsy in 1 (5.5%). Corrective surgery was performed in 14 (77.7%) patients, with one immediate death and good long-term follow-up in the remaining patients. CONCLUSION: APW can be confused with other defects. Clinical findings, associated with an adequate echocardiogram can provide the information for the correct diagnosis.
E. I. Veliev
Full Text Available In spite of its existing standards, the treatment of patients with progressive prostate cancer (PC remains a matter of debate. Ensuring that the patients have good quality of life is also relevant. The paper describes a clinical case of a patient with progressive PC after hormone therapy, brachytherapy, salvage prostatectomy, enucleation of the testicular parenchyma, and salvage lymphadenectomy. A phallic prosthesis and an artificial urinary sphincter have been implanted to improve quality of life. The results of preoperative examination and the technological features of surgical interventions are given.
Esma Öcal Eriman
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP who applied to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinic.Materials and Methods: Data of the 202 cases who had reffered to our outpatient clinic between December 2005 and June 2007 was evaluated retrospectively.Results: Ninety-four of the cases were girls and 108 were boys. Their mean age was 6.98 years (1-33 years. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia 34% (n:69, tetraplegia 32% (n:66, hemiplegia 26% (n:53, monoplegia 4.5% (n:9, dyskinetic %1 (n:2 and mixed type 1.4% (n:3. CP severity, assessed with the Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS, was distributed as follows: level 1 (9.9%, level 2 (17.8%, level 3 (20.8%, level 4 (22.8%, level 5 (8.7%. The most frequently encountered prenatal risk factor was consanguineous marriage - 25% (n=51, perinatal risk factors were low birth weight - 37.1% (n=75 and premature birth - 35% (n=72, natal risk factor was forced birth - 14.9% (n=30, postnatal risk factor was convulsion - 9.9% (n=20, and 14.9% (n=30 were unclassified. 55.4% of the children had speech disorder, 50.4% had mental retardation, 35.6% had visual impairment, 5.9% had epilepsy. Eighty-six of the cases who applied to the clinic were using orthesis. New orthesis were prescribed to 74 patients, botulinum toxinA injection were performed in 11 cases and 12 of them were referred for surgery.Conclusion: Perinatal risk factors were the most frequently seen when assessing the etiologic factors in CP. Better health conditions will decrease the prevalence of CP by minimizing prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal damage. Prenatal care should be improved, high-risk babies should be followed up closely and the number of neonatal intensive care units should be increased. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2009;55:94-7.
Full Text Available The lack of correlation between available knowledge and the current approach to Somatoform Disorders is highlighted.. Methods: the study, via the analysis of an unusual clinical case of an anomalous sensation of cold, examines various hypotheses on the physiopathology of somatization. Conclusions: a conceptualization would focus attention on the level of patients preoccupation with their symptoms, on the anomalies of the variations of perceptions and on patients hyperarousal. It could lead to a more harmonious position in psychiatry, between anthropologically-based understanding and interpretation of psychophysical information.
Borecki, M.; Niemiec, T.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Kuczy?ska, B.; Doroz, P.; Urba?ska, K.; Szmidt, M.; Szmidt, J.
Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland in animals under the influence of micro-organisms causing functional disorder of udder. Mastitis causes a variety of qualitative changes in the milk, which classified as mastitis milk, has a reduced value. A number of chemical procedures and lab instruments were developed to test for mastitis, of which the widest used are the California mastitis test and the somatic cell counter. This work presents the progress in development of new photonic sensors of mastitis using a conductometer, a spectrometer and a capillary head with local heating with improved measuring procedures. We showed that the significant increase in mastitis detection sensitivity is achieved by measuring the whey acidic instead of milk. The whey can be obtained from milk in a relatively simple and inexpensive chemical process. We correlated the conductivity measurement and the measurement of the number of somatic cells in the milk. The application of the measurement of optical transmission absorption in whey instead of the classic milk measurement increases the resolution of resistance measuring more than 3 times. However, the application of the method of capillary phase-transition to whey examination increases the resolution of measurement 15 times. The changes in resistance and time of the phase transitions are linearly correlated with the number of somatic cells.
Full Text Available The sporadic or chronic use of drugs and alcohol is directly related to conduct disorders and to the triggering of psychopathological states of sub-acute or chronic course. The excessive consumption of alcohol and excessive traffic/consumption of illicit drugs by individuals without mental illness or disability are actions of free will; they are therefore criminally responsible for their behaviour, even if they commit a crime during the state of intoxication, which the individual chose voluntarily to experience. In clinical practice, it is widely accepted that the treatment of these disorders is only effective when the patient accepts it voluntarily and that involuntary commitment (compulsive treatment is only carried out when the psychopathological state associated justifies the presuppositions of Article 12 of the Mental Health Law. However, if the compulsive treatment is of a penal character, mandated by a judge, the individual is obligated to accept treatment, independent of whether or not he suffers from mental illness. The authors present two case studies, one of drug addiction, the other of alcoholism, and discuss the clinical and judicial perspectives on the treatment of these clinical entities.
Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical features of cryptococcal meningitis (CM and summarize its clinical manifestations, laboratory data, differential diagnosis and treatment, so as to discuss the treatment progress of CM. Methods Clinical data of 26 cases with CM were retrospectively analyzed, and the treatment experiences were summarized. Results All patients had headache and fever, and were positive for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF latex agglutination test. Twenty-one patients' CSF smear were found Cryptococcus neoformans. Almost 76.92% (20/26 of patients were cured or became better after receiving combined treatment of amphotericin B, flucytosine and fluconazole. The symptoms and signs of 4 patients who received combined treatment of amphotericin B and voriconazole were greatly improved. Conclusions CM can prone to be misdiagnosed at early stage. CSF smear and fungi culture are beneficial to the diagnosis. Latex agglutination test is a quick and easy examination to reduce the misdiagnosis rate of CM. The combination of amphotericin B, flucytosine and fluconazole is effective for the treatment of CM. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.08.009
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between cholecystectomy and the subsequent occurrence of primary choledocholithiasis and to review the surgical treatment of primary choledocholithiasis. MethodsThe clinical data of 70 patients with forward common bile duct stones after cholecystectomy who were admitted to our hospital from January 2007 to December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. ResultsAll 70 patients underwent open surgery for removal of common bile duct stones, which were identified as bile pigment calculi. The postoperative complications included incisional wound infection (8 cases and lung infection (5 cases, and no severe complications as biliary leakage or hematobilia were observed. All patients fully recovered at the time of discharge. Eight cases of recurrent common bile duct stones were found and surgeries were performed 2.5 to 4 years after the recurrence. All patients were cured by choledocholithotomy, common bile duct transection, and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. ConclusionPrimary choledocholithiasis is an age-related disease, not a long-term complication of cholecystectomy. If no bile duct injury occurs during the cholecystectomy, the incidence rate of primary choledocholithiasis will not be increased. Surgical treatment is required for primary choledocholithiasis. For the cases of choledochectasia with the diameter of common bile duct greater than 2.5 cm or recurrent choledocholithiasis, the laparotomy with common bile duct transection and Roux-en-Y anastomosis is recommended.
White, E A; Paape, M J; Weinland, B T; Mather, I H
Factors in the ability of three strains of Staphylococcus aureus to cause bovine mastitis were studied. Each strain was evaluated fro growth rate, clump size, and resistance to phagocytosis and intracellular kill by polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from milk of nine cows. Variation among cows in the ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to phagocytose and of skim milk to support phagocytosis was assessed. Virulent strains of Staphylococcus aureus had a smaller clump size (1.5 colony forming units [CFU]/clump) than the less virulent strain (2.6 CFU/clump) after 180 min of growth in skim milk samples. When the skim milk samples were sonicated to disperse the staphylococci, population density of strains of Staphylococcus aureus did not differ. Phagocytosis and total number of staphylococci killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes were depressed for virulent strains. Ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from individual cows to phagocytose each strain of Staphylococcus aureus varied. The correlation with treated cases of clinical mastitis per lactation was -.54. The ability of skim milk to support phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes also differed among cows. The correlation with treated cases of clinical mastitis per lactation was -.51. PMID:7419773
Gönül Dinler Çaltepe
Full Text Available Aim: Pancreatitis rarely occurs in childhood and the underlying causes differ from adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the documentation of characteristics of our cases diagnosed as pancreatitis.Material and Method: Of the 20 patients (19 acute, one chronic who diagnosed as pancreatitis in our clinic during a five year period were analyzed retrospectively, considering clinical and laboratory findings, underlying risk factors and outcome of the illness. Data were analysed with SPSS 16.0 computer package programme.Results: Of the 20 patients 14 were female and 6 were male. The mean age was 11.4±3.62 (2-18 years. The most common risk factors were systemic diseases (15%, drugs (15%, biliary diseases (15% and trauma (10%. Nine of cases (45% were idiopathic. One patient with chronic pancreatitis was defined as cystic fibrosis. Two patients had acute recurrent pancreatitis (one with mumps infection. Twenty-two episodes of 19 patients with acute pancreatitis were documented. The serum amylase and lipase were elevated in 81.8% and 90.9% of patients respectively. Pseudocysts (10%, venous thrombosis (10% and necrotising pancreatitis (5% were the major complications. None of the patients died. Conclusions: Systemic illnesses, drugs, biliary diseases and trauma are the major risk factors in childhood pancreatitis. Although the mortality rate is low in children, the patients should be considered by means of complication such as pseudocyst and venous thrombosis, especially in severe pancreatitis. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 49-54
dos Santos Nascimento, Janaína; Fagundes, Patricia Carlin; de Paiva Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto; do Carmo de Freire Bastos, Maria
In the present study, 188 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) strains were isolated from bovine mastitis cases from 56 different Brazilian dairy herds, located in the Southeast region of the country, and were tested for antimicrobial substance production. Twelve CNS strains (6.4%) exhibited antagonistic activity against a Corynebacterium fimi indicator strain. Most antimicrobial substances were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes suggesting that they might be bacteriocins (Bac). Amongst the CNS producers, six were identified as S. epidermidis, two as S. simulans, two as S. saprophyticus, one as S. hominis and one as S. arlettae. Plasmid profile analysis of these strains revealed the presence of at least one plasmid. The Bac(+) strains presented either no or few antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Three strains were shown to produce a bacteriocin either identical or similar to aureocin A70, a bacteriocin previously isolated from an S. aureus strain isolated from food. The remaining Bac(+) strains produce antimicrobial peptides that seem to be distinct from the best characterised staphylococcal bacteriocins described so far. Some of them were able to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne pathogen, and several strains of Streptococcus agalactiae associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting a potential use of these bacteriocins either in the prevention or in the treatment of streptococcal mastitis. PMID:15737474
N. A. Shnaider
Full Text Available Parainfectous limbic encephalitis (PILE associated with viruses of the Herpesviridae family is one of the forms of chronic herpes encephalitis characterized by limbic system dysfunction and a prolonged course with frequent exacerbations. There are two types of the course of the disease: latent autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE progressing to mesial temporal sclerosis and pseudotumorous granulomatous LE. The latter (inflammatory pseudotumor or granuloma is characterized by the formation of a polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate with the elements of fibrosis, necrosis, and a granulomatous reaction and by myofibroblast cells. This is a slowly growing benign pseudotumor that contains much more plasma cells than inflammatory ones. The diagnosis of pseudotumorous LE is difficult and requires the participation of a neurologist, an immunologist, an oncologist, and a neurosurgeon. Perfusion computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy give proof to the adequacy of the term inflammatory pseudotumor because it is histologically difficult to characterize the lesion as a tumor or inflammation. When a chronic lesion in the central nervous system is lately diagnosed, the prognosis of the disease may be poor and complicated by the development of resistant symptomatic focal epilepsy and emotional, volitional, and cognitive impairments. It was differentially diagnosed from brain tumors (astrocytic, oligodendroglial, and mixed gliomas, ependymal, neuronal, neuroglial, and embryonal tumors, meningiomas, cholesteatomas, dermoid cysts, teratomas, and cysts, other reactive and inflammatory processes (leukemic infiltrations, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, encephalomyelitis, hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, vitamin A intoxication, and the long-term use of glucocorticoids and contraceptives. The authors describe a clinical case of the pseudotumorous course of chronic PILE in a 28-year-old woman. They discuss difficulties in differential diagnosis and the specific features of the clinical course and treatment of the disease. Inflammatory pseudotumor is an indication for surgery, but realizing the fact that this false tumor may avoid an unnecessary radical operation in some cases, which demonstrates the given clinical observation.
Reneé, Pieterse; Svetoslav D., Todorov.
Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to ant [...] ibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.
Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.
Treatment of subclinical mastitis through the mineral homeopathic supplement in the diet of lactating milking cows: case study. Tratamiento de la mastitis subclÃÂnica mediante suplementaciÃÂ³n de la dieta de vacas lecheras en lactaciÃÂ³n: estudio de caso. Tratamento de mastite subclÃÂnica por meio de suplementaÃÂ§ÃÂ£o mineral homeopÃÂ¡tica da dieta de vacas leiteiras em lactaÃÂ§ÃÂ£o: estudo de caso.
Carlos Massambani; ÃÅ rica Cristina Vieira; Zilda Cristina Gazim; ClÃÂ¡udia Ribeiro Martins
The present work results from experimental research conducted in a dairy establishment in the city of Perobal, Paraná. It was tested a homeopathic treatment in 32 animals with symptoms of subclinic mastitis detected previously by the California Mastitis Test (CMT).The remedies were prepared according to the Hahnemannian method for the decimal scale and divided in 4 groups according to their pathogenetic action: Group A (Phytolacca D30, Urtica ureus D3, Asa foetida D6); Group B (Phytolacca D12...
Full Text Available The chest pain can be a symptom of many diseases and can refer to various organs. One of its most common cause is the ischemic heart disease, especially acute coronary syndrome. Case of 88-year-old woman, with the chest pain, who was admitted to the John Paul II Hospital in Kraków. Initially, on the basis of the clinical course and ECG changes the myocardial infarction with ST-segments elevation was diagnosed. The results of imaging studies have not confirmed the primary diagnosis. The coronary angiography revealed no atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries. Ventriculography and echocardiography was performed, and eventually the tako-tsubo syndrome was diagnosed, also known as stress cardiomyopathy or apical ballooning syndrome. Cases of the takotsubo syndrome described in the literature mostly regard to the women in a postmenopausal age. In the literature there are only very few cases of takotsubo syndrome in octogenarians and to our knowledge none was described in Polish patient.
The association between mastitis and reproductive performance in seasonally-calved dairy cows managed on a pasture-based system / Asociación entre la mastitis y el desempeño reproductivo en rodeos lecheros Holstein de base pastoril y servicios estacionados
CI, Gómez-Cifuentes; AI, Molineri; ML, Signorini; D, Scandolo; LF, Calvinho.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar asociación entre mastitis clínicas, subclínicas y condición corporal con la performance reproductiva de vacas en un sistema de partos estacional bajo condiciones de pastoreo. Se analizó información de 182 vacas paridas durante 2008. Se realizó Chi cuadrado [...] y regresión logística con preñez al final de la temporada de servicios y número de servicios como variables dependientes. Las mastitis clínicas, subclínicas y la condición corporal, así como otras posibles variables asociadas fueron analizadas como variables independientes. Número de lactancia, tipo de parto, intervalo entre parto a inicio de temporada de servicio y condición corporal estuvieron asociadas con preñez. Las vacas con una o dos lactancias (P = 0,031), aquellas sin problemas en el parto (P = 0,003) y las que tuvieron mayor cantidad de días entre el parto y el inicio de la temporada de servicios (P = 0.001) y las que tuvieron una condición corporal > 2.5 (P = 0.007) tuvieron más probabilidad de quedar preñadas. Las mastitis subclínicas afectaron la performance reproductiva aumentando el número de servicios (P = 0.03). Además la temporada de servicios influyó sobre el número de servicios recibidos por vaca, ya que aquellas paridas en verano necesitaron más servicios para quedar preñadas (P = 0.046). Las mastitis clínicas no estuvieron asociadas con preñez (P = 0.863). La información obtenida puede ser utilizada para mejorar la performance reproductiva de rodeos bajo condiciones pastoriles y sistemas de servicios estacionados. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to assess association between clinical, subclinical mastitis, body condition score and the reproductive performance of cows under seasonally calving conditions in a pasture-based management system. Data from 182 cows calved during 2008 were analyzed. Chi-square and lo [...] gistic regression were performed considering pregnancy at the end of breeding season and number of services as dependent variables, whereas clinical and subclinical mastitis and other variables related to the animal that could have an effect on the dependent variables (e.g. parity, BCS, concurrent diseases) were considered as independent variables. Lactation number, calving difficulty, interval from calving to the beginning of breeding season and body condition score had a significant effect on pregnancy at the end of breeding season. Cows with one or two lactations (P = 0.031), those with no difficulty at calving (P = 0.003), those with more days from calving to the beginning of breeding season (P = 0.001), and those with body condition score > 2.5 (P = 0.007) were most likely to become pregnant. Subclinical mastitis affected reproductive performance increasing the number of services (P = 0.03). Also, breeding season influenced number of services, since summer-calving cows needed more services to become pregnant (P = 0.046). Clinical mastitis was not associated with pregnancy as a final measure of reproductive performance (P = 0.863). Although subclinical mastitis influenced reproductive performance, several parameters related to reproductive and nutritional management, significantly affected the outcome variables under experimental conditions of this study. This information can be valuable to improve reproductive performance in similar management systems.
Hoeksema, H L; Troost, J; Grobbee, D E; Wiersinga, W M; van Wijmen, F C B; Klasen, E C
This paper describes the laborious and lengthy path to clarification and disclosure in a case of fraud in a neurological pharmaceutical clinical trial in the Netherlands. A Dutch neurologist was suspected of irregularities within the context of the 'European stroke prevention study 2' (ESPS-2), a multicentre study into medicinal prophylaxis in patients who had suffered a stroke. The Netherlands Society of Neurology (NVN) established an independent inquiry committee for further investigation of the case. The identity of 425 of the 438 patients (97%) included in the trial by the neurologist could be retrieved. The majority of these patients were known to the neurologist with cerebral infarct. For a sample of 115 patients, the general practitioners (GPs) were contacted by means of a questionnaire. Ninety percent of the responding GPs were unaware of their patients' participation in the pharmaceutical clinical trial. A total of forty patients were asked by their GP about participation: 36 (90%; 95%-CI: 76-97) indicated that they had not participated in the trial, and 4 could not remember. The committee concluded that the neurologist had committed fraud, in the sense that he had used the names of existing patients without these patients actually being enrolled in the study. The report of the independent committee was not made public; the committee and the NVN board differed in opinion on the interpretation and implications of the agreements regarding this subject. Following prolonged legal action, the regional Disciplinary Board suspended the neurologist from practice for one year and the court of law sentenced him to 180 days imprisonment or a fee of 130,000 Euro. Based on the experience gained from this case, recommendations in case of suspicion of fraud are discussed, such as the timely appointment of an independent inquiry committee and the establishment of unambiguous agreements regarding the disclosure of the results of the investigation. Possible legal implications should be considered in advance by the organisations involved; statutes should provide regulations for procedural rules. In the Netherlands there now exists a National Body for Scientific Integrity and a committee for the Scientific Integrity of Healthcare Research to prevent scientific misconduct and to stimulate reporting and appropriate handling of this problem. PMID:12892016
Bellary, Shantala; Krishnankutty, Binny; Latha, M S
Case report form (CRF) is a specialized document in clinical research. It should be study protocol driven, robust in content and have material to collect the study specific data. Though paper CRFs are still used largely, use of electronic CRFs (eCRFS) are gaining popularity due to the advantages they offer such as improved data quality, online discrepancy management and faster database lock etc. Main objectives behind CRF development are preserving and maintaining quality and integrity of data. CRF design should be standardized to address the needs of all users such as investigator, site coordinator, study monitor, data entry personnel, medical coder and statistician. Data should be organized in a format that facilitates and simplifies data analysis. Collection of large amount of data will result in wasted resources in collecting and processing it and in many circumstances, will not be utilized for analysis. Apart from that, standard guidelines should be followed while designing the CRF. CRF completion manual should be provided to the site personnel to promote accurate data entry by them. These measures will result in reduced query generations and improved data integrity. It is recommended to establish and maintain a library of templates of standard CRF modules as they are time saving and cost-effective. This article is an attempt to describe the methods of CRF designing in clinical research and discusses the challenges encountered in this process. PMID:25276625
H. Castañeda Vázquez
Full Text Available The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic animals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT to differentiate clinical cases from subclinical ones where 1996 samples (67 % reacted positively. Of these, 1087 samples (54.5% came from cows suffering from clinical cases of mastitis. Bacteriological identification of the causative agents revealed the presence of a major group of pathogens including the Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, S.aureus, S.agalactiae, Corynebacterium spp. and Coliform bacteria which were detected in 464 (15.6%, 175 (5.9%, 200 (6.8%, 417 (14% and 123 (4.1% of the 2927 investigated quarters, 295 (15.4%, 118 (15.7%, 111 (14.8%, 227 (30.2% and 109 (14.5% of the 752 examined cows and in 33 (100%, 22 (66.7%, 19 (57.6%, 30 (90.1% and 27 (81.8% of the 33 herds involved, respectively. Other pathogens could be detected in the investigated milk samples such as S. dysgalactiae (0.4%, S.uberis (0.37%, Bacillus spp. (1%, Nocardia spp. (0.6% und Candida spp. (0.1%. Meanwhile, others were present in a negligible ratio; including the Aerococcus viridans, and Enterococcus spp., Lactococcus lactis, S. bovis.O trabalho atual é um estudo epidemiológico que objetiva detectar a predominância da mastite subclínica e investigar os micróbios patogênicos principais do úbere no México ocidental. Com esta finalidade, foram utilizadas 2205 vacas leiteiras, representando 33 rebanhos de leiteiras mexicanas. Além dessas 2205 vacas, 752 animais com mastite foram diagnosticados, considerando-se que somente 2979 amostras do leite poderiam ser obtidas para a posterior investigação. Todas as 2979 amostras do leite foram submetidas ao teste da mastite de Califórnia (CMT para diferenciar casos clínicos dos subclínicos, visto que 1996 amostras (67% reagiram positivamente. Além dessas, 1087 amostras (54.5% vieram das vacas que sofrem de casos clínicos de mastite. A identificação bacteriológica dos agentes causais revelou a presença dos Staphylococcus negativos para coagulase (CNS, S. aureus, S. agalactiae, outros spp. Streptococcal, Corynebacterium spp., e as bactérias de coliformes foram detectadas em 464 (15.6%, 175 (5.9%, 200 (6.8%, 109 (3.9%, 417 (14% e em 123 (4.1% dos 2927 quartos investigados; em 295 (15.4%, 118 (15.7%, 111 (14.8%, 95 (12.6%, 227 (30.2% e em 109 (14.5% das 752 vacas examinadas e, finalmente, em 33 (100%, 22 (66.7%, 19 (57.6%, 30 (90.1%, 30 (90.1% e em 27 (81.8% dos 33 rebanhos envolvidos, respectivamente.
H., Castañeda Vázquez; S., Jäger; W., Wolter; M., Zschöck; M.A., Castañeda Vazquez; A., El-Sayed.
Full Text Available O trabalho atual é um estudo epidemiológico que objetiva detectar a predominância da mastite subclínica e investigar os micróbios patogênicos principais do úbere no México ocidental. Com esta finalidade, foram utilizadas 2205 vacas leiteiras, representando 33 rebanhos de leiteiras mexicanas. Além de [...] ssas 2205 vacas, 752 animais com mastite foram diagnosticados, considerando-se que somente 2979 amostras do leite poderiam ser obtidas para a posterior investigação. Todas as 2979 amostras do leite foram submetidas ao teste da mastite de Califórnia (CMT) para diferenciar casos clínicos dos subclínicos, visto que 1996 amostras (67%) reagiram positivamente. Além dessas, 1087 amostras (54.5%) vieram das vacas que sofrem de casos clínicos de mastite. A identificação bacteriológica dos agentes causais revelou a presença dos Staphylococcus negativos para coagulase (CNS), S. aureus, S. agalactiae, outros spp. Streptococcal, Corynebacterium spp., e as bactérias de coliformes foram detectadas em 464 (15.6%), 175 (5.9%), 200 (6.8%), 109 (3.9%), 417 (14%) e em 123 (4.1%) dos 2927 quartos investigados; em 295 (15.4%), 118 (15.7%), 111 (14.8%), 95 (12.6%), 227 (30.2%) e em 109 (14.5%) das 752 vacas examinadas e, finalmente, em 33 (100%), 22 (66.7%), 19 (57.6%), 30 (90.1%), 30 (90.1%) e em 27 (81.8%) dos 33 rebanhos envolvidos, respectivamente. Abstract in english The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic a [...] nimals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) to differentiate clinical cases from subclinical ones where 1996 samples (67 %) reacted positively. Of these, 1087 samples (54.5%) came from cows suffering from clinical cases of mastitis. Bacteriological identification of the causative agents revealed the presence of a major group of pathogens including the Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), S.aureus, S.agalactiae, Corynebacterium spp. and Coliform bacteria which were detected in 464 (15.6%), 175 (5.9%), 200 (6.8%), 417 (14%) and 123 (4.1%) of the 2927 investigated quarters, 295 (15.4%), 118 (15.7%), 111 (14.8%), 227 (30.2%) and 109 (14.5%) of the 752 examined cows and in 33 (100%), 22 (66.7%), 19 (57.6%), 30 (90.1%) and 27 (81.8%) of the 33 herds involved, respectively. Other pathogens could be detected in the investigated milk samples such as S. dysgalactiae (0.4%), S.uberis (0.37%), Bacillus spp. (1%), Nocardia spp. (0.6%) und Candida spp. (0.1%). Meanwhile, others were present in a negligible ratio; including the Aerococcus viridans, and Enterococcus spp., Lactococcus lactis, S. bovis.
Cabán-Martinez Alberto J; Beltrán Wilfredo F
Abstract A case reporta brief written note that describes unique aspects of a clinical caseprovides a significant function in medicine given its rapid, succinct, and educational contributions to scientific literature and clinical practice. Despite the growth of, and emphasis on, randomized clinical trials and evidenced-based medicine, case reports continue to provide novel and exceptional knowledge in medical education. The journal BMC Research Notes introduces a new case reports ...
Sampimon, O.C.; Sol, J.; Koene, M. G. J.; Schaaf, A van der; Kock, P.A.
Subclinical mastitis with a raised somatic cell count was diagnosed in a cow in her fifth lactation. It was caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which can also infect humans. This is the first time that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a mastitis sample in the Netherlands. Despite treatment with antibiotics in the dry period, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was still present in the same quarter in the subsequent lactation. The somatic cell count was still high and milk product...
We present a clinical case of radiation - induced occipital extracerebral chondrosarcoma in 36 years old young man. The patient had undergone two brain operations 8 years ago due to oligodendroglioma in the left temporo - parietal area. These surgical interventions were partial and subtotal tumor extirpation, followed by local radiotherapy to the brain to a total dose of 56Gy. The necessity of immunohistochemistry (IHH) analysis for pathologic differential diagnosis in high grade brain and peripheral tumors was discussed. In this particular case a precise differential diagnosis between peripheral chondrosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/pPNET is needed. important risk factors for the development of radiation-induced brain tumors and chondrosarcoma, extremely rarely diagnosed, was discussed. A very accurate precising of the treatment radiation dose is needed in young patients with malignant brain tumors, not only in the surrounding healthy brain tissues, but also in other tissues, such as skin, subcutaneous layer and bone. The exceeding of the radiation dose in the bone above 45-50 Gy, increases the risk of radiation - induced sarcoma with latent period over 8 years. Key words: Hondrosarcoma. Radiotherapy. Radiation-induced Sarcoma. Complex Treatment. Immunohistochemistry
P., Nogués Bara; J., Aguas Valiente; J., Pallarés Quixal.
Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) es el más frecuente y maligno de los tumores cerebrales. Su presentación en cerebelo es excepcional. CASO CLÍNICO: Paciente de 42 años con historia breve de trastorno de la marcha y cefalea. La resonancia magnética cerebral mostró una lesión de unos 4 c [...] m de diámetro sólida y quística, con edema, en hemisferio cerebeloso dcho. Se extirpó un Glioblastoma multiforme con p53 positiva. CONCLUSIONES: La edad y la p53 hacen pensar que se trate de una forma secundaria de GBM. La bibliografía revisada constata que se trata de una localización infrecuente. El tratamiento inicial es quirúrgico pero las supervivencias son cortas a pesar de la radioterapia y del uso de nuevos quimioterápicos como la Temozolomida. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant of the brain tumours. However, it is exceptionally observed in the cerebellum. CLINICAL CASE: A case of a 42 year old woman with a short history of gait disturbance and headache is reported. A MRI brain scan showed a 4 cm diameter, solid [...] and cystic tumour with edema in the right cerebellum. Surgery removed a glioblastoma multiforme with a positive p53. CONCLUSIONS: Age and positive p53 indicate that it is a secondary form. Bibliography certifies that it is an infrequent location. Initial treatment is surgery, but survival is short in spite of radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temozolamide.
On April 20, 1985 a 137Cs gamma-ray source of about 10 curies was taken into a family's bedroom. The son and both his parents were exposed to a nearly continuous irradiation for 150 days with estimated accumulated dose of 8-15 Gy. The father was complicated by skin radiation burn. The essential clinical findings on admission were general malaise, bleeding and pancytopenia (Hb 50g/l; WBC 0.4-0.7 x 109/l; platelets 10 x 109/l). The bone marrow was hypocellular with low colony yield in CFU-GM culture. The immunological examinations were essentially normal except for low E-RFC and lymphocyte transformation in all cases, and low IgA was seen only in the mother. Abnormalities were found in nail-bed microcirculation and thromboelastogram. Aspermia was detected twice in the son. The principal therapeutic measures were complete rest and adequated nutrition. The ward and nursing services were strictly controlled to avoid contamination. The son was transferred to LAFR for 2 weeks when the WBC was as low as 0.4 x 109/l. Combined large doses of stanozolol and anisodamine were prescribed for all cases, while the son and his father received fetal liver transfusions in addition. All of them recovered well, especially the son
Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.58 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (2135-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7% compared to cloxacillin (62.5%.Conclusion: Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows.Keywords: ionophore, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, solid dispersion, intramammary drug delivery system, superbugs
Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent production diseases affecting the dairy cattle industry worldwide. Its occurrence is associated with direct and indirect losses and expenditures. When estimating the cost of mastitis to the dairy industry the cost of the control programmes must be added. The direct losses of mastitis are the only costs obvious to the farmer. The difference between the costs of mastitis on one side and the benefits of mastitis control on the other side will give us a picture of the economic efficacy of the mastitis control programme. Continuing education of the farmer is needed for better mastitis control programmes. This article is an attempt to review briefly all relevant factors included in the economics of bovine mastitis and to illustrate the authors' view of some of the costs.
Full Text Available Incidence of mastitis was checked by the California Mastitis Test (CMT. 120 cows were screened and classified into 2 groups, 60 each group, namely control group (healthy and experimental group ( subclinical mastitis. Polymorphism of cow lactoferrin gene promoter was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The results showed that lactorferrin gene promoter was polymorphic among different groups, which indicated that its polymorphism was related to mastitis infection.
Aminul Islam; Abdus Samad; Akm, Anisur Rahman
The present study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of subclinical caprine mastitis based on parallel interpretation of results of three screening test. A total of 462 milk samples from 231 lactating Black Bengal goats comprises of three organized goat farms in Bangladesh were collected and were screened for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT), White Side Test (WST) and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) simultaneously. Integrated test results yield the preval...
Yu, Cheol Jae; Ahn, Weon Jeon; Lee, Houn Young; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Subclinical hypothyroidism can be defined as an asymptomatic state in which a reduction in thyroid activity has been compensated by an increased TSH output to maintain an euthyroid state. We analysed clinical features, laboratory data, and pathologic findings in 39 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism who were diagnosed at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital from Aug. 1984 to June, 1985. 1) The age distribution was from sixteen to sixty-nine and mean age was 34.8. Peak incidence was in the 4th decade and 3rd, 5th, 6th decade in order. 2) The sex distribution showed female preponderance with a ratio of 18.5 to 1. 3) The major presenting manifestations were nonspecific ones such as fatigue, indigestion, and anorexia. 4) Physical examination revealed diffuse goiter in 47.6%. Major abnormalities were no gross abnormality (30.9%), nodular goiter and facial edema. 5) There was no significant difference of the basal serum T3 and T4 concentrations between subclinical hypothyroidism and normal controls (p>0.05). 6) The basal serum TSH concentration of subclinical hypothyroidism (32.61+-14.95 muU/ml) was significantly higher than that of normal controls (3.92+-1.05 muU/ml) (p<0.005). 7) Microsomal antibody was detected in 80.6% and thyroglobulin antibody was detected in 30%. 8) The pathologic findings in 26 cases revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 76.9% (lymphocytic type, 34.6%; oxyphilic type, 26.9%; fibrotic type, 15.4%). The others were adenomatous goiter (15.4%), adenomatous carcinoma (3.8%) and subacute thyroiditis (3.8%).
Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. 26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)
Full Text Available Objectives: We are presenting 20 cases of the intriguing clinico-electromyographic entity, now considered a potassium channel disorder, Neuromyotonia. Our experience with the clinical manifestations, underlying abnormalities and response to various therapies is documented. Materials and Methods: Patients with diffuse pain or undulating muscle movements, with or without stiffness were sent for electromyographic and further studies. Patients with "neuromyotonic discharges" were included after exclusion of hypocalcaemia. Results: Our cases included 19 males and one female of age group 15 to 52 years, the majority being between 30 to 45 years. Undulating movements were seen in 19, of which two had focal twitching. Muscle stiffness was a complaint in five; pain was the chief presenting complaint of 19, which started in the calf in all. Irritability, insomnia and a peculiar worried pinched face were present in 12 patients. CSF was abnormal with mildly raised protein in eight. Curiously, 11 of these patients had taken ayurvedic treatment for various complaints in the preceding one month. Bell?s palsy was associated in four, peripheral neuropathy in two and residual poliomyelitis in two. Electromyographic evidence of spontaneous activity in the form of "neuromyotonic discharges" was seen in all. Antibodies to voltage gated potassium channels was tested in one patient and was positive (titer was 1028 pM. Membrane stabilizers (e.g., phenytoin sodium in our experience did not provide adequate rapid relief; we tried high-dose intravenous Methylprednisolone in 19 with significant amelioration of complaints. One patient was offered intravenous immunoglobulin, to which he responded. Conclusions: Neuromyotonia is a heterogeneous condition and can present in varied ways including diffuse nonspecific pain. This uncommon condition is potentially treatable and can be picked up with high index of suspicion.
Subclinical hypothyroidism can be defined as an asymptomatic state in which a reduction in thyroid activity has been compensated by an increased TSH output to maintain an euthyroid state. We analysed clinical features, laboratory data, and pathologic findings in 39 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism who were diagnosed at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital from Aug. 1984 to June, 1985. 1) The age distribution was from sixteen to sixty-nine and mean age was 34.8. Peak incidence was in the 4th decade and 3rd, 5th, 6th decade in order. 2) The sex distribution showed female preponderance with a ratio of 18.5 to 1. 3) The major presenting manifestations were nonspecific ones such as fatigue, indigestion, and anorexia. 4) Physical examination revealed diffuse goiter in 47.6%. Major abnormalities were no gross abnormality (30.9%), nodular goiter and facial edema. 5) There was no significant difference of the basal serum T3 and T4 concentrations between subclinical hypothyroidism and normal controls (p>0.05). 6) The basal serum TSH concentration of subclinical hypothyroidism (32.61±14.95 ?U/ml) was significantly higher than that of normal controls (3.92±1.05 ?U/ml) (p<0.005). 7) Microsomal antibody was detected in 80.6% and thyroglobulin antibody was detected in 30%. 8) The pathologic findings in 26 cases revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 76.9% (lymphocytic type, 34.6%; oxyphilic type, 26.9%; fibrotic type, 15.4%). The others were adentic type, 15.4%). The others were adenomatous goiter (15.4%), adenomatous carcinoma (3.8%) and subacute thyroiditis (3.8%).
Altman, Russ B.
For the past decade, Stanford Medical Informatics has combined clinical informatics and bioinformatics research and training in an explicit way. The interest in applying informatics techniques to both clinical problems and problems in basic science can be traced to the Dendral project in the 1960s. Having bioinformatics and clinical informatics in the same academic unit is still somewhat unusual and can lead to clashes of clinical and basic science cultures. Neverthele...
Cuantificación de factores de riesgo para mastitis, quistes ováricos, hipocalcemia y cetosis usando regresión logística en ganado Holstein Quantification of risk factors for mastitis, ovarian cyst, milk fever and ketosis (in Holstein cattle using logistic regression in Holstein cattle
H. A. URIBE
Full Text Available Métodos intensivos de producción de leche se han asociado con un incremento de problemas de salud del rebaño. Un aumento en producción de leche, ya sea por genética o manejo, no siempre parece ir acompañado por un aumento de rentabilidad de la empresa lechera. Se ha indicado que vacas de mayor producción tienen mayores demandas en mano de obra y una mayor frecuencia de enfermedades. El objetivo de este trabajo fue cuantificar algunos de los factores de riesgo en la incidencia de mastitis, quistes ováricos, hipocalcemia y cetosis. Casos clínicos, registrados como presentes o ausentes, fueron examinados usando regresión logística para cuantificar la asociación entre las enfermedades y las variables consideradas como factores de riesgo. Se estimaron las razones de riesgo y sus intervalos de confianza. Los datos fueron 8.391 observaciones en vacas Holstein canadienses. Los factores de riesgos considerados fueron: número de parto, estación de parto, año de parto, días en lactancia y producción de leche, grasa y proteína. Número de parto fue un factor de riesgo en todas las enfermedades estudiadas. Estación de parto y producción de leche fueron significativamente importantes para quistes ováricos e hipocalcemia. Producción de grasa y proteína no estuvieron asociadas con ninguna de las enfermedades. Días de lactancia estuvieron asociados con quistes ováricos, pero no está claro si días en lactancia es una causa o un efecto de quistes ováricosIntensive milk production methods have been related to an increase in health disorders. Milk yield improvement, either by genetics or management, is not always accompanied by a proportional increase in profits for dairy farmers. Cows with high milk yield have greater hand labour demands and a higher frequency of health disorders. The aim of this work was to asses some of the important risk factors in the incidence of mastitis, ovarian cyst, milk fever and ketosis. Clinical cases, recorded as all or no traits, were examined using logistic regression to quantify the association between diseases and variables which might be risk factors. Odds ratios and their confidence intervals were estimated. The data set consisted of observations on 8391 Canadian Holstein cows. Potential risk factors included in the models were: parity, calving season, year of calving, days in milk, milk, fat and protein yield. Parity was a risk factor for all diseases studied. Calving season and milk yield were significantly associated with ovarian cyst and milk fever. None of diseases was associated with fat or protein yield. Days in milk was found to be associated with ovarian cyst. However it is not clear if days in milk is a cause or an effect for ovarian cyst
Cuantificación de factores de riesgo para mastitis, quistes ováricos, hipocalcemia y cetosis usando regresión logística en ganado Holstein / Quantification of risk factors for mastitis, ovarian cyst, milk fever and ketosis (in Holstein cattle) using logistic regression in Holstein cattle
H. A., URIBE.
Full Text Available Métodos intensivos de producción de leche se han asociado con un incremento de problemas de salud del rebaño. Un aumento en producción de leche, ya sea por genética o manejo, no siempre parece ir acompañado por un aumento de rentabilidad de la empresa lechera. Se ha indicado que vacas de mayor produ [...] cción tienen mayores demandas en mano de obra y una mayor frecuencia de enfermedades. El objetivo de este trabajo fue cuantificar algunos de los factores de riesgo en la incidencia de mastitis, quistes ováricos, hipocalcemia y cetosis. Casos clínicos, registrados como presentes o ausentes, fueron examinados usando regresión logística para cuantificar la asociación entre las enfermedades y las variables consideradas como factores de riesgo. Se estimaron las razones de riesgo y sus intervalos de confianza. Los datos fueron 8.391 observaciones en vacas Holstein canadienses. Los factores de riesgos considerados fueron: número de parto, estación de parto, año de parto, días en lactancia y producción de leche, grasa y proteína. Número de parto fue un factor de riesgo en todas las enfermedades estudiadas. Estación de parto y producción de leche fueron significativamente importantes para quistes ováricos e hipocalcemia. Producción de grasa y proteína no estuvieron asociadas con ninguna de las enfermedades. Días de lactancia estuvieron asociados con quistes ováricos, pero no está claro si días en lactancia es una causa o un efecto de quistes ováricos Abstract in english Intensive milk production methods have been related to an increase in health disorders. Milk yield improvement, either by genetics or management, is not always accompanied by a proportional increase in profits for dairy farmers. Cows with high milk yield have greater hand labour demands and a higher [...] frequency of health disorders. The aim of this work was to asses some of the important risk factors in the incidence of mastitis, ovarian cyst, milk fever and ketosis. Clinical cases, recorded as all or no traits, were examined using logistic regression to quantify the association between diseases and variables which might be risk factors. Odds ratios and their confidence intervals were estimated. The data set consisted of observations on 8391 Canadian Holstein cows. Potential risk factors included in the models were: parity, calving season, year of calving, days in milk, milk, fat and protein yield. Parity was a risk factor for all diseases studied. Calving season and milk yield were significantly associated with ovarian cyst and milk fever. None of diseases was associated with fat or protein yield. Days in milk was found to be associated with ovarian cyst. However it is not clear if days in milk is a cause or an effect for ovarian cyst
Criterios de interpretación para California Mastitis Test en el diagnóstico de mastitis subclínica en bovinos / Interpretation criteria for California Mastitis Test in the diagnosis of subclinical Mastitis in cattle
Oscar Elisban, Gómez-Quispe; Crhis Stefani, Santivañez-Ballón; Fernando, Arauco-Villar; Oscar Henry, Espezua-Flores; Jorge, Manrique-Meza.
Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en el distrito de Tamburco (Abancay, Apurímac, Perú), con el objetivo de comparar la interpretación de los resultados de la prueba «California Mastitis Test» (CMT) en el diagnóstico de la mastitis subclínica en bovinos. Se trabajó con 209 vacas de una población de 459 en ordeño [...] manual, pertenecientes a 95 criadores, donde se evaluaron 828 cuartos mamarios funcionales y se estimaron los principales criterios de interpretación de la CMT. La prevalencia de mastitis subclínica fue de 72.3 y 65.6% en las vacas y de 48.7 y 42.3% en el total de cuartos mamarios, considerando y sin considerar trazas como positivos, respectivamente, y sin diferencia significativa. La prevalencia de mastitis subclínica en los cuartos mamarios individuales varió entre 48.3 y 49.3% y de 40.0 y 45.5%, según el cuarto, considerando y sin considerar trazas, respectivamente (p Abstract in english The study was conducted in the district of Tamburco (Abancay, Apurimac, Peru) with the aim of comparing interpretation criteria of California Mastitis Test (CMT) in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. Two hundred and nine cows from a population of 459 hand-milked cows belonging to 95 br [...] eeders were used. A total of 828 functional mammary quarters were evaluated and the main criteria for CMT interpretation were estimated. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cows was 72.3 and 65.6%, and in total mammary quarters was 48.7 and 42.3% with and without considering traces as positives respectively, and without statistical difference. The estimated prevalence in individual mammary quarters varied between 48.3 to 49.3% and depending of the mammary quarter between 40.0 to 45.5% with and without considering traces as positives respectively (p
Pedro, Sá; Pedro, Marques; Carolina, Oliveira; André Sá, Rodrigues; Nelson, Amorim; Rui, Pinto.
Full Text Available A doença de Gorham, também conhecida por osteólise maciça idiopática, é uma patologia rara, caraterizada por uma proliferação vascular que resulta na destruição e reabsorção da matriz óssea, de etiologia desconhecida. Foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1838 por Jackson, mas foram Gorham e Stout, em 1 [...] 955, que definiram a doença como uma entidade específica. Com uma apresentação clinica variável, geralmente tem um comportamento progressivo. O tratamento permanece controverso, não há um tratamento padrão. Essa patologia apresenta geralmente um prognóstico favorável. É apresentado um caso de doença de Gorham com envolvimento do quadril esquerdo, num doente do sexo masculino, sem antecedentes de relevo. Abstract in english Gorham's disease, also known as idiopathic massive osteolysis, is a rare pathological condition characterized by vascular proliferation that results in destruction and reabsorption of the bone matrix, of unknown etiology. It was first described by Jackson in 1838, but it was Gorham and Stout, in 195 [...] 5, who defined this disease as a specific entity. It has variable clinical presentation and generally has progressive behavior. Controversy continues regarding the treatment and there is no standard treatment. This pathological condition generally presents a favorable prognosis. Here, a case of Gorham's disease with involvement of the left hip is presented, in a male patient without relevant antecedents.
Miké, V; Krauss, A N; Ross, G S
Proper evaluation of clinical innovations and of the process of their diffusion is essential for the development of sound health care policy. This case study examines transcutaneous oxygen monitoring in neonatal intensive care, a procedure that was rapidly adopted in the late 1970s as a scientific breakthrough of great promise, then all but abandoned within a decade in favor of pulse oximetry, a still more recent technology. The study incorporates the results of interviews with representatives of industry as well as biomedical researchers and clinicians involved with these devices. Factors in technology diffusion are analyzed, with special attention to those susceptible to change by policy makers. Participants in the diffusion process also include nurses, hospital administrators, the legal profession, the news media, and the public, but the pivotal role--and hence ultimate responsibility--is seen to be that of the physician. The discussion is presented in the context of a proposed "ethics of evidence" pertinent to medical decision making. PMID:10183338
Ansari Mohammad Mujahid, Joshi DS, Rahman MA.
Full Text Available Context: Congenital anomaly is commonly found in the urinary system in which collecting system is frequently encountered. Among other type bifid ureter is one of the common variations. Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical and the embryological significance of the unilateral bifid ureter. Design: The presence of unilateral bifid ureter was seen as an incidental finding during dissection of the anatomy of an adult male cadaver. The cause of such variation is a fusion of ureteric bud during intrauterine development. Outcome: The knowledge of such relationship is important for a surgeon during renal surgeries. This is one of the rare case reported with no other renal and collecting system congenital anomalies found with left sided bifid ureter. Conclusion: Surgeons and Nephrologists must keep the unilateral bifid ureter in their mind while making differential diagnosis of ureteric calculus. Surgery is nearly always required in the bifid ureter to cure the problem when associated with complication such as reimplantation surgery in vesicoureteric reflux, uretropyelostomy in saddle reflux bifid ureter. The unilateral bifid ureter may be similar to the collecting system obstruction in the form of ureteric stone and utmost care should be taken by Surgeons during renal and ureteric calculi surgeries.
Teresa Param S.
Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de timolipoma mediastínico en un paciente de 14 años portador de asma bronquial, pesquisado durante el control de una crisis bronquial obstructiva. El diagnóstico de este tumor fue planteado por las imágenes en la Rx de tórax y por la tomografía axial computarizada (TAC previo a su extirpación quirúrgica. No hubo síntomas atribuibles a este tumor, como tampoco disminución en los volúmenes pulmonares a pesar de la gran masa que contenía el tórax. Al extirparlo se comprobó un peso de 1 200 g y el estudio histológico confirmó la sospecha planteada por la característica en la Rx y TAC de tóraxWe present a case of a thymic lipoma in a 14 year old patient with bronchial asthma. The tumor was diagnosed during an obstructive bronchial crisis, in which a chest x-ray and a CT chest scan were performed. The patient did not have symptoms from the tumor, even though it was a large mass weighing 1.200 g. Histological examination of the tumor confirmed the clinical diagnosis
Shimodaira, Kentaro; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Sadatomo, Ai; Miyazaki, Chieko; Sasanuma, Hideki; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Hozumi, Yasuo; Lefor, Alan T.; YASUDA, YOSHIKAZU
We report a rare case of acute mastitis caused by enteric organisms passing through a cystoperitoneal shunt catheter, which had penetrated into the colon. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who underwent shunt placement for cyst formation after surgery for meningioma at the age of 29. After 26 years, she suffered from a brain abscess and an attempt was made to surgically remove the indwelling catheter. Only part of the catheter could be removed, leaving a divided and ligated catheter in situ....
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Six genomic regions affecting clinical mastitis were identified through a GWAS study with imputed BovineHD chip genotype data in the Nordic Holstein cattle population. The association analyses were carried out using a SNP-by-SNP analysis by fitting the regression of allele dosage and a polygenic component in a linear mixed model. A total of 90 bulls whole genomes were sequenced with a coverage > 10X. Sequence reads were aligned to the cattle reference genome and polymorphisms in candidate regions were identified when one or more samples differed from the reference sequence. The polymorphisms in the six QTL regions were imputed in 5,193 genotyped bulls using Beagle v3.3. After imputation and quality control there were on average 4,600 markers/Mbp. Association analyses with imputed sequence data were repeated for the targeted regions. Functional annotations of the variants were done using Variant Effect Predictor (VEP) vers. 2.6 using ENSEMBL vers. 67 databases. Candidate polymorphisms affecting clinical mastitis were selected based on their association with the traits and functional annotations. A strong positional candidate gene for mastitis resistance on chromosome-6 is the NPFFR2 which encodes neuropeptide FF receptor 2. Many neuropeptides participate in immune responses by acting as stimulators or inhibitors of macrophage activity. NPFFR2 also binds the prolactin-releasing-hormone, suggesting that NPFFR2 may play a role in prolactin secretion. On chromosome-20, Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Alpha (LIFR) emerged as a strong candidate gene for mastitis resistance. The LIFR gene is involved in acute phase response and is expressed in saliva and mammary gland.
Treatment of subclinical mastitis through the mineral homeopathic supplement in the diet of lactating milking cows: case study. Tratamiento de la mastitis subclÃÂnica mediante suplementaciÃÂ³n de la dieta de vacas lecheras en lactaciÃÂ³n: estudio de caso. Tratamento de mastite subclÃÂnica por meio de suplementaÃÂ§ÃÂ£o mineral homeopÃÂ¡tica da dieta de vacas leiteiras em lactaÃÂ§ÃÂ£o: estudo de caso.
Full Text Available The present work results from experimental research conducted in a dairy establishment in the city of Perobal, Paraná. It was tested a homeopathic treatment in 32 animals with symptoms of subclinic mastitis detected previously by the California Mastitis Test (CMT.The remedies were prepared according to the Hahnemannian method for the decimal scale and divided in 4 groups according to their pathogenetic action: Group A (Phytolacca D30, Urtica ureus D3, Asa foetida D6; Group B (Phytolacca D12, Magnesium fluoricum D12, Kalium muriatium D6; Group C (Hepar sulphur D200, Magnesium fluoricum D200, Streptococcinum D200, Staphylococcinum D200; Group D (Urtica ureus D30, Lachesis D12, Pulsatilla D30.They were administrated in the dosage of 300g per day per animal during 90 days. It could be verified that subclinical mastitis, as predicted by indirect cellularity, decreased from 44,5% to 3,9%, a statistically significant (p
Marlis, Täger F; Johanne, Jahnsen K; Marisol, Mediavilla R; Roberto, Burgos L.
Full Text Available La enfermedad por arañazo de gato se manifiesta típicamente como una linfadenopatía regional sub-aguda; sin embargo, 5 a 25% de los pacientes infectados por Bartonella henselae desarrollan formas atípicas o sistémicas de la enfermedad, pudiendo evolucionar con compromiso ocular. Consideramos de inte [...] rés describir las características clínicas, tratamiento y evolución de tres pacientes con bartonelosis ocular, dos adolescentes y un adulto joven, que tenían antecedentes de contacto y/o rasguño por gatos. Todos cursaron con síndrome febril prolongado, con 15 a 21 días de duración, asociado a pérdida súbita de la agudeza visual unilateral en dos casos, cuya fondoscopia reveló neuritis óptica. El otro paciente presentó retino-coroiditis y microgranulomas retiñíanos, con agudeza visual conservada. Todos recibieron tratamiento antimicrobiano con macrólidos solos o asociados a rifam-picina y uno recibió además corticosteroides sisté-micos. La evolución fue satisfactoria en dos, quedando un paciente con déficit visual permanente. Recomendamos sospechar bartonelosis ocular en pacientes con antecedentes de contacto y/o rasguños por gatos, que cursan con un síndrome febril prolongado y/o disminución súbita de la agudeza visual Abstract in english The characteristic clinical presentation of cat scratch disease is subacute regional lymphadenopathy; nevertheless, 5-25% of Bartonella henselcie infections may present an atypical or systemic form, with potential eye involvement. We describe three clinical cases of ocular bartonellosis in two adole [...] scents and one young adult, who had close contact with cats; all of them presented persistent fever ranging from 15 to 21 days, and two of them developed a sudden unilateral loss of visual acuity associated with optic neuritis. The other patient presented retinal choroiditis and unilateral retinal microgranulomas, with normal visual acuity. Patients received macrolides as sole antimicrobial or in association with rifampin, and one patient was additionally treated with systemic corticoids. The outcome was favorable in two patients; one patient developed a permanent visual deficit. Ocular bartonellosis must be suspected in patients with close contact to cats or with cat scratches whom develop persistent fever and sudden loss of visual acuity
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 70 inpatients diagnosed with PBC from January 2008 to March 2013. The initial symptoms, liver function, and antimitochondrial antibody (AMA subtypes (M2, M4, and M9 of patients, as well as the pathological results of 3 cases, were recorded. The increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test. ResultsOf all patients, 84.3% were females; the mean age was 59.2±8.7 years. The main clinical manifestations included weakness (25.7%, itching (24.3%, discomfort in the upper right abdominal quadrant (18.6%, and abdominal distension (18.6%. Abnormal liver function was mainly characterized by significant increases in GGT (324.5±250.4 U/L and ALP(381.1±259.0 U/L. The number of patients with more than 5-fold increase in GGT was significantly higher than the numbers of patients with more than 5-fold increases in ALT, AST, and ALP (u=-5.861, P=0?000; u=-4.036, P=0.000; u=-4.445, P=0.000. The numbers of patients with more than 2-fold increases in AST and ALP were significantly higher than the number of patients with more than 2-fold increase in ALT (u=-4.405, P=0.000; u=-3.625, P=0.000. Among all patients, 87.1% were positive for antimitochondrial M2 antibody (AM2A, 31.4% were positive for AM4A, and 11?4% were positive for AM9A. ConclusionPBC, more common in females, is the chronic liver damage characterized by significant increases in GGT and ALP. Detection of AMA subtypes (M2, M4and M9 is valuable for confirming the diagnosis of PBC.
Borgonovo, A. E.; Rigaldo, F.; Battaglia, D.; Giannì, A. B.
Aim. The aim of this work is to describe a case of immediate implant placement after extraction of the upper right first premolar, with the use of CAD/CAM technology, which allows an early digital impression of the implant site with an intraoral scanner (MHT 3D Progress, Verona, Italy). Case Report. A 46-year-old female was referred with a disorder caused by continuous debonding of the prosthetic crown on the upper right first premolar. Clinically, there were no signs, and the evaluation of the periapical radiograph showed a fracture of the root, with a mesial well-defined lesion of the hard tissue of the upper right first premolar, as the radiolucent area affected the root surface of the tooth. It was decided, in accordance with the patient, that the tooth would be extracted and the implant (Primer, Edierre implant system, Genoa, Italy) with diameter of 4.2?mm and length of 13?mm would be inserted. After the insertion of the implant, it was screwed to the scan abutment, and a scan was taken using an intraoral scanner (MHT 3D Progress, Verona, Italy). The scanned images were processed with CAD/CAM software (Exocad DentalCAD, Darmstadt, Germany) and the temporary crown was digitally drawn (Dental Knowledge, Milan, Italy) and then sent to the milling machine for production with a composite monoblock. After 4 months, when the implant was osteointegrated, it was not necessary to take another dental impression, and the definitive crown could be screwed in. Conclusion. The CAD/CAM technology is especially helpful in postextraction implant for aesthetic rehabilitation, as it is possible to immediately fix a provisional crown with an anatomic shape that allows an optimal healing process of the tissues. Moreover, the removal of healing abutments, and the use of impression copings, impression materials, and dental stone became unnecessary, enabling the reduction of the chair time, component cost, and patient's discomfort. However, it is still necessary for scientific research to continue to carry out studies on this procedure, in order to improve the accuracy, the reliability, and the reproducibility of the results. PMID:25610665
Nadienka, Rodríguez Ramos; Joanchin, Barrios Cambas; Norky Gennie, Chávez Morales; Maritza, Ramos Ramos; , Rodríguez Llanusa.
Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de litiasis de infección, conocida con el nombre de cálculos de estruvita y asociado a una enfermedad metabólica subyacente y diabetes mellitus tipo 2 de reciente debut, el cual se manifestó con oliguria e infección, como resultado de una obstrucción urinaria bilateral parcial. E [...] l paciente de 48 años de edad, con antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica, hipertensión arterial y de expulsar cálculos de riñón, consultó su caso el 21 de enero de 2009. Manejaba cifras de creatinina, glicemia y acido úrico normales anterior al ingreso y estas tuvieron un comportamiento ascendente durante la obstrucción, excepto el ácido úrico. En el diagnóstico aportaron datos de interés la ecografía renal y de próstata, la Uro-TAC y gammagrafía renal con MAG-3. El diagnóstico diferencial incluyó toda causa extrínseca e intrínseca, esta última relacionada con cálculos, coágulos o papila renal necrosada, que provocaran alteración al libre flujo urinario. Se estableció como patrones de buena evolución, la recuperación del volumen urinario, la normalización de la glucemia y creatinina, así como la permanencia del urocultivo negativo. El manejo terapéutico motivó a la utilización de la nefrolitotomía percútanea como una de las opciones que ofrecen los procederes endorulógicos, además del control de las enfermedades de base, lo que resultó una favorable evolución del caso. Abstract in english A clinical case of lithiasis of infection is presented, known as calculi of struvite associated to an underlying metabolic disease and diabetes mellitus type-2 of recent onset, with oliguria and infection as a result of a partial bilateral urinary infection. A 48 years-old patient having medical rec [...] ords of ischemic heart disease, hypertension and expulsion of kidney stones attended to the office in January 21, 2009 presenting normal values of creatinine, glycemia and uric acid before the admission; these values increased during the obstruction, except the uric acid. Renal and prostate imaging, the Uro-Computerized axial tomography and renal scintigraphy with MAG-3 showed data of interest. Differential diagnosis included extrinsic and intrinsic causes, the last one related to calculi, clots or renal necrotic papilla causing disorder of the free urinary flow. Patterns of good progress were established: recovery of the urinary volume, normal levels of glycemia and creatinine and a permanent negative uroculture. Therapeutic management motivated the use of percutaneous nephrolithotomy as one of the choices for endourologic procedures, as well as the control of the underlying diseases, being favorable for a good progress of the case.
Nadienka Rodríguez Ramos
Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de litiasis de infección, conocida con el nombre de cálculos de estruvita y asociado a una enfermedad metabólica subyacente y diabetes mellitus tipo 2 de reciente debut, el cual se manifestó con oliguria e infección, como resultado de una obstrucción urinaria bilateral parcial. El paciente de 48 años de edad, con antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica, hipertensión arterial y de expulsar cálculos de riñón, consultó su caso el 21 de enero de 2009. Manejaba cifras de creatinina, glicemia y acido úrico normales anterior al ingreso y estas tuvieron un comportamiento ascendente durante la obstrucción, excepto el ácido úrico. En el diagnóstico aportaron datos de interés la ecografía renal y de próstata, la Uro-TAC y gammagrafía renal con MAG-3. El diagnóstico diferencial incluyó toda causa extrínseca e intrínseca, esta última relacionada con cálculos, coágulos o papila renal necrosada, que provocaran alteración al libre flujo urinario. Se estableció como patrones de buena evolución, la recuperación del volumen urinario, la normalización de la glucemia y creatinina, así como la permanencia del urocultivo negativo. El manejo terapéutico motivó a la utilización de la nefrolitotomía percútanea como una de las opciones que ofrecen los procederes endorulógicos, además del control de las enfermedades de base, lo que resultó una favorable evolución del caso.A clinical case of lithiasis of infection is presented, known as calculi of struvite associated to an underlying metabolic disease and diabetes mellitus type-2 of recent onset, with oliguria and infection as a result of a partial bilateral urinary infection. A 48 years-old patient having medical records of ischemic heart disease, hypertension and expulsion of kidney stones attended to the office in January 21, 2009 presenting normal values of creatinine, glycemia and uric acid before the admission; these values increased during the obstruction, except the uric acid. Renal and prostate imaging, the Uro-Computerized axial tomography and renal scintigraphy with MAG-3 showed data of interest. Differential diagnosis included extrinsic and intrinsic causes, the last one related to calculi, clots or renal necrotic papilla causing disorder of the free urinary flow. Patterns of good progress were established: recovery of the urinary volume, normal levels of glycemia and creatinine and a permanent negative uroculture. Therapeutic management motivated the use of percutaneous nephrolithotomy as one of the choices for endourologic procedures, as well as the control of the underlying diseases, being favorable for a good progress of the case.
Full Text Available Objective: Granulomatous mastitis is a benign disorder which closely mimics malignancy clinico-radiologically. A simple and cost effective modality like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC can help in prompt diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgery. Material and Methods: A retrospective study where data were collected for granulomatous lesions of the breast diagnosed by histopathology in a five year period and review of FNAC slides. Cases positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis either on ZN stain or Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and fungus were excluded. A total of 8 cases were included in our study for analysis. Results: All the cases showed the presence of granuloma composed of epithelioid histiocytes against a background of giant cells, polymorphs with absence of necrosis. Conclusion: Cytological diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis is difficult as it overlaps with other etiologies like tuberculosis which is prevalent in this part of the world. However, with the use of ancillary techniques like PCR and negative microbiological investigations, a definitive diagnosis can be made.
Marc P. McRae
Full Text Available Introduction: Biochemistry has traditionally been taught through lectures and rote memorization paying little attention to nurturing key problem solving skills. The literature on clinical case studies utilized in health education indicates that case studies facilitate and promote active learning, help clinical problem solving and encourage the development of critical thinking skills. Methods: This paper describes a method of using clinical case studies to deepen and solidify the students understanding of biochemical facts and concepts as related to clinical medicine. Discussion: Clinical case studies can be a helpful adjunct for teaching the content of human biochemistry that complements the traditional approach of lecture, textbook and laboratory. The learning issues presented to the students required them to reformulate biochemical concepts in their own words, integrate diverse principles and decide what information was important and what was superfluous. Limitations include a small subset of students riding the coat tails of their more ambitious peers, and biochemistry professors not having the confidence to take the students through a clinical case study because they may feel like they do not have sufficient clinical expertise. Conclusion: Clinical case studies are a valuable addition to the traditional methods of lecture, textbook reading and laboratory for teaching biochemistry. More importantly clinical case studies help remind students that what they are learning has relevance in the real world, and may help motivate students to pay more attention to the numerous facts faced in biochemistry.
Moreland, Meagan L.
In this case study, the researcher closely examined an active, university-based reading clinic. In particular, this study explored the experiences and perspectives of the stakeholders regarding the reading clinic. It also sought to identify major factors contributing to the sustainability and growth of the reading clinic. The first research
Full Text Available Streptococci are frequently isolated from bovine mastitis in dairy cows with only limited information available on the antimicrobial susceptibility of these organisms. A total of 42 Streptococci isolated from 148 milk samples of normal, sub acute and acute bovine mastitis cases. Overall, 35% of the strains tested were Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus agalactiae 26%, Streptococcus uberis 18 and 4% were Enterococcus sp. Differences between the number of isolations in acute and sub acute groups were statistically significant, (p<0.5. The antimicrobial susceptibility for these organisms was determined for the following antimicrobial agents: cephalexine, penicillin, clindamycin, cloxaciline, gentamicin, streptomycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin. S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and Enterococci demonstrated high level of resistance against streptomycin, penicillin and cloxaciline. Low level of sensitivity to other tested antimicrobials was demonstrated.
Pant Ishita; Joshi Sanjeev; Kaur Gurjeet; Kumar Gokula
Pilomatricoma (PMC) is a relatively uncommon benign skin neoplasm arising from the skin adnexa. Since the first description of PMC in 1880, there has been a gradual increase in understanding of the morphologic features and clinical presentation of this tumor. However, difficulties still persist in making clinical and cytologic diagnosis. We report the clinical and histopathological findings of two cases of pilomatricoma. In case 1, a 10-year-old girl presented with a right upper back mass. In...
Full Text Available Newly purchased animals that enter a herd with high milk production can be infected with pathogens of the mammary gland and are a potential risk of infection to the cows on the farm. This risk cannot be avoided entirely, but it can be minimized by taking biosecurity measures that should be written as a policy developed for biosecurity oversight of veterinary service: when older cows are purchased, they should be bought with complete lactations and SCC records, and bacterial examination of milk from the udder quarters must be negative for pathogens of the udder; newly purchased cows should come from herds in which the geometric mean somatic cell count is less than 200,000. The herd must have individual cow SCC recorded at least bimonthly for the previous 6 months; the herd must not have had any history of Strep. agalactiae infection in the last 2 years, the herd should be BVDV-free or vaccinated, and the herd owner must be honest and willing to provide all this information. Our country has accepted the standards for milk quality and hygienic properties that comply with EU standards. The proposed biosafety measures presented in this paper enable the determination of the health status of the herd and the biosecurity level of mastitis in commercial farming in intensive dairy production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31034
Thomas F. Fisher PhD, OT, FAOTA
Full Text Available This study explores the perception of satisfaction of caregivers who attended a feeding clinic at a large pediatric hospital in the midwest. The clinic is designed for a multidisciplinary team to meet with the child and the caregiver. Thirty-five participants were involved in the study. Results indicated that most participants were satisfied with the clinic experience. However, there were areas of care not covered by the members of the feeding team, which indicates a need. It is suggested that this need could be filled by occupational therapists.
Amaro, Fátima; Luz, Teresa; Parreira, Paulo; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Marchi, Antonella; Janeiro, Nuno; Zagalo, Alexandra; Proença, Paula; Ramos, Maria Isabel; Alves, Maria João
Toscana virus (Phlebovirus genus, Bunyaviridae family) is a neurotropic virus which circulates in the Mediterranean Basin. Although Portugal has been the second country where its presence was reported, the existence of this virus in our country has been referred only sporadically, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding the prevalence of antibodies in the population. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence of antibodies anti-Toscana virus in the human population in our country. Sero-epidemiological investigations were performed with indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. The study population consisted of a control population (blood donors, n=150), a population considered at risk (n=236) and a population of individuals with symptoms and laboratory diagnostic request for vector-borne viruses. The latter population was divided into two groups: those individuals with neurological symptoms (n=165) and those without neurological symptoms (n=373). We tested sera from a total of 924 individuals. The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in the control population was 2%. In the population considered at risk, the prevalence was 3.4%. In the population with central nervous system disease, we detected a seroprevalence of 4.2%. For the same type of antibodies and in subjects without central nervous system disease, the prevalence was 1.3%. Five cases of recent infection (3%) were detected in the population with neurological signs. Those infections have been acquired in the districts of Faro, Coimbra, Aveiro and Lisbon. The associated clinical diagnoses were meningitis, meningoencephalitis and rash. The observed seroprevalences were, in general, lower than reported in other endemic countries. Only 5 of the 29 sera which gave positive results by IFA and ELISA were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization tests with the Italian strain ISS.Phl.3. This can indicate the presence of more than one Toscana virus serotype circulating in Portugal and emphasizes the need for more research about this etiological agent in our country. PMID:22849940
Sampimon, O C; Sol, J; Koene, M G J; van der Schaaf, A; Kock, P A
Subclinical mastitis with a raised somatic cell count was diagnosed in a cow in her fifth lactation. It was caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which can also infect humans. This is the first time that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a mastitis sample in The Netherlands. Despite treatment with antibiotics in the dry period, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was still present in the same quarter in the subsequent lactation. The somatic cell count was still high and milk production was much lower than in previous lactation. The pathogen did not spread to other quarters of the same cow or to herd mates on the farm over a 1-year period. PMID:15938449
Schulman, N F; Sahana, G
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell score (SCS) were mapped on bovine chromosome 11. The mapping population consisted of 14 grandsire families belonging to three Nordic red cattle breeds: Finnish Ayrshire (FA), Swedish Red and White (SRB) and Danish Red. The families had previously been shown to segregate for udder health QTL. A total of 524 progeny tested bulls were included in the analysis. A linkage map including 33 microsatellite and five SNP markers was constructed. We performed combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis (LDLA) using the whole data set. Further analyses were performed for FA and SRB separately to study the origin of the identified QTL/haplotype and to examine if it was common in both populations. Finally, different two-trait models were fitted. These postulated either a pleiotropic QTL affecting both traits; two linked QTL, each affecting one trait; or one QTL affecting a single trait. A QTL affecting CM was fine-mapped. In FA, a haplotype having a strong association with a high negative effect on mastitis resistance was identified. The mapping precision of an earlier detected SCS-QTL was not improved by the LDLA analysis because of lack of linkage disequilibrium between the markers used and the QTL in the region Udgivelsesdato: August
Identificación de biotipos de Staphyloccocus aureus en vacas lecheras de producción familiar con mastitis subclínica en la región centro-este del Estado de México / Staphylococcus aureus biotypes in cows presenting subclinical mastitis from family dairy herds in the Central-Eastern State of Mexico
Ana María, Manjarrez López; Soledad, Díaz Zarco; Félix, Salazar García; Benjamín, Valladares Carranza; Adriana del Carmen, Gutiérrez Castillo; Alberto, Barbabosa Plliego; Martín, Talavera Rojas; María Uxúa, Alonso Fresán; Valente, Velázquez Ordoñez.
Full Text Available La mastitis ocasiona grandes pérdidas económicas en los hatos lecheros. El Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales agentes causales de la enfermedad, considerado de importancia en la salud pública y la salud del hato. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de S. aureus y los bi [...] otipos predominantes en vacas con mastitis subclínica en hatos de producción lechera familiar en la región económica I, Centro-Este del Estado de México. Se condujo un estudio trasversal, en 269 vacas de diferentes etapas de lactación e información del hato en una encuesta cerrada. La muestra de leche se recolectó de cada vaca. La detección de mastitis se realizó mediante la prueba de California. Los biotipos de S. aureus se caracterizaron por medio de la técnica de agar tripticasa soya adicionado con cristal violeta 1:100,000. En las vacas estudiadas la prevalencia de mastitis subclínica fue del 48.3 % (IC95% 42.22 a 54.47) y de mastitis clínica 6.1 % (IC95% 3.44 a 9.48). Se obtuvieron 62 aislamientos de S. aureus, el 79 % correspondió al biotipo C (humano), el 11.3 % al A (bovino), el 6.5 % al E (canino) y el 3.2 % a hospederos no específicos. El tamaño del hato resultó un factor de riesgo asociado a la mayor frecuencia de S. aureus, especialmente cuando el hato fue mayor de 13 vacas (OR = 5.63, IC95% 1.72 a 18.21). Se identifico una prevalencia elevada de mastitis subclínica asociada a la infección por S. aureus Biotipos C y A considerados de importancia en la salud pública. Abstract in english Mastitis causes great economic loss in dairy farms. One of the main agents involved is Staphylococcus aureus, which is important not only in public health but in herd health as well. The aim of this study was to determine S. aureus frequency and the predominant biotypes in cows presenting subclinica [...] l mastitis from family dairy farms in the Central-Eastern zone of the State of Mexico. A transversal study was conducted considering 269 dairy cows in different lactation periods and herd information was taken through a closed questionnaire. Individual milk samples were taken and California test was used for mastitis detection. Biotypes were identified using soy tripticase agar with violet cristal added (1:100,000). Results show a subclinical mastitis prevalence of 48.3 % (CI95% 42.22 to 54.47) and for clinical mastitis 6.1 % (CI95% 3.44 to 9.48). 62 S. aureus isolations were obtained, from which 79 % were biotype C (Human), 11.3 % A (Bovine), 6.5 % E (Canine) and 3.2 % from non specific hosts. Herd size represented a risk factor associated to S. aureus frequency, especially when the herd was larger than 13 cows (OR=5.63, CI95% 1.72 to 18.21). In the family dairy herds there was a high prevalence of subclinical mastitis associated to the infection produced by S. aureus Biotypes C and A, considered important in public health.
Zaitlen, N; Lindström, S; Pasaniuc, B; Cornelis, M.; Genovese, G; Pollack, S; Barton, A; Bickeböller, H; Bowden, DW; Eyre, S.; Freedman, BI; Friedman, DJ; Field, JK; Groop, L.; Haugen, A
Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from lowBMI cases are larger than those estimated from highBMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals...
Preliminary study of homeopathic treatment of subclinical mastitis evaluated through somatic cells count (SCC and California mastitis test (CMT Estudio preliminar del tratamiento homeopÃÂ¡tico de la mastitis sublÃÂnica evaluado mediante recuento de cÃÂ©lulas somÃÂ¡ticas (SCC y California Mastitis Test (CMT Estudo preliminar do tratamento homeopÃÂ¡tico da mastite subclÃÂnica avaliado por contagem de cÃÂ©lulas somÃÂ¡ticas (SCC e California Mastitis Test (CMT
Carlos Dias Barzon
Full Text Available The present paper presents the results of homeopathic treatment of 25 Holstein breed cows aged 3 to 8 years old diagnosed with subclinical mastitis through California Mastitis Test (CMT. Animals were divided into 3 groups according with infection level. A homeopathic complex was developed on the grounds of clinical aspects, including Phosphorus 30x, Phytolacca 30x, Silicea 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x and biotherapic of Staphylococcus aureus 200x. The remedy was added to salt and was administered to cattle 100g/cow/day for 75 days. CMT were carried out every 2 weeks to control incidence and severity of mastitis; somatic cells count (SCC was performed at the beginning and the end of treatment. CMT showed significant improvement in regression of infection level all throughout the study; final SCC showed decrease in 82% of animals, signaling thus efficacy of the homeopathic treatment. Keywords:ÃÂ Subclinical mastitis; Dairy cows; Homeopathy; California Mastitis Test, Somatic Cells Count. ÃÂ Estudo preliminar do tratamento homeopÃÂ¡tico da mastite subclÃÂnica avaliado por contagem de cÃÂ©lulas somÃÂ¡ticas (SCC e California Mastitis Test (CMT Resumo Este artigo apresenta os resultados do tratamento homeopÃÂ¡tico de 25 vacas raÃÂ§a Holstein entre 3 e 8 anos de idade diagnosticadas com mastite subclÃÂnica atravÃÂ©s do California Mastitis Test (CMT. Os animais foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o nÃÂvel da infecÃÂ§ÃÂ£o. Foi preparado um complexo homeopÃÂ¡tico com base nos achados clÃÂnicos, composto de: Phosphorus 30X, Phytolacca 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Silicea 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x s 30X, Phytolacca 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Silicea 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x e bioterÃÂ¡pico de Staphylococcus aureus 200x. O complexo foi acrescentado no sal e administrado na dose de 100g/vaca/dia. O CMT foi realizado a cada 2 semanas a fim de monitorar a incidÃÂªncia e gravidade da mastitie; a contagem de cÃÂ©lulas somÃÂ¡ticas (SCC foi realizada ao inÃÂcio e no final do tratamento. Os valores do CMT mostraram melhora significativa no sentido de regressÃÂ£o do nÃÂvel da infecÃÂ§ÃÂ£o ao longo do estudo; o valor final da SCC diminuiu em 82% dos animais, apontando para a eficÃÂ¡cia do tratamento homeopÃÂ¡tico. Palavras-chave:ÃÂ Mastite subclÃÂnica; Vacas leiteiras; Homeopatia; CMT, contagem de cÃÂ©lulas somÃÂ¡ticas. ÃÂ Estudio preliminar del tratamiento homeopÃÂ¡tico de la mastitis sublÃÂnica evaluado mediante recuento de cÃÂ©lulas somÃÂ¡ticas (SCC y California Mastitis Test (CMT Resumen Este artÃÂculo presenta los resultados del tratamiento homeopÃÂ¡tico de 25 vacas raza Holstein entre 3 e 8 aÃÂ±os de edad diagnosticadas com mastitis sucblÃÂnica mediante California Mastitis Test (CMT. Los animales fueron divididos en 3 grupos segÃÂºn el nÃÂvel de la infecciÃÂ³n. Fue compuesto un complejo homeopÃÂ¡tico con base en la presentaciÃÂ³n clÃÂnica, incluyendo Phosphorus 30X, Phytolacca 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Silicea 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x y bioterÃÂ¡pico de Staphylococcus aureus 200x. El complejo fue agregado en sal y administrado a los animales en la dosis de 100g/vaca/dÃÂa. CMT fue realizado cada 2 semanas para monitorizar la incidencia y gravedad de la mastitis; recuento de cÃÂ©lulas somÃÂ¡ticas (SCC fue realizado al inicio y al final del tratamiento. CMT mostrÃÂ³ mejorÃÂa significativa en el sentido de regresiÃÂ³n del nivel de la infecciÃÂ³n a lo largo del estudio; el valor final del SCC disminuyÃÂ³ en 82% de los animales, apuntando para la eficacia del tratamiento homeopÃÂ¡tico. Palabras-clave:ÃÂ Mastitis subclÃÂnica; Vacas lecheras; HomeopatÃÂa; CMT, r
Singh, P M; Gupta, R.C.; Prasad, G.C; Udupa, K. N.
The present study includes 50 patients suffering from psychological stress disorders like thyrotoxicosis and anxiety neurosis. Biochemical estimation of melatonin was done in all these cases prior to treatment and 3 months after appropriate treatment. A significant increase in the level of melatonin was observed in thyrotoxic and anxiety neurotic cases. In all these cases, after therapy the level of melatonin was found to be within the normal limits. These observations confirm the finding tha...
Pisanu, Salvatore; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Rocca, Stefano; Cacciotto, Carla; Alberti, Alberto; Marogna, Gavino; Uzzau, Sergio; Addis, Maria Filippa
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins that are released extracellularly by neutrophils and other immune cells as a means for trapping and killing invading pathogens. Here, we describe NET formation in milk and in mammary alveoli of mastitic sheep, and provide a dataset of proteins found in association to these structures. Nucleic acid staining, immunomicroscopy and fluorescent in-situ hybridization of mastitic mammary tissue from sheep infected with Streptococcus uberis demonstrated the presence of extranuclear DNA colocalizing with antimicrobial proteins, histones, and bacteria. Then, proteomic analysis by LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometry provided detailed information on protein abundance changes occurring in milk upon infection. As a result, 1095 unique proteins were identified, of which 287 being significantly more abundant in mastitic milk. Upon protein ontology classification, the most represented localization classes for upregulated proteins were the cytoplasmic granule, the nucleus, and the mitochondrion, while function classes were mostly related to immune defence and inflammation pathways. All known NET markers were massively increased, including histones, granule proteases, and antimicrobial proteins. Of note was the detection of protein arginine deiminases (PAD3 and PAD4). These enzymes are responsible for citrullination, the post-translational modification that is known to trigger NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and extracellular release of NETs. As a further observation, citrullinated residues were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in histones of samples from mastitic animals. In conclusion, this work provides novel microscopic and proteomic information on NETs formed in vivo in the mammary gland, and reports the most complete database of proteins increased in milk upon bacterial mastitis. PMID:26088507
Shilling, Christine; Walsh, Colin; Downey, Paul; Mooney, Eoghan
Umbilical artery thrombosis is a rare occurrence and is associated with poor neonatal outcomes. We present a series of 7 cases occurring over a 13-year period. The National Maternity Hospital is a tertiary referral center with approximately 10,000 births per annum. Cases were identified by a keyword search on the laboratory computer system. Seven cases were retrieved over a 13-year period (from an estimated 116,000 births): 5 cases from 7306 placentas and 2 cases from 1174 autopsies performed. Only cases with isolated umbilical artery thrombosis were included in the study. Placental histology from all cases was examined, placental gross findings were recorded, and clinical information and Doppler findings were obtained. Two infants were stillborn, and an additional 3 of the 7 cases were small for dates. All liveborn infants had a complicated neonatal course: 1 infant had a caudate infarction, 1 was born with partial acrania and schizencephaly, and 1 had a prolonged intensive care unit admission for low birth weight and jaundice. One case had absent end diastolic flow on Doppler ultrasound. Three cases had a cord diameter narrower than that expected for gestational age. All cases showed evidence of placental hypoperfusion. Umbilical artery thrombosis is a rare occurrence and carries a poor prognosis. PMID:24559159
Waldron, Jane A.; And Others
Analyzes data from children and families seen at the Children's Divorce Clinic. Finds that preschool children are often told nothing about the divorce and that ethnically mixed marriages tended to fail before nonmixed marriages. Reports data concerning custody and parents' emotional response to the divorce. (Author/ABB)
Mahendra, Jaideep; Mahendra, Little; Muthu, Jananni; John, Libby; Romanos, Georgios E.
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effects of Spirulina in-situ gel as an adjunct to Scaling And Root Planning (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis subjects.
Khatun, M; Sørensen, P; Jørgensen, H B H; Sahana, G; Sørensen, L P; Lund, M S; Ingvartsen, K L; Buitenhuis, A J; Vilkki, J; Bjerring, M; Thomasen, J R; Røntved, C M
Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting mastitis incidence and mastitis-related traits such as somatic cell score exist in dairy cows. Previously, QTL haplotypes associated with susceptibility to Escherichia coli mastitis in Nordic Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows were identified on Bos taurus autosome 9. In the present study, we induced experimental E. coli mastitis in Danish HF cows to investigate the effect of 2 E. coli mastitis-associated QTL haplotypes on the cows' disease phenotypes and recovery in early lactation. Thirty-two cows were divided in 2 groups bearing haplotypes with either low (HL) or high (HH) susceptibility to E. coli. In addition, biopsies (liver and udder) were collected from half of the cows (n=16), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with haplotype being one factor (HL vs. HH) and biopsy being the other factor (biopsies vs. no biopsies). Each cow was inoculated with a low E. coli dose (20 to 40 cfu) in one front quarter at time 0 h. Liver biopsies were collected at -144, 12, 24, and 192 h; udder biopsies were collected at 24h and 192 h post-E. coli inoculation. The clinical parameters: feed intake, milk yield, body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, rumen motility; and the paraclinical parameters: bacterial counts, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk amyloid A levels in milk; and white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte (PMNL) count, and serum amyloid A levels in blood were recorded at different time points post-E. coli inoculation. Escherichia coli inoculation changed the clinical and paraclinical parameters in all cows except one that was not infected. Clinically, the HH group tended to have higher body temperature and heart rate than the HL group did. Paraclinically, the HL group had faster PMNL recruitment and SCC recovery than the HH group did. However, we also found interactions between the effects of haplotype and biopsy for body temperature, heart rate, and PMNL. In conclusion, when challenged with E. coli mastitis, HF cows with the specific Bos taurus autosome 9-located QTL haplotypes were associated with differences in leukocyte kinetics, with low-susceptibility cows having faster blood PMNL recruitment and SCC recovery and a tendency for a milder clinical response than the high-susceptibility cows did. PMID:23357017
Full Text Available Abstract Background The accuracy of malaria case reporting is challenging due to restricted human and material resources in many countries. The reporting often depends on the clinical diagnosis because of the scarcity of microscopic examinations. Particularly, clinical malaria case reporting by primary health care facilities (local clinics, which constitutes the baseline data of surveillance, has never previously been sufficiently evaluated. In order to improve the malaria reporting system to the level required to eventually eliminate this disease, this study estimates the gaps between the records of clinics and government statistics regarding the incidence of clinical malaria, and then also examines some factors that might explain the data discrepancy, including such variables as clinic staffing and record keeping. Methods All medical records for outpatients in 2007, handwritten by nurses, were collected from local clinics in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands. The all-monthly clinical malaria cases were then recalculated. The corresponding monthly data in official statistics were provided by the government. Next, in order to estimate any data discrepancy, the ratio of the cases recorded at clinics to the cases reported to the government was determined on the monthly basis. Finally, the associations between the monthly discrepancy and other variables were evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. Results The mean data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics was 21.2% (n = 96. Significant associations were observed between the discrepancy and the average number of patients (coefficient: 0.05, 95%CI: 0.31, 0.07, illegible handwriting (coefficient: 0.09, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.15, the use of tally sheets (coefficient:-0.38, 95%CI: -0.54, -0.22, and the clinic level (coefficient:-0.48, 95%CI:-0.89,-0.06. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate the huge data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics in regard to clinical malaria case reporting. Moreover, the high numbers of patients, illegible writing, the disuse of tally sheets, and insufficient resources at some clinics are likely to be related to the increase in the discrepancy. The clinical malaria case reporting at the local clinic level therefore urgently needs improvement, in order to achieve both better malaria surveillance and to also eventually eliminate this disease in the Solomon Islands.
Background The accuracy of malaria case reporting is challenging due to restricted human and material resources in many countries. The reporting often depends on the clinical diagnosis because of the scarcity of microscopic examinations. Particularly, clinical malaria case reporting by primary health care facilities (local clinics), which constitutes the baseline data of surveillance, has never previously been sufficiently evaluated. In order to improve the malaria reporting system to the level required to eventually eliminate this disease, this study estimates the gaps between the records of clinics and government statistics regarding the incidence of clinical malaria, and then also examines some factors that might explain the data discrepancy, including such variables as clinic staffing and record keeping. Methods All medical records for outpatients in 2007, handwritten by nurses, were collected from local clinics in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands. The all-monthly clinical malaria cases were then recalculated. The corresponding monthly data in official statistics were provided by the government. Next, in order to estimate any data discrepancy, the ratio of the cases recorded at clinics to the cases reported to the government was determined on the monthly basis. Finally, the associations between the monthly discrepancy and other variables were evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. Results The mean data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics was 21.2% (n = 96). Significant associations were observed between the discrepancy and the average number of patients (coefficient: 0.05, 95%CI: 0.31, 0.07), illegible handwriting (coefficient: 0.09, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.15), the use of tally sheets (coefficient:-0.38, 95%CI: -0.54, -0.22), and the clinic level (coefficient:-0.48, 95%CI:-0.89,-0.06). Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate the huge data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics in regard to clinical malaria case reporting. Moreover, the high numbers of patients, illegible writing, the disuse of tally sheets, and insufficient resources at some clinics are likely to be related to the increase in the discrepancy. The clinical malaria case reporting at the local clinic level therefore urgently needs improvement, in order to achieve both better malaria surveillance and to also eventually eliminate this disease in the Solomon Islands. PMID:19389239
De Oliveira, A. P.; Watts, J. L.
Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 811 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in 11 countries. The countries and number of isolates included Denmark (105), England (92), Finland (95), Germany (103), Iceland (22), Ireland (42), Norway (101), Sweden (123), Switzerland (69), United States (53), and Zimbabwe (6). The antimicrobial agents tested were penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanate, penicillin + novobiocin, enrofloxacin, premafloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, pirlimycin, neomycin, lincomycin + neomycin, and sulfamethazine. The MIC90 for these antimicrobial agents for all strains were 0.5, 1.0, 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, less than or equal to 0.06, 0.125, 0.125, less than or equal to 0.0078, 0.5, 1.0, 16.0, 1.0, 2.0, 0.5, and 4.0 mu g/ml, respectively. Overall, only small variations between countries were seen in the MIC90 for the majority of compounds tested. Of the strains tested, 35.6% were positive for beta-lactamase production on initial testing, with an additional 21.3% positive after induction by penicillin. In conclusion, the overall level of resistance was generally low for all antimicrobial agents tested regardless of country. Given the differences in antimicrobial use in various countries, the widespread adoption of mastitis control programs to prevent infections limits the exposure of S. aureus infected animals to antimicrobial drugs.
Although metformin is a widely used anti-diabetic drug, it has certain side effects. This case reports a bleeding episode which occurred after up- titration of metformin while trying to achieve adequate glycemic control.
Full Text Available ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.
Lo?pez-lo?pez, Jose?; Adserias-garriga, Maria J.; Garcia-vicente, Laia; Jane?-salas, Enric; Chimenos-ku?stner, Eduardo; Pereferrer-kleine, Damia?n
Objective: To determine the clinical characteristics of the orofacial pain of cardiac origin in patients visited when doing a treadmill exercise test, at the cardiology service of the Can Ruti Hospital in Badalona (Barcelona, Spain). Study design: The sample of that study included thirty patients visiteding when doing a treadmill exercise test, at the cardiology service. The questionnaire has been asked to a sample of 30 patients. Results: Eleven of the 30 patients included in this study pres...
Doyal, L.; Hurwitz, B.; Yudkin, J. S.
There are very few medical ethics courses in British medical schools which are a formal part of the clinical curriculum. Such a programme is described in the following, along with the way in which the long-term curriculum committee of the University College and Middlesex Hospital Joint Medical School was persuaded to make it compulsory for first-year students. Pedagogical lessons which have been learned in its planning and implementation are outlined and teaching materials are included concer...
GUN SC; Souza, D. B.; Gandhi, C.; LOH YL; Das Gupta, E.; Mohd, A.
Introduction: Gout is an increasingly common medical problem. The traditional risk factors of male sex and high red meat or alcohol consumption have been joined with newer risks such as increased life expectancy, and the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, truncal obesity). Methods: This was a retrospective study to determine the epidemiology, clinical features, associated conditions as well as renal related conditions in existing gout patients followed-up in Rheumatolo...
Kudrin, Alex; Knezevic, Ivana; Joung, Jeewon; Kang, Hye-Na
The objective of this paper is to provide considerations based on comprehensive case studies important for regulatory evaluation of monoclonal antibodies as similar biotherapeutic products (SBPs) with a special emphasis on clinical aspects. Scientific principles from WHO Guidelines on SBPs were used as a basis for the exercise. Working groups consisted of regulators, manufacturers and academia. The following topics were discussed by the working groups: clinical criteria for biosimilarity, extrapolation approach and the overall regulatory decision making process. In order to determine typical pitfalls in the design of a SBP clinical programme and evaluate the gap of knowledge, amongst different industry and regulatory stakeholders on the appraisal of the data arising from SBP clinical studies, we have presented two fictional but realistic clinical case studies. The first case consists of the fictional development programme for an infliximab SBP candidate. The second case describes clinical studies proposed for a fictional rituximab SBP candidate. In the first scenario a highly similar quality profile has been taken forward into clinical studies whereas there was an important residual difference in functional attributes for the rituximab SBP candidate. These case studies were presented at the WHO implementation workshop for the WHO guidelines on evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products held in Seoul, Republic of Korea, in May 2014. The goal was to illustrate the interpretation of the clinical data arising from studies with SBP candidates and elicit knowledge gaps in clinical assessment. This paper reflects the outcome of the exercise and discussions held in Seoul and offers an analysis of the case studies as a learning opportunity on clinical development and evaluation of SBPs. PMID:25467836
Clinical symptoms and CT findings were evaluated in 7 patients in whom symptoms compatible with spinocerebellar degeneration had occurred at infancy. CT findings included atrophy of the vermis, hemisphere and brain-stem, and dilation of the forth ventricle. These were in accordance with those reported in adult cases of spinocerebellar degeneration. There was some correlation between the severity of clinical symptoms and CT findings. Clinical lesions tended to coincide with CT findings. None of the patients had typical adult types such as delayed cerebello-cortical atrophy and olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy. There were great differences in clinical symptoms among the patients. Many of the patients had complications such as pigmentary degeneration of the retina, optic atrophy and cataract, which are rare in adult cases. It is therefore considered impossible to categorize these cases, except for two cases of familial convulsive paraplegia, as a given type. (Namekawa, K.)
Figueiredo, Sofia; Pio, Daniela; Martins, Margarida; Seabra, Carlos; Pinhal, Marisol; Parada, Arme?nia
Hereditary elliptocytosis is a congenital hemolytic anemia characterized by the presence of oval shaped erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. In rare cases, transient pure red blood cell aplasia can be the initial clinical presentation.
Collins, Edith; Turner, Gillian
Reviewed were clinical and genetic features of 27 cases of the Noonan Syndrome, a condition with characteristics such as webbing of the neck, short stature, frequent congential heart lesions, and chromosomal irregularities. (DB)
Nadia Mazen Hijaz; Seth Steven Septer; James Degaetano; Thomas Mario Attard
Collagenous gastritis (CG) is characterized by patchy subepithelial collagen bands. Effective treatment and the clinical and histological outcome of CG in children are poorly defined. The aim of this study is to summarize the published literature on the clinical outcome and response to therapy of pediatric CG including two new cases. We performed a search in Pubmed, OVID for related terms; articles including management and clinical and/or endo-histologic follow up information were included an...
Glover, Ds; Brown, Gp; Fairburn, CG; Shafran, R.
OBJECTIVE: The construct of 'clinical perfectionism' has been developed in response to criticisms that other approaches have failed to yield advances in the treatment of the type of self-oriented perfectionism that poses a clinical problem. The primary aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the efficacy of a theory-driven, cognitive-behavioural intervention for 'clinical perfectionism'. DESIGN: A multiple baseline single case series design was used. METHOD: A specif...
Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily
Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:
Diogo F Guerreiro; Ema L Neves; Navarro, Rita; Mendes, Raquel; Prioste, Ana; Ribeiro, Diana; Lila, Tiago; Neves, António; Salgado, Mónica; Santos, Nazaré; Sampaio, Daniel
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal), using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years). The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and dat...
Milne, E M; Woodman, M P; Doxey, D L
Forty-five cases of chronic grass sickness were given scores for selected clinical measurements when they were first examined, to assess their value in predicting survival. Sixteen cases survived. The clinical scores for the degree of dysphagia, appetite, colic and the degree of reduction in gut sounds were significantly lower in the survivors than in the non-survivors. In addition, only the non-survivors had severe rhinitis. Ponies were significantly less likely to survive than cob types. PMID:8048214
Full Text Available With the change of the concept of graduate enrollment, the recruiting proportion of clinical medicine professional degree graduate students is more and more, and the training of professional degree graduate students is increasingly focusing on practical. In our experience in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students, increasing the ward clinical practice time is important. For particular emphasis on the guiding role of the typical cases, each professional group combined their professional characteristics of the typical cases to instruct the graduate students, training their clinical diagnosis and treatment ability, training their microsurgical techniques. From clinical medical writing, record summary, literature review, professional degree graduate students could expand their knowledge structure, practice their thesis writing ability. Based on the typical cases, expansion of knowledge coverage, they could improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment for special disease cases. In this rigorous training system, professional degree graduate students can learn by analogy, and focus on typical cases to get the most intuitive panoramic understanding of the diseases, with a minimum of time to master the most clinical knowledge, to enrich clinical experience, and to lay the foundation for future work in the assessment.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Dens invagination (DI is a developmental abnormality of teeth which frequently results in a complex internal anatomy of the root canal system. DI type 3 is an anomaly characterized by infolding of enamel and dentin extending into the root apex. This may present difficulties when forming a diagnosis and treatment plan. Many treatment modalities have been presented in case reports for DI type 3, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend a therapy. This case report presents the successful non surgical root canal treatment of a maxillary canine with an open apex DI type 3, necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion.
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and the prognostic factors of carcinomatous meningitis (CM). Methods: 63 patients with CM treated in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from 1998 to 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The correlations between clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and the prognosis of CM were analyzed. The common primary site was lung cancer (65%) and breast cancer (13%). All the patients were underwent MRI scan and 29 of the patients received lumbar puncture. Fifty-one patients received whole brain radiotherapy, systemic and/or intrathecal chemotherapy. The other 12 patients only received supportive care. Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test were used for survival analysis. Results: All patients died by the end of follow-up. The follow-up rate was 95%. The number of patients who undergone 1-, 2 years follow-up were 59 and 56. The median survival time was 2.2 months (range: 0.1-24.4 months) for the entire group. The clinical stage and the control status of the primary disease were strongly correlated with survival (?2=6.68, P=0.036) and (?2=7.04, P=0.008). The median survival time was 3.0 months (range: 1.0-24.4 months) in patients who received ? 30 Gy whole brain irradiation, while only 1.8 months (range: 0.1-14.2 months) in those who did not receive radiotherapy (?2=5.54, P=0.019). The median survival time of radiotherapy ± chemotherapy group, chemotherapy only group and supportive treatment only group were 3.0 months (range: 0.5-24.4 months), 2.2 months (range: 0.3-14.2 months) and 1.2 months (range: 0.1- 4.5 months), respectively (?2=9.32, P=0.009). Conclusions: The prognosis of CM is very poor. The clinical stage before the diagnosis of CM and the control status of primary disease and were significantly correlated with survival. Sufficient whole brain irradiation dose may prolong survival and worth further study in a large sample study. (authors)
Utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 na imunização de vacas leiteiras contra mastites causadas por E. coli / Use of an Escherichia coli J5 vaccine on immunization of dairy cows against mastitis caused by E. coli
Lívio R., Molina; Mariana B., Gentilini; Antônio U., Carvalho; Elias J., Facury Filho; Gustavo H.F.A., Moreira; Luiz Paulo V., Moreira; Reuel L., Gonçalves.
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5, na imunização de vacas leiteiras, para prevenção e controle da mastite causada por E. coli através da análise da prevalência das infecções intramamárias (IMM) no pós-parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos de mastite nos primeiros 100 [...] dias de lactação, influência na contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e produção de leite. O grupo experimental foi composto de 187 animais, divididos em 2 grupos, vacas vacinadas e não vacinadas. As imunizações ocorreram 60 dias antes do parto, 30 dias antes do parto e na primeira semana pós-parto. No dia da secagem e sete dias após o parto foram coletadas amostras para diagnóstico microbiológico dos patógenos causadores de mastite. A ocorrência de casos clínicos foi verificada pelo teste da caneca durante as ordenhas sendo registrados os dados relacionados à intensidade. Amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, a partir do décimo dia de lactação, para avaliação da CCS. A produção de leite foi registrada mensalmente nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação. Verificou-se no grupo vacinado, redução na prevalência de E. coli no pós-parto, na ocorrência de casos clínicos por E.coli nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação bem como na intensidade destes casos clínicos. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas na CCS, entretanto vacas vacinadas apresentaram maior produção de leite, comparadas às vacas não vacinadas. A vacinação com E. coli J5 foi eficaz em reduzir a prevalência de infecções intramamárias (IMM) ao parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos e aumento na produção de leite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação. Abstract in english We evaluated the use of Escherichia coli J5 vaccine immunization in dairy cows for the prevention and control of mastitis caused by E. coli. Were analyzed the prevalence of postpartum intramammary infections (IMM), occurrence and severity of clinical cases of mastitis in the first 100 days of lactat [...] ion, influence on somatic cell count (SCC) and milk production. The experimental group consisted of 187 animals that were divided into two groups, vaccinated and unvaccinated cows. Immunizations occurred 60 days before calving, 30 days before calving and the first week postpartum. On the day of drying and seven days after birth, samples were collected for microbiological diagnosis of mastitis pathogens. The occurrence of clinical cases was verified by testing during the milking and data was recorded related to the intensity and duration. Samples were collected monthly starting at day ten of lactation to evaluate the CCS. Milk production was recorded monthly for the first 100 days of lactation. It was found in the vaccinated group reduction in the prevalence of E. coli in the postpartum period, the occurrence of clinical cases of E. coli in the first 100 days of lactation as well the intensity of these clinical cases. There were no statistically significant differences in CCS, however vaccinated cows had higher milk production, compared to unvaccinated cows. Vaccination with E. coli J5 was effective in reducing the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMM) at calving, occurrence and intensity of clinical cases and an increase in milk production in the first 100 days of lactation.
N A Petunina
Full Text Available This article describes the case of a young woman with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2, presented by the primary adrenal insufficiency and thyroid dysfunction. In the course of the disease there was a change of the thyroid functional activity from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism, which led to adrenal insufficiency decompensation.
Full Text Available Introduction: Gout is an increasingly common medical problem. The traditional risk factors of male sex and high red meat or alcohol consumption have been joined with newer risks such as increased life expectancy, and the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, truncal obesity. Methods: This was a retrospective study to determine the epidemiology, clinical features, associated conditions as well as renal related conditions in existing gout patients followed-up in Rheumatology outpatient clinic, Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban. Results: Over a three month period, we identified 54 gouty patients on our follow-up, the majority being male, Malay ethnicity, withthe age of onset in the third and fourth decades of life. Commonly associated risk factors were hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and obesity. However, underlying history of diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, and family history were not commonly associated with gout in our group of patients. Half of our patients had at least two or more joints involvement. About half of the patients with tophaceous gout had renal impairment. Conclusion: Our series of gout patients highlight the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The high prevalence of tophi and renal impairment is a cause for concern.
Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral hydatid disease is a rare manifestation of echinococcosis but it constitutes a significant part of all intracranial mass lesions. This study aims to determine the clinical, radiological and surgical features of brain hydatidosis and share our experience.Method: Medical records of ten patients with cerebral hydatid disease were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical presentations, radiological examinations, treatment modalities and outcomes of the patients were analyzed.Results: All patients were admitted from the rural areas. Nine patients had E. Granulosus cyst and one patient had E. Multilocularis cyst. The cyst was solitary in nine patients and multiple in one. Multiple organ involvement was found in one patient. Cysts were located in the right cerebral hemisphere in five patients, left cerebral hemisphere in four patients and posterior fossa in one. All patients were treated surgically. Complications related to surgery were observed in four patient. All patients improved after the treatment. There were no recurrences or residual cysts among the patients.Conclusion: Hydatic disease should considered in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space occupying lesions in developing countries. Early diagnosis of cerebral hydatid cysts may prevent serious life-threatening complications of this disease. Outcome is favourable when the cyst is completely removed without rupture.
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical experience of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC for acute cholecystitis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical records of 216 patients with acute cholecystitis who underwent LC in Qingpu Branch of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University from January 2010 to January 2013. LC was performed under intubation general anaesthesia, with three holes conventionally and four holes if necessary. After operation, the drainage tube was placed for 1-3 d, and antibiotics were administered for 3-5 d. The time of operation, length of postoperative hospital stay, and incidence of postoperative complications were determined. All patients were followed up for at least 0.5 year after operation. ResultsLC was successfully performed in 188 (87.0% of all patients; 28 (13.0% of all patients were converted to open surgery. The mean time of operation was 62.00±11.27 min; the mean length of hospital stay was 4.60±2.16 d; the incidence of postoperative complications was 2.3%(5/216. All patients were cured and discharged. During follow-up, no patients developed other complications and all recovered well. ConclusionLC is safe and feasible in the treatment of acute cholecystitis. Correct manipulation of the Calot's triangle and proper abdominal drainage are the key to successful operation.
Heringstad, B; Andersen-Ranberg, I M; Chang, Y M; Gianola, D
Associations between clinical mastitis (CM) and nonreturn rate within 56 d after first insemination (NR56) were examined in Norwegian Red (NRF) cows. Records on absence or presence of CM within each of the intervals, -30 to 30, 31 to 150, and 151 to 300 d after first calving, and records on NR56 for 620,492 first-lactation daughters of 3,064 NRF sires were analyzed with a Bayesian multivariate threshold liability model. Point estimates of genetic correlations between NR56 and the 3 CM traits were between -0.05 and -0.02. Residual correlations were close to zero, and correlations between herd-5-yr effects on NR56 and CM in the 3 lactation intervals ranged from -0.15 to -0.17. It appears that CM and NR56 in first lactation are independent traits. PMID:17033030
Murugaiyah Marimuthu; Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah, 1, 3 Lawan Adamu, 1 Abdinasir Yusuf Osman 1,2Abdul Wahid Haron and 1Abdul Aziz Saharee; Konto Mohammed; Sarvananthan Poshpum, Sangeetha D. O.; Lawan Adamu; Abdinasir Yusuf Osman; Yusuf Abba; Abdulnasir Tijjani
This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and bacteriological assessment of subclinical mastitis and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from dairy cows in different farms around Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 120 milk samples from 3 different farms were randomly collected and tested for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT), as well as for bacterial culture for isolation, identification and antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent bacter...
Qiao-Cheng Chang; Wen-Bo Liu; Zheng-TaoYang; Yuan-Yuan Chen; Li-Guo Wang; Nai-Sheng Zhang
The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was surveyed in Northeast China between June, 2011 and September, 2011. A total of 1860 apparently healthy dairy cows were detected from three provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning) that locate in Northeast China. All milk samples were examined by California Mastitis Test (CMT). All positive milk samples were analyzed by microbiologically. The results showed that the overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was 34.0% a...
Jansen, J.; Borne, B.H.P., van den; Renes, R.J.; Van Schaik, G; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Leeuwis, C.
When mastitis incidence increases, either infection pressure has increased or cows resistance has decreased. This usually indicates that farm management is not optimal. Numerous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effect of management practices on mastitis. In most of these studies, the identified risk factors could explain only part of the variance in mastitis incidence on farms. Several studies suggest that the unexplained variance is caused by farmers attitudes towards differe...
Berriatua, E.; Ziluaga, I.; Miguel-virto, C.; Uribarren, P.; Juste, R.; Laevens, S.; Vandamme, P.; Govan, J. R. W.
An outbreak of subclinical mastitis in a flock of 620 milking sheep was investigated. Microbiological and epidemiological analyses identified the causative agent as belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (formerly Pseudomonas cepacia). Every ewe in the milking flock was individually tested for subclinical mastitis on two separate occasions, 6 weeks apart, by the California (rapid) mastitis test (CMT). The proportion of CMT-positive ewes was 69 of 393 (17.6%) on the first sampling and 2...
Santman-Berends, I M G A; Olde Riekerink, R G M; Sampimon, O C; van Schaik, G; Lam, T J G M
Heifer mastitis is a problem and risk factors may differ between heifers and older cows. The aim of this study was to estimate the heifer subclinical mastitis (HSCLM) incidence based on elevated somatic cell count (SCC) in the first 100 d in lactation and the associated risk factors in Dutch dairy herds. In 2008, 173 farmers filled in a questionnaire regarding housing and herd management factors potentially related to udder health. In addition, monthly milk production and SCC data from all cattle were provided by the Dutch Royal Cattle Syndicate (CRV, Arnhem, the Netherlands). Heifer subclinical mastitis incidence was calculated at the herd level as the number of heifer cases divided by the number of heifers at risk in the first 100 d in milk. Linear regression models were used for the analyses. On average, 25.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 23.9 to 27.0%] of the heifers had subclinical mastitis. Heifers with a high SCC (>150,000 cells/mL) on the first test day after calving that returned to SCC levels below the cut-off continued to have a higher SCC throughout the study period compared with heifers with a low SCC (?150,000 cells/mL) at the first test day after calving. Housing heifers together with lactating cows close to calving was protective from HSCLM incidence compared with separate housing (-4.5%; 95% CI: -8.7 to -0.2%). In addition, herds in which the farmer removed supernumerary teats of calves had a 7.0% (95% CI: 2.8 to 11.3%) lower HSCLM incidence and day and night grazing was also protective (-5.9%; 95% CI: -10.6 to -1.3%). Herds that were milked with an automatic milking system had, on average, a 6.9% (95% CI: 2.2 to 11.5%) higher HSCLM incidence and submitting milk samples for bacteriological culturing in the previous year was also associated with a higher HSCLM incidence (4.1%; 95% CI: 1.1 to 7.1%). Heifer subclinical mastitis is prevalent in all dairy herds, with a large variation in incidence. A high SCC in heifers at the first test day after calving appears to indicate a prolonged effect on udder health. Several management factors were found to be associated with HSCLM incidence that may help in reducing HSCLM. PMID:22541474
Subashini, P.; Mohanty, Sanjeev
Glomus tumours of temporal bone are rare and usually present with symptoms of hearing loss and tinnitus. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the slow growth of the tumour. Here we present a case report of a patient diagnosed as glomus tympanicum who presented only with unilateral progressive hearing loss for the past one year and rapidly detoriating hearing loss since two months who was managed successfully.
Subashini, P; Mohanty, Sanjeev
Glomus tumours of temporal bone are rare and usually present with symptoms of hearing loss and tinnitus. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the slow growth of the tumour. Here we present a case report of a patient diagnosed as glomus tympanicum who presented only with unilateral progressive hearing loss for the past one year and rapidly detoriating hearing loss since two months who was managed successfully. PMID:23120495
Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are responsible for greater than 90% of all cases of hypercalcemia. Compared with the hypercalcemia of malignancy, hyperparathyroidism tends to be associated with lower serum calcium levels (< 12 mg/dL) and a longer duration of hypercalcemia (more than 6 months). The hypercalcemic symptoms are usually fewer and subtle. Hyperparathyroidism tends to cause kidney calculi, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and the characteristics of metabolic bone disea...
Ufuk Çobano?lu; Fuat Say?r; Mehmet Melek; Duygu Mergan; Fatih Selvi
Aim: Pneumothorax is the common and life threatening problem of thoracic surgery, needs urgent intervention. In this study, spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) cases were divided into two groups and evaluated retrospectively according to age, sex, diagnostic methods, treatments, and results. Material and Methods: Between June 2003 and May 2006, 107 patients with SP were enrolled into our study. There were 44 (41.13%) primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) and 74 (58.87%) secondary spontaneous pneum...
Three cases of morning glory syndrome are described and some new electrofunctional and tomodensitometric findings are reported. The amplitude of the waves of the electroretinogram is reduced and correlates with the extension of the retinal changes. The visually evoked potentials elicited with bright flashes have normal latencies but generally subnormal amplitudes. The amplitude of the potentials probably depends on the degree of involvement of the optic nerve. The computerised tomography perf...