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Clinical mastitis in Macedonian dairy herds  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the determination of the occurrence and prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk on three dairy farms. A one year study on a total of 1031 black-white breed cows with a total of 1267 lactations was performed. Each dairy farm implemented a different technology of rearing and was of different herd size (farm A - tie-stalls, 162 cows; farm B - loose-housing system with open shed and deep bedding, 357 dairy cows; and farm C - loosehousing system with enclosed shed, 512 cows. Clinical mastitis in cows was detected by clinical examination of the udder and determination of abnormalities in the milk. To distinguish two consecutive cases of clinical mastitis within the same lactation a time period of nine days was used. Annual prevalence rate of clinical mastitis for the entire population of cows was 34.13% on cow level, and 30.07% on lactation level. There was a high prevalence rate of clinical mastitis in primiparous cows, 21.43%, 40.77% and 12.55%, on farms A, B and C, respectively. Lactation incident risk for cows on farm A was 25.00%, farm B 95.58% and farm C 21.49%. The prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk tended to increase with increasing parity. The annual lactation risk for the entire population of cows was 45.86%. All indicators for the determination of the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy farms, which were observed during the research, showed the greatest values on farm B. Most of the cows manifested one (68.24% or two (18.63% cases of clinical mastitis during lactation. There was a long period in lactation until the appearance of the first case of clinical mastitis (112.21 ± 92.04 days. Generally, clinical mastitis was registered during the whole period of the survey, with some fluctuations between different seasons. The method of GLM (General Linear Model, univariate procedure, was used to analyze associations between the incidence of clinical mastitis and farm management, parity of cows and season of the year. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was performed for analysis of interdependence on variables in the model. There was statistical significance (p<0,001 between the season and incidence of clinical mastitis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31086

Traj?ev M.

2013-01-01

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Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy cows: incidence and costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.

Perez-Cabal, M. A.; Yaici, S.; Alenda, R.

2008-07-01

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Patterns of clinical mastitis manifestations in Danish organic dairy herds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Danish organic dairy production is characterized by a low input of antibiotics for udder treatment and a high input of other mastitis control procedures. A study was conducted in 14 organic dairy herds with the objectives of obtaining a comprehensive description of clinical mastitis cases and identifying characteristic patterns in these results. Clinical signs, inflammatory reactions and microbiological identifications were obtained from 367 cases of clinical mastitis occurring over 18 months. Cow characteristics and preincident values such as milk yield and somatic cell count were obtained for each cow. Signs of previous udder inflammation were present in two-thirds of the clinical mastitis cases. Severe local inflammatory reactions were found in 21% of the cases and some indication of generalized signs such as fever and reduced appetite were found in 35% of the cases. Logistic regression analyses were performed based on the results of an initial (exploratory) multiple correspondence analysis. Coliform mastitis (6% of the cases) was rarely preceded by pathogen isolation or inflammatory reactions in the same quarter. Coliform mastitis cases usually occurred in one quarter only. Escherichia coli infections were typically (truly) acute cases. Bacteriologically negative mastitis (20% of the cases) showed strong similarities with clinical coliform mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus cases (18% of the cases) occurred most frequently in late lactation or around drying-off. Prior isolation of Staph. aureus and slight decreases in milk yield were two factors that interacted but both were strongly and positively related to clinical Staph. aureus. Staph. aureus mastitis typically had a subclinical debut, and increasing degrees and duration of inflammation decreased shedding of this pathogen. Streptococcus dysgalactiae (9% of the cases) mastitis was typically persistent, virulent and manifest in periods of lower cow resistance. More patterns of subclinical and clinical Str. uberis mastitis (23% of the cases) seemed to be present.

Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, Carsten

1997-01-01

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Tuberculous Mastitis: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Tuberculosis of breast is an uncommon diseaseclinically mimicking breast carcinoma. Wepresent a case of a 22 years old female whocomplained of a breast mass and axillary swell-ing of three months duration. Clinically she wasdiagnosed as having phyllodes tumour. Thebreast mass ultrasonography revealed a benigncystic hypoechoic lesion. Grossly the excisedmass was a cyst containing serous fluid alongwith a small solid yellowish white nodule withfoci of caseation. The axillary lymph nodes alsoshowed caseous necrosis. A definitive diagno-sis of tuberculous mastitis was reached by his-tological demonstration of caseating granulo-mas in the cyst wall and in the ipsilateral axil-lary lymph nodes.

Gopal A. Pandit

2013-07-01

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Decision tree analysis of treatment strategies for mild and moderate cases of clinical mastitis occurring in early lactation.  

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The objective of this study was to develop a decision tree to evaluate the economic impact of different durations of intramammary treatment for the first case of mild or moderate clinical mastitis (CM) occurring in early lactation with various scenarios of pathogen distributions and use of on-farm culture. The tree included 2 decision and 3 probability events. The first decision evaluated use of on-farm culture (OFC; 2 programs using OFC and 1 not using OFC) and the second decision evaluated treatment strategies (no intramammary antimicrobials or antimicrobials administered for 2, 5, or 8 d). The tree included probabilities for the distribution of etiologies (gram-positive, gram-negative, or no growth), bacteriological cure, and recurrence. The economic consequences of mastitis included costs of diagnosis and initial treatment, additional treatments, labor, discarded milk, milk production losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis, culling, and transmission of infection to other cows (only for CM caused by Staphylococcus aureus). Pathogen-specific estimates for bacteriological cure and milk losses were used. The economically optimal path for several scenarios was determined by comparison of expected monetary values. For most scenarios, the optimal economic strategy was to treat CM caused by gram-positive pathogens for 2 d and to avoid antimicrobials for CM cases caused by gram-negative pathogens or when no pathogen was recovered. Use of extended intramammary antimicrobial therapy (5 or 8 d) resulted in the least expected monetary values. PMID:21426977

Pinzón-Sánchez, C; Cabrera, V E; Ruegg, P L

2011-04-01

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Isolation and antibiogram of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli isolates from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis  

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Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the continuous change in the pattern of drug resistance showed by different mastitogenic organisms, isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using 150 milk samples received from various clinical and subclinical cases, from which the causative organisms were isolated and subjected to in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test.Results: The bacteriological analysis of the samples indicated the presence of both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms followed by isolation of isolates like Staphylococcus, E. coli, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Klebsiella. The in vitro sensitivity of Staphylococcus, E. coli and Streptococcus isolates revealed that they were more sensitive towards newer antimicrobials like Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin.Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus was found to be maximum followed by Streptococcus and E. coli among the isolated organisms. Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin were found to be most effective against the targeted isolates.

Nihar Nalini Mohanty,

2013-08-01

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Candida mastitis: a case report.  

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Breastfeeding has been demonstrated to have many benefits for both mother and child. Nipple pain in the breastfeeding woman is a common complaint; it is the second most common cause of breastfeeding discontinuation in the first six months after childbirth. This case report addresses the characteristics of breast pain induced by Candida mastitis and the risk factors for and treatment of mastitis. Educating family physicians and other clinicians about how to recognize and treat this often difficult-to-eradicate infection will hopefully increase the percentage of mothers who breastfeed their infants through the first six months of life. PMID:21505621

Hanna, Louisa; Cruz, Stacie A

2011-01-01

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Mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática: reporte de un caso / Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La mastitis cónica granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en mujeres, preferentemente en edad reproductiva, con características clínicas, mamográficas, ecográficas y citológicas sugestivas de cáncer mamario. Se informa un caso de patología mamaria en paciente mujer de 35 año [...] s de edad, portadora de tumoración eritematosa, sensible, localizada en mama izquierda. La lesión fue tratada como "mastitis" con antibióticos y corticoides durante dos semanas. La persistencia de tumoración y sensibilidad, así como los controles mamográficos y ecográficos sugestivos de neoplasia, decidieron la extirpación quirúrgica. El diagnóstico histopatológico fue de mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática. Abstract in english Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor [...] localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis.

Juan, Takano; Percy, Prialé.

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Mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática: reporte de un caso / Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La mastitis cónica granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en mujeres, preferentemente en edad reproductiva, con características clínicas, mamográficas, ecográficas y citológicas sugestivas de cáncer mamario. Se informa un caso de patología mamaria en paciente mujer de 35 año [...] s de edad, portadora de tumoración eritematosa, sensible, localizada en mama izquierda. La lesión fue tratada como "mastitis" con antibióticos y corticoides durante dos semanas. La persistencia de tumoración y sensibilidad, así como los controles mamográficos y ecográficos sugestivos de neoplasia, decidieron la extirpación quirúrgica. El diagnóstico histopatológico fue de mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática. Abstract in english Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor [...] localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis.

Juan, Takano; Percy, Prialé.

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Mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática: reporte de un caso Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report  

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Full Text Available La mastitis cónica granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en mujeres, preferentemente en edad reproductiva, con características clínicas, mamográficas, ecográficas y citológicas sugestivas de cáncer mamario. Se informa un caso de patología mamaria en paciente mujer de 35 años de edad, portadora de tumoración eritematosa, sensible, localizada en mama izquierda. La lesión fue tratada como "mastitis" con antibióticos y corticoides durante dos semanas. La persistencia de tumoración y sensibilidad, así como los controles mamográficos y ecográficos sugestivos de neoplasia, decidieron la extirpación quirúrgica. El diagnóstico histopatológico fue de mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática.Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis.

Juan Takano

2010-12-01

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Udder quarter risk factors associated with prevalence of bovine clinical mastitis  

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Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out to estimate prevalence of clinical mastitis on udder quarters level and to determinate the quarter risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis during lactation.The individual risk factors included assessments of parity, season of year when case of clinical mastitis was occurred, conformation characteristics of udder quarters and teats and distance from front and rear teat end to the floor. Cows with clinical mastitis were detected by clinical examination of the udder quarters and determination of abnormalities in milk.The quarter level prevalence of clinical mastitis was 15.06% per lactation, out of which 3.32% were front left, 3.10% front right, 4.28% rear left and 4.28% were rear right quarters. The prevalence of udder quarters affected with clinical mastitis tended to increased with increasing the parity, from cows in first to the third parity, and then begins to decline slightly. The rear quarters frequently manifested form of clinical mastitis (49.39% in relation to the front one (33.04%, and in 17.55% of the cases there were affected either, front and rear quarters. In the most cases of clinical mastitis there was affected only one quarter of the mammary gland (74.35%, two quarters in 20.13%, three quarters to 3.61% and four quarters were affected in 1.89% of the cases of clinical mastitis.The method of General Linear Model, unvaried procedure, revealed that prevalence of clinical mastitis on quarter level significantly (p<0.01 differed with the season of year when case of clinical mastitis was occurred and scoring categories for position of rear udder quarters.

Nakov Dimitar

2012-01-01

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis; Clinical presentation, radiological features and treatmant  

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To determine the clinical characteristic, clinical presentations and radiological features of diopathic granulomatous mastitis, and the best treatment approaches of this clinical entity. Between 1996 and 2003 the files and histopathology reports of 25 patients with granulomatous mastitis at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital Jeddah, Kindom of Saudi Arabia were reviewed. The data were analyzed and a Medline search was carried out from 1970 to 2003 to review relevant cases. The age of patients ranged from 24-66 years and the mean age was 36.6+-9.43 years. All patients were females. The most common clinical presentation was palpable tender mass. The most common mammographic finding was ill-defined mass. However, mixed hypo- and hyper-echogenic lesions with tubular connections were the common ultrasonic findings. Treatment approaches were conservative or surgical excision or steroid. Conservative treatment associated with the higher rate of complications, while treatment with steroid showed complete remission of disease. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, benign breast disease that is usually underestimated or misdiagnosed. The clinical and radiological features resemble those of infectious mastitis or breast carcinoma. Early recognition and initiation of steroid treatment will result in complete remission of the disease and prevent complications. (author)

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Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis (GLM or autoimmune mastitis is a rare and benign disease which, except one case reported in an old man, is usually seen during pregnancy or lactation period. This disease was described for the first time by Kessler. Approach: Our case is a 34 year-old woman who has a child with a history of using OCP that primary complaint was swelling, heat and erythema in the right breast. She was diagnosed with mastitis and treated with antibiotics for one month, later on she had experienced stiffness in the breast and a mass was also palpable. The patient was performed surgical drainage and treated with wide spectrum antibiotics being diagnosed with abscess. After one month, a solid mass was palpable so, mammography was performed and the mass was surgically resected with a suspicion of tumor. Results: The pathology report revealed granulomatous mastitis with non caseified granuloma. For Anti-TB treatment was started as medication regime and after 40 days fistula with frequent secretions appeared. Antituberculosis medications stopped and other conditions resulting in none caseified granuloma. In microscopic view granulomatous mastitis along with abscess was reported. Corticosteroids were started and the mass became smaller gradually, the fistula also closed and secretions dried out. Conclusion: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis is a benign inflammatory breast disease. Cause of disease is still unknown, but some factors have been suggested such as local autoimmune, reaction to the delivery, previous use of contraceptives and infectious causes. The best treatment proposed is corticosteroid therapy in which the mass dwindle and the fistula is closed and secretions dried. The case is now under treatment with corticosteroids and all her symptoms have improved.

Mojtaba Varshochi

2010-01-01

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Fibrinogen and Ceruloplasmin in Plasma and Milk from Dairy Cows with Subclinical and Clinical Mastitis  

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Full Text Available The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb and Ceruloplasmin (Cp in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0 and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s. The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p<0.01. There was no significant difference in plasma concentration of Cp between healthy and subclinical groups (p>0.05, but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (p<0.05. The concentrations of Fb and Cp in the milk of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (p<0.01. The results indicated that measurement of Fb in plasma and milk and Cp only in milk might be suitable for early diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows.

A. Davasaz Tabrizi

2008-01-01

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Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis  

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This study was conducted to characterize Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. One hundred strains from 100 dairy herds in Denmark, 29 strains from 29 dairy herds in Pennsylvania, USA, 7 reference strains and 18 strains consisting of 9 paired strains from 9 quarters were investigated using biotyping (utilization of tagatose and sorbitol) and HindIII ribotyping. Four different biotypes were observed. Only 34 of the 100 Danish strains utilized either tagatose or sorbitol, 18 utilized tagatose, 15 sorbitol and 1 both tagatose and sorbitol. In contrast, among the American strains one (3.4%) did neither utilize tagatose or sorbitol, twenty (69.0%) utilized tagatose, four (13.8%) sorbitol and four (13.8%) both tagatose and sorbitol. HindIII ribotyping produced 15 different types among all the strains, 9 different types were found among the Danish strains and 8 types among the American strains. Five types were observed among both the Danish and the American strains. The 7 reference strains were assigned to 5 different ribotypes. Three type strains (ATCC 27957, NCTC 4670, NCTC 4335) were assigned to a type that was present among both the Danish and the American strains. Ribotyping was the most discriminatory typing method. Agreement between ribo- and biotyping was observed, and especially pronounced among the Danish strains. The 9 paired strains were in each case found to have identical ribo- and biotype.

Aarestrup, Frank MØller; Jensen, Niels Einar

1996-01-01

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Prevalence and antibiogram profile of bacterial Isolates from clinical bovine mastitis  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the current status of clinical mastitis among dairy cattle in and around Bangalore. The prevalence of mastitis was assessed by the results of bacteriological evaluation of milk samples collected from clinical mastitis cases. A total of seventy five bacterial isolates were recovered from sixty clinical cases of mastitis affected cows. The prevalence of major pathogens isolated was twenty four per cent for Staphylococcus aureus twenty per cent for Escherichia coli followed by sixteen per cent for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus spp and ten per cent for Klebsiella spp. Antibiogram studies were also performed for these isolates and Gentamicin was found to be the most effective drug. It was concluded that microbiological and antibiogram studies are necessary for treatment and control of the disease. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 237-238

Sumathi B.R

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Clinical presentation, radiological features and treatment.  

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, benign breast disease that is usually underestimated or misdiagnosed. The clinical and radiological features resemble those of infectious mastitis or breast carcinoma. Early recognition and initiation of steroid treatment will result in complete remission of the disease and might prevent complications.

Saleh M. Aldaqal

2004-12-01

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Bacteria associated with clinical mastitis in dairy heifers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 1-yr field investigation of clinical mastitis in heifers was carried out in 24 veterinary districts in Norway. Quarter lacteal secretions from cases that occurred prepartum or within 14 d postpartum were examined bacteriologically. The study included 1040 heifers with clinical mastitis, and the total number of quarters that were clinically affected was 1361. The organisms that were most frequently isolated from samples from these quarters were Staphylococcus aureus (44.3%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (18.2%), Staph. aureus together with Strep. dysgalactiae (1.2%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (12.8%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (3.5%), A. pyogenes together with Strep. dysgalactiae (0.5%) or Staph. aureus (0.4%), and Escherichia coli (6.4%). Of the coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus simulans (53.7%), Staphylococcus hyicus (14.8%), and Staphylococcus chromogenes (14.8%) were the most prevalent species. Except for a higher relative percentage of A. pyogenes in cases that occurred before parturition (8.2%) than in cases that occurred after parturition (2.7%), no significant differences were observed in the distribution of the various organisms among prepartum and postpartum cases. Regional variations were observed in the distribution of organisms. The proportions of Staph. aureus and A. pyogenes were highest, and the proportion of coagulase-negative staphylococci was lowest, in late autumn and early winter. The proportion of E. coli was highest in summer. In heifers in which mastitis was associated with increased rectal temperature or other systemic signs, the proportion of clinically affected quarters that were infected with Staph. aureus was larger than that in heifers without systemic reaction. PMID:10212457

Waage, S; Mørk, T; Røros, A; Aasland, D; Hunshamar, A; Odegaard, S A

1999-04-01

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Tuberculous Mastitis: A Case Report  

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Tuberculosis of breast is an uncommon diseaseclinically mimicking breast carcinoma. Wepresent a case of a 22 years old female whocomplained of a breast mass and axillary swell-ing of three months duration. Clinically she wasdiagnosed as having phyllodes tumour. Thebreast mass ultrasonography revealed a benigncystic hypoechoic lesion. Grossly the excisedmass was a cyst containing serous fluid alongwith a small solid yellowish white nodule withfoci of caseation. The axillary lymph nodes alsosho...

Pandit, Gopal A.; Dantkale, Sunita S.; Thakare, Nisha V.; Pudale, Smita S.

2013-01-01

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Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania  

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Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest® for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69. Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91. Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91 while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90. Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353, while for bacteria and fungi it was 16 % and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n =67. The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

N.A. Urio

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis  

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Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Somatic Cell Count (SCC and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy control. Antioxidant parameters measured in blood were superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration. Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation (LPO was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA production. Results: Significant (P<0.05 decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentration and an increase in erythrocytic lipid peroxides was observed in cows with clinical mastitis. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a compromise in antioxidant defense of the body in dairy cows with clinical mastitis resulting in oxidative damage, therefore, necessitate the use of antioxidants and other protective compounds along with conventional therapy for mastitis control. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 271-273

Rajesh Rathore

2013-10-01

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A Cross Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Sub Clinical Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in and Aronund Gondar, Northern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on 322 local (n = 57 and crossbred (n = 265 lactating hand milked small holder cows in and around Gondar. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis and the associated risk factors by clinical examination and using california mastitis test. Bacterial culture was also conducted to determine the casual agents of mastitis. The prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis in the study area was 0.93 and 31.67%, respectively with an overall prevalence of 32.6%. Out of 1288 quarters examined 164 were infected while 39 were blind. The number of clinically and sub clinically infected quarters were 7 and 157, respectively. Several pyogenic bacteria have been isolated from cases of sub clinical mastitis during the study period. The major bacteria isolated in this study were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae with a prevalence of 16.5, 15.9 and 14.0%, respectively. Among the risk factors considered, breed, age, parity and stage of lactation have been shown statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in the prevalence of mastitis. Sub clinical mastitis in both breeds has been reported to be higher than clinical mastitis. The odds of occurrence of mastitis were two times more likely in crossbreds compared to local zebu. The present study disclosed that high prevalence of sub clinical mastitis and the occurrence Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp. as dominant bacterial species from mastitic milk of the study area. All the risk factors considered were significant effect on the prevalence of mastitis. Appropriate control and prevention methods should be applied to reduce the prevalence and effect of mastitis in dairy cows.

Nibret Moges

2011-12-01

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A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design was used. Women with mastitis (cases, n = 100 were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (emergency departments, breastfeeding clinics and postnatal wards. Breastfeeding women without mastitis (controls, n = 99 were recruited from maternal and child health (community centres and the rooms of a private obstetrician. Women completed a questionnaire and nasal specimens were collected from mother and baby and placed in charcoal transport medium. Women also collected a small sample of milk in a sterile jar. Results There was no difference between nasal carriage of S. aureus in breastfeeding women with mastitis (42/98, 43% and control women (45/98, 46%. However, significantly more infants of mothers with mastitis were nasal carriers of S. aureus (72/88, 82% than controls (52/93, 56%. The association was strong (adjusted OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.30, 8.27 after adjustment for the following confounding factors: income, private health insurance, difficulty with breastfeeding, nipple damage and tight bra. There was also a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis (adjusted OR 9.34, 95%CI 2.99, 29.20. Conclusion We found no association between maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus and mastitis, but nasal carriage in the infant was associated with breast infections. As in other studies of mastitis, we found a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis. Prevention of nipple damage is likely to reduce the incidence of infectious mastitis. Mothers need good advice about optimal attachment of the baby to the breast and access to skilled help in the early postpartum days and weeks.

Garland Suzanne M

2006-10-01

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Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dense SNP panel was used to predict the genetic merit of an individual for selection in livestock. The accuracy of genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular the number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip. A total of 648,219 SNPs passed the quality control criteria for genotypes from the high density SNP panel. All the 4,200 individuals’ genotypes were imputed to the high density SNP panel using the software Beagle. The associations between the phenotypes and SNPs were estimated by a linear mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis

Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2012-01-01

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Implementation of strategies for mastitis control in dairy herds in Macedonia: A case report  

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Full Text Available Mastitis is probably the most common and costly disease in modern dairy cow husbandry. The aim of the present paper was to report the results concerning udder health after implementation of a specific strategy using both field and laboratory methods. During the period June 2010-December 2011 a total of 674 dairy cows from four dairy farms were included in the investigation. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed by detection of signs of inflammation in the udder, while subclinical mastitis was diagnosed at the animal level by an increased Somatic Cell Count (SCC using laboratory tests, and subsequently confirmed at quarter level by California Mastitis Test (CMT.Microbiological analysis of the milk samples was carried out by standard procedures using Gram staining, biochemical tests and automated identification system.The distribution of somatic cell counts on cow level (n=674 was:305 (45.3% with SCC less than 100,000SCC/mL, 236 (35.0% 100,001 - 350,000 SCC/mL, and 133 (18.7% with more than 350,000SCC/mL. From a total of 1684 quarters tested by CMT, 644 quarters (38.2% were positive and 1040 quarters (61.8% were negative. In 60 out of 101 quarters that had a positive CMT result and no current treatment and that were sampled for bacteriology, bacteria could be isolated. Main bacteria identified, were coagulase - negative staphylococci (40.0%, Streptococcus agalactiae was present in 25.0%, Escherichia coli in 16.6%, Proteus spp. in 11.7% and Staphylococcus aureus in 6.7% of the bacteriological positive samples. After introducing specific mastitis-control measures, focusing on milking hygiene, dry-off treatment, and antibiotic treatment of both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis cases, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was reduced from 38.2to 10.8%, while the incidence of clinical mastitis decreased from 21.0% to 4.9%.In conclusion, the implementation of a standard mastitis control plan based on a regular assessment of the somatic cell count can reduce the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in dairy herds.

Atanasov Branko

2012-01-01

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Withdrawal periods and tissue tolerance after intramammary antibiotic treatment of dairy goats with clinical mastitis  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine withdrawal periods (WP and tissue irritation after administration of three intramammary antibiotics [Curaclox LC (Norbrook (ARK AH], Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough AH and Rilexine 200 LC [Logos Agvet (Virbac] in goats with clinical mastitis.
Withdrawal periods in goats with clinical mastitis treated with Curaclox LC, were not significantly different from those recommended for use in cows (72 h with (67 h or without (48 h the 24 h mandatory safety margin while Spectrazol caused a significantly longer withdrawal period (122 h than that recommended for use in cattle with (60 h and without (36 h the 24h safety margin. The withdrawal period of clinical mastitis cases treated with Rilexine 200 LC was 48 h compared to the 96 h recommended for use in cows.
A linear model of regression with factors influencing the WP in goats with clinical mastitis was as follows : WP = 30.21 + 4.692 (sampling time + 22.11 (udder pathology - 13.6 (floccules - 0.00649 (milk yield.
Somatic Cell Counts (SCC of milk from udder halves with clinical mastitis ranged from 7 053 x 103 to 7 948 x 103 cells per m? without isolations of bacteria and between 6 476 x 103 and 8 479 x 103 cells per m? with isolations of bacteria. Most of the variation in SCC could not be explained and the California Milk Cell Test (CMCT and SCC on their own were not reliable methods for mastitis diagnosis. However, CMCT and SCC were indicators of udder irritation. In goats without clinical mastitis, Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the least tissue irritation followed by Rilexine 200 LC and Curaclox LC. For goats with clinical mastitis, Rilexine 200 LC caused the least irritation, followed by Curaclox LC while Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the most irritation.

I.M. Petzer

2010-09-01

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Clinical features and treatment of lactational mastitis: the experience from a binational study.  

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The characteristics of 38 patients with mastitis are listed in this study, including nationality, age, parity, history of mastitis, clinical and laboratory findings, and medical treatment. Differential diagnosis was mainly correlated to breast engorgement. Mastitis was primarily related to staphylococcus aureus and it was more common in primiparous patients. PMID:23971258

Iatrakis, G; Zervoudis, S; Ceausu, I; Peitsidis, P; Tomara, I; Bakalianou, K; Hudita, D

2013-01-01

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Increasing Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci in Bovine Clinical Mastitis  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS and other bacteria for their resistance to antimicrobial agents approved for the control of pathogens involved in clinical bovine mastitis. This descriptive study was done on 106 milk samples obtained from clinical mastitis in dairy cattle husbandry from April 2006 through August 2006 in Kashan, Iran. From the total of 106 milk samples collected from clinical mastitis, 96 (90.6% lead to positive culture. Coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated in 51 out of 96 samples (53.1%, Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 21 out of 96 (21.9%, gram negative bacilli isolated in 14 out of 96 (14.6% and Enterococci isolated in 4 (4.2%. The highest rate of resistant CNS observed to penicillin (56.6% and the highest rate of sensitivity to enrofloxacin 100%, followed by kanamycin, streptomycin and neomycin, 92.2, 82.3 and 82.3%, respectively. The highest rate of resistance S. aureus exhibited to penicillin (66.6%; while the highest rate of sensitivity showed to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxasole (81%, followed by kanamycin and enrofloxacin both at 76.2%. The highest rate of resistance gram negative bacilli exhibited to ampicillin and erythromycin at 71.4%. Their highest rate of sensitivity observed to enrofloxacin (78.6%, followed by kanamycin, (71.4%. In recent years, CNS is emerging as important minor mastitis pathogens and can be the cause of substantial economic losses. The high resistance rate to penicillin and other antibiotics found in this study emphasize the importance of identification of CNS when a bovine clinical mastitis is present.

R. Moniri

2007-01-01

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Efficacy of extended cefquinome treatment of clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is difficult to cure. Extended antimicrobial treatment is often advocated as a practical approach to improve cure rates; however, scientific evidence of this hypothesis is lacking. A multi-centered, nonblinded, randomized, positive-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 5 European countries-France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom-to study the efficacy of an extended intramammary cefquinome treatment (5 d) compared with a standard intramammary cefquinome treatment (1.5 d) of Staph. aureus clinical mastitis. Least squares means estimates of bacteriological cure during lactation were 34% [standard error (SE)=9.9%] for the standard treatment group and 27% (SE=8.4%) for the extended treatment group. In the final model, extended therapy was not significantly better. The only factor predicting bacteriological cure was pretreatment cow somatic cell count (SCC). Cows with >250,000 cells/mL in milk before treatment were less likely to cure. Least squares means of clinical cure during lactation was 60% (SE=19%) for the standard treatment group and 82% (SE=12%) for the extended treatment group. In the final model, clinical cure after extended treatment was significantly better. Pretreatment cow udder firmness predicted clinical cure. Firm udders were less likely to cure clinically. Irrespective of treatment regimen, new infection rates with pathogens other than Staph. aureus were higher (42%) after bacteriological cure than after nonbacteriological cure (22%) and cured cows had a significantly lower SCC. In conclusion, independent of the treatment protocol, cows with an SCC <250,000 cells/mL before treatment showed a higher probability of bacteriological cure. It appears that successful treatment of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis with cefquinome is associated with an increased number of new infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Extended treatment improved clinical, but not bacteriological, cure rates compared with the standard treatment. These results indicate that extending treatment of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis with cefquinome should not be recommended. PMID:23706485

Swinkels, J M; Cox, P; Schukken, Y H; Lam, T J G M

2013-08-01

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Treatments of clinical mastitis occurring in cows on 51 large dairy herds in Wisconsin.  

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Antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment of bovine mastitis and few studies have examined modern treatment strategies on large US dairy farms. The objective of this study was to describe treatment practices for clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large dairy herds in Wisconsin. Treatments performed on 747 cows experiencing cases of mild, moderate, or severe symptoms of clinical mastitis were recorded on 51 Wisconsin dairy farms. Duplicate milk samples were collected from the affected quarter for microbiological analysis at the onset of clinical mastitis and 14 to 21 d after treatment ended. Cows were treated according to individual farm protocol. Drugs and doses used for treatments were recorded for each case. Among all herds, 5 intramammary (IMM) antimicrobials (amoxicillin, hetacillin, pirlimycin, ceftiofur, and cephapirin) were used to treat cows for clinical mastitis. Of 712 cows with complete treatment data, 71.6% were treated with IMM ceftiofur either solely or combined with other antimicrobials (administered either IMM or systemically). Of cows experiencing severe symptoms of clinical mastitis, 43.8% received IMM treatment concurrent with systemic antimicrobials. Of all cows treated, 23.1% received an additional secondary treatment (either IMM, systemic, or both) because of perceived lack of response to the initial treatment. The majority of IMM treatments were administered to cows with a microbiological diagnosis of no growth (34.9%) or Escherichia coli (27.2%). Half of the cows experiencing cases caused by E. coli were treated using systemic antimicrobials in contrast to only 6.8% of cows experiencing cases caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In conflict with FDA regulations, which do not allow extra-label treatments using sulfonamides, a total of 22 cows from 8 farms were treated with systemic sulfadimethoxine either solely or in combination with oxytetracycline. Antimicrobial drugs were used on all herds and many cows received extra-label treatments. Great opportunity exists to improve mastitis therapy on large dairy herds, but use of more diagnostic methodologies is necessary to guide treatments. Farmers and veterinarians should work together to create protocols based on the herd needs considering reduced inappropriate and excessive use of antimicrobials. PMID:24997660

Oliveira, L; Ruegg, P L

2014-09-01

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Mastitis granulomatosa idiopática: Diagnóstico y tratamiento en 14 casos Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: Report of 14 cases  

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Full Text Available Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad inflamatoria benigna, infrecuente, de etiología desconocida. Puede simular carcinoma mamario, por lo cual su diagnóstico definitivo es histopatológico. No existe consenso respecto a su tratamiento. Realizamos una caracterización clínica de esta patología considerando su forma de presentación, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento con especial énfasis en la efectividad de la corticoterapia. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo realizado mediante protocolo tipo. Se revisaron los registros y fichas clínicas de los pacientes manejados con diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa idiopática en el Hospital Regional Valdivia entre los años 1995-2006. Resultados: La serie corresponde a 14 pacientes de sexo femenino. El promedio de edad fue de 31,6 años. La presentación clínica más frecuente fue absceso mamario en 9/14. Se realizó estudio imagenológico en 11/ 14 casos mediante mamografía en 7/14 y ecotomografía en 10/14. Las muestras para estudio histopatológico fueron obtenidas por biopsia percutánea en 8/14 y quirúrgica en 6/14. Se realizó tratamiento corticoidal con prednisona en 12/14 pacientes logrando buena respuesta en todos los casos. Se presentaron 2 recidivas durante el seguimiento que comprende un promedio de 28 meses. Conclusiones: La presentación clínica de las mastitis fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. La respuesta al tratamiento corticoesteroidal logró el control de la enfermedad en todos los casos. Las reacciones adversas al tratamiento fueron menores y las 2 recidivas fueron de menor magnitud y duración respecto al cuadro inicialBackground: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a benign and uncommon inflammatory disease of the breast, of unknown etiology. It can resemble a carcinoma, therefore the diagnosis is pathological. Aim: To perform a clinical characterization of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of 14 female patients aged 21 to 47 years with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, treated in a regional hospital between 1995 and 2006. Results: The most common clinical presentation was a breast abscess in nine patients. A mammography was done in seven patients an breast ultrasound in 10. Samples for pathological studies were obtained percutaneously in eight and surgically in six. Twelve patients were treated with prednisone, with good results in all. In a mean follow up of 28 months, two patients had a relapse. Conclusions: Steroid treatment was effective for the treatment of granulomatous mastitis. The two relapses observed in this series were mild

JUAN ANTONIO PÉREZ P

2007-08-01

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Mastitis granulomatosa idiopática: Diagnóstico y tratamiento en 14 casos / Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: Report of 14 cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad inflamatoria benigna, infrecuente, de etiología desconocida. Puede simular carcinoma mamario, por lo cual su diagnóstico definitivo es histopatológico. No existe consenso respecto a su tratamiento. Realizamos una caracterización cl [...] ínica de esta patología considerando su forma de presentación, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento con especial énfasis en la efectividad de la corticoterapia. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo realizado mediante protocolo tipo. Se revisaron los registros y fichas clínicas de los pacientes manejados con diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa idiopática en el Hospital Regional Valdivia entre los años 1995-2006. Resultados: La serie corresponde a 14 pacientes de sexo femenino. El promedio de edad fue de 31,6 años. La presentación clínica más frecuente fue absceso mamario en 9/14. Se realizó estudio imagenológico en 11/ 14 casos mediante mamografía en 7/14 y ecotomografía en 10/14. Las muestras para estudio histopatológico fueron obtenidas por biopsia percutánea en 8/14 y quirúrgica en 6/14. Se realizó tratamiento corticoidal con prednisona en 12/14 pacientes logrando buena respuesta en todos los casos. Se presentaron 2 recidivas durante el seguimiento que comprende un promedio de 28 meses. Conclusiones: La presentación clínica de las mastitis fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. La respuesta al tratamiento corticoesteroidal logró el control de la enfermedad en todos los casos. Las reacciones adversas al tratamiento fueron menores y las 2 recidivas fueron de menor magnitud y duración respecto al cuadro inicial Abstract in english Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a benign and uncommon inflammatory disease of the breast, of unknown etiology. It can resemble a carcinoma, therefore the diagnosis is pathological. Aim: To perform a clinical characterization of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and methods [...] : Retrospective review of medical records of 14 female patients aged 21 to 47 years with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, treated in a regional hospital between 1995 and 2006. Results: The most common clinical presentation was a breast abscess in nine patients. A mammography was done in seven patients an breast ultrasound in 10. Samples for pathological studies were obtained percutaneously in eight and surgically in six. Twelve patients were treated with prednisone, with good results in all. In a mean follow up of 28 months, two patients had a relapse. Conclusions: Steroid treatment was effective for the treatment of granulomatous mastitis. The two relapses observed in this series were mild

JUAN ANTONIO, PÉREZ P; JOHN, BOHLE O; GONZALO, SÁNCHEZ C; CRISTIAN, CARRASCO L; PABLO, MARIÁNGEL P.

2007-08-01

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Efficacy of extended intramammary ceftiofur therapy against mild to moderate clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cows: a randomized clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have investigated the efficacy of extended ceftiofur therapy and none have focused on extended therapy for naturally occurring clinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of extended intramammary ceftiofur therapy of 8 d duration with a standard 2-day regimen for the treatment of naturally occurring mild to moderate clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. Holstein cows from 22 dairy herds (n = 241) were randomly allocated to the 2 treatment groups. For each case of mastitis, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered intramammary once a day for 2 or 8 d. Clinical cure, 21 d after the last treatment, was 89% (98/110) in each group. Bacteriological cure 21 d after the last treatment for the 2- and 8-day regimens were 32% (15/47) and 61% (25/41), respectively, for all bacteria (P = 0.007), 64% (9/14) and 82% (9/11), respectively, for streptococci (P = 0.50), and 0% (0/20) and 47% (9/19), respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus (P = 0.0004). There were no statistical differences between groups for new intramammary infections. Overall, ceftiofur extended therapy increased cure when compared to a 2-day regimen for the treatment of naturally occurring mild to moderate clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. PMID:24396178

Truchetti, Geoffrey; Bouchard, Emile; Descôteaux, Luc; Scholl, Daniel; Roy, Jean-Philippe

2014-01-01

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Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region  

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Full Text Available A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

S. A. Hussein

2008-01-01

35

Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus a...

Hussein, S. A.

2008-01-01

36

Predictive ability of alternative models for genetic analysis of clinical mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis in cows can be defined as a binary trait, reflecting presence or absence of clinical mastitis (CM), or as a count variable, number of mastitis cases (NCM), within a defined time interval. Many different models have been proposed for genetic analyses of mastitis, and the objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability and sire predictions of a set of models for genetic evaluation of CM or NCM. Linear- and threshold liability models for CM, and linear, censored ordinal threshold, and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models for NCM were compared in a cross-validation study. To assess the ability of these models to predict future data, records from 620492 first-lactation Norwegian Red cows, which were daughters of 3064 sires, were evaluated in a fourfold cross-validation scheme. The mean squared error of prediction was used for model comparison. All models but ordinal threshold model equally performed when comparing the overall predictive ability. This result was on average, across sick and healthy cows; however, the models behaved differently for each category of animals. For example, healthy cows were predicted better by the threshold and linear models for binary data and ZIP model, whereas for mastitic cows, the ordinal threshold model was by far the best model. Predicted sire effects and rankings of sires were highly correlated across all models. For practical purposes, the linear models are very competitive with the nonlinear models. PMID:22394234

Vazquez, A I; Perez-Cabal, M A; Heringstad, B; Rodrigues-Motta, M; Rosa, G J M; Gianola, D; Weigel, K A

2012-04-01

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Immunoprophylaxis of bovine mastitis  

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Full Text Available Mastitis poses a major economic and health problem in herds of dairy cows. The many years of taking different approaches to treating mastitis have not resulted in an adequate solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. The treatment of mastitis using antibiotics yields satisfactory results, but it implies substantial costs for treatment and losses in rejecting milk. Due to the above reasons, a new area of scientific research offers possibilities for finding new solutions to the ever present problem of mastitis - immunoprophylaxis. Vaccines against mastitis available at this time are still not sufficiently effective in general practice, and they are at the level of experimental vaccines. All barn vaccines which have been worked on so far have been significantly experimentally successful. The success is in a significant increase in the antibody titer in serum (but not in milk, as well as in reducing the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases among experimental and control animals. Nevertheless, it is still believed that immunoprophylaxis, as a method for preventing inflammation of the udder and the occurrence of mastitis, is still an insufficiently investigated field of scientific research. Many scientists are engaged on the problem of finding a vaccine against mastitis, but the coplexity of the mammary gland and the specific permeability of the blood-milk barrier do not permit these efforts to be as successful as they might be if this were not the case.

Pavlovi? Vojislav

2003-01-01

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Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001 for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%, Streptococcus uberis (19.1% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%. In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%. Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition.

Aasmäe Birgit

2006-11-01

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Managerial and environmental determinants of clinical mastitis in Danish dairy herds  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.

Houe Hans

2008-02-01

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Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a 5-day ceftiofur hydrochloride intramammary treatment on nonsevere gram-negative clinical mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramammary treatment with ceftiofur hydrochloride of nonsevere, clinical coliform mastitis. One hundred four cases on 5 farms met the enrollment criteria for the study. Escherichia coli was the most common coliform species identified in milk samples from cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis, followed by Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. At enrollment, a milk sample from the affected quarter was taken and used for on-farm culture or submitted to the laboratory. For cows in the treatment group, treatment was initiated with ceftiofur hydrochloride via intramammary infusion at 24-h intervals for 5 d according to label standards. Cows in the control group did not receive treatment. Culture results were available on the day after enrollment and only cows with coliform mastitis continued in the treatment and untreated control groups. Bacteriological cure was defined based on 2 posttreatment milk samples. Molecular typing was used for final definition of bacteriological cure. Treatment of nonsevere clinical gram-negative mastitis with ceftiofur hydrochloride resulted in a significant increase in bacteriological cure compared with nontreated controls in animals infected with E. coli or Klebsiella spp. Treated animals clinically improved significantly more compared with control cows. No significant differences were observed between treated and control animals in milk production or linear score before or after clinical mastitis. Treated animals left the study less frequently compared with control animals. PMID:22118109

Schukken, Y H; Bennett, G J; Zurakowski, M J; Sharkey, H L; Rauch, B J; Thomas, M J; Ceglowski, B; Saltman, R L; Belomestnykh, N; Zadoks, R N

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Association of Escherichia coli J5-Specific Serum Antibody Responses with Clinical Mastitis Outcome for J5 Vaccinate and Control Dairy Cattle ?  

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Dairy cattle in two commercial Holstein herds were randomly selected to be vaccinated twice with J5, at approximately 60 days and 28 days before the expected calving date, or to be untreated controls. Based on whether milk production changed following clinical mastitis or whether cows were culled or died within 30 days after onset, 51 mastitis cases were classified as severe or mild. J5-specific antibody responses were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of all 32 severe and 19 mild cases. The amounts of J5-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies in sera from the 27 J5 vaccinates were compared with those of the 24 controls. At drying off (before J5 vaccination), all cows had similar amounts of J5-specific antibody. Immediately after calving (approximately 28 days after the second vaccination), J5 vaccinates had significantly higher production of J5-specific IgG1 and IgG2 than controls. When cows were tested following clinical mastitis, none of the three antibody classes differed significantly between the controls and the vaccinates. Vaccinates that contracted Escherichia coli mastitis had 75% less milk loss than controls. The cows that contracted clinical mastitis later in lactation, the unvaccinated controls, and those infected with E. coli had more milk loss following mastitis. The hazards of being culled for all reasons and of being culled for mastitis were significantly lower for J5 vaccinates. Vaccination with J5 was associated with protection against milk production loss and culling following clinical mastitis, and it was also significantly associated with changes in J5-specific IgM, IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies in sera of vaccinated cows. PMID:19052158

Wilson, David J.; Mallard, Bonnie A.; Burton, Jeanne L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Grohn, Yrjo T.

2009-01-01

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Association of Escherichia coli J5-specific serum antibody responses with clinical mastitis outcome for J5 vaccinate and control dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy cattle in two commercial Holstein herds were randomly selected to be vaccinated twice with J5, at approximately 60 days and 28 days before the expected calving date, or to be untreated controls. Based on whether milk production changed following clinical mastitis or whether cows were culled or died within 30 days after onset, 51 mastitis cases were classified as severe or mild. J5-specific antibody responses were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of all 32 severe and 19 mild cases. The amounts of J5-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies in sera from the 27 J5 vaccinates were compared with those of the 24 controls. At drying off (before J5 vaccination), all cows had similar amounts of J5-specific antibody. Immediately after calving (approximately 28 days after the second vaccination), J5 vaccinates had significantly higher production of J5-specific IgG1 and IgG2 than controls. When cows were tested following clinical mastitis, none of the three antibody classes differed significantly between the controls and the vaccinates. Vaccinates that contracted Escherichia coli mastitis had 75% less milk loss than controls. The cows that contracted clinical mastitis later in lactation, the unvaccinated controls, and those infected with E. coli had more milk loss following mastitis. The hazards of being culled for all reasons and of being culled for mastitis were significantly lower for J5 vaccinates. Vaccination with J5 was associated with protection against milk production loss and culling following clinical mastitis, and it was also significantly associated with changes in J5-specific IgM, IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies in sera of vaccinated cows. PMID:19052158

Wilson, David J; Mallard, Bonnie A; Burton, Jeanne L; Schukken, Ynte H; Grohn, Yrjo T

2009-02-01

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Tuberculous mastitis presenting as a lump: a mimicking disease in a pregnant woman case report and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis (TB) of the breast is a rare entity, and can be confused with many other breast disorders, like mamma carcinoma or inflammatory breast cancer. When finding granulomatous mastitis (GM) on histology, it is important to make a differential diagnosis and seek actively for clues on the presence of tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis, or idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, since treatment strategies differ and maltreatment has major implications on morbidity and mortality. An extensive clinical evaluation, laboratory work up, and imaging will lead in most cases to the right diagnosis. Anti-tuberculous therapy is the core treatment for breast TB, and surgery is indicated for extensive or persistent residual disease. Here we present a case of tuberculous mastitis and a review of literature on GM. PMID:25056489

Brouwer, A; Degrieck, N; Rasschaert, M; Lockefeer, F; Huizing, M; Tjalma, W

2014-10-01

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Mammographic and sonographic findings of periductal mastitis : a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Periductal mastitis arises from major ducts. Radiographic reports describing the phases of duct ectasia and secretory calcifications, have been published, but descriptions of the phases of periductal mastitis are rare. We report the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of periductal mastitis in a 30-year-old woman who presented with a breast lump

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Mammographic and sonographic findings of periductal mastitis : a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Periductal mastitis arises from major ducts. Radiographic reports describing the phases of duct ectasia and secretory calcifications, have been published, but descriptions of the phases of periductal mastitis are rare. We report the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of periductal mastitis in a 30-year-old woman who presented with a breast lump.

Chung, Sun Yang [Pochon CHA Univ. College of Medicine, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-03-01

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Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A) in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound) and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A) in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT) test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood sa...

S Nazifi, M. Haghkhah

2011-01-01

47

Mastite granulomatosa idiopática: aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e ultra-sonográficos Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as características clínicas, mamográficas e ultra-sonográficas de três casos de mastite granulomatosa idiopática. Esta afecção pode simular câncer de mama nos exames clínico e mamográfico, porém os achados ultra-sonográficos de múltiplas imagens tubulares hipoecóicas, contíguas e confluentes em mulheres jovens com história de lactação recente sugerem o diagnóstico de mastite granulomatosa idiopática.The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings of three cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. This disease can mimic breast carcinoma on clinical and mammographic examinations. However, ultrasound examinations showing multiple clustered and often contiguous tubular hypoechoic lesions in young women with history of recent lactation suggest the diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

Cristina Caetano Stefanon

2005-06-01

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Investigations of efficacy of intramammary applied antimicrobials and glucocorticosteroides in the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis in cows  

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Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis in cows, presents one of the most acute problems in intensive dairy production, inflicting huge economic losses. In the course of one year, 80 samples were taken at investigated farms from udder quarters of cows with clinical mastitis and 160 samples from udder quarters of cows with subclinical mastitis. The efficacy of three preparations, A, B, and C, was examined in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows. The investigations indicate that antibiotic preparation A (neomycin, polimixine B, oleandomycin and prednisolone exhibited a greater efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus sp., but a smaller efficacy in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation B (amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone exhibited a higher efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus, but a weaker effect in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation C (procaine penicillin G, streptomycin, neomycin sulfate and prednisolone acetate exihibited efficacy in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichie coli. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molekularno-geneti?ka i ekofiziološka istraživanja u zaštiti autohtonih animalnih geneti?kih resursa, o?uvanju dobrobiti, zdravlja i reprodukcije gajenih životinja i proizvodnji bezbedne hrane

Vakanjac Slobodanka

2013-01-01

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COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SOME INDIRECT DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS AND BUFFALOES  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare five laboratory diagnostic tests for sub-clinical mastitis in cattle and buffaloes and to compute cost, time taken by each test and its ranking for availability, adoptability, interpretability and sensitivity. There were 352 cases with each test type viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Side Test (WST, White Side + Dye (WSTD, Surf Test and Surf + Dye, and 880 cases with each species type (cattle and buffaloes. Result scores (1760 for sub-clinical mastitis in each category of negative, trace, single positive, double positive and triple positive by species, and laboratory tests, were analyzed using nonparametric tests. Chi-square statistics showed that CMT was equally effective at both locations (farm vs. laboratory. Correlation further suggested that the association was highly significant. Moreover, cases in category of negative, trace and single positive strongly differed (P0.05. The study further suggested that CMT was the most sensitive test, followed by WST/WSTD and Surf/Surf + Dye. Although, the five tests showed slight discrepancy in the trace category reaction, a strong relationship of Surf Test to CMT, its low cost, easy availability and readily adoptable qualities should spur the relevant authorities to recommend the use of Surf test as a routine practice in dairy farming and add this test in the curriculum of diploma and degree programmes.

M. IQBAL, M. AMJED1, M. A. KHAN, M. S. QURESHI1 AND U. SADIQUE1

2006-04-01

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Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Pathogens from Sub-Clinical and Clinical Mastitis in Eastern China  

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Full Text Available Prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical coliform mastitis with antimicrobial sensitivity profile of various mastitis-causing organisms was investigated. Milk samples collected from 299 cows infected with clinical mastitis to evaluate the prevalence of coliform mastitis and 1660 quarters milk samples randomly collected from 415 lactating cows for detection of subclinical mastitis (SCM by Hangzhou Mastitis Test (HMT. SCM at quarters and cow level was recorded to be 20.2 and 52.3%, respectively. Occurrence of SCM in left rear quarter was high (26.7%. Statistical analysis of risk factors showed, cows with 6-9 years of age (P=0.046; Odds ratio (OR, +1.414; 95% confidence interval (CI=1.006-1.988 and 60.7%, cows with 4-7 calves (P=0.028; OR, +1.502; 95% CI=1.044-2.160 and 62.2%, and cows in late stage of lactation (P=0.039; OR, +1.947; 95% CI=1.023-3.702 and 68%, were more susceptible to SCM. All the 115 organisms from SCM milk samples and 103 Escherichia coli from CM samples were confirmed by PCR techniques. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC results revealed that E. coli isolates were resistant to penicillin group (93-99%, fluoroquinolones (40-74%, cephalosporins (54-66%, oxytetracycline (91%, gentamycin (82%, SUL-TRM (88% and were sensitive to florfenicol. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to ampicillin (91%, oxytetracycline (59% and methicillin (29%. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were 8 to 15% resistant to used antimicrobials. In conclusion, cows with SCM were reservoir of various bacterial pathogens and high prevalence of E. coli in clinical mastitis milk could be major complications for mastitis treatment due to their multidrug resistance profile.

Javed Memon, Jam Kashif, Muhammad Yaqoob, Wang Liping, Yongchun Yang and Fan Hongjie*

2013-04-01

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Comparative proteomic changes of differentially expressed whey proteins in clinical mastitis and healthy yak cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under the traditional grazing system on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the amount of milk in domesticated yak (Bos grunniens) with clinical mastitis decreases and the milk composition is altered. To understand the mechanisms of mammary gland secreted milk and disease infection, changes in the protein composition of milk during clinical mastitis were investigated using a proteomic approach. Milk whey from yak with clinical mastitis was compared to whey from healthy animals with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using a mass spectrometer. Thirteen protein spots were identified to be four differentially expressed proteins. Increases in the concentrations of proteins of blood serum origin, including lactoferrin, were identified in mastitic whey compared to normal whey, while concentrations of the major whey proteins, casocidin-I, a-lactalbumin, and b-lactoglobulin, were downregulated in mastitic whey. These results indicated significant differences in protein expression between healthy yaks and those with clinical mastitis, and they may provide valuable information for finding new regulation markers and potential protein targets for the treatment of mastitis. PMID:25177940

Li, X; Ding, X Z; Wan, Y L; Liu, Y M; Du, G Z

2014-01-01

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Assessment of sub-clinical mastitis and its associated risk factors in dairy livestock of Lamjung, Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Mastitis is one among the top three threats faced by dairy farmers. The study was carried out to assess sub-clinical mastitis, management practices and associated risk factors for mastitis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Chandreshwor and Archalbot VDCs of Lamjung district taking 63 dairy livestock randomly each from a herd along with questionnaire survey to respective owner. Tem ml of milk sample from each quarter was taken in a sterilized syringe...

Khanal T; Pandit A.

2013-01-01

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Mastitis granulomatosa idiopática: Diagnóstico y tratamiento en 14 casos Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: Report of 14 cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad inflamatoria benigna, infrecuente, de etiología desconocida. Puede simular carcinoma mamario, por lo cual su diagnóstico definitivo es histopatológico. No existe consenso respecto a su tratamiento. Realizamos una caracterización clínica de esta patología considerando su forma de presentación, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento con especial énfasis en la efectividad de la corticoterapia. Material y método: Estudi...

Juan Antonio Pe?rez, P.; John Bohle, O.; Gonzalo Sa?nchez, C.; Cristian Carrasco, L.; Pablo Maria?ngel, P.

2007-01-01

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Idiopathic granulomatus lobular mastitis. A forgotten clinical diagnosis.  

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Granulomatous mastitis is not unheard of and clinicians should keep it in their list of differential diagnosis of breast lumps so appropriate handling of breast specimens including microbiological studies can be pursued. Utility of fine needle aspiration biopsy as a diagnostic tool is to be considered.

Mona A. Al Nazer

2003-12-01

55

Diagnostics, incidence and course of nonpuerperal mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinic of radiology at the university of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made. (orig.)

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Diagnostics, incidence and course of nonpuerperal mastitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The clinic of radiology at the University of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made.

Goelles, M.; Kopp, W.; Beaufort, F.

1985-02-01

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Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood samples were collected after confirmation of clinical and subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count and bacterial identification. Serum haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, total sialic acid (TSA, lipid bound sialic acid (LBSA and protein bound sialic acid (PBSA were measured by validated standard methods. Haptoglobin and SAA increased significantly in both types of mastitis compared with control group (P<0.001. However, the ratio of HP/SAA was significantly different from the control group only in clinical mastitis. The results showed that TSA and LBSA were significantly different in control group compared with clinical and subclinical mastitis (P<0.001. Protein bound sialic acid did not change in subclinical mastitis in comparison with control group (P=0.86. There was positive correlation between LBSA and PBSA in clinical mastitis (r=0.72, P=0.02 whereas significant negative correlation was observed between LBSA and PBSA in subclinical mastitis (r=-0.62, P<0.001. Results also showed no correlation between Hp and SAA with each other or with any other parameters in study groups.

S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

2011-01-01

58

Mastite clinica caprina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes / Clinical mastitis in goat due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This paper reports the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State - Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. Amastectomywasperformedasclinical treatment. [...

F., Garino Jr; R.A.T., Matos; E.G., Miranda Neto; J.N.N., Bernardino; E.D., Santos; G.M.N., Aguiar.

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Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and an environmental spread of Escherichia coli IMI in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were calculated into the total annual net costs of IMI during lactation per scenario and compared with a default scenario. Input parameter values were based on the scientific literature. The scenarios were 3-d intramammary lactational treatment (default), 5-d intramammary treatment, 5-d intramammary treatment and 3-d systemic treatment, 3-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows, and 5-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on parameter input values. The results showed that interventions including antibiotic treatment combined with culling unrecovered clinical IMI cows resulted in the lowest transmission, number of IMI cases, and persistent subclinical IMI cases. Nonetheless, the high associated costs of culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows made the other scenarios with a long and intensive antibiotic treatment, but without culling, the most cost effective. The model was sensitive to changes to the cure rate of clinical IMI following treatment, but the ranking of the intervention scenarios did not change. The model was most sensitive to the changes to the transmission rate of Staph. aureus. The ranking of the intervention scenarios changed at low transmission rate of this pathogen, in which the default scenario became the most cost-effective scenario. In case of high transmission of contagious IMI pathogens, long and intensive treatment of clinical IMI should be preceded by strategies that lower the transmission. PMID:22863098

Halasa, T

2012-10-01

60

Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and an environmental spread of Escherichia coli IMI in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were calculated into the total annual net costs of IMI during lactation per scenario and compared with a default scenario. Input parameter values were based on the scientific literature. The scenarios were 3-d intramammary lactational treatment (default), 5-d intramammary treatment, 5-d intramammary treatment and 3-d systemic treatment, 3-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows, and 5-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on parameter input values. The results showed that interventions including antibiotic treatment combined with culling unrecovered clinical IMI cows resulted in the lowest transmission, number of IMI cases, and persistent subclinical IMI cases. Nonetheless, the high associated costs of culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows made the other scenarios with a long and intensive antibiotic treatment, but without culling, the most cost effective. The model was sensitive to changes to the cure rate of clinical IMI following treatment, but the ranking of the intervention scenarios did not change. The model was most sensitive to the changes to the transmission rate of Staph. aureus. The ranking of the intervention scenarios changed at low transmission rate of this pathogen, in which the default scenario became the most cost-effective scenario. In case of high transmission of contagious IMI pathogens, long and intensive treatment of clinical IMI should be preceded by strategies that lower the transmission.

Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Study on some characteristics of Staphylococci isolated from sheep sub clinical mastitis milk in Shahrekord, Iran  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococci release a large number of enzymes. Some of these, such as coagulase, beta lactamase, hemolysins and biofilms are considered indices of pathogenicity. The aim of the current study was based on the isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS strains from sheep sub clinical mastitis and examining their biofilm, beta lactamase, hemolysins production and antibiotic resistance pattern. Materials and methods: 55 Staphylococci strains were isolated from seventy cases of sheep subclinical mastitis. Thirty three were determined as Staphylococcus aureus (60% and 22 (40% as CNS. The hemolytic activity was evaluated by plating Staphylococci strains on 5% bovine blood agar. The biofilm assay was performed by using micro titer plates. Beta Lactamase production was detected by test tube iodometric technique and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined for isolated strains by the disk diffusion method. Results: Twenty six (78.8% S. aureus strains were biofilm producers. For CNS (59.9% strains were positive in biofilm production. Two isolates (6.06%, of S. aureus were ?, the same number ? and 6 (18.2% isolates were ? hemolysin producers. Six isolates of CNS (27.27% were ? and ten (45.45% ? hemolysin producers. Sixteen S. aureus (48.5% and five CNS (22.72% isolates were positive in beta lactamase production. The isolated Staphylococci show a low sensitivity pattern to methicillin and streptomycin. Discussion and conclusion: A high percentage of strains make ? toxin that play a role in S. aureus biofilm formation. Twenty one out of 33 (63.63% isolated Staphylococci were biofilm producers that can have deleterious effects because biofilm formation is thought to play an important role in the survival of virulent strains of Staphylococci. Sixteen out of 33 (48.5% isolated S. aureus were positive in beta lactamase test, Excluding resistant to methicillin, all of these isolates show a marked sensitivities to other examined beta lactam drugs. High percentage of hemolysins, biofilm and beta lactamase production by isolated Staphylococci, suggest an important role of these virulence factors in the pathogenesis of isolated Staphylococci from mastitis sheep milk samples.

Azizollah Ebrahimi

2014-01-01

62

Effect of extended cefquinome treatment on clinical persistence or recurrence of environmental clinical mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis (CM) is classically evaluated using bacteriological cure, which provides a concise and objective way of assessing efficacy but does not reflect the situation in the field where persistence or recurrence of clinical signs lead to perceived treatment failure. If clinical signs persist or recur, intramammary (IMM) treatment is often extended or supplemented with parenteral therapy in the expectation of a more efficient elimination of clinical signs or a lower probability of recurrence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy against clinical persistence or recurrence of three cefquinome treatment regimes, standard 1.5-day intramammary (SIMM), 5-day extended intramammary (EIMM) and combination of EIMM plus 5-day extended parenteral (ECOMBO) treatment. The study was conducted on three dairy farms with a high recurrence rate of environmental mastitis. Efficacy was evaluated using a multi-level model at the quarter and at the cow level, based on the persistence or recurrence of clinical signs at any time during a 105-day period following the end of the initial treatment, independent of pathogen. The most prevalent pathogens were E. coli (16.9%) and S. uberis (11.97%). EIMM and ECOMBO significantly decreased the persistence or recurrence of CM by 8% and 6% at the quarter level and by 9% and 8% at the cow level, respectively. ECOMBO may not reduce the persistence or recurrence of CM beyond EIMM. Whilst extended treatment regimens offered an improved outcome in this study, the producer and practitioner need to carefully consider such regimens from the perspective of prudent antibiotic use. PMID:23702283

Swinkels, J M; Lam, T J G M; Green, M J; Bradley, A J

2013-09-01

63

Characterization of Staphylococcus simulans strains isolated from cases of bovine mastitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study was conducted to characterize Staphylococcus simulans isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. A total of 134 isolates of S. simulans selected from 80 quarters from 61 cows or heifers in 37 different herds were characterized by EcoRI ribotyping. From 22 quarters two to seven consecutive isolates taken at weekly intervals were selected. Furthermore, three isolates from clinical infections in humans and two reference strains were included. A total of 16 different ribotypes were found, however, two types predominated. In most herds more than one type was found. From the 22 different quarters, where 76 paired or multiple isolates were at disposal, the same ribotype was constantly found in the same quarter. This study showed that S. simulans causing bovine mastitis could be divided into relatively large number of different types, but that two types predominated. More than one type could be found in the same herd and within different quarters of the same cow, but ribotyping confirmed that S. simulans could be the cause of persistent and stable infections.

Aarestrup, Frank MØller

1999-01-01

64

A zero-inflated poisson model for genetic analysis of the number of mastitis cases in Norwegian Red cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to extend a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model to account for correlated genetic effects, and to use this model to analyze the number of clinical mastitis cases in Norwegian Red cows. The ZIP model is suitable for analysis of count data containing an excess of zeros relative to what is expected from Poisson sampling. A ZIP model was developed and compared with a corresponding Poisson model. The Poisson parameter followed a hierarchical structure, and a residual term accounting for overdispersion was included. In both models, the Poisson parameter was regressed 1) on the year, month, and age at first calving; 2) on the logarithm of the number of days elapsed from calving to the end of first lactation; and c) on herd and sire effects. Herd and sire effects were assigned normal prior distributions in a Bayesian analysis, corresponding to a random effects treatment in a frequentist analysis. An analysis of residuals favored the Poisson model when there were 2 or more cases of mastitis during first lactation, with very small differences between the ZIP and Poisson models at 0 and 1 cases. However, the residual assessment was not satisfactory for either of the models. The ZIP model, on the other hand, had a better predictive ability than the corresponding Poisson model. Posterior means of the sire, herd, and residual variances in the ZIP model (log scale) were 0.09, 0.37, and 0.36, respectively, highlighting the importance of herds as a source of variation in clinical mastitis. The correlation between sire rankings from the ZIP and Poisson models was 0.98. A weaker correlation would be expected in a population with more severe inflation at zero than the present one. The estimate of the perfect state probability p was 0.32, indicating that 32% of the animals would be in the perfect state, either because they are resistant or because they were not exposed to mastitis. PMID:17954771

Rodrigues-Motta, M; Gianola, D; Heringstad, B; Rosa, G J M; Chang, Y M

2007-11-01

65

Genetic relationships of clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness with milk yield and somatic cell score in first-lactation Canadian Holsteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships of the 3 most frequently reported dairy cattle diseases (clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness) with test-day milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) in first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows using random regression models. Health data recorded by producers were available from the National Dairy Cattle Health System in Canada. Disease traits were defined as binary traits (0=healthy, 1=affected) based on whether or not the cow had at least one disease case recorded within 305 d after calving. Mean frequencies of clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness were 12.7, 8.2, and 9.1%, respectively. For genetic analyses, a Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was applied. Bivariate linear sire random regression model analyses were carried out between each of the 3 disease traits and test-day milk yield or SCS. Random regressions on second-degree Legendre polynomials were used to model the daily sire additive genetic and cow effects on test-day milk yield and SCS, whereas only the intercept term was fitted for disease traits. Estimated heritabilities were 0.03, 0.03, and 0.02 for clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness, respectively. Average heritabilities for milk yield were between 0.41 and 0.49. Average heritabilities for SCS ranged from 0.10 to 0.12. The average genetic correlations between daily milk yield and clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness were 0.40, 0.26, and 0.23, respectively; however, the last estimate was not statistically different from zero. Cows with a high genetic merit for milk yield during the lactation were more susceptible to clinical mastitis and cystic ovaries. Estimates of genetic correlations between daily milk yield and clinical mastitis were moderate throughout the lactation. The genetic correlations between daily milk yield and cystic ovaries were near zero at the beginning of lactation and were highest at mid and end lactation. The average genetic correlation between daily SCS and clinical mastitis was 0.59 and was consistent throughout the lactation. The average genetic correlation between daily SCS and cystic ovaries was near zero (-0.01), whereas a moderate, but nonsignificant, correlation of 0.27 was observed between SCS and lameness. Unfavorable genetic associations between milk yield and diseases imply that production and health traits should be considered simultaneously in genetic selection. PMID:24996282

Koeck, A; Loker, S; Miglior, F; Kelton, D F; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S

2014-09-01

66

A comparison between multivariate Slash, Student's t and probit threshold models for analysis of clinical mastitis in first lactation cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Robust threshold models with multivariate Student's t or multivariate Slash link functions were employed to infer genetic parameters of clinical mastitis at different stages of lactation, with each cow defining a cluster of records. The robust fits were compared with that from a multivariate probit model via a pseudo-Bayes factor and an analysis of residuals. Clinical mastitis records on 36 178 first-lactation Norwegian Red cows from 5286 herds, daughters of 245 sires, were analysed. The opportunity for infection interval, going from 30 days pre-calving to 300 days postpartum, was divided into four periods: (i) -30 to 0 days pre-calving; (ii) 1-30 days; (iii) 31-120 days; and (iv) 121-300 days of lactation. Within each period, absence or presence of clinical mastitis was scored as 0 or 1 respectively. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to draw samples from posterior distributions of interest. Pseudo-Bayes factors strongly favoured the multivariate Slash and Student's t models over the probit model. The posterior mean of the degrees of freedom parameter for the Slash model was 2.2, indicating heavy tails of the liability distribution. The posterior mean of the degrees of freedom for the Student's t model was 8.5, also pointing away from a normal liability for clinical mastitis. A residual was the observed phenotype (0 or 1) minus the posterior mean of the probability of mastitis. The Slash and Student's t models tended to have smaller residuals than the probit model in cows that contracted mastitis. Heritability of liability to clinical mastitis was 0.13-0.14 before calving, and ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 after calving in the robust models. Genetic correlations were between 0.50 and 0.73, suggesting that clinical mastitis resistance is not the same trait across periods, corroborating earlier findings with probit models. PMID:16965401

Chang, Y-M; Gianola, D; Heringstad, B; Klemetsdal, G

2006-10-01

67

Investigations on Prevalence and Oxidative Stress Aspects of Mastitis in Buffaloes  

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The 424 quarter milk samples collected from 106 apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were screened for mastitis using bacterial cultural examination and somatic cell count. The prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM), latent mastitis and non-specific mastitis were found to be 9.90% (42/424), 4.24% (18/424), and 15.80% ( 67/424), respectively. There was significant (P?0.05) elevation of blood malondialdehyde (MDA) level in SCM and clinical mastitis cases. Besides, milk malondialdehyde l...

Jain, V. K.; Sharma, A.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, M.

2010-01-01

68

Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests  

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Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commercial dairy farms and 55 from backyards lactating dairy cows were considered. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM was determined using three different indirect screening tests: California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Slide Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. Sensitivity and specificity were also determined to measure the accuracy of those tests. Results: The prevalence of SCM by CMT, WST and SFMT were 32.43% (n=144, 33.56% (n=149 and 31.53% (n=140, respectively. Distribution of SCM in relation to different variables at quarter level and animal level was also recorded. The prevalence of SCM was significantly (P4 than others at quarter level. No significant difference (P>0.05 was found in relation to breed. Using CMT as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of WST and SFMT were also calculated at 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and disease prevalence by WST and SFMT were comparable. Conclusion: This study recommends that regular screening of sub-clinical mastitis will reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, dry cow therapy specially in high yielding dairy cows.

Mukti Barua

2014-07-01

69

Discriminating between true-positive and false-positive clinical mastitis alerts from automatic milking systems.  

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Automatic milking systems (AMS) generate alert lists reporting cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Dutch farmers indicated that they use non-AMS cow information or the detailed alert information from the AMS to decide whether to check an alerted cow for CM. However, it is not yet known to what extent such information can be used to discriminate between true-positive and false-positive alerts. The overall objective was to investigate whether selection of the alerted cows that need further investigation for CM can be made. For this purpose, non-AMS cow information and detailed alert information were used. During a 2-yr study period, 11,156 alerts for CM, including 159 true-positive alerts, were collected at one farm in The Netherlands. Non-AMS cow information on parity, days in milk, season of the year, somatic cell count history, and CM history was added to each alert. In addition, 6 alert information variables were defined. These were the height of electrical conductivity, the alert origin (electrical conductivity, color, or both), whether or not a color alert for mastitic milk was given, whether or not a color alert for abnormal milk was given, deviation from the expected milk yield, and the number of alerts of the cow in the preceding 12 to 96 h. Subsequently, naive Bayesian networks (NBN) were constructed to compute the posterior probability of an alert being truly positive based only on non-AMS cow information, based on only alert information, or based on both types of information. The NBN including both types of information had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC; 0.78), followed by the NBN including only alert information (AUC=0.75) and the NBN including only non-AMS cow information (AUC=0.62). By combining the 2 types of information and by setting a threshold on the computed probabilities, the number of false-positive alerts on a mastitis alert list was reduced by 35%, and 10% of the true-positive alerts would not be identified. To detect CM cases at a farm with an AMS, checking all alerts is still the best option but would result in a high workload. Checking alerts based on a single alert information variable would result in missing too many true-positive cases. Using a combination of alert information variables, however, is the best way to select cows that need further investigation. The effect of adding non-AMS cow information on making a distinction between true-positive and false-positive alerts would be minor. PMID:20494164

Steeneveld, W; van der Gaag, L C; Ouweltjes, W; Mollenhorst, H; Hogeveen, H

2010-06-01

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Experimental staphylococcal mastitis in bitches: clinical, bacteriological, cytological, haematological and pathological features.  

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The objectives of the work were to study the features of experimentally induced canine mastitis and to present hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. The right caudal abdominal mammary gland of six bitches was inoculated on day 8 after whelping with Staphylococcus intermedius to induce mastitis; adjacent mammary glands were used as controls. Clinical examination, bacteriological and cytological (whiteside test, Giemsa) examination of mammary secretion, as well as haematological tests were performed from 5 days before until 34 days after challenge. Mastectomy was sequentially performed 1, 2, 4, 18, 26 and 34 days after challenge in each of the bitches, in order to carry out a pathological examination of mammary glands. All animals developed clinical mastitis: challenged glands became painful, hot, enlarged and oedematous; secretion was brownish, purulent, with flakes or clots, subsequently becoming yellowish and thick. Staphylococci were isolated from all inoculated glands (up to 22 days). WST was positive in 41/46 samples from inoculated glands and 66/138 samples from control glands; neutrophils predominated during the acute stage. Blood leukocyte counts increased, whilst platelet counts decreased. Gross pathological findings initially included congestion, purulent discharge and subcutaneous oedema; then abscesses, brownish areas and size decrease were seen. Salient histopathological features were initially neutrophilic infiltration, haemorrhages, destruction of mammary epithelial cells and alveoli, and then infiltration by lymphocytes, shrunken alveoli, loss of glandular architecture and fibrous tissue proliferation. We conclude that in bitches, intrammamary inoculation of Staphylococcus intermedius can induce clinical mastitis, followed by subclinical disease. The disorder is characterized by bacterial isolation and leukocyte influx in challenged glands, by leukocyte presence in adjacent mammary glands, by increased blood leukocyte counts and by destruction of mammary parenchyma. PMID:17481831

Ververidis, H N; Mavrogianni, V S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Gougoulis, D A; Tzivara, A; Gouletsou, P G; Athanasiou, L; Boscos, C M; Fthenakis, G C

2007-09-20

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Correlated time to event data: Modeling repeated clinical mastitis data from dairy cattle in New York State.  

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Mastitis is the most prevalent production disease in dairy herds worldwide and is considered to be the most economically important disease of dairy cattle. Modeling the risk of cows contracting mastitis is therefore of great interest for both targeting prevention programs and evaluating treatment protocols. Clinical mastitis (CM) is a disease of recurrent nature, thus correlation between the subsequent events within one cow may be present. This would violate the assumption behind most statistical time-to-event models. In the case of time to event models, the semi-parametric Cox regression models have become the default tool in modeling the time to an event. Limited methods are currently available to evaluate marginal and random (frailty) effects to account for multiple correlation sources. The objective of this study was to explore the implications of using several Cox or related semi-parametric or parametric models to estimate the hazard for CM in the presence of correlation between events. We evaluated the Andersen-Gill model which uses robust standard errors to account for the correlation, the Conditional Anderson-Gill model that uses stratification to account for event dependence, the Frailty model that introduces a random term to account for unobserved (cow level) heterogeneity, and a related generalized linear mixed model that uses Poisson regression to allow multi-level modeling of time-to-event data. We analyzed data on the occurrence of CM from five dairy farms in New York State. Data were from 8206 cows with 721, 275, 119, and 57 first, second, third, and fourth occurrences of CM, respectively, in the same lactation. The analysis of our sample dataset demonstrated that both cow- and farm-level correlation are present in the case of CM. The Conditional Frailty model was able to model one source of correlation in a random effect and one in a fixed effect. Poisson modeling allowed for simultaneous estimation of within cow correlation and within herd correlation. PMID:21035216

Schukken, Ynte H; Bar, Doron; Hertl, Julia; Gröhn, Yrjo T

2010-12-01

72

Clinical characteristics and persistence of bovine mastitis caused by different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci identified with API or AFLP  

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The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP-typing of CNS was compared with the phenotypic identification. A total of 133 clinical or subclinical quarter cases of intramammary infection caused by CNS from the practice area of the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Helsinki were studied. Bacteriological diagnosis was based on biochemical (API) testing. Staphylococcus simulans (43.6%) followed by S. chromogenes (23.3%) were the most common CNS species isolated from the milk samples. Ninety-nine isolates were genotyped using AFLP-analysis. Only 75.0% of S. chromogenes and S. simulans isolates identified with API test were clustered with the type strains of these species. Approximately half of the mastitis cases were clinical, and in the majority clinical signs were mild. The severity and persistence of intramammary infection were unaffected by CNS species. Fifty-nine percent of the quarter cases were treated with antimicrobials, and the rest were left without treatment. Mastitis due to P-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were P-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as opposed to only 45.5% for untreated quarters. Bacterial cure rates for the most common CNS species or AFLP clusters were not statistically different. Further studies on identification of CNS species are needed.

2006-01-01

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A field study evaluation of Petrifilm™ plates as a 24-h rapid diagnostic test for clinical mastitis on a dairy farm.  

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Clinical mastitis is one of the most common and expensive diseases of dairy cattle. To make an informed treatment decision, it is important to know the causative pathogen. However, no detection of bacterial growth can be made in approximately 30% of all clinical cases of mastitis. Before selecting the treatment regimen, it is important to know whether the mastitis-causing pathogen (MCP) is Gram-positive or Gram-negative. The aim of this field study was to investigate whether using two 3M Petrifilm™ products on-farm (which conveys a higher degree of sample freshness but also bears a higher risk for contamination than working in a lab) as 24-h rapid diagnostic of clinical mastitis achieved results that were comparable to the conventional microbiological diagnostic method. AerobicCount (AC)-Petrifilm™ and ColiformCount (CC)-Petrifilm™ were used to identify the total bacterial counts and Gram-negative bacteria in samples from clinical mastitis cases, respectively. Missing growth on both plates was classified as no bacterial detection. Growth only on the AC-Petrifilm™ was assessed as Gram-positive, and growth on both Petrifilm™ plates was assessed as Gram-negative bacterial growth. Additionally, milk samples were analysed by conventional microbiological diagnostic method on aesculin blood agar as a reference method. Overall, 616 samples from clinical mastitis cases were analysed. Using the reference method, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mixed bacterial growth, contaminated samples and yeast were determined in 32.6%, 20.0%, 2.5%, 14.1% and 1.1% of the samples, respectively. In 29.7% of the samples, microbiological growth could not be identified. Using the Petrifilm™ concept, bacterial growth was detected in 59% of the culture-negative samples. The sensitivity of the Petrifilm™ for Gram-positive and Gram-negative MCP was 85.2% and 89.9%, respectively. The specificity was 75.4% for Gram-positive and 88.4% for Gram-negative MCP. For the culture-negative samples, sensitivity was 41.0% and specificity was 91.0%. The results indicate that the Petrifilm™ concept is suitable for therapeutic decision-making at the farm level or in veterinary practice. As this concept does not allow any statement about the genus or species of microorganisms, relevant MCP should be assessed periodically at the herd level with conventional microbiological diagnostics. PMID:24382427

Mansion-de Vries, Elisabeth Maria; Knorr, Nicole; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Zinke, Claudia; Hoedemaker, Martina; Krömker, Volker

2014-03-01

74

Effect of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on milk yield in dairy cows.  

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Our objective was to estimate the effects of the first occurrence of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) on milk yield in 3071 dairy cows in 2 New York State farms. The pathogens studied were Streptococcus spp.,Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, other pathogens grouped together, and "no pathogen isolated." Data were collected from October 1999 to July 2001. Milk samples were collected from cows showing signs of CM and were sent to the Quality Milk Production Services laboratory at Cornell University for microbiological culture. The SAS statistical procedure PROC MIXED, with an autoregressive covariance structure, was used to quantify the effect of CM and several other control variables (herd, calving season, parity, month of lactation, J-5 vaccination status, and other diseases) on weekly milk yield. Separate models were fitted for primipara and multipara, because of the different shapes of their lactation curves. To observe effects of mastitis, milk weights were divided into several periods both pre- and postdiagnosis, according to when they were measured in relation to disease occurrence. Another category contained cows without the type of CM being modeled. Because all pathogens were modeled simultaneously, a control cow was one without CM. Among primipara, Staph. aureus, E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and "no pathogen isolated" caused the greatest losses. Milk yield generally began to drop 1 or 2 wk before diagnosis; the greatest loss occurred immediately following diagnosis. Mastitic cows often never recovered their potential yield. Among older cows, Streptococcus spp., Staph. aureus, A. pyogenes, E. coli, and Klebsiella spp. caused the most significant losses. Many multipara that developed CM were actually higher producers before diagnosis than their nonmastitic herd-mates. As in primipara, milk yield in multipara often began to decline shortly before diagnosis; the greatest loss occurred immediately following diagnosis. Milk loss persisted until at least 70 d after diagnosis for Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., and A. pyogenes. The tendency for higher producing cows to contract CM may mask its impact on cow health and production. These findings provide dairy producers with more information on which pathogen-specific CM cases should receive treatment and how to manage these cows, thereby reducing CM impact on cow well being and profitability. PMID:15377615

Gröhn, Y T; Wilson, D J; González, R N; Hertl, J A; Schulte, H; Bennett, G; Schukken, Y H

2004-10-01

75

Efficacy of Targeted 5-day Combined Parenteral and Intramammary Treatment of Clinical Mastitis Caused by Penicillin-Susceptible or Penicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

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Full Text Available Combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was compared to parenteral treatment only. Cows with clinical mastitis (166 mastitic quarters caused by S. aureus treated by veterinarians of the Ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine during routine farm calls were included. Treatment was based on in vitro susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolate. Procaine penicillin G (86 cases due to ?-lactamase negative strains or amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (24 cases due to ?-lactamase positive strains was administered parenterally and intramammarily for 5 days. Efficacy of treatments was assessed 2 and 4 weeks later by physical examination, bacteriological culture, determination of CMT, somatic cell count and NAGase activity in milk. Quarters with growth of S. aureus in at least one post-treatment sample were classified as non-cured. As controls we used 41 clinical mastitis cases caused by penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates treated with procaine penicillin G parenterally for 5 days and 15 cases due to penicillin-resistant isolates treated with spiramycin parenterally for 5 days from the same practice area. Bacteriological cure rate after the combination treatment was 75.6% for quarters infected with penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, and 29.2% for quarters infected with penicillin-resistant isolates. Cure rate for quarters treated only parenterally with procaine penicillin G was 56.1% and that for quarters treated with spiramycin 33.3%. The difference in cure rates between mastitis due to penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. aureus was highly significant. Combined treatment was superior over systemic treatment only in the ?-lactamase negative group.

Pyörälä S

2003-03-01

76

Clinical cases  

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This presentation is about clinical cases and the contribution of the PET - CT Fag application in the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer. The cases presented were: neck diseases, epidermoid carcinoma, liver damage and metastasize, lymphoma, thrombosis, colonic cancer and lung disease

77

Efecto de la mastitis clínica y subclínica sobre la concentración plasmática de metabolitos, proteínas totales y albúmina en hembras bovinas / Effect of clinic and subclinic mastitis on the plasmatic concentration of metabolites, total protein, and albumen in bovine females  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la actualidad la mastitis es considerada, en el ámbito agropecuario, como una de las enfermedades más costosas debido a las pérdidas económicas que desde el punto de vista productivo genera. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la mastitis clínica y subclínica en hembras bovinas l [...] echeras, sobre algunos parámetros metabólicos plasmáticos. Se utilizaron 30 vacas mestizas Holstein de una finca lechera comercial, ubicada en Quibor, Lara, Venezuela, sometidas a las mismas condiciones de manejo, distribuidas en tres grupos de 10 animales cada uno: vacas sanas, con mastitis subclínica y con mastitis clínica. La concentración de glucosa, colesterol total y sus fracciones Col-HDL y Col-LDL, triglicéridos, proteínas totales y albúmina se cuantificaron por kits comerciales. En ambos tipos de mastitis hubo un aumento altamente significativo (P Abstract in english At present time, mastitis is considered, in the farming scope, one of the most expensive diseases due to the economic losses from the productive point of view. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the clinical and subclinical mastitis in milk bovine females on some plasmatic met [...] abolic parameters. Thirty racially mixed cows Holstein were used from a commercial milk farm which is located in Quibor, Lara, Venezuela, managed under the same conditions and distributed in three groups of 10 animals each: healthy cows, with subclinical mastitis, and clinical mastitis. The concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and its fractions Col- HDL and Col-LDL, triglycerides, proteins, and albumen were quantified by commercial kits. In both types of mastitis there was a highly significant increase (P

Aleidy J, Aranguren Parra; Aura A, López Ortega; Carmen A, Mendoza; Norka, Delgado.

78

Efecto de la mastitis clínica y subclínica sobre la concentración plasmática de metabolitos, proteínas totales y albúmina en hembras bovinas / Effect of clinic and subclinic mastitis on the plasmatic concentration of metabolites, total protein, and albumen in bovine females  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la actualidad la mastitis es considerada, en el ámbito agropecuario, como una de las enfermedades más costosas debido a las pérdidas económicas que desde el punto de vista productivo genera. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la mastitis clínica y subclínica en hembras bovinas l [...] echeras, sobre algunos parámetros metabólicos plasmáticos. Se utilizaron 30 vacas mestizas Holstein de una finca lechera comercial, ubicada en Quibor, Lara, Venezuela, sometidas a las mismas condiciones de manejo, distribuidas en tres grupos de 10 animales cada uno: vacas sanas, con mastitis subclínica y con mastitis clínica. La concentración de glucosa, colesterol total y sus fracciones Col-HDL y Col-LDL, triglicéridos, proteínas totales y albúmina se cuantificaron por kits comerciales. En ambos tipos de mastitis hubo un aumento altamente significativo (P Abstract in english At present time, mastitis is considered, in the farming scope, one of the most expensive diseases due to the economic losses from the productive point of view. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the clinical and subclinical mastitis in milk bovine females on some plasmatic met [...] abolic parameters. Thirty racially mixed cows Holstein were used from a commercial milk farm which is located in Quibor, Lara, Venezuela, managed under the same conditions and distributed in three groups of 10 animals each: healthy cows, with subclinical mastitis, and clinical mastitis. The concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and its fractions Col- HDL and Col-LDL, triglycerides, proteins, and albumen were quantified by commercial kits. In both types of mastitis there was a highly significant increase (P

Aleidy J, Aranguren Parra; Aura A, López Ortega; Carmen A, Mendoza; Norka, Delgado.

2009-01-01

79

Relationship Between Some Teat and Body Measurements of Holstein Cows and Sub-Clinical Mastitis and Milk Yield  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between some teat and body measurements of lactating cows and sub-clinical mastitis and milk yield. The material was consisted of 125 Holstein cows. The teat diameter, length and height from floor surface, wither height, hip height and chest girth of cows were measured. The cows were grouped according to Californian Mastitis Test (CMT score as positive (CMT Score: 2-4 and negative (CMT Score: 0 and 1 and also according to the 305 days corrected milk yield as low (=5000 kg and high (>5000 kg milk production. The significant differences were found between sub-clinical mastitis groups in terms of teat height, left and right hind teat diameter and right hind teat length (p<0.05. About 305 days corrected milk yield means of positive and negative sub-clinical mastitis groups were 5185.91180.81 and 4994.94210.80 kg, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to milk yield and body measurement between sub-clinical mastitis groups. There were no significant differences between milk yield groups with regard to teat measurements except for right front and hind diameter means (p<0.05. The means of wither height, hip height and chest girth according to low and high milk yield groups were found significant (p<0.001.

S. Sekkin

2011-01-01

80

QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Microbial aetiology of acute clinical mastitis and agent-specific risk factors.  

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A nation wide study on the microbial aetiology of cases of acute clinical mastitis in Swedish dairy cows was conducted with the aim to investigate changes in the microbial panorama compared to a previous study performed 1994-1995. Another aim was to investigate some agent-specific environmental and individual risk factors. Milk samples were collected from 987 udder quarter cases from 829 cows during six 2-month periods from May 2002 to April 2003, and data on risk factors and demography were collected at sampling by means of a questionnaire. In total, 1056 bacteriological diagnoses were made. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was Staphylococcus aureus constituting 21.3% of the diagnoses, followed by Escherichia coli (15.9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (15.6%), Streptococcus uberis (11.1%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (6.2%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (6.1%) and Klebsiella spp. (4.2%). Samples with no growth or contamination constituted 10.6% and 4.5% of the diagnoses, respectively. A major shift in the panorama of udder pathogens was not observed compared to the survey in 1994-1995. Isolation of Klebsiella spp. was strongly associated with the use of sawdust as bedding material. On the other hand, using sawdust as bedding reduced the risk of isolating S. uberis relative to using straw or peat. The risk of isolating E. coli increased with increasing milk yield and was higher in loose housing systems than in tie stalls. Isolation of S. aureus was associated with tie stalls, and A. pyogenes with low yielding cows and teat lesions. S. dysgalactiae infections were also associated with teat lesions. PMID:19155148

Ericsson Unnerstad, H; Lindberg, A; Persson Waller, K; Ekman, T; Artursson, K; Nilsson-Ost, M; Bengtsson, B

2009-05-28

82

The cost and management of different types of clinical mastitis in dairy cows estimated by dynamic programming.  

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The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of 3 different types of clinical mastitis (CM) (caused by gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and other organisms) at the individual cow level and thereby identify the economically optimal management decision for each type of mastitis. We made modifications to an existing dynamic optimization and simulation model, studying the effects of various factors (incidence of CM, milk loss, pregnancy rate, and treatment cost) on the cost of different types of CM. The average costs per case (US$) of gram-positive, gram-negative, and other CM were $133.73, $211.03, and $95.31, respectively. This model provided a more informed decision-making process in CM management for optimal economic profitability and determined that 93.1% of gram-positive CM cases, 93.1% of gram-negative CM cases, and 94.6% of other CM cases should be treated. The main contributor to the total cost per case was treatment cost for gram-positive CM (51.5% of the total cost per case), milk loss for gram-negative CM (72.4%), and treatment cost for other CM (49.2%). The model affords versatility as it allows for parameters such as production costs, economic values, and disease frequencies to be altered. Therefore, cost estimates are the direct outcome of the farm-specific parameters entered into the model. Thus, this model can provide farmers economically optimal guidelines specific to their individual cows suffering from different types of CM. PMID:21854920

Cha, E; Bar, D; Hertl, J A; Tauer, L W; Bennett, G; González, R N; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

2011-09-01

83

Efficacy of standard vs. extended intramammary cefquinome treatment of clinical mastitis in cows with persistent high somatic cell counts.  

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Extended duration of clinical mastitis (CM) treatment has been advocated, although results showing its higher efficacy compared with standard treatment are difficult to compare and seem conflicting. In a non-blinded, positively controlled clinical trial with systematic allocation, the efficacy of a standard, 1·5-d cefquinome treatment (ST), and an extended, 5-d intramammary cefquinome treatment (ET) were evaluated. The latter is frequently performed in cows with persistent high somatic cell count (SCC), expecting a better cure. Therefore, cows with CM immediately preceded by at least two consecutive monthly elevated SCC >200 000 cells/ml, were studied. The primary efficacy criteria were bacteriological cure (BC) and clinical cure (CC), while SCC cure was considered a secondary criterion of cure. Least square means of overall BC were not different after ET (79%, n=206) compared with ST (72%, n=203). ET, as compared with ST, improved BC of CM when caused by streptococci, specifically Streptococcus uberis. At day 1·5, only 13% of quarters showed CC, increasing significantly towards 60% at day 5, and 99% at day 14 and at day 21. No significant difference in CC was present between treatment groups. Overall SCC cure was low (22%) and not significantly different between treatment groups, but significantly higher for cases due to enterobacteriacae compared with staphylococci. In conclusion, ET with cefquinome of CM in cows with a persistent high SCC seems to be only indicated when caused by streptococci, mainly Str. uberis but shows no advantage when no information on bacteriological causes of mastitis is available. In our data, absence of CC directly after ST was not related to eventual BC. PMID:25230074

Swinkels, Jantijn M; Krömker, Volker; Lam, Theo Jgm

2014-11-01

84

Effect of topical steroid treatment on idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: clinical and radiologic evaluation.  

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory, noncaseating, chronic granulomatous benign disease. The etiology of IGM is still unknown. It is postulated to be an autoimmune localized response. The use of a course of oral steroids provides an important regression of breast mass and skin lesions. Topical corticosteroids are used to treat many skin diseases, but no study is available on the sole use of topical steroids for treating IGM. Eleven women with IGM were treated with topical steroid and evaluated using mammography, ultrasonography, and dynamic MRI. At the end of the 12th week, patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated for the regression of breast and skin lesions. Pre- and post-treatment time-intensity curve patterns (TICs) were also compared. During the topical steroid treatment, the inflammation signs in the affected breast had markedly disappeared, the fistulas had become inactive, and the fistula orifices and/or skin erosions had closed in nine patients. The median follow-up period was 17 months (range: 12-48 months). Recurrence was observed in two patients (2/11) at 5 and 8 months, which were treated again topically. The inflammatory findings of the breast skin completely resolved after 8 weeks of treatment, and no side effects or steroid-related complications occurred. In the pretreatment period, TICs from enhancing areas showed a Type 1 pattern in three cases, a Type 2 pattern in five cases, and a Type 3 pattern in three cases. After topical steroid treatment, TIC was not changed only in one patient (Type 2). Type 1 patterns were determined in seven cases and Type 2 patterns in two cases. In addition, in two patients, TICs were not determined due to complete healing. Our MRI findings showed that topical steroid therapy may be useful because it affects mammary parenchyma as well as mammary skin. Further studies with a greater number of patients are needed to determine the topical steroid therapy dosing and duration, and to better understand the efficacy for treating IGM. PMID:25228089

Gunduz, Yasemin; Altintoprak, Fatih; Tatli Ayhan, Lacin; Kivilcim, Taner; Celebi, Fehmi

2014-11-01

85

Optimal insemination and replacement decisions to minimize the cost of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis is a serious production-limiting disease, with effects on milk yield, milk quality, and conception rate, and an increase in the risk of mortality and culling. The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) to develop an economic optimization model that incorporates all the different types of pathogens that cause clinical mastitis (CM) categorized into 8 classes of culture results, and account for whether the CM was a first, second, or third case in the current lactation and whether the cow had a previous case or cases of CM in the preceding lactation; and (2) to develop this decision model to be versatile enough to add additional pathogens, diseases, or other cow characteristics as more information becomes available without significant alterations to the basic structure of the model. The model provides economically optimal decisions depending on the individual characteristics of the cow and the specific pathogen causing CM. The net returns for the basic herd scenario (with all CM included) were $507/cow per year, where the incidence of CM (cases per 100 cow-years) was 35.6, of which 91.8% of cases were recommended for treatment under an optimal replacement policy. The cost per case of CM was $216.11. The CM cases comprised (incidences, %) Staphylococcus spp. (1.6), Staphylococcus aureus (1.8), Streptococcus spp. (6.9), Escherichia coli (8.1), Klebsiella spp. (2.2), other treated cases (e.g., Pseudomonas; 1.1), other not treated cases (e.g., Trueperella pyogenes; 1.2), and negative culture cases (12.7). The average cost per case, even under optimal decisions, was greatest for Klebsiella spp. ($477), followed by E. coli ($361), other treated cases ($297), and other not treated cases ($280). This was followed by the gram-positive pathogens; among these, the greatest cost per case was due to Staph. aureus ($266), followed by Streptococcus spp. ($174) and Staphylococcus spp. ($135); negative culture had the lowest cost ($115). The model recommended treatment for most CM cases (>85%); the range was 86.2% (Klebsiella spp.) to 98.5% (Staphylococcus spp.). In general, the optimal recommended time for replacement was up to 5 mo earlier for cows with CM compared with cows without CM. Furthermore, although the parameter estimates implemented in this model are applicable to the dairy farms in this study, the parameters may be altered to be specific to other dairy farms. Cow rankings and values based on disease status, pregnancy status, and milk production can be extracted; these provide guidance when determining which cows to keep or cull. PMID:24534495

Cha, E; Kristensen, A R; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

2014-04-01

86

Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Successfully Treated with a Minimum Dose of a Steroid  

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Full Text Available Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is a benign, chronic non-caseating breast disease,often mistaken for breast cancer. It usually affects women of child-bearing age. Thetreatment for IGM is inconclusive. In the past, surgical intervention was suggested due tothe possibility of malignancy. However, in recent reports, corticosteroid therapy has beenused with a good response. We present a case of a female with IGM who was treated successfullywith 0.8 mg/kg/day prednisolone.

Fu-Hsiung Su

2005-06-01

87

Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis  

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Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas adm...

Peyman Alibeigi; Omid Reza Hosseini; Sepideh Assar

2010-01-01

88

Noninferiority trial comparing a first-generation cephalosporin with a third-generation cephalosporin in the treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the noninferiority of 2 intramammary treatments for nonsevere clinical mastitis. The 2 treatments were a first-generation cephalosporin (cephapirin sodium, 2 treatments 12h apart) and a third-generation cephalosporin (ceftiofur hydrochloride, treatments once a day for 5d). A total of 296 cases on 7 farms met the enrollment criteria for the study. Streptococcus dysgalactiae was the most common bacterial species identified in milk samples from cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis, followed by Escherichia coli, other esculin-positive cocci, Streptococcus uberis, and Klebsiella spp. Treatment was randomly allocated as either cephapirin sodium or ceftiofur hydrochloride via intramammary infusion according to label standards. Bacteriological cure was defined based on 2 posttreatment milk samples taken at 10 and 17d after enrollment. Noninferiority of cephapirin relative to ceftiofur was shown for bacteriological cure of gram-positive cases and for clinical cure of all cases. Ceftiofur showed a significantly higher bacteriological cure in gram-negative cases. Treatments showed no significant difference in bacteriological cure of all cases and in time to exit from the study, where the absence of a difference does not imply noninferiority. Based on the findings from this study, farm-specific treatment protocols that differ for gram-positive and gram-negative cased may be developed. PMID:23958017

Schukken, Y H; Zurakowski, M J; Rauch, B J; Gross, B; Tikofsky, L L; Welcome, F L

2013-10-01

89

Molecular-based identification of yeasts isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzed molecular-based identification of yeasts that associated with bovine clinical mastitis in Japan. Over 3,200 quarter milk samples from Holstein dairy cows collected in 2011 on Hokkaido and Honshu islands were examined. Yeast isolates were characterized by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rDNA. Molecular characterization confirmed that Candida spp. and Pichia spp. were most frequently isolated species. Our molecular analysis of mastitic milk samples demonstrated the prevalence of Pichia kudriavzevii(22/58) and Candida tropicalis(14/58). In addition, we demonstrated that molecular analysis of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rDNA is a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinically significant yeasts in dairy hygiene, including potentially new or emerging pathogenic species. PMID:23100116

Hayashi, Tomohito; Sugita, Takashi; Hata, Eiji; Katsuda, Ken; Zhang, Enshi; Kiku, Yoshio; Sugawara, Kazue; Ozawa, Tomomi; Matsubara, Tomoko; Ando, Takaaki; Obayashi, Tetsu; Ito, Takaaki; Yabusaki, Takahiro; Kudo, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Koiwa, Masateru; Oshida, Toshio; Tagawa, Yuichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

90

In vitro antimicrobial activity of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from crossbred dairy cows with clinical mastitis.  

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Following the rapidly expanding dairy enterprise, mastitis has remained the most economically damaging disease. The objective of this study was mainly to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Combretum molle (R.Br.Ex.G.Don) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) against antibiotic-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis using agar disc diffusion method. The leaf and bark extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus at concentrations of 3 mg/ml while the stem and seed extract did not show any bioactivity. Although both leaf and bark extracts were handled in the same manner, the antibacterial activity of the bark extract against the bacterial strains had declined gradually to a lower level as time advanced after extraction. The leaf extract had sustained bioactivity for longer duration. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the leaf extract is not obviously different between S. aureus and S. agalactiae. Also, there was no difference in susceptibility to the leaf extract between the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive bacteria. Further phytochemical and in vivo efficacy and safety studies are required to evaluate the therapeutic value of the plant against bovine mastitis. PMID:22207479

Regassa, Fekadu; Araya, Mengistu

2012-08-01

91

Risk factors for clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia in dairy cattle on organic and small conventional farms in the United States.  

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The US regulations for production of organic milk include a strict prohibition against the use of antimicrobials and other synthetic substances. The effect of these regulations on dairy animal health has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to characterize disease detection and identify risk factors for selected diseases on organic (ORG) and similarly sized conventional (CON) farms. Dairy herds (n=292) were enrolled across 3 states (New York, Oregon, Wisconsin) with CON herds matched to ORG herds based on location and herd size. During a single herd visit, information was collected about herd management practices and animal disease occurring in the previous 60 d, and paperwork was left for recording disease occurrences during 60 d after the visit. For analysis, CON herds were further divided into grazing and nongrazing. Poisson regression models were used to assess risk factors for rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis was associated with use of CON management, use of forestripping, presence of contagious pathogens in the bulk tank culture, proactive detection of mastitis in postpartum cows, and stall barn housing. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of ketosis was associated with having a more sensitive definition of ketosis, using stall barn housing, and feeding a greater amount of concentrates. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of pneumonia was associated with a lack of grazing, small or medium herd size, and Jersey as the predominant breed. Overall, disease definitions and perceptions were similar among grazing systems and were associated with the rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of disease. PMID:23684015

Richert, R M; Cicconi, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

2013-07-01

92

Automatic detection of clinical mastitis is improved by in-line monitoring of somatic cell count.  

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This study explored the potential value of in-line composite somatic cell count (ISCC) sensing as a sole criterion or in combination with quarter-based electrical conductivity (EC) of milk, for automatic detection of clinical mastitis (CM) during automatic milking. Data generated from a New Zealand research herd of about 200 cows milked by 2 automatic milking systems during the 2006-2007 milking season included EC, ISCC, monthly laboratory-determined SCC, and observed cases of CM that were treated with antibiotics. Milk samples for ISCC and laboratory-determined SCC were taken sequentially at the end of a cow milking. Both samples were derived from a composite cow milking obtained from the bottom of the milk receiver. Different time windows were defined in which true-positive, false-negative, and false-positive alerts were determined. Quarters suspected of having CM were visually checked and, if CM was confirmed, sampled for bacteriological culturing and treated with an antibiotic treatment. These treated quarters were considered as gold-standard positives for comparing CM detection models. Alert thresholds were adjusted to achieve a sensitivity of 80% in 3 detection models: using ISCC alone, EC alone, or a combination of these. The success rate (also known as the positive predictive value) and the false alert rate (number of false-positive alerts per 1,000 cow milkings) were used to evaluate detection performance. Normalized ISCC estimates were highly correlated with normalized laboratory-determined SCC measurements (r = 0.82) for SCC measurements >200 x 10(3) cells/mL. Using EC alone as a detection tool resulted in a range of 6.9 to 11.0% for success rate, and a range of 4.7 to 7.8 for the false alert rate. Values for the ISCC model were better than the model using EC alone with 12.7 to 15.6% for the success rate and 2.9 to 3.7 for the false alert rate. Combining sensor information to detect CM, by using a fuzzy logic algorithm, produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in the success rate (range 21.9 to 32.0%) and a 2- to 3-fold decrease in the false alert rate (range 1.2 to 2.1) compared with the models using ISCC or EC alone. Results suggest that the performance of a CM detection system improved when ISCC information was added to a detection model using EC information. PMID:19038931

Kamphuis, C; Sherlock, R; Jago, J; Mein, G; Hogeveen, H

2008-12-01

93

A descriptive epidemiological study of mastitis in 12 Irish dairy herds  

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Full Text Available Factors relating to the occurrence of mastitis were studied on 12 Irish dairy herds with histories of elevated somatic cell count (SCC and/or increased incidence of clinical mastitis cases. Milk recording data were analysed, housing conditions and calving areas were examined; dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis records, milking technique and aspects of milking machine function were assessed. Herds with a ratio of less than 110 cubicles per 100 cows were more likely to experience environmental mastitis. Herds with inadequate calving facilities, where cows spent prolonged periods on straw bedding, were likely to acquire environmental mastitis. In the majority of the herds, the selection of dry cow therapy lacked adequate planning. The majority of farmers took no action to reduce pain experienced by cows suffering mastitis. Deficiencies in parlour hygiene were evident in all herds experiencing elevation in SCC.

Barrett Damien J

2005-01-01

94

Milk production change following clinical mastitis and reproductive performance compared among J5 vaccinated and control dairy cattle.  

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Naturally occurring cases of bovine clinical mastitis (CM) were studied among J5 vaccinates and controls on 3 commercial dairy farms. Milk production change and reproductive performance following CM were compared between the 2 groups. Among 306 controls and 251 vaccinates, there were 221 new cases of CM affecting 120 cows; 437 lactations never had a case of CM. Environmental pathogens made up 90% (159/176) of etiologic agents isolated. Change in daily milk production following CM was associated with J5 vaccination, days in milk (DIM) at onset of CM, and herd effect as well as each 2-way interaction between the 3 factors. The adjusted daily milk for 21 d following CM was 7.6 kg greater among J5 vaccinates than controls; however, this protective effect of vaccination waned with increasing DIM at onset of CM. A mixed linear model with autoregressive order 1 [AR(1)] correlation structure estimated the daily milk production of any cow (whether or not she had CM) on a given DIM. Cows with CM caused by nonagalactiae streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella lost significant daily milk production for the entire lactation relative to nonmastitic cows. Another mixed linear model for only coliform CM cases (E. coli, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter) within the first 50 DIM showed milk loss for 21 d following coliform CM to be significantly less for J5 vaccinates than for controls, by 6 to 15 kg per day. Cows were significantly less likely to become pregnant if they had CM caused by E. coli (42% pregnant) or Streptococcus spp. (38% pregnant), whereas 78% (342/437) of cows with no mastitis conceived. Days open (number of days from calving until pregnancy) averaged 131 d for cows with no CM and 162 d for cows that had at least one case of CM. Days until conception, days until last breeding, days open, times bred, and percentage of cows pregnant by 200 DIM were not changed with J5 vaccination. Nonetheless, an important benefit of the use of J5 bacterin appears to be reduction of the loss of daily milk production following CM, whether all cases or only those caused by coliform bacteria were considered. PMID:18832209

Wilson, D J; Grohn, Y T; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Schukken, Y H; Spatz, J

2008-10-01

95

Molecular analysis of virulent genes (coa and spa) of staphylococcus aureus involved in natural cases of bovine mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to determine the distribution and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from naturally occurring mastitis in cattle and buffaloes. For this purpose a total of 1445 lactating cattle (653) and buffaloes (792) present at two experimental livestock farms Okara (Bahadarnagar) and Sahiwal (Qadiarabad), in and around district Faisalabad and slaughtered at an abattoir due to low milk yield and were screened for mastitis. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to detect sub clinical mastitis. The positive quarter milk samples were collected for culturing of S. aureus isolates. taphylococcus aureus isolates were identified on the basis of growth features, biochemical characteristics, coagulase test and as well as amplification of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes specific to its virulence. S. aureus isolates (n=265) were characterized by Polymerase chain reaction to determine the frequency of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes. From these isolates the amplification of the coagulase (coa) gene yielded three different PCR products approximately 204bp to 490bp while spa (spa-X) gene produced five different products ranging in size from 190bp to 320bp. PCR revealed that from all the coagulase positive S. aureus isolates 261(98.5%) had spa (spa-X) gene. The results of the present study indicated that S. aureus isolates recovered from bovine mastitis were genetically different within and among the various herds which may provide essential and valuable strategies to control staphylococcal infections in future. (author)

96

Clinical mastitis in Norwegian herds after a combined selective dry-cow therapy and teat-dipping trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to see if introduction of a 2-yr combined selective dry-cow therapy and teat-dipping trial would reduce clinical mastitis (CM) events in 164 Norwegian dairy herds. Three different penicillin or penicillin/dihydrostreptomycin-based dry-cow treatments, and 3 different teat-dipping regimens (negative control, iodine teat dip, or an external teat sealant) were independently and randomly allocated to each herd. Complete lactations both before and during the trial were investigated. Altogether, 1,005 CM cases were recorded in the lactations before the trial and 924 cases were recorded during the trial. Bacteriological milk samples were available from 784 of the 924 CM cases during the trial. Among these, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 47.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae from 22.5%, Escherichia coli from 10.7%, and coagulase-negative staphylococci from 6.3%. In addition, 12.5% cases were bacteriological negative, and the remainder of the CM cases were caused by other microbes. The different models were analyzed using Cox regression analysis with PROC PHREG and a positive stable frailty model in the SAS macro. Separate models were made for cows housed in tie-stalls and free-stalls. Parity had a significant impact on the CM risk in both type of stalls. Older cows (parity > 3) had the highest hazard ratio of contracting CM in tie-stalls (1.68) and free-stalls (2.18) compared with parity 1. The CM risk decreased significantly (13%) in tie-stalls and by 18% in free-stalls. In tie-stalls, iodine-dipped cows had a significantly lower chance (21%) of getting CM compared with the negative control and the use of external teat sealant. The same trend was seen in free-stalls; however, the differences were not significant. Compared with CM before the trial, the reduction of CM was 15% during the trial. PMID:17106097

Whist, A C; Østerås, O; Sølverød, L

2006-12-01

97

Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus chromogenes Strain MU 970, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis  

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Coagulase-negative staphylococcal species are a common cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being one of the most frequently identified species in these cases. The draft genome sequence of an S. chromogenes isolate (MU 970) recovered from the milk of a cow with a chronic intramammary infection is reported here. PMID:25125652

Fry, Pamela R.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Suntrup, Douglas G.; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.

2014-01-01

98

Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus chromogenes Strain MU 970, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coagulase-negative staphylococcal species are a common cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being one of the most frequently identified species in these cases. The draft genome sequence of an S. chromogenes isolate (MU 970) recovered from the milk of a cow with a chronic intramammary infection is reported here. PMID:25125652

Fry, Pamela R; Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Suntrup, Douglas G; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R

2014-01-01

99

Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently isolated from cases of subclinical bovine mastitis. Reported here is a draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, an isolate recovered from a chronic intramammary infection of a Holstein cow. Unexpectedly, a cluster of genes encoding gas vesicle proteins was found within the 2,755-kb genome. PMID:24336375

Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R

2013-01-01

100

Detection of virulence-associated genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis milk samples in Guangxi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as a pathogen causing many serious diseases in humans and animals and is one of the most common etiological agents of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of genes encoding clfA, fnbA, fnbB, cap5, cap8, hla, hlb, nuc, sea, and tst of S. aureus strains (n = 39) isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Guangxi by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The results of the present study indicated that all isolates were found to contain one or more virulence-associated genes. The most frequently encountered genes were fnbA (97 %) and nuc (90 %), followed by hla (85 %) and hlb (82 %), respectively. None of the investigated S. aureus strains harbored fnbB and sea genes. The data in the present study showed a relatively wide distribution of the genes fnbA and nuc among the investigated isolates, indicating that they play an important role on bovine mastitis pathogenesis. The study provides a valuable insight into the virulence-associated genes of this important pathogen. PMID:22528531

Yang, Feng Li; Li, Xiao Shan; Liang, Xian Wei; Zhang, Xiu Fang; Qin, Guang Sheng; Yang, Bing Zhuang

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Revisiting QTL Affecting Clinical Mastitis by High-Density GWAS and Resequencing in the Finnish Ayrshire Dairy Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cattle, causing high economic losses each year. Studies to locate QTL affecting clinical mastitis and milk somatic cell counts have been carried out to increase our understanding of the disease. As part of the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we have used most recent genomic tools to characterize QTL affecting mastitis incidence in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Clinical mastitis diagnoses from -15 to 50 days and 51 to 300 days of first lactation and SCC (geometric mean of SCS observations between 5 to 170 days of first lactation) were included. In total, 1920 progeny tested bulls were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 chip. After quality control, 38473 SNPs were analyzed using a mixed linear model (software package DMU). Associations (5% Bonferroni threshold) were detected in 9 peaks on 5 chromosomes. A set of 238 of the bulls were re-genotyped with the BovineHD chip, and the remaining bulls imputed to high density genotypes using Beagle software. GWAS was repeated with the imputed HD-data with GRAMMAS (GenABEL in R). Thereby 17 peaks on 12 chromosomes were identified. Eight high priority peaks were defined based on both 50K and imputed HD results, and overlap with previous QTL findings. Eighteen ancestral Finnish Ayrshire bulls were sequenced to over 20X coverage, and this data was used to identify sequence variations in regions flanking 2.5 Mb each side of the high priority peaks. The variations were ranked according to estimated effect by a pipeline developed within the Quantomics project

Vilkki, Johanna; Iso-Touru, Terhi

102

Pathogen-Specific Effects of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Clinical Mastitis and Somatic Cell Count in Danish Holstein Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mastitis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second parity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL affecting SCS. The 5 most common mastitis pathogens in the Danish dairy population were analyzed: Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis. Data were analyzed using 2 approaches: an independence test and a generalized linear mixed model. Three different data sets were used to investigate the effect of data sampling: all samples, only samples that were followed by antibiotic treatment, and samples from first-crop daughters only. The results showed with high certainty that 2 QTL affecting SCS exhibited pathogen specificity against Staph. aureus and E. coli, respectively. The latter result might be explained by a pleiotropic QTL that also affects CM2 and CM3. Less certain results were found for QTL affecting CM. A QTL affecting CM1 was found to be specific against Strep. dysgalactiae and Staph. aureus, a QTL affecting CM2 was found to be specific against E. coli, and finally a QTL affecting CM3 was found to be specific against Staph. aureus. None of the QTL analyzed was found to be specific against coagulase-negative staphylococci and Strep. uberis. Our results show that particular mastitis QTL are highly likely to exhibit pathogen-specificity. However, the results should be interpreted carefully because the results are sensitive to the sampling method and method of analysis. Field data were used in this study. These kind of data may be heavily biased because there is no standard procedure for collecting milk samples for bacteriological analysis in Denmark. Furthermore, using only the mean SCS from d 10to 180 after parturition may lead to truncated effects of SCS-QTL when samples collected after d 180 are used. Additionally, repeated samples were used, which could boost the difference in incidence of pathogens between daughters of sires inheriting the positive and negative QTL allele, respectively. However, the magnitude of these effects in this study is unclear

SØrensen, Lars Peter; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2008-01-01

103

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF VARIETY PLANTS AGAINST THE RESISTANT STREPTOCOCCUS WHICH CAUSE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus is considered to be one of the most dangerous causes of Clinical mastitis in cows. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of extracts prepared from different parts of the flowing plants: Oleaeuropea Linn(Oleaceae, Myrtuscommunis Linn (Liliaceae ,thymus vulgaris Linn (Laminaceae, Rosemery Linn(Laminaceae, Ficuscarica Linn (Moraceae, and Achilleafalcata Linn(Asteraceae against resistant Streptococcus in 1371 Samples of milk. This work was achieved in four stages: First of all, the presence of Streptococcus in 1371 Samples of milk, by using blood agar, Bile Esculin agar, and some bio-chemical tests were investigated .Secondly, the antibacterial activity of many antibiotics on these bacteria by using disc diffusion method were determined.Thirdly, the plants were extracted with water, absolute alcohol, and petroleum Ether by using soxhlet apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Fourthly, the antibacterial activity of the extractions on resistant Streptococcus was determined by using disc diffusion method. This study has shown the presence of different antibacterial effectiveness of the extracts prepared from different parts of those plants. The extract of thymus vulgaris is more effective when compared to the extract of Oleaeur opaea against resistant Streptococcus. 

SHAZA ANWAR AL LAHAM

2013-09-01

104

[Oxytetracycline in the milk of dairy cows with clinical signs of mastitis during the lactation period].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the oxytetracycline residues in milk from cows with clinical mastitis dosed with two extra-label routes of oxytetracycline administration not only during antibiotic's treatment (5 days), but also six days after treatment by use of a liquid chromatography method of testing with a detection limit of 20 ppb. Both groups of animals were treated once daily for five milkings at 24-hour intervals following morning milkings. Composite milk samples (equal volumes of foremilk from each quarter) were collected during morning and afternoon milkings, mixed together (1:1), and stored until analyzed. Milk samples were analyzed just before the first treatment (0 hour) and ten times at 24-hour intervals. Residue studies in milk cows indicate that oxytetracycline passes into milk. Residues in milk were higher for the cows receiving oxytetracycline by intramammary route (Tab. I) than for the cows receiving oxytetracycline intramuscularly (Tab. II). The highest mean data were 195.68 mg/kg after intramammary infusion (Fig. 2) and 2.74 mg/kg after intramuscular injection (Fig. 3) on the 5th day of the treatment beginning. The analysis data showed that oxytetracycline persisted in milk for as long as two days after both treatments at the concentration 0.03 mg/kg versus 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. No residues were detected in milk of any animal from the 4th day of the cessation of the therapy (Fig. 1) as detected by the HPLC method. PMID:9036618

Dudriková, E; Sokol, J; Burdová, O; Turek, P; Cabadaj, R

1996-11-01

105

Genetic correlations between pathogen-specific mastitis and somatic cell count in Danish Holsteins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations (ra) between 2 lactation average somatic cell count (LASCC) traits and 6 different mastitis traits in 226,482 first-parity Danish Holstein cows that calved between 1998 and 2008. The LASCC traits were defined from 5 to either 170 d (LASCC_170) or 300 d (LASCC_300) after calving, and the mastitis traits were unspecific mastitis (all mastitis treatments, both clinical and subclinical, regardless of the causative pathogen) and mastitis caused by either Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus uberis. Variance components were estimated using bivariate threshold-Gaussian models via Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of ra between LASCC_170 and the mastitis traits were greatest for unspecific mastitis (ra = 0.71), followed by CNS, Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and E. coli (ra = 0.54 to 0.69) and were lowest for Staph. aureus mastitis (ra = 0.44). The genetic correlation between LASCC_300 and the mastitis traits were generally smaller (ra = 0.47 to 0.69). Caution should be taken when interpreting the results, however, because some posterior density intervals for ra were large (between 0.14 and 0.47 units). Phenotypically, Staph. aureus is known to be associated with high SCC and especially with subclinical mastitis through chronic infections, so the low ra between Staph. aureus mastitis and LASCC, compared with ra for the other pathogens, was not expected. Subclinical cases are usually submitted to dry cow therapy (not included in the present study), not treated at all, or wrongly recorded as clinical cases. Thus, the incidence of Staph. aureus mastitis is likely too low, and the genetic correlation between Staph. aureus mastitis and LASCC may therefore be underestimated in the present study. The results for the remaining pathogens were as expected, smallest for E. coli and larger but similar for Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and CNS. Selection for lower LASCC is expected to decrease the incidence of pathogen-specific mastitis, especially for Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and CNS and, to a lesser extent, for Staph. aureus and E. coli. Data recording should preferably be improved, and economic weights for the pathogen-specific mastitis traits should be estimated before implementing an udder health index that includes pathogen-specific mastitis traits

SØrensen, L P; Mark, T

2009-01-01

106

Axillary intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma: report of a case associated with chronic mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma is a rare tumour of the lymph node that may be derived from myofibroblasts. The most usual area of presentation is the inguinal lymph nodes, but occurrence within other areas has also been reported. It is characterised by spindle cells, amianthoid-like fibres, and by the proliferation of hemosiderin-containing histiocytes in the lymph node. Although intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma is benign, it is frequently confused with metastatic lesions, especially when it occurs in atypical sites. We herein report the second case of axillary intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma occurring in a woman with a granulomatous chronic mastitis. The salient clinicopathological features of this unusual tumour are presented with emphasis to the pathogenesis of the tumour as well as to its histological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Clinicians and pathologists must be aware of this rare tumour to avoid a misdiagnosis of malignancy and assure patient a correct therapeutic management. PMID:25323283

D'Antonio, Antonio; Addesso, Maria; Amico, Paolo; Fragetta, Filippo

2014-01-01

107

Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis  

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Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

Peyman Alibeigi

2010-12-01

108

Sensors and Clinical Mastitis—The Quest for the Perfect Alert  

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Full Text Available When cows on dairy farms are milked with an automatic milking system or in high capacity milking parlors, clinical mastitis (CM cannot be adequately detected without sensors. The objective of this paper is to describe the performance demands of sensor systems to detect CM and evaluats the current performance of these sensor systems. Several detection models based on different sensors were studied in the past. When evaluating these models, three factors are important: performance (in terms of sensitivity and specificity, the time window and the similarity of the study data with real farm data. A CM detection system should offer at least a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 99%. The time window should not be longer than 48 hours and study circumstances should be as similar to practical farm circumstances as possible. The study design should comprise more than one farm for data collection. Since 1992, 16 peer-reviewed papers have been published with a description and evaluation of CM detection models. There is a large variation in the use of sensors and algorithms. All this makes these results not very comparable. There is a also large difference in performance between the detection models and also a large variation in time windows used and little similarity between study data. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the overall performance of the different CM detection models. The sensitivity and specificity found in the different studies could, for a large part, be explained in differences in the used time window. None of the described studies satisfied the demands for CM detection models.

Henk Hogeveen

2010-08-01

109

Random regression models for genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

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A genetic analysis of longitudinal binary clinical mastitis (CM) data recorded on about 90 000 first-lactation Swedish Holstein cows was carried out using linear random regression models (RRM). This method for genetic evaluation of CM has theoretical advantages compared to the method of linear cross-sectional models (CSM), which is currently being used. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and suitability of estimating genetic parameters and predicting breeding values for CM with a linear sire RRM. For validation purposes, the estimates and predictions from the RRM were compared to those from linear sire longitudinal multivariate models (LMVM) and CSM. For each cow, the period from 10 days before to 241 days after calving was divided into four 1-week intervals followed by eight 4-week intervals. Within each interval, presence or absence of CM was scored as '1' or '0'. The linear RRM used to explain the trajectory of CM over time included a set of explanatory variables plus a third-order Legendre polynomial function of time for the sire effect. The time-dependent heritabilities and genetic correlations from the chosen RRM corresponded fairly well with estimates obtained from the linear LMVM for the separate intervals. Some discrepancy between the two methods was observed, with the more unstable results being obtained from the linear LMVM. Both methods indicated clearly that CM was not genetically the same trait throughout lactation. The correlations between predicted sire breeding values from the RRM, summarized over different time periods, and from linear CSM were rather high. They were, however, less than unity (0.74 to 0.96), which indicated some re-ranking of sires. Sire curves based on the time-specific breeding values from the RRM illustrated differences in intercept and slope among the best and the worst sires. To conclude, a linear sire RRM seemed to work well for genetic evaluation purposes, but was sensitive for estimation of genetic parameters. PMID:22444839

Carlén, E; Grandinson, K; Emanuelson, U; Strandberg, E

2009-08-01

110

Sensors and clinical mastitis--the quest for the perfect alert.  

Science.gov (United States)

When cows on dairy farms are milked with an automatic milking system or in high capacity milking parlors, clinical mastitis (CM) cannot be adequately detected without sensors. The objective of this paper is to describe the performance demands of sensor systems to detect CM and evaluats the current performance of these sensor systems. Several detection models based on different sensors were studied in the past. When evaluating these models, three factors are important: performance (in terms of sensitivity and specificity), the time window and the similarity of the study data with real farm data. A CM detection system should offer at least a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 99%. The time window should not be longer than 48 hours and study circumstances should be as similar to practical farm circumstances as possible. The study design should comprise more than one farm for data collection. Since 1992, 16 peer-reviewed papers have been published with a description and evaluation of CM detection models. There is a large variation in the use of sensors and algorithms. All this makes these results not very comparable. There is a also large difference in performance between the detection models and also a large variation in time windows used and little similarity between study data. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the overall performance of the different CM detection models. The sensitivity and specificity found in the different studies could, for a large part, be explained in differences in the used time window. None of the described studies satisfied the demands for CM detection models. PMID:22163637

Hogeveen, Henk; Kamphuis, Claudia; Steeneveld, Wilma; Mollenhorst, Herman

2010-01-01

111

Cow, Farm, and Management Factors During the Dry Period that Determine the Rate of Clinical Mastitis After Calving  

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The purpose of the research was to investigate cow characteristics, farm facilities, and herd management strategies during the dry period to examine their joint influence on the rate of clinical mastitis after calving. Data were collected over a 2-yr period from 52 commercial dairy farms throughout England and Wales. Cows were separated for analysis into those housed for the dry period (8,710 cow-dry periods) and those at pasture (9,964 cow-dry periods). Multilevel models were used within a B...

Green, Martin J; Bradley, Andrew J.; Medley, Graham F.; Browne, William J.

2007-01-01

112

Detection of clinical mastitis with sensor data from automatic milking systems is improved by using decision-tree induction.  

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The objective was to develop and validate a clinical mastitis (CM) detection model by means of decision-tree induction. For farmers milking with an automatic milking system (AMS), it is desirable that the detection model has a high level of sensitivity (Se), especially for more severe cases of CM, at a very high specificity (Sp). In addition, an alert for CM should be generated preferably at the quarter milking (QM) at which the CM infection is visible for the first time. Data were collected from 9 Dutch dairy herds milking automatically during a 2.5-yr period. Data included sensor data (electrical conductivity, color, and yield) at the QM level and visual observations of quarters with CM recorded by the farmers. Visual observations of quarters with CM were combined with sensor data of the most recent automatic milking recorded for that same quarter, within a 24-h time window before the visual assessment time. Sensor data of 3.5 million QM were collected, of which 348 QM were combined with a CM observation. Data were divided into a training set, including two-thirds of all data, and a test set. Cows in the training set were not included in the test set and vice versa. A decision-tree model was trained using only clear examples of healthy (n=24,717) or diseased (n=243) QM. The model was tested on 105 QM with CM and a random sample of 50,000 QM without CM. While keeping the Se at a level comparable to that of models currently used by AMS, the decision-tree model was able to decrease the number of false-positive alerts by more than 50%. At an Sp of 99%, 40% of the CM cases were detected. Sixty-four percent of the severe CM cases were detected and only 12.5% of the CM that were scored as watery milk. The Se increased considerably from 40% to 66.7% when the time window increased from less than 24h before the CM observation, to a time window from 24h before to 24h after the CM observation. Even at very wide time windows, however, it was impossible to reach an Se of 100%. This indicates the inability to detect all CM cases based on sensor data alone. Sensitivity levels varied largely when the decision tree was validated per herd. This trend was confirmed when decision trees were trained using data from 8 herds and tested on data from the ninth herd. This indicates that when using the decision tree as a generic CM detection model in practice, some herds will continue having difficulties in detecting CM using mastitis alert lists, whereas others will perform well. PMID:20655431

Kamphuis, C; Mollenhorst, H; Heesterbeek, J A P; Hogeveen, H

2010-08-01

113

Imaging features of tuberculous mastitis : Comparison with non-tuberculous mastitis  

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The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included.

Won, Mi Sook; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Kim, Young Mook; Lee, Myung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-01

114

STRATEGIES FOR DIAGNOSIS, CONTROL, AND PREVENTION OF MASTITIS ESTRATEGIAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO, CONTROL Y PREVENCIÓN DE MASTITIS  

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Full Text Available In Colombia, the great diversity in management, methods of milking and breeds for milk production, makes very difficult to unify the rules for mastitis control; therefore the veterinarian’s job, according to the available resources in each herd is to advise the best procedures for both, milking routines and mastitis control. Influenced by the differences in management, the prevalence of each of the microorganisms that may cause mastitis varies from region to region and even from herd to herd within the same area. As a rule of thumb, the more basic the system, the less practices for mastitis control are present; this situation consequently leads to a high presentation of contagious mastitis by Streptococcus agalactiae. As the management improves, and dry cow therapy practices are implemented particularly in systems with milking machines, the mayor pathogen isolated is Staphylococcus aureus which is a regular resident in the skin. The number of cases caused by environmental microorganisms is very low, but maintains the clinical level of serious acute mastitis reported in dairy herds in other countries. Due to the indiscriminate and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics used for mastitis treatment, a high level of resistance to antibiotics has resulted to most of the antibiotics already in the market. It is imperative a close cooperation between the organizations for drug regulation and control, the pharmaceutical industry and the Veterinary medical profession to established rules and standards to safeguard this non-renewable resource.La diversidad en los sistemas de manejo, métodos de ordeño y aun de razas que se tienen en la producción de leche en Colombia, no permiten unificar las normas para el control de mastitis y será el veterinario quien, de acuerdo con los recursos disponibles en cada finca, establezca los procedimientos para el manejo del ordeño y el control de la mastitis. Influenciados por las diferencias de manejo, la prevalencia de cada uno de los microorganismos causantes de mastitis varía de región a región y aun de finca a finca en la misma zona. Como criterio general, entre más elemental sea el sistema de manejo o menos prácticas en el control de mastitis, predominan las mastitis contagiosas por Streptococcus agalactiae que van cediendo espacio a las producidas por Staphylococcus aureus cuando se implementan las prácticas de terapia de vaca seca, y en los hatos con ordeños mecánicos aumentan los casos por microorganismos localizados en la piel de los pezones. El número de casos por microorganismos ambientales es muy bajo, pero mantiene el comportamiento clínico de mastitis aguda grave que se reporta en los hatos estabulados en otros países. Por el uso indiscriminado y a veces inadecuado que caracteriza el manejo de los antibióticos para el tratamiento de mastitis se tiene un alto nivel de resistencia a la mayoría de los antibióticos existentes en el mercado para el tratamiento de la mastitis. Es urgente que en forma concertada entre el ente de control, la industria farmacéutica y el cuerpo médico veterinario se establezcan normas y criterios para salvaguardar este recurso no renovable.

Cotrino Badillo Victor

2009-05-01

115

Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden  

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Abstract Background A nationwide survey on the microbial etiology of cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was carried out on dairy farms in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the microbial panorama and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were investigated. Methods In total, 583 quarter milk samples were collected from 583 dairy cows at 226 dairy farms from February 200...

Nyman Ann-Kristin J; Persson Ylva; Grönlund-Andersson Ulrika

2011-01-01

116

Identification and Antibiotic Sensitivity of the Causative Organisms of Sub-clinical Mastitis in Sheep and Goats  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to isolate and identify organisms responsible for sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in goats and sheep for the determination of point prevalence of SCM and antibiotic sensitivity of the identified organisms. For this purpose 50 each of lactating sheep and goats were examined with the commercially available Leucocytest® SCM detection kit. It was found that 4 and 36% sheep and goats suffered from SCM, respective. The prevalence of clinical mastitis (CM was 4 and 6% in sheep and goats, respectively. Milk samples were collected individually from sheep and goats with SCM and were cultured in different media including nutrient agar, blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar. The bacteria were further characterized by biochemical tests. In both goats and sheep, the organisms responsible for SCM were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The organisms were found most sensitive to gentamicin (Gn. After Gn treatment to goats and sheep with SCM, total bacterial counts decreased and milk production significantly increased compared to levels prior to treatment. It is suggested from the study that early detection of SCM and treatment with proper antibiotics can control SCM in goats and sheep.

Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1,5, Md. Sabbir Ahamed2, Md. Shahin Alam1, Md. Masudur Rahman3, Tazminaz Sultana4, Yoon-Seok Roh5 and Bumseok Kim

2012-05-01

117

The effect of repeated episodes of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis on mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows.  

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The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a first and repeated cases of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis (CM) on the risk of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. The pathogens studied were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Trueperella pyogenes, others, and no growth on aerobic culture. A total of 50,166 lactations were analyzed from 5 large, high-milk-producing dairy herds in New York State from 2003/2004 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of parity, month of lactation, CM, calving diseases, pregnancy status, current season, and economic values on the risk of mortality and culling. Among first-lactation cows, the presence of a first CM case generally exposed cows to a greater risk of mortality in the current month (compared with the absence of a first case). This was especially acute with a first case of Klebsiella spp., where cows were 4.5 times more at risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-7.6] of mortality, and with a first case of E. coli were 3.3 times more at risk (95% CI: 2.5-4.5). In first-parity cows, the risk of culling generally increased with a case of bacteria-specific CM. This was observed among cows with a first case of T. pyogenes [relative risk=10.4 (95% CI: 8.4-12.8)], a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=6.7 (95% CI: 5.5-8.1)], a first case of Staph. aureus [relative risk=4.8 (95% CI: 2.7-8.4)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.6)], and a third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=5.0 (95% CI: 3.1-8.0)]. In general, the presence of a first or second/third case resulted in cows in parity ?2 with a greater risk of mortality. This was greatest for cows with a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.3)], followed by a second/third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.2 (95% CI: 2.5-4.0)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.0 (95% CI: 2.7-3.3)], and a first case of other CM [relative risk=1.8 (95% CI: 1.6-2.0)]. Among cows of parity ?2, the risk of culling was greater for cows as they progressed through lactations [i.e., cows in parity 4+ were 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0-2.2) times more likely to be culled compared with cows in lactation 2 (the baseline)]. The risk of culling dependent on the cow's characteristics can be easily calculated from the parameter estimates in the provided tables. PMID:23769361

Cha, E; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

2013-08-01

118

Norwegian mastitis control programme  

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Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

Østerås O

2009-04-01

119

Screening of bovine milk samples for sub-clinical mastitis and antibiogram of bacterial isolates  

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Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (58% and Escherichia coli (23.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8%, Streptococcus sp. (5.5%, Klebsiella sp. (3% and Bacillus sp. (2%. The in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity for ciprofloxacin (89%, ofloxacin (85%, enrofloxacin (82%, gentamicin (80% and chloramphenicol (75%, resistant to colistin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 358-359

Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.

120

Nordic veterinarians' threshold for medical treatment of dairy cows, influence on disease recording and medicine use: mild clinical mastitis as an example.  

Science.gov (United States)

National databases for dairy cows in the four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have been found to capture varying proportions of disease events on farm. A variation in the thresholds of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment may be a reason for this. Studying these thresholds may increase the understanding of prudent use of antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic veterinarians, on a between country-level, vary in their intention to start medical treatment of a dairy cow with mild clinical mastitis, on the same day as making the diagnosis. The threshold for initiating treatment was quantified as an intention score. Secondary, underlying behavioural components of the intention score was studied within each country. A social psychology model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), was used to design a questionnaire that was distributed to 1047 veterinarians in cattle practice in the four countries during autumn 2010. The response rate was around 50% in all the countries, and 543 observations were retained for analysis. The between-country differences in intention were tested with one-way analysis of variance. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the proportion of variability in intention explained by the three behavioural components, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The Spearman rank correlations between specific beliefs about the behaviour and intention scores were estimated to find beliefs of high influence on the decision to treat or not. Intention scores differed between all countries (pmodels, the underlying behavioural components of the TPB explained 0.37, 0.41, 0.40 and 0.48 of the variation in intention scores in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. Attitude was the most important predictor in DK, NO and SE, but perceived behavioural control was most important in FI. In all countries the specific attitude belief of highest influence was that starting treatment the same day as diagnosing a case of mild clinical mastitis gives the best result, compared to delaying treatment. The varying intentions of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment are likely to influence centrally registered mastitis incidence. This study has given an improved understanding of this behaviour, which may be useful in intervention studies or campaigns aiming at prudent use of antibiotics on dairy farms. PMID:23948145

Espetvedt, Mari N; Rintakoski, Simo; Wolff, Cecilia; Lind, Ann-Kristina; Lindberg, Ann; Virtala, Anna-Maija K

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Nordic veterinarians' threshold for medical treatment of dairy cows, influence on disease recording and medicine use : Mild clinical mastitis as an example  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

National databases for dairy cows in the four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have been found to capture varying proportions of disease events on farm. A variation in the thresholds of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment may be a reason for this. Studying these thresholds may increase the understanding of prudent use of antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic veterinarians, on a between country-level, vary in their intention to start medical treatment of a dairy cow with mild clinical mastitis, on the same day as making the diagnosis. The threshold for initiating treatment was quantified as an intention score. Secondary, underlying behavioural components of the intention score was studied within each country. A social psychology model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), was used to design a questionnaire that was distributed to 1047 veterinarians in cattle practice in the four countries during autumn 2010. The response rate was around 50% in all the countries, and 543 observations were retained for analysis. The between-country differences in intention were tested with one-way analysis of variance. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the proportion of variability in intention explained by the three behavioural components, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The Spearman rank correlations between specific beliefs about the behaviour and intention scores were estimated to find beliefs of high influence on the decision to treat or not. Intention scores differed between all countries (p <0.05) except between NO and SE (p = 0.06). The mean intention scores were 0.71, 0.42, 0.58 and 0.50 in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. As measured by the adjusted R-2 in linear regression models, the underlying behavioural components of the TPB explained 0.37, 0.41, 0.40 and 0.48 of the variation in intention scores in OK, Fl, NO and SE, respectively. Attitude was the most important predictor in DK, NO and SE, but perceived behavioural control was most important in Fl. In all countries the specific attitude belief of highest influence was that starting treatment the same day as diagnosing a case of mild clinical mastitis gives the best result, compared to delaying treatment. The varying intentions of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment are likely to influence centrally registered mastitis incidence. This study has given an improved understanding of this behaviour, which may be useful in intervention studies or campaigns aiming at prudent use of antibiotics on dairy farms. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Espetvedt, Mari N.; Rintakoski, Simo

2013-01-01

122

Risk factors for chronic mastitis in morocco and egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62-1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07-3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39-5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36-1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions. PMID:24327928

Oltean, Hanna N; Soliman, Amr S; Omar, Omar S; Youssef, Tamer F; Karkouri, Mehdi; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmad; Blachley, Taylor; Tahri, Ali; Merajver, Sofia D

2013-01-01

123

Intramammary administration of platelet concentrate as an unconventional therapy in bovine mastitis: first clinical application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine udder infections induce a variety of changes in gene expression of different growth factors that may suggest their possible role in glandular tissue protection or repair processes. Growth factors and also chemokines and cytokines may act synergistically to increase the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages to promote angiogenesis, fibroplasia, matrix deposition, and, ultimately, re-epithelialization. Considering the vast applications, typically in human medicine, of platelet concentrate (PC) and its ease of preparation, the aim of our study was to evaluate an alternative therapy to stimulate the regeneration of glandular tissue, administering a concentration in excess of the growth factors contained in the PC. In each one of the 3 farms examined in the trial, PC was prepared from donor cows in good health, free from infections, and with no records of medications administered during the previous 2 mo. The platelet produced in one farm was used only for treating the cows of the same farm in a heterologous way. A total of 229 mastitic quarters were divided in 3 groups: antibiotic group (treated with intramammary antibiotic), antibiotic and PC group (treated intramammarily with antibiotics in association with PC), and PC group (treated with intramammary PC alone). The diagnosis of mastitis was based on somatic cell count and bacteriological evaluation of the milk from the affected quarter. Platelet concentrate, alone or in association with antibiotic, was used for 3 consecutive days as an unconventional therapy in bovine acute and chronic mastitis. Our data show that the associated action of antibiotic and PC performed significantly better than the antibiotic alone, either for the recovery of the affected mammary quarters or for somatic cell count reduction. In the same way, the association antibiotic plus PC showed significantly fewer relapses compared with the antibiotic alone, either for acute or chronic mastitis. The treatment with only PC did not show statistically significant differences compared with both antibiotic alone or associated treatment for acute mastitis, and it was better than the use of only antibiotic for chronic mastitis. Our results show that PC alone may be useful for a quick resolution of the inflammatory response, playing a role in limiting the tissue damage to the mammary gland parenchyma and reducing the recurrence rates. PMID:25108856

Lange-Consiglio, A; Spelta, C; Garlappi, R; Luini, M; Cremonesi, F

2014-10-01

124

Supplementation to prevent subclinical mastitis  

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Full Text Available Effect of supplementation of Zinc, Copper and Levamisole on incidence of subclinical mastitis was studied. The level of zinc increases significantly after supplementation and 75% animals was recovered. However in copper supplemented animals (12 only two animals showed complete recovery. None of the animals in Zinc and Copper supplemented group developed clinical mastitis. In levamisole supplemented group, 50% cows remained in subclinical state while 50% converted in clinical mastitis. So, the zinc supplementation is better over other two supplementation [Veterinary World 2008; 1(2.000: 40-41

A.K.Upadhayay

2008-04-01

125

Bilateral tubercular mastitis  

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Full Text Available Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis. Moreover the disease is often overlooked and misdiagnosed as carcinoma or pyogenic abscess. Reports on breast tuberculosis from India have been few; reported incidence of breast tuberculosis amongst the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.64 and 3.59 per cent. Bilateral involvement is still more uncommon (3%. Most accepted view for spread of infection is centripetal lymphatic spread as axillary node involvement was shown to occur in 50 to 75 per cent of cases of tubercular mastitis. Here we re-port a case of a young female who presented with draining sinuses in the breast and no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of breast lump showed evidence of granulomatous mastitis. She was given therapeutic trial of four drug antitubercular treatment. Both the lump disappeared and sinus healed after six months of antitubercular treatment. Thus a retrospective diagnosis of tu-bercular mastitis was made.

Kant Surya

2007-01-01

126

Treatment for bovine Escherichia coli mastitis - an evidence-based approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli can range from being a subclinical infection of the mammary gland to a severe systemic disease. Cow-dependent factors such as lactation stage and age affect the severity of coliform mastitis. Evidence for the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for E. coli mastitis is very limited. Antimicrobial resistance is generally not a limiting factor for treatment, but it should be monitored to detect changes in resistance profiles. The only antimicrobials for which there is some scientific evidence of beneficial effects in the treatment for E. coli mastitis are fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. Both are critically important drugs, the use of which in animals destined for food should be limited to specific indications and should be based on bacteriological diagnosis. The suggested routine protocol in dairy herds could target the primary antimicrobial treatment for mastitis, specifically infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. In E. coli mastitis with mild to moderate clinical signs, a non-antimicrobial approach (anti-inflammatory treatment, frequent milking and fluid therapy) should be the first option. In cases of severe E. coli mastitis, parenteral administration of fluoroquinolones, or third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, is recommended due to the risk of unlimited growth of bacteria in the mammary gland and ensuing bacteremia. Evidence for the efficacy of intramammary-administered antimicrobial treatment for E. coli mastitis is so limited that it cannot be recommended. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have documented the efficacy in the treatment for E. coli mastitis and are recommended for supportive treatment for clinical mastitis. PMID:23679229

Suojala, L; Kaartinen, L; Pyörälä, S

2013-12-01

127

Fatores de risco, etiologia e aspectos clínicos da mastite em ovelhas de corte no Paraná / Risk factors, etiology and clinical aspects of mastitis in meat ewes of Parana, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mastite em ovelhas da raça Santa Inês apresenta-se como um problema de grande proporção e gravidade e é dificilmente tratada com sucesso. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e etiológicos da mastite clínica em ovelhas de corte criadas no norte do Paraná. O p [...] resente estudo foi realizado entre os meses de outubro de 2009 a setembro de 2010 envolvendo 54 rebanhos de ovinos de corte de diferentes raças. Durante as visitas às propriedades, um questionário foi preenchido com a finalidade de caracterizar o problema. Setenta ovelhas com mastite clínica foram examinadas e amostras de secreção láctea foram colhidas para exame microbiológico. A mastite foi considerada um problema relevante em 39 propriedades (72,3%), com frequência média de 6,74%. Casos crônicos e agudos de mastite foram observados em 69% e 31% das ovelhas examinadas, respectivamente. Em ambos os casos, a mastite flegmonosa foi a forma mais encontrada (65,5% dos casos). O agente etiológico mais prevalente foi Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (54,5%), seguido por S. aureus e A. pyogenes (11,5% cada). Mannheimia haemolytica foi isolada em dois casos. Sistema de criação não extensivo e raça Santa Inês foram identificados como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de mastite clínica. Secagem das fêmeas após 120 dias de lactação e separação de fêmeas doentes do rebanho foram associadas com menor ocorrência da doença. Recomenda-se a limpeza adequada das instalações e a secagem mais tardia, principalmente em rebanhos Santa Inês. Abstract in english Mastits is infrequent in meat ewes. However Santa Ines ewes have a high incidence of this disease and it is severe and difficult to treat. The goal of this study was to characterize clinical, epidemiological and etiological aspects of clinical mastitis in meat ewes reared in the north of Parana, Bra [...] zil. Fifith four farms were visited from October 2009 to September 2010. The surveyed data included frequency, breeds of sheep affected, lamb mortality rates, main clinical signs, attempts and outcome of treatment, method and period of weaning and management features. Seventy ewes with clinical mastitis were fully examinated and samples of mammary secretion were asseptically taken for bacteriological culture. Mastitis was identified in 39 farms (72.3%) as a relevant problem (mean frequency was 6,74%). Chronic and acute mastitis were observed in 69% and 31% of the examinated ewes, respectively. In both cases, phlegmonous mastitis was the most prevalent form (65.5%). Coagulase negative Staphylococccus (CNS) was the main isolated microorganism (54.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (11.5%, each one). Mannheimia haemolytica was found in two cases. The risk factors for clinical mastitis were intensive management system and Santa Ines breed. Weaning after 120 days of lactation and isolation of affected ewes were associated with lower frequency of mastitis. Preventive measures recommended are daily cleaning of facilities and delayed weaning, mainly in Santa Ines flocks.

Priscilla F. V., Pereira; Erika S., Stotzer; Lucienne G., Pretto-Giordano; Ernst E., Müller; Júlio A. N., Lisbôa.

128

Fatores de risco, etiologia e aspectos clínicos da mastite em ovelhas de corte no Paraná / Risk factors, etiology and clinical aspects of mastitis in meat ewes of Parana, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mastite em ovelhas da raça Santa Inês apresenta-se como um problema de grande proporção e gravidade e é dificilmente tratada com sucesso. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e etiológicos da mastite clínica em ovelhas de corte criadas no norte do Paraná. O p [...] resente estudo foi realizado entre os meses de outubro de 2009 a setembro de 2010 envolvendo 54 rebanhos de ovinos de corte de diferentes raças. Durante as visitas às propriedades, um questionário foi preenchido com a finalidade de caracterizar o problema. Setenta ovelhas com mastite clínica foram examinadas e amostras de secreção láctea foram colhidas para exame microbiológico. A mastite foi considerada um problema relevante em 39 propriedades (72,3%), com frequência média de 6,74%. Casos crônicos e agudos de mastite foram observados em 69% e 31% das ovelhas examinadas, respectivamente. Em ambos os casos, a mastite flegmonosa foi a forma mais encontrada (65,5% dos casos). O agente etiológico mais prevalente foi Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (54,5%), seguido por S. aureus e A. pyogenes (11,5% cada). Mannheimia haemolytica foi isolada em dois casos. Sistema de criação não extensivo e raça Santa Inês foram identificados como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de mastite clínica. Secagem das fêmeas após 120 dias de lactação e separação de fêmeas doentes do rebanho foram associadas com menor ocorrência da doença. Recomenda-se a limpeza adequada das instalações e a secagem mais tardia, principalmente em rebanhos Santa Inês. Abstract in english Mastits is infrequent in meat ewes. However Santa Ines ewes have a high incidence of this disease and it is severe and difficult to treat. The goal of this study was to characterize clinical, epidemiological and etiological aspects of clinical mastitis in meat ewes reared in the north of Parana, Bra [...] zil. Fifith four farms were visited from October 2009 to September 2010. The surveyed data included frequency, breeds of sheep affected, lamb mortality rates, main clinical signs, attempts and outcome of treatment, method and period of weaning and management features. Seventy ewes with clinical mastitis were fully examinated and samples of mammary secretion were asseptically taken for bacteriological culture. Mastitis was identified in 39 farms (72.3%) as a relevant problem (mean frequency was 6,74%). Chronic and acute mastitis were observed in 69% and 31% of the examinated ewes, respectively. In both cases, phlegmonous mastitis was the most prevalent form (65.5%). Coagulase negative Staphylococccus (CNS) was the main isolated microorganism (54.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (11.5%, each one). Mannheimia haemolytica was found in two cases. The risk factors for clinical mastitis were intensive management system and Santa Ines breed. Weaning after 120 days of lactation and isolation of affected ewes were associated with lower frequency of mastitis. Preventive measures recommended are daily cleaning of facilities and delayed weaning, mainly in Santa Ines flocks.

Priscilla F. V., Pereira; Erika S., Stotzer; Lucienne G., Pretto-Giordano; Ernst E., Müller; Júlio A. N., Lisbôa.

2014-01-01

129

The magnetic resonance image findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rare disease of breast. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year old female patient with the diagnosis, concentrating on magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and its clinical application. There have been other reports on MRI findings in this entity in the radiological literature, but in our case report clinical, cytological, pathological and radiological correlations are also provided. (author)

130

ETIO-PREVALENCE OF SUB CLINICAL MASTITIS IN HOLSTEIN X HARYANA CROSSBRED CATTLE  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of Somatic cell count (SCC, California mastitis test (CMT and Chloride test in detecting SCM and study its etioprevalence in Holstein X Haryana cattle. SCC prevalence for SCM, latent infected quarters and non-specific infected quarters were found to be 28.63%, 8.63% and 6.67%, respectively, when divided on the basis of International Dairy Federation criteria. Staphylococcus sp. (47.37% and Streptococcus sp. (33.68% was most prevalent bacterial agent. The present study revealed that CMT in conjunction with SCC is better to diagnose SCM than alone.

Anirban Guha

2011-07-01

131

Identification of potential markers in blood for the development of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle at parturition and during early lactation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Our objective was to identify specific blood markers as risk factors for the development of mastitis during early lactation. We used a subset of cows from a larger experiment that consisted of a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows. Cows were of 3 breeds and ranged from parity 1 to 4. Blood samples were collected weekly from 56 d before expected calving date through 90 d in milk (DIM). Blood was analyzed for several hormones, metabolites, and enzymes, and energy intake and energy balance were calculated. Veterinary treatment records and daily composite milk somatic cell counts were analyzed and used to determine incidence and severity of mastitis in early lactation. Cows were separated into 2 groups: 1) WK0, consisting of cows that developed clinical mastitis (CM), cows that developed subclinical mastitis (SM), or cows that were healthy (H) during the first 7 DIM; and 2) EL, consisting of CM, SM, or H cows during wk 2 through 13 of lactation. Data were adjusted for numerous fixed effects (e.g., parity, breed, season, and DIM) before statistical analysis. The time of mastitis (TOM) was recorded as the DIM in which the first rise in somatic cell count was observed and was recorded as TOM = 0. The time before and after TOM was distinguished as ± n wk relative to TOM = 0. Healthy cows were paired with either a SM or CM cow and the TOM for each H cow was equal to the TOM for its paired SM or CM cow. Data from wk -1 and -2 relative to TOM were analyzed for group WK0 and EL, respectively. For all parameters, SM cows did not differ from H cows from either group. The CM cows had higher nonesterified fatty acid levels and a tendency toward higher ?-hydroxybutyrate levels than H cows before mastitis for both groups. For group WK0, glucose was higher -1 wk relative to calving in CM than H cows. For group EL, aspartate aminotransferase was higher -2 wk relative to mastitis in CM than H cows during 8 to 90 DIM. All other variables were similar among CM, SM, and H cows for both groups. Our results indicate that substances in blood, especially nonesterified fatty acids and aspartate aminotransferase, may be potential markers for the risk of mastitis in early lactation.

Moyes, Kasey; Larsen, Torben

2009-01-01

132

Immunoprophylaxis of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in diary cows  

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Full Text Available Mastitis in cows represents one of the most actual problems in intensive dairy production. The prevention of pathogen penetration in the udder, its colonization and reproduction impose the constant need for regular milk check-ups, and preventive and therapeutic measures. Staphylococcus aureus causes subclinical and clinical mastitis, which when in the acute form can originate difficult and malignant udder infections with granulomatous and necrotic changes. Chronic forms of Staphylococcal mastitis most often pass as subclinical cases. An efficient commercial vaccine has not been introduced yet, though the application of autochthonous vaccines in the prevention of mastitis can give satisfactory results. In this study we have developed and applied an autochthonous vaccine prepared from S. aureus isolated from milk samples taken from an experimental farm, as well as from the referent capsular strain S. aureus. The vaccine was applied to experimental dairy cattle twice before calving in a dose of 5 mL. It consisted of inactivated bacterial S. aureus JR3 cells in a quantity of 1x1010 cfu/mL and 5 mg SM capsule of the strain S. aureus 2286. This vaccination of dairy cows has resulted in a significant decrease of subclinical and clinical manifested mastitis in the treated group, when compared to the vaccinated group of experimental animals. .

Vakanjac Slobodanka

2008-01-01

133

The environmental impact of mastitis: a case study of dairy herds  

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Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector.

Hospido, Almudena [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: ahospido@usc.es; Sonesson, Ulf [Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK), PO Box 5401, SE-402 29 Goeteborg (Sweden)

2005-05-01

134

Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by 15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands. PMID:24906501

Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

2014-07-01

135

Efficacy of 5-day parenteral versus intramammary benzylpenicillin for treatment of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of parenteral (intramuscular) or intramammary (IMM) benzylpenicillin treatment for clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro was investigated. Cows with clinical mastitis in 1 udder quarter were randomly placed into 2 treatment groups. The preliminary bacteriological diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI) was based on on-farm culturing, and the bacteriological diagnoses were later confirmed by a quantitative PCR assay. Clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to benzylpenicillin was treated with penicillin via either the parenteral route (20mg/kg) or IMM route (600mg) once per day for 5d. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated 3 to 4wk after the onset of the treatment. The affected quarter was examined to assess the clinical cure, and milk samples were collected from the affected quarter to determine the bacteriological cure and milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity. The survival and the composite milk somatic cell counts of the treated cows were followed up for 6 and 3mo after treatment, respectively. A total of 140 cows with clinical mastitis were included in the study, 61 being treated with benzylpenicillin parenterally and 79 via the IMM route. From all quarters treated, 108 of 140 (77.1%) were cured clinically and 77 of 140 (55.0%) were cured bacteriologically. The route of treatment did not significantly affect the outcome of the treatment; 80.3% of the quarters with parenteral treatment and 74.7% of the quarters with IMM treatment showed a clinical cure, and 54.1 and 55.7% a bacteriological cure, respectively. The milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity was significantly lower in the quarters with a clinical or bacteriological cure than in the quarters with no cure. The 6-mo survival and the proportion of cows with composite milk somatic cell counts <200,000/mL among the treated cows during the 3-mo follow-up period did not significantly differ between the treatment groups. In conclusion, the outcome of either parenteral or IMM benzylpenicillin treatment of clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible bacteria was similar. PMID:24485692

Kalmus, P; Simojoki, H; Orro, T; Taponen, S; Mustonen, K; Holopainen, J; Pyörälä, S

2014-04-01

136

Effects of repeated gram-positive and gram-negative clinical mastitis episodes on milk yield loss in Holstein dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of recurrent episodes of gram-positive and gram-negative cases of clinical mastitis (CM) on milk production in Holstein dairy cows. We were interested in the severity of repeated cases in general, but also in the severity of the host response as judged by milk production loss when a previous case was caused by a similar or different microorganism. The results were based on data from 7,721 primiparous lactations and 13,566 multiparous lactations in 7 large dairy herds in New York State. The distribution of organisms in the CM cases showed 28.5% gram-positive cases, 31.8% gram-negative cases, 15.0% others, and 24.8% with no organism identified. Mixed models, with a random herd effect and an autoregressive covariance structure to account for repeated measurements, were used to quantify the effect of repeated CM and several other control variables (parity, week of lactation, other diseases) on milk yield. Our data indicated that repeated CM cases showed a very similar milk loss compared with the first case. No reduction of severity was present with increasing count of the CM case. Gram-negative cases had more severe milk loss compared with gram-positive and other cases irrespective of the count of the case in lactation. Milk loss in multipara (primipara) due to gram-negative CM was approximately 304 kg (228 kg) in the 50 d following CM. This loss was approximately 128 kg (133 kg) for gram-positive cases and 92 kg (112 kg) for other cases. The severity of a second case of gram-negative CM was not reduced by previous cases of gram-negative CM in multipara and only slightly less severe in a similar scenario in primipara cows. Similarly, a previous gram-positive case did not reduce severity of a second or third gram-positive case. Hence, our data do not support that immunological memory of previous exposure to an organism in the same generic class provides protection for a next case of CM with an organism in the same class. PMID:19528587

Schukken, Y H; Hertl, J; Bar, D; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Rauch, B J; Santisteban, C; Schulte, H F; Tauer, L; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

2009-07-01

137

Periductal mastitis in a male breast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination.

Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Jung Im; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Woo Chan; Hahn, Seong Tai [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2006-09-15

138

Radiodiagnostic aspects of non-puerperal mastitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients.

Overhagen, H. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Lameris, J.S.

1988-09-01

139

Periductal mastitis in a male breast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination

140

STUDIES ON MASTITIS AMONG DAIRY BUFFALOES  

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Full Text Available A total of 2340 mammary glands of 585 primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffaloes in different stages of lactation were examined with California Mastitis Test ( CMT and laboratory examination was carried out to identify the most prevalent micro-organisms in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. The physical examination revealed 2.61 per cent blind teats and CMT revealed 6.71 per cent positive quarters for mastitis. Microbiological examination of 157 sub-clinical mastitis milk samples and 46 clinical mastitis milk samples was carried out. There was high occurrence of streptococci (35.46% followed by staphylococci (33.99%, E. coli (27.09%, pseudomonas spp. ( 1.97% and Corynaebacterium pyogenes (1.48%. The in vitro sensitivity revealed kanamyciin (82.6%, highly effective against various isolates followed by gentamycin (53.0%.

Rashid Ahmad

2001-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Bovine mastitis therapy and why it fails : continuing education  

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Full Text Available Treatment of bovine mastitis depends on the cause, the clinical manifestation and the antibiotic susceptibility of the agent. Mastitis therapy is commonly unsuccessful owing to pathological changes that occur in the udder parenchyma as a result of the inflammatory reaction to mastitogenic bacteria, pharmacokinetic properties of antimicrobial mastitis drugs, mastitogenic bacterial and related factors, and poor animal husbandry and veterinary interventions.

J.H. Du Preez

2012-07-01

142

PCR-based detection of genes encoding virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was carried out to genotypically characterize Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from bovine mastitis cases. A total of 37 strains of S. aureus were isolated during processing of 552 milk samples from 140 cows. The S. aureus strains were characterized phenotypically, and were further characterized genotypically by polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers that amplified genes encoding coagulase (coa), clumping factor (clfA), thermonuclease (nuc), enterotoxin A (entA), and the gene segments encoding the immunoglobulin G binding region and the X region of protein A gene spa. All of the isolates yielded an amplicon with a size of approximately 1,042 bp of the clfA gene. The amplification of the polymorphic spa gene segment encoding the immunoglobulin G binding region was observed in 34 isolates and X-region binding was detected in 26 isolates. Amplification of the coa gene yielded three different products in 20, 10, and 7 isolates. The amplification of the thermonuclease gene, nuc, was observed in 36 out of 37 isolates. All of the samples were negative for the entA gene. The phenotypic and genotypic findings of the present strategies might provide an understanding of the distribution of the prevalent S. aureus clones among bovine mastitis isolates, and might aid in the development of steps to control S. aureus infections in dairy herds. PMID:17519568

Kalorey, Dewanand Rajaram; Shanmugam, Yuvaraj; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao; Chousalkar, Kapil Kamalakarrao; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo Baliram

2007-06-01

143

Sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Savannah Region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical mastitis limits milk production and represents an important barrier to profitable livestock economics worldwide. Milk production from cows in Nigeria is not at optimum levels in view of many factors including sub-clinical mastitis. Results The overall herd-level prevalence rate for SCM was 85.33% (256/300 heads of cows while the quarter-level prevalence rate of SCM was 43.25% (519/1,200 quarters. The prevalence of SCM was 50.67%, 43.67%, 39.67% and 39.13% for the left fore-quarter, right hind-quarter, left hind-quarter and right fore-quarter, respectively. The Rahaji breed had the highest prevalence of SCM with 65.91% (29/44, while the White Fulani breed had the least with 32.39% (57/176. A total of 32.33% (97/300 had only one mammary quarter affected, 30.33% (91/300 had two quarters affected, 16.00% (48/300 had three quarters affected while 6.67% (20/300 had all the four quarters affected. A total of 53.00% had SCM in multiple quarters (159/300. The risk of SCM decreased significantly among young lactating cows compared to older animals (OR?=?0.283; P?P?=?0.013; 95% CI?=?1.557; 43.226. Improved sanitation (washing hands before milking will decrease the risk of SCM (OR?=?0.173; P?=?0.003; 95% CI?=?0.054; 0.554. Conclusion SCM is prevalent among lactating cows in the Nigerian Savannah; and this is associated with both animal characteristics (age, breed and individual milk quarters and milking practices (hand washing.Good knowledge of the environment and careful management of the identified risk factors with improved sanitation should assist farm managers and veterinarians in implementing preventative programmes to reduce the incidence of SCM.

Shittu Aminu

2012-08-01

144

Effect of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on herd life in two New York State dairy herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) (both with and without specific pathogen identification) occurring in different stages of lactation on length of herd life in two New York State dairy farms. The 2,697 cows in the study were followed for one lactation (the first-occurring one on or after 1 October 1999), until it ended because of a new lactation, culling, or end of study (31 March 2001 in one farm; 31 July 2001 in the other). A Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates, in SAS((R)), was used to measure, within a lactation, the effect of the first occurrence of CM (without specific pathogen identification) occurring 1--7, 8--66, 67--100, 101--225, or >or=226 days in milk (DIM), on how long cows remained in the herd. For the first occurrence of CM due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and 'no pathogen isolated', the intervals were before and after the median DIM of first occurrence of each pathogen. There were too few cases due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and 'other pathogens grouped together' to split into intervals, so they were modeled as binary variables, i.e. as they occurred. CM was modeled using time-dependent covariates, to account for its differing effects throughout lactation on culling. Other variables controlled for were herd, parity, calving season, and other significant diseases. In the dataset, the lactational incidence risk of the first occurrence of CM was 18.2%; 20.0% of the cows did not survive the lactation that was studied. The overall annual culling percentage for both herds during the study period (including all cows, whether eligible for the study or not) was 35.6%. For cows with CM without pathogen identification, their highest hazard ratio (HR) of culling occurred from 67 to 100 DIM. All of the pathogens modeled markedly reduced herd life. On average over the entire lactation, cows with Staphylococcus spp. CM had the highest HRs for culling, although there were no significant differences among pathogens (at p=0.0018 (reflecting 28 pairwise comparisons)). For early-occurring (before median DIM of first occurrence) S. aureus CM, the daily rate of change of the HR of culling increased over time. The HRs for culling were particularly high for late-occurring (after median DIM of first occurrence) E. coli and Klebsiella spp. CM early in the interval, but the daily rate of change of the hazard of culling for these two pathogens decreased sharply over time. Treating CM as time-dependent therefore allowed us to measure in greater detail, its varying effects (of when it occurred) on herd life. PMID:16111778

Gröhn, Y T; González, R N; Wilson, D J; Hertl, J A; Bennett, G; Schulte, H; Schukken, Y H

2005-09-30

145

Tubercular Mastitis - A Great Masquerader  

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Full Text Available Tubercular mastitis is a rare clinical entity as mammary gland tissue, like spleen and skeletal muscle, offers resistance to the survival and multiplication of the tubercle bacillus. Tuberculosis of the breast can mimic carcinoma, whereas in young patients it can be mistaken for a pyogenic breast abscess, thus labeled a “great masquerader” in recognition of its multifaceted presentation. Breast tuberculosis commonly affects women in the reproductive age group, between 21 and 30 years, and is rare in prepubescent females and elderly women. Fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful and it is a promising technique in expert hands. In tuberculosis-endemic countries, the finding of granuloma on fine needle aspiration cytology warrants empirical treatment for tuberculosis even in the absence of positive acid-fast bacilli and without culture results. We hereby report a case of tubercular mastitis in a post-menopausal seronegative female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology with a positive acid-fast bacilli and a review of the recent literature.

Sonia GON

2013-01-01

146

CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Cases of Bovine Mastitis in Japan  

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ABSTRACT Three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) were obtained from three dairy cows with clinical mastitis in two farms in western Japan. Two of the 3 isolates from cows in different farms were able to transfer plasmids carrying the blaCTX-M-2 gene to Escherichia coli recipient. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the 2 isolates were different from each other, although restricted-fragment patterns of the two conjugative plasmids were similar to each other. Additionally, PCR-based replicon typing revealed that both the plasmids belonged to type Inc.T. These results suggest that ESBL-encoding genes can be distributed in bacteria on dairy farms through the plasmids. PMID:24784438

SAISHU, Nobukazu; OZAKI, Hiroichi; MURASE, Toshiyuki

2014-01-01

147

CTX-M-type extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) were obtained from three dairy cows with clinical mastitis in two farms in western Japan. Two of the 3 isolates from cows in different farms were able to transfer plasmids carrying the blaCTX-M-2 gene to Escherichia coli recipient. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the 2 isolates were different from each other, although restricted-fragment patterns of the two conjugative plasmids were similar to each other. Additionally, PCR-based replicon typing revealed that both the plasmids belonged to type Inc.T. These results suggest that ESBL-encoding genes can be distributed in bacteria on dairy farms through the plasmids. PMID:24784438

Saishu, Nobukazu; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

2014-08-01

148

Mastitis Caprina  

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La produccion de leche como alimento para los humanos, tiene una gran tradicion en todo el mundo y uno de los problemas de salud que se presentan comunmente en la produccion de leche de cabra es la mastitis. Se ha observado que en regiones con condiciones ecologicas desfavorables las cabras demuestran gran resistencia y adaptabilidad, que les permite sobrevivir donde otras especies han desaparecido. La anatomia y la histologia se analizan en el primer capitulo cmo un requisito para obs...

Bedolla Cedeno, Carlos Bedolla Garcia; Wolter, Wilfried Castaneda Vazquez

2012-01-01

149

Genotypic characterization and evaluation of an antibiotic resistance of Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes) isolated from milk of dairy cows with clinical mastitis.  

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Trueperella pyogenes, recently reclassified from the genus Arcanobacterium, is considered the causative agent of acute suppurative mastitis called summer mastitis. T. pyogenes produces a variety of known and putative virulence factors that include pyolysin and factors promoting adhesion to host cells. The objective of this study was to report the presence of virulence genes in T. pyogenes isolates that were identified as etiological agents of clinical mastitis in cows, as well as to determine antimicrobial resistance and distribution of selected determinants that can be associated with phenotypic resistance among these isolates. The presence of genes (plo, nanH, nanP, cbpA, fimA, fimC, fimE, fimG, tet(W), erm(X), erm(B)) was examined by conventional PCRs. Resistance to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined by the broth microdilution method. Among T. pyogenes isolates of bovine mastitis origin the genes encoding all virulence factors occurred. Besides pyolysin gene plo, the fimA was the only gene detected in all isolates, whereas other virulence factor genes were found with different frequencies. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was observed to tetracycline (85.5% isolates) and erythromycin (9.1%). Isolates non-susceptible to erythromycin simultaneously exhibited increased MIC of pirlimycin. Beta-lactams were active against isolates. We found the correlation between the presence of tetracycline and macrolide resistance genes and corresponding resistance phenotype. Genotypic characterization of a large number of T. pyogenes isolates from different herds performed in this study may be useful in explanation, which virulence factors play a significant role in the establishment of bovine mammary gland infection. PMID:22868181

Zastempowska, Ewa; Lassa, Henryka

2012-12-28

150

Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %, followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 % and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1 %, whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2 % and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2 % the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 % of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95 % of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9 %, S. epidermidis (7.4 % and S. hominis (5.9 %. They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90 %of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6 %, followed by lincomycin (13.7 %. About 8 % of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.

T. Kudinha

2012-07-01

151

Tuberculous mastitis  

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25 cases of tuberculosis of breast are reported from the Department of Pathology, Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool (A.P.) in a period of 20 years. The cases were analysed in detail with regard to incidence, clinical presentation, sex, age, side of involvement, pathological interpretation and associated histological lesions.

Sarda, P.; Mohan Reddy, C. C.; Survana Kumari, G.; Reddy, M. M.; Sastry, S. Chandra Shekara

1980-01-01

152

Comparison of a commercialized phenotyping system, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and tuf gene sequence-based genotyping for species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cases of bovine mastitis  

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Comparison of a commercialized phenotyping system, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and tuf gene sequence-based genotyping for species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cases of bovine mastitis

2009-01-01

153

Foot and Mouth Disease-Mastitis Cascade in Dairy Cattle: A Field Study  

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Full Text Available A field study was conducted in 6 cross bred dairy cows suffering from acute clinical mastitis preceded by FMD in all animals. After thorough clinical and laboratory examination of the affected animals were confirmed as the cases of clinical mastitis. Cows were diagnosed for mastitis by clinical examination and Modified California mastitis test, somatic cell count and cultural examination of milk. After confirmation of disease and antibiotic sensitivity test all cows were subjected to precise and supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 2 quarters were positive to + and one quarter to trace reaction by MCMT after the completion of treatment (on 5th day with enrofloxacin and melonex along with supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 3 quarters showed 2.5x105 cells mL-1 to 3.25x105 somatic cells mL-1 of milk and remaining quarters showed 5 somatic cells mL-1 of milk. It is concluded that the result of enrofloxacin and mammitel are considerable in the treatment of clinical mastitis.

Neelesh Sharma

2008-01-01

154

Clinical case Netherton syndrome  

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Full Text Available This article presents a clinical case of Netherton syndrome in a child is a severe pathology, the presence of which leads to disability. Treatment and management of patients with this dermatosis today is still relevant and not unsettled problem.

Bakulev A.L

2013-09-01

155

PERINATAL LEUKODYSTROPHY CLINICAL CASE  

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In this study the authors want to present a case of a premature newborn who presented an extremely rare disease for medical practice. Low prevalence of the perinatal leukodystrophy, the difficulty of the clinical diagnosis and the echography resemblance with other diseases of the periventricular white matter is the subjects of this presentation.

Dana Mihut; Aniko Manea; Daniela Iacob; Botiu, V.; Es, Boia; Marioara Boia

2004-01-01

156

PERINATAL LEUKODYSTROPHY CLINICAL CASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the authors want to present a case of a premature newborn who presented an extremely rare disease for medical practice. Low prevalence of the perinatal leukodystrophy, the difficulty of the clinical diagnosis and the echography resemblance with other diseases of the periventricular white matter is the subjects of this presentation.

Dana Mihut

2004-01-01

157

Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings  

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Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.

Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

2007-02-15

158

Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesiered from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions

159

Characterization of coagulase negative staphylococci from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Kampala, Uganda  

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Background Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most common pathogens leading to subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cattle in Uganda. Coagulase negative staphylococci can vary between bacterial species in how they cause disease. The aim of the study was to characterize CNS, from cows with SCM in Uganda, at the species level. Findings Quarter milk samples (n?=?166) were collected from 78 animals with SCM. Bacteriological analyses were carried out at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda and at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden. The most common pathogens found in milk samples from cows with SCM were CNS (31.7%). Two species of CNS were found, S. epidermidis (85%) and S. haemolyticus (15%). Of the CNS isolates, 16/20 (80%) were positive for ?-lactamase production (?+). Conclusions In milk samples from cows with SCM caused by CNS, S. epidermidis was most prevalent, followed by S. haemolyticus. PMID:24917926

2014-01-01

160

Comparative efficacy of homeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine in the management of clinical mastitis of Indian dairy cows.  

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Mastitis is the major problem of dairy animals despite a number of preventive and therapeutic approaches. Treatment is costly and out of reach of farmers of developing countries like India. The treatment cost of bovine mastitis with conventional treatment has been calculated. Good results have been claimed with homeopathic treatment however, treatment costs are not available. This article reports the treatment economics of homeopathic drugs conventional drugs for the management of bovine mastitis. Ninety-six mastitic quarters (non-fibrosed 67 and fibrosed 29) were treated with a homeopathic combination medicine. Another 96 quarters with acute mastitis (non-fibrosed) treated with different antibiotics were included in the study. The animals were selected from dairy farm of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute and from private dairy farms. The overall effectiveness of homeopathic combination medicine in the treatment of acute non-fibrosed mastitis was 86.6% with a mean recovery period of 7.7 days (range 3-28), and total cost of therapy as Indian Rupees 21.4 (0.39 Euros, US$ 0.47). The corresponding cure rate for the antibiotic group was 59.2% with a mean recovery period of 4.5 days (range 2-15) and an average treatment cost of Rs.149.20 (2.69 Euros, US$ 3.28). We conclude that the combination of Phytolacca, Calcarea fluorica., Silica, Belladonna, Bryonia, Arnica, Conium and Ipecacuanha (Healwell VT-6) was effective and economical in the management of mastitis in lactating dairy cows. PMID:15892487

Varshney, J P; Naresh, R

2005-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management : a prospective cohort study in Glasgow  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that if inappropriately managed, may lead women to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. The aim of this paper is to report the incidence of mastitis in the first six months postpartum in a Scottish population, its impact on breastfeeding duration and to describe the type and appropriateness of the support and management received by affected women from health professionals. METHODS: A longitudinal study of 420 breastfeeding women was undertaken in Glasgow in 2004/05. Participants were recruited and completed a baseline questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice they received from health professionals. RESULTS: In total, 74 women (18%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis. More than one half of initial episodes (53%) occurred within the first four weeks postpartum. One in ten women (6/57) were inappropriately advised to either stop breastfeeding from the affected breast or to discontinue breastfeeding altogether. CONCLUSION: Approximately one in six women is likely to experience one or more episodes of mastitis whilst breastfeeding. A small but clinically important proportion of women continue to receive inappropriate management advice from health professionals which, if followed, could lead them to unnecessarily deprive their infants prematurely of the known nutritional and immunological benefits of breast milk.

Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele

2008-01-01

162

Detection of quantitative trait loci in Danish Holstein cattle affecting clinical mastitis, somatic cell score, udder conformation traits, and assessment of associated effects on milk yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to 1) detect QTL across the cattle genome that influence the incidence of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS) in Danish Holsteins, and 2) characterize these QTL for pleiotropy versus multiple linked quantitative trait loci (QTL) when chromosomal regions affecting clinical mastitis were also affecting other traits in the Danish udder health index or milk production traits. The chromosomes were scanned using a granddaughter design where markers were typed for 19 to 34 grandsire families and 1,373 to 2,042 sons. A total of 356 microsatellites covering all 29 autosomes were used in the scan. Among the across-family regression analyses, 16 showed chromosome-wide significance for the primary traits incidence of clinical mastitis in first (CM1), second (CM2), and third (CM3) lactations, and SCS. Regions of chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 11, 15, and 26 were found to affect CM and regions of chromosomes 5, 6, 8, 13, 22, 23, 24, and 25 affected SCS. Markers on chromosomes 6, 11, 15, and 26 can be used to perform marker-assisted selection on CM without a direct negative selection on milk yield, because no effects were detected on the milk traits. Comparing multi-trait models assuming either a pleiotropic QTL affecting 2 traits or 2 QTL each affecting 1 trait gave some evidence to distinguish between these models. For Bos taurus autosome 5, the most likely models were a pleiotropic QTL affecting CM2, CM3, and SCS, and a linked QTL affecting fat yield index. For Bos taurus autosome 9, the most likely model is a pleiotropic QTL affecting CM1 and CM2 at approximately 8 cM

Lund, M S; Guldbrandtsen, B

2008-01-01

163

Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment

164

Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis  

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The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.

Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2008-08-15

165

Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted bulk tank SCC exceeded 220 000, 200 000 or 180 000 cells/ml, and on cow-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted SCC in an individual cow's milk exceeded 1 000 000, 750 000 or 500 000 cells/ml. The accuracy with which SCC was measured and predicted was assumed to affect the profitability of withdrawing milk with high SCC and this was investigated by applying high, low or no uncertainty to true SCC. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis was estimated at €8235, assuming that the initial incidence of mastitis could be reduced by 50%. This cost corresponded to 5% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk withdrawal that was not offset by a sufficient increase in the average price per delivered kg milk. It had the most negative impact on net return when high incidence of mastitis was simulated. Withdrawing milk with high SCC based on low-uncertainty information reduced the amount of withdrawn milk and thus resulted in less negative effect on net return. It was concluded that the current milk-pricing system makes it more profitable for farmers to sell a larger amount of milk with higher SCC than to withdraw milk with high SCC to obtain payment premiums, at least in herds with mastitis incidences within the simulated ranges. Udgivelsesdato: 21. May 2010

Nielsen, C; Østergaard, SØren

2010-01-01

166

Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL

Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2013-01-01

167

Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms were very low. Farmers had no knowledge on sub-clinical mastitis. Staphylococcus species were the most common isolates and more than 50% of the isolates were resistant to the commonly used antibiotics penicillin and tetracycline.

Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.

2008-01-01

168

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to discuss the clinical and radiological features and treatment approaches in 14 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (GM). We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings and treatment approaches in 14 patients with idiopathic GM in the General Surgery Department, Gulhane School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between April 2000 and June 2006. The mean age of the patients was 34.5 years (range 27-41 years). The complaints at admission were a mass in the breast in 7 (50%) patients, an abscess and a mass in 6 (42.8%) and a skin fisculain one (7.2%). Granulomatous mastitis was unilateral in all subjects (on the right in 5 patients and on the left in 9). All of the patients underwent ultrasonographic evaluation. Mammography was performed in 8 and magnetic resonance imaging in 5 patients. Seven patients (50%) were suspected to have breast carcinoma according radiological findings. We performed the large excision in 11, incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage in one, and incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage plus medical treatment (prednisolone, methotrexate) in 2 patients. Due to the development of abscess after 9 months, drainage and large excision were performed in one patient who received medical treatment. Idiopathic GM is a disease that generally affects young women of reproductive age and may be mistaken for breast carcinoma in clinical and radiological evaluations. The gold standard for the diagnosis is hisThe gold standard for the diagnosis is histopathologic evaluation. (author)

169

Economic aspects of mastitis: new developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large part of this advice is given around the planning of management to maintain or improve the udder health status of a farm. Mastitis is a costly disease, due to losses (a reduction of output due to mastitis) and expenditure (additional inputs to reduce the level of mastitis). Worldwide, published estimates of the economic losses of clinical mastitis range from €61 to €97 per cow on a farm, with large differences between farms, e.g. in The Netherlands, losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis varied between €17 and €198 per cow per year. Moreover, farmers tended to underestimate these costs. This indicates that for a large proportion of farms there are many avoidable losses. In order to provide good support to farmers' decision-making, it is important to describe the mastitis setting not only in terms of disease, e.g. incidence of clinical mastitis, but also in monetary terms; and to make good decisions, it is necessary to provide the dairy farmer with information on the additional expenditure and reduced losses associated with alternative decisions. Six out of 18 preventive measures were shown to have a positive nett benefit, viz blanket use of dry-cow therapy, keeping cows standing after milking, back-flushing of the milk cluster after milking a cow with clinical mastitis, application of a treatment protocol, washing dirty udders, and the use of milkers' gloves. For those measures that included a large amount of routine labour or investment, the reduced losses did not outweigh the additional expenditure. The advisor cannot expect that measures that are cost-effective are always implemented. Reasons for this are the objectives of the dairy farmer can be other than maximisation of profit, resources to improve the mastitis situation compete with other fields of management, risk involved with the decision, economic behaviour of the dairy farmer, and valuation of the cost factors by the dairy farmer. For all decision-makers this means that, although financial incentives do have an effect on the management of mastitis, it is not always sufficient to show the economic benefits of improved management to induce an improvement of management of mastitis. PMID:21328153

Hogeveen, H; Huijps, K; Lam, T J G M

2011-01-01

170

The effect of internal teat sealant products (Teatseal and Orbeseal) on intramammary infection, clinical mastitis, and somatic cell counts in lactating dairy cows: a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of internal teat sealant products containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal and Orbeseal; Pfizer Animal Health, West Ryde, Australia) when used alone, or in the presence of antibiotic dry cow therapy (ADCT), before or at drying off on the incidence of new intramammary infections (IMI), clinical mastitis, and milk somatic cell count (SCC) during lactation. The literature search identified 18 English-language publications on the use of Teatseal in dairy cattle. A total of 12 studies with 17 subtrials or comparisons including 13 positive control subtrials (internal teat sealant and ADCT vs. ADCT) and 4 negative control subtrials (internal teat sealant vs. untreated) examining IMI were included in the analysis. Internal teat sealants, alone or in the presence of ADCT, reduced the risk of acquiring new IMI after calving by 25% [risk ratio (RR)=0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67 to 0.83]. Internal teat sealants reduced the risk of IMI by 73% compared with untreated cows (RR=0.27; 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.55). The results of both meta-analyses of IMI, with positive and negative controls, were heterogeneous [I(2) (a statistic that describes the proportion of total variation in study effect estimates that is due to heterogeneity)=65.4 and 92.1%]. No farm or cow factors studied significantly contributed to the heterogeneity of the results. A total of 16 studies (21 subtrials), including 14 positive control subtrials and 7 negative control subtrials, examining clinical mastitis were included in the analysis. Internal teat sealants alone and in the presence of ADCT reduced the risk of clinical mastitis after calving in lactating cows by 29% (RR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82), and 48% (RR=0.52; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.75), respectively. The results of the meta-analysis on clinical mastitis with positive controls were homogeneous (I(2)=33.6%), whereas the results of studies with negative controls were heterogeneous (I(2)=60.4%). No farm or cow factors studied that had sufficient data to evaluate significantly contributed to the heterogeneity of the results. The estimated linear score (LS) of milk SCC after calving in published studies (n=3) and for studies that provided raw data (n=2), was significantly lower for cattle treated with internal teat sealants and ADCT in 3 studies than for cattle treated with internal teat sealants only. The estimated LS of pooled raw data of 3 studies from 32 herds showed that the LS of cows treated with internal teat sealant and ADCT was not significantly different than those treated with ADCT only. This study found that the application of internal teat sealants in the presence of ADCT or the use of internal teat sealants alone at dry off significantly reduced the incidence of IMI and clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows compared with respective control groups. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of internal teat sealants on postpartum milk SCC in lactating dairy cows. PMID:24054298

Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J

2013-11-01

171

Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject comprises detecting the presence or absence of a genetic marker that is linked to a trait indicative of mastitis resistance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) for the determination of mastitis resistance in a bovine subject. The determination of mastitis resistance involves resolution of the specific microsatellite status. Furthermore, the invention relates to a diagnostic kit for detection of genetic marker(s) associated with mastitis resistance. The method and kit of the present invention can be applied for selection of bovine subjects for breeding purposes. Thus, the invention provides a method of genetically selecting bovine subjects with mastitis resistance, thereby yielding cows less prone to mastitis

Lund, Mogens SandØ Aarhus University,

172

Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL. PMID:23647142

Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Lund, M S

2013-12-01

173

Métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina (Methods of detection of the bovine mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre los métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina que se utilizan más comúnmente en el mundo. La mastitis bovina es la inflamación de la glándula mamaria causada por una infección por patógenos. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la producción que afecta a la industria lechera en todo el mundo. Puede presentarse de manera clínica y subclínica. La mastitis subclínica es de larga duración y es mucho más frecuente que la mastitis clínica. Dentro de los métodos que se usan con mayor frecuencia a nivel de campo para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas, se encuentran el método de observación y palpación de la ubre y las pruebas físicas, como la prueba de escudilla de ordeño, prueba del paño negro y taza probadora. Las pruebas químicas, como la prueba de conductividad eléctrica de la leche, papel indicador de mastitis y prueba de whiteside que sirven también para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas y subclínicas. Las pruebas biológicas, como son la prueba de California para mastitis, la prueba de Wisconsin, el diagnóstico bacteriológico por los métodos de aislamiento, cultivo, tinción, pruebas bioquímicas e identificación y el conteo de células somáticas por microscopia directa y el somaticell. Otros métodos utilizados actualmente por su rapidez y efectividad son los electrónicos como el fossomatic y el counter coulter, los cuales tienen una aplicación universal sobre todo en laboratorios de control lechero o dedicados al diagnóstico e investigación de la mastitis y el DeLaval cell counter. Los métodos de detección de mastitis son una herramienta que permite identificar el tipo de infección clínica o subclínica que puede presentarse dentro de un hato lechero, por lo que el método que se elija para determinar las pruebas será esencial para tener un diagnóstico más preciso.AbstractThis article is a bibliographical revision on the methods of detection of the bovine mastitis that is used more commonly in the world. The bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland caused by an infection by pathogens. Is one of the most frequent diseases of the production that affects the milk industry anywhere in the world. It can appear of clinical and subclinical way. The subclinical mastitis is long play and is much more frequent that the clinical mastitis. Within the methods that are used most frequently at field level to diagnose clinical mastitis, are the method of observation and palpation of udder and the physical tests, as the container of milking test, the black cloth test and cup test. The chemical tests, like the electrical conductivity of milk test, paper test of mastitis and whiteside test that they also serve to diagnose clinical and subclinical mastitis. The biological tests, as they are the California mastitis test, the Wisconsin test, the bacteriological diagnosis by the methods of isolation, culture, biochemical stain, tests and identification, the count of somatic cells by direct microscope and somaticell. Other methods used at the moment by their rapidity and effectiveness are the electronic ones like the fossomatic, the counter coulter and the, which mainly have a universal application in laboratories of control milk or dedicated to the diagnosis and investigation of the mastitis and the DeLaval cell counter. The methods of detection of mastitis are a tool that allows to identify the type of clinical infection or subclinical that can appear within a milk cattle ranch, reason why the method that is chosen to determine the tests will be essential to have a more precise diagnosis.

Bedolla, CC

2007-09-01

174

Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy cows in the Moghan region of Ardabil State, Iran : short communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma bovis were diagnosed in Ardabil State, Iran. An investigation was carried out with the aim of establishing the extent of mycoplasma infections in dairy cows in Ardabil State. Milk samples obtained from 80 cows with clinical mastitis were cultured in the laboratory for the presence of mycoplasmas. Similarly, 48 bulk-tank milk samples were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. A modified Hayflick broth was used to isolate the mycoplasmas and an immunoperoxidase test used for the species identification of the isolates. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 39 (48.75 % of the clinical mastitis samples and from 48 of the bulk-tank milk samples tested. This indicated that mycoplasma udder infections were more prevalent in dairy cows in Ardabil State than previously thought.

C. Ghazaei

2012-06-01

175

Profilaxis, immunoprophylaxis and therapy of staphylococcal mastitis  

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Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis, in cows presents one of the most acute problems in intensive milk production, incurring huge economic losses which reach from 20-80% even in developed countries in the past decade. On the grounds of the programme of the respective Ministry, the Veterinary Service of the Republic of Serbia is obliged to monitor, detect, curb and control infective inflammation of the mammary gland caused by staphylococcus and streptococcus. Long-term different approaches to mastitis treatment did not result in the required solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. In order to prevent the infiltration of the pathogenic cause into the mammary gland, its populating and multiplication, it is necessary to maintain constant and regular controls of milk, as well as undertake of preventive and therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the incidence of mastitis. Immunization and immunotherapy of mastitis are new and very interesting areas for scientific investigations and work. In the recent decades vaccines against staphylococcal mastitis are being successfully developed, whose success is reflected in the reduced incidence of clinical and subcilinical mastitis.

Vakanjac Slobodanka

2006-01-01

176

Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were ? hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

Azizollah Ebrahimi

2014-12-01

177

Effect of Infusions of Non-Antibiotic Antibacterials Alone and in Combination with Cephradine on Milk Yield of Buffaloes Affected with Clinical Mastitis  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four non-antibiotic antibacterials alone or in combination with cephradine in buffaloes on milk yield of mastitis affected quarters. For this purpose, 270 clinically mastitic quarters were grouped in randomized pattern. Non-antibiotic antibacterials viz., 2.5% chlorpromazine (2 ml, 4% lidocaine (10 ml, 10% povidone-iodine (10 ml and 99.5% dimethylsulphoxide (20 ml alone and in combination with first generation cephalosporin (cephradine 500 mg were instilled into clinically mastitic quarters daily for five days. The group administered cephradine alone served as control. Mean milk yield (L/quarter per day was recorded before administration of treatment and over a period of 4 weeks post initiation of treatment. Among the 4 non-antibiotic antibacterials tested alone, chlorpromazine (CPZ showed significantly higher (P<0.05 recuperative effect on the milk yield of clinically mastitic quarters of dairy buffaloes. However, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO when infused alone, further aggravated (P<0.05 the milk yield loss, indicating negative effect on milk yield improvement. Adjuncting cephradine with each of the non-antibiotic antibacterials, the lidocaine-cephradine group showed the highest effect (p<0.05 on net recovery of milk yield on day 28 post initiation of treatment. It was concluded that that CPZ can be used in clinical mastitis in buffaloes as a low cost alternative to expensive branded antibiotics. Further, the use of lidocaine with cepheradnie was superior to all other combination regimens in milk yield recovery.

M. Yousaf*, G. Muhammad1, M. Z. Khan2 and S. U. Rahman3

2010-01-01

178

Trends in Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Mastitis: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT; R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins and herbs (Terminalia spp. are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant or chimeric (pauA; live (S. uberis 0140J stain based and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR 2 and 4, interleukin (IL 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1 and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1 are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition.

Kuldeep Dhama

2013-01-01

179

Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin (IL) 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1) are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition. PMID:24506032

Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

2013-12-01

180

Tuberculous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To find out the different clinical presentations of breast tuberculosis and its treatment outcome. Subjects and Methods: Fifty consecutive female patients above 13 years presenting with breast lump, multiple sinuses, axillary lymphadenopathy, and cold abscess were included in the study. Medical records of the patients presented were reviewed and analyzed. Data was collected regarding the patient's name, age and marital and lactational status. Clinical Examinations and investigations were carried out by triple assessment i.e. clinical, radiological and histological/cytological evaluation. Results: The commonest presentation was a solitary breast lump in 30 (60%) patients, breast lump with axillary lymphadenopathy in 13 (26%). Four (8%) patients presented with generalized breast swelling (edema) with ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. Two (4) presented with breast abscess and axillary lymphadenopathy and one (2%) with axillary sinus and breast lump. Upper outer quadrant was most frequently involved in 29 (58%) of patients. Thirty two (64%) cases were secondary to tuberculosis in other sites, mostly (40%) from tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis. Forty eight (96%) patients responded well to one year antituberculous treatment with complete disappearance of the lumps except 2 patients who had shrinkage of lump size only, underwent excision of lump. Conclusion: Solitary lump and enlarged lymph nodes are the commonest presentation of mammary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and treatment is necessary to prevent disfigurement of breast. Antituberculous therapy is the treatment of choice. Surgery should be reserved for unresponsive lumps. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Hygiene-related and feed-related hoof diseases show different patterns of genetic correlations to clinical mastitis and female fertility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hoof diseases are a problem in many dairy herds. To study one aspect of the problem, genetic correlations between 4 hoof diseases, protein yield, clinical mastitis, number of inseminations, and days from calving to first insemination were estimated in first-parity Swedish Red cows using trivariate linear animal models. Occurrence of dermatitis, heel horn erosion, sole hemorrhage, and sole ulcer were reported by hoof trimmers. The data set contained about 314,000 animals with records on at least one of the traits; among these, about 64,000 animals had records on hoof diseases. Heritabilities were low for all hoof diseases (0.03 to 0.05). The hoof diseases fell into 2 groups: (1) dermatitis and heel horn erosion (i.e., diseases related to hygiene) and (2) sole hemorrhage and sole ulcer (i.e., diseases related to feeding). The genetic correlations between traits within the 2 groups were high (0.87 and 0.73, respectively), whereas the genetic correlations between traits in different groups were low (?0.23). Theseresults indicate that the 2 groups of hoof diseases are partly influenced by the same genes. All genetic correlations between hoof diseases and protein yield were low to moderate and unfavorable. Moderate and favorable genetic correlations were found between the feed-related hoof diseases and clinical mastitis (0.35 and 0.32), whereas the genetic correlations between the hygiene-related hoof diseases and clinical mastitis were low and not significantly different from zero. The genetic correlations between the hygiene-related hoof diseases and number of inseminations were low to moderate and favorable (0.32 and 0.22), and the genetic correlations between the feed-related hoof diseases and number of inseminations were low and not significantly different from zero. A moderate genetic correlation was found between sole ulcer and days from calving to first insemination (0.33), whereas the genetic correlations between days from calving to first insemination and sole hemorrhage and the hygiene-related hoof diseaseswere low and not significantly different from zero. In general, the 2 groups of hoof diseases showed different patterns of genetic correlations to the other functional traits, but both were unfavorably correlated to protein yield. A simulation study showed that inclusion of hoof diseases in the selection index will not only reduce the genetic decline in resistance to hoof diseases but also be favorable for other functional traits and improve overall genetic merit

Buch, Line HjortØ; SØrensen, Anders Christian

2011-01-01

182

Standardized care plan of postpartum mastitis  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Puerperal mastitis or mastitis Breastfeeding is a postpartum condition that represents one of the main reasons for abandoning breastfeeding. Mainly usually occurs between weeks 2 and 3 ª postpartum. The scientific evidence confirms that the stop breastfeeding before an attack of mastitis is not conducive to recovery and that of exclusive breastfeeding and no restrictions are effective measures to prevent milk stasis and the spread of infection.Objective: The main objective is to unify criteria for the care and integrated health care levels of care through continuity of care to promote breast-specific care to prevent the emergence of this disease.Methodology: Development of a standardized care plan to enable effective communication between professionals and implementation of quality care.Conclusions: The midwife and the nurse plays an important role in identifying those women with early-onset symptoms of postpartum mastitis in the middle, both in the maternity ward and in the primary care clinic.

Maria Ángeles Carrasco García

2012-07-01

183

Mastite clínica em vacas leiteiras suplementadas com selênio e vitamina E Clinical mastitis in dairy cows supplemented with selenium and vitamin E  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a prevalência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça Holandesa. Oitenta vacas foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: controle e suplementação com 2,5 mg selênio dia-1 , com 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 e com 2,5 mg selênio + 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 . A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas, quinzenalmente, para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de selênio. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, no parto, 30 e 60 dias após o parto, para determinação dos níveis de selênio. O teste de Tamis e a análise clínica do úbere foram realizados semanalmente, para detecção de mastite até a décima segunda semana de lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos superiores (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selenium and vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Eighty cows were allocated into four treatments: control, supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1, supplementation with 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 , and supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1 + 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 . The supplementation started 30 days prior to probable parturition date until parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical and selenium analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, right after parturition, 30 and 60 days after it to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test and udder analysis were weekly performed to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration compared with control group (P<0.05. Vitamin E and selenium did not decrease the prevalence of clinical mastitis up to 12th week and there was no interaction between those elements.

Juliana Jorge Paschoal

2005-10-01

184

Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF-? genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p < 0.05. It was also higher in BW Holstein animals with clinical mastitis (p < 0.001, but it was not significant when Gyr cows with and without mastitis were compared (0.05 < p < 0.10. Among healthy cows, BW Holstein animals tended to present a higher expression of all genes studied, with a significant difference for the IL-2 and IFN-? genes (p < 0.001. For animals with mastitis no significant difference in gene expression was observed between the two breeds. These findings suggest that animals with mastitis develop a preferentially cell-mediated immune response. Further studies including larger samples are necessary to better characterize the gene expression profile in cows with mastitis.

Isabela Fonseca

2009-01-01

185

Changing trends in mastitis  

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Full Text Available Abstract The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control.

Zadoks RN

2009-04-01

186

Mastite clínica em vacas leiteiras suplementadas com selênio e vitamina E / Clinical mastitis in dairy cows supplemented with selenium and vitamin E  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a prevalência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça Holandesa. Oitenta vacas foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: controle e suplementação com 2,5 mg selênio dia-1 , com 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 e com 2,5 mg selênio [...] + 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 . A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas, quinzenalmente, para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de selênio. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, no parto, 30 e 60 dias após o parto, para determinação dos níveis de selênio. O teste de Tamis e a análise clínica do úbere foram realizados semanalmente, para detecção de mastite até a décima segunda semana de lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos superiores (p Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selenium and vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Eighty cows were allocated into four treatments: control, supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1, supplementation with 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 , and supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day- [...] 1 + 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 . The supplementation started 30 days prior to probable parturition date until parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical and selenium analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, right after parturition, 30 and 60 days after it to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test and udder analysis were weekly performed to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration compared with control group (P

Juliana Jorge, Paschoal; Marcus Antonio, Zanetti; José Aparecido, Cunha.

187

Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aureus and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer mastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable. The magnitude of the effect of heifer mastitis on an individual animal is influenced by the form of mastitis (clinical versus subclinical), the virulence of the causative pathogen(s) (major versus minor pathogens), the time of onset of infection relative to calving, cure or persistence of the infection when milk production has started, and the host's immunity. Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity. At the herd level, the impact will depend on the prevalence and incidence of the disease, the nature of the problem (clinical, subclinical, nonfunctional quarters), the causative pathogens involved (major versus minor pathogens), the ability of the animals to cope with the disease, and the response of the dairy manager to control the disease through management changes. Specific recommendations to prevent and control mastitis in late gestation in periparturient heifers are not part of the current National Mastitis Council mastitis and prevention program. Control and prevention is currently based on avoidance of inter-sucking among young stock, fly control, optimal nutrition, and implementation of hygiene control and comfort measures, especially around calving. More risk factors for subclinical and clinical heifer mastitis have been identified (e.g., season, location of herd, stage of pregnancy) although they do not lend themselves to the development of specific intervention strategies designed to prevent the disease. Pathogen-specific risk factors and associated control measures need to be identified due to the pathogen-related variation in epidemiology and effect on future performance. Prepartum intramammary treatment with antibiotics has been proposed as a simple and effective way of controlling heifer mastitis but positive long-lasting effects on somatic cell count and milk yield do not always occur, ruling out universal recommendation of this practice. Moreover, use of antibiotics in this manner is off-label and results in an increased risk of antibiotic residues in milk. Prepartum treatment can be implemented only as a short-term measure to assist in the control of a significant heifer mastitis problem under supervision of the herd veterinarian. When CNS are the major cause of intramammary infection in heifers, productivity is not affected, making prepartum treatment redundant and even unwanted. In conclusion, heifer mastitis can affect the profitability of dairy farming because of a potential long-term negative effect on udder health and milk production and an associated culling risk, specifically when major pathogens are involved. Prevention and control is not easy but is possible through changes in young stock and heifer management. However, the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease remain largely unknown and more pathogen-specific risk factors should be identified to optimize current prevention programs. PMID:22365187

De Vliegher, S; Fox, L K; Piepers, S; McDougall, S; Barkema, H W

2012-03-01

188

Kneading and dispersing manipulation in treatment of early-stage acute mastitis: a randomized controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Background: Acute mastitis is an acute infectious disease of breast. Antibiotic treatment is often unable to obtain a good effect, and we should actively look for a safe and effective non-drug therapy.Objective: To validate the clinical efficacy of kneading and dispersing manipulation in treatment of early-stage acute mastitis.Design, setting, participants and interventions: According to the multicenter randomized controlled trial design, 198 cases of acute mastitis from Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine, Longhua Hospital, and Shanghai Yangpu Maternity and Child Health Hospital were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. There were 99 cases in each group. Patients in the treatment group were only treated with manipulation, and cefradine was orally administered to patients in the control group.Main outcome measures: The local breast lump size, clinical symptoms and the adverse reactions in the two groups were observed before and after the treatment.Results: The total response rates in the treatment and control group were 95.92% (94/98 and 80% (76/95 respectively. There was a significant difference in the total response rate between the two groups (P<0.05. There were significant differences in the score of breast lump size, and the score of signs and symptoms between the two groups (P<0.05.Conclusion: Kneading and dispersing manipulation has certain effects on early-stage acute mastitis, and the therapy is safe and repeatable.

Min ZHOU

2009-12-01

189

Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review.  

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Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a framework for economic analysis. As a second step calculations of the costs of mastitis and the costs in relation to the benefits of mastitis management published since 1990 in peer-reviewed journals are...

Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Ostera?s, O.; Hogeveen, H.

2007-01-01

190

Mandalarda Mastitis Olgusu  

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Full Text Available Mastitis manda yeti?tiricili?inde ekonomik kay?plara neden olan önemli bir hastal?kt?r. Hastal???n ?iddeti, süresi ve birincil nedenine göre mastitis, genel olarak klinik ve subklinik olmak üzere ikiye ayr?lmaktad?r. Subklinik mastitis, sürüdeki di?er hayvanlardan bula?mas? nedeni ile önemli bir sürü problemidir. Ancak, klinik mastitis ise memede deformasyonlar ve süt veriminin azalmas? ile ?ekillenen klinik bir olgudur. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactia ve Streptococcus dysgalactia klinik, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus agalactia ve Streptococcus dysgalactia ise subklinik mastitis olaylar?nda en yayg?n olarak izole edilen mikroorganizmalard?r. Mandalarda bu mikroorganizmalar?n neden oldu?u mastitis olgular? sonucu, sütün yap?s?nda anormallik gözlenmekte ve sütün miktar?nda meydana getirdi?i dü?ü?le üreticileri ekonomik kayba u?ramaktad?r. Bu nedenle mastitis üzerine etkili faktörlerin tespit edilmesi ve gerekli önlemlerin al?nmas? büyük önem ta?maktad?r. Bu derlemede, mandalarda mastitis olgusu ve etkileri üzerinde durulmu?tur.

Aziz ?ahin

2014-08-01

191

The role of diagnostic microbiology in mastitis control programs.  

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There are a number of important issues for the dairy practitioner to consider in designing the most appropriate mastitis microbiological service for his or her clients. These include the decision to use enhancement tools or selective agars to optimize sensitivity and specificity. The service should include a monthly BTC service that monitors for the important contagious mastitis organisms: S aureus, S agalactia, and Mycoplasma. At the cow level, a zero tolerance program to protect healthy cows from exposure to contagious mastitis will require a routine culture service to monitor for these pathogens in new herd additions, clinical cases, and all fresh cows and heifers. A wide variety of additional benefits for maintaining good udder health and the production of quality milk can come from a more comprehensive diagnostic service that looks at both individual cow and bulk tank milk. Finally, more practitioners can help their clients economically by implementation of an on-farm TNT culture service and significantly reducing the use of intramammary therapy. PMID:22664202

Britten, Allan M

2012-07-01

192

Toxic bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in twin cows.  

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In this report, we describe two cases of bovine toxic mastitis associated with S. aureus and we provide DNA microarray based characterization data of the strain causing the disease. Both cows had recently calved and suffered from anorexia, pyrexia, and an elevated heart rate. In both animals, at least one mammary gland was swollen, hardened, sensitive to touch, and produced brownish or bloody secretions. The clinical state of the animals deteriorated quickly and both cows had to be euthanized within 48 hours after presentation. The S. aureus strain, which was isolated from the mastitis milk of both cows, was assigned to spa type t267, agr type I, capsule type 5 and CC97, a clonal complex recently identified as the evolutionary origin of two emerging clones of human epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The strain did not harbour any genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents and we did not detect any genes coding for enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin, or exfoliative toxins. Taking into consideration that twin cows were affected by this rare disease, we suggest that host factors may play a crucial role in toxic mastitis associated with S. aureus. PMID:25359115

Rüegsegger; Corti; Sihto; Johler

2014-11-01

193

Biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces in the presence of antimicrobials by Escherichia coli Isolates from cases of bovine mastitis.  

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Escherichia coli is a highly adaptive microorganism, and its ability to form biofilms under certain conditions can be critical for antimicrobial resistance. The adhesion of four E. coli isolates from bovine mastitis to bovine mammary alveolar (MAC-T) cells, biofilm production on a polystyrene surface, and the expression profiles of the genes fliC, csgA, fimA, and luxS in the presence of enrofloxacin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, and ampicillin at half of the MIC were investigated. Increased adhesion of E. coli isolates in the presence of antimicrobials was not observed; however, increased internalization of some isolates was observed by confocal microscopy. All of the antimicrobials induced the formation of biofilms by at least one isolate, whereas enrofloxacin and co-trimoxazole decreased biofilm formation by at least one isolate. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that all four genes were differentially expressed when bacteria were exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials, with expression altered on the order of 1.5- to 22-fold. However, it was not possible to associate gene expression with induction or reduction of biofilm formation in the presence of the antimicrobials. Taken together, the results demonstrate that antimicrobials could induce biofilm formation by some isolates, in addition to inducing MAC-T cell invasion, a situation that might occur in vivo, potentially resulting in a bacterial reservoir in the udder, which might explain some cases of persistent mastitis in herds. PMID:25063668

Silva, Vitor O; Soares, Larissa O; Silva Júnior, Abelardo; Mantovani, Hilário C; Chang, Yung-Fu; Moreira, Maria Aparecida S

2014-10-01

194

The role of Mannheimia species in ovine mastitis.  

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Mannheimia haemolytica is known to be an important cause of intramammary infection in sheep. It usually causes severe clinical mastitis, followed by toxaemia and gangrenous necrosis of the udder. However there are limited data available on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of mastitis associated with Mannheimia species. These organisms can be more significant as a cause of mastitis than Staphylococcus aureus in some flocks. Some data suggest the possibility of horizontal transmission of Mannheimia species between ewes via lamb sucking. There is no vaccine available for prevention, and the sudden onset of mastitis and its peracute nature renders most treatments unsuccessful. This review examines the significance of the species within this genus in sheep mastitis. PMID:21511411

Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Barber, Stuart R

2011-11-21

195

Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits and lactation average somatic cell count from 5 to 170 d after first calving (LASCC170) with another index consisting of 1 unspecific mastitis trait and LASCC170. Economic values were estimated for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from 149 euro to 570 euro per mastitis case and were highest for contagious pathogens such as Staph. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci and lowest for Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. The value for unspecific mastitis was 231 euro per case. Selection differentials (in euro) were estimated for 4 different selection indices, including 1) unspecific mastitis, 2) unspecific mastitis and LASCC170, 3) 5 pathogen-specific mastitis traits and unspecific residual mastitis (unspecific mastitis treatments minus mastitis treatments caused by the 5 pathogens), and 4) as index 3 including LASCC170. The breeding goal was identical to selection index 3. Mastitis data from primiparous cows calving from 1998 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic parameters of the mastitis traits using linear models and AI-REML algorithm. These parameters were used for construction of the selection index equations. For the selection indices, information sources were measurements of mastitis treatments and LASCC170 from 50, 80, or 130 daughters of a bull as well as measurements of mastitis treatments from 1,000 progeny of the bull's sire and 1,000 daughters of hismaternal grandsire. Differences in selection differentials were marginal among the 4 indices. Without considering LASCC170, the selection differential of an unspecific mastitis index was 0.4 euro (

SØrensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas

2010-01-01

196

Studies on the possible role of cattle nuisance flies, especially Hydrotaea irritans, in the transmission of summer mastitis in Denmark.  

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The summer mastitis pathogens Actinomyces pyogenes, Peptococcus indolicus, Bacteroides melaninogenicus ss. levii, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were isolated from the polyphagous symbovine dipterans Hydrotaea irritans (Fallén) and Morellia sp. caught around dairy heifers on pasture, but not from the haematophagous species Haematobia irritans (L.), Haematobosca stimulans (Meigen), Culicoides sp. and Simulium sp. Secretions from clinical cases of summer mastitis proved to be sources of summer mastitis bacteria for more than 3 weeks despite antibiotic treatment and teat amputation. Taking into account the seasonal activity pattern of Hydrotaea irritans and its topographical distribution on grazing cattle, it appears evident that this fly may play a central role in the establishment and maintenance of the bacterial contamination with summer mastitis pathogens on the teats of healthy cattle. In the present study the survival of A.pyogenes and P.indolicus for 7 days in experimentally infected Hydrotaea irritans, as demonstrated by the recovery of these microorganisms from agar plates exposed to live infected flies, is described. However, experimental transmission of summer mastitis from sick to healthy heifers by Hydrotaea irritans proved unsuccessful. PMID:1773120

Madsen, M; Høi Sørensen, G; Nielsen, S A

1991-10-01

197

Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis in two Uruguayan dairy farms / Caracterización de Staphylococcus aureus aislados a partir de casos de mastitis subclínicas en dos tambos de Uruguay  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la prevalencia y evolución de mastitis bovina subclínica (MBS) a lo largo de un año en dos tambos comerciales localizados en un área de producción lechera (Sur) de Uruguay e identificar y caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus aisladas de la leche de vaca [...] s con resultados de trazas, 1, 2 o 3 correspondientes a la escala del California Mastitis Test (CMT). Producción de coagulasa, presencia de cápsula, producción de limo, formación de biofilms, autoagregación, hemaglutinación y sensibilidad a diferentes antibióticos fueron evaluadas en el caso de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas. La incidencia de MBS a lo largo del estudio fue baja y no se correlacionó con variables climáticas. El número de aislamientos de S. aureus de las muestras de leche fue bajo en comparación con estudios previos y la mayoría de ellos se obtuvo de muestras que presentaban un resultado de CMT de 1. La formación de cápsula, limo y biofilms así como la ocurrencia de autoagregación en todas las cepas confluyen en la habilidad bacteriana para adherirse y persistir en la glándula contribuyendo a la cronicidad de la infección y a la adhesión a superficies inertes. La resistencia bacteriana frente a distintos antibióticos fue baja. La evaluación de la expresión de factores de virulencia de S. aureus en el contexto de mastitis subclínica en tambos puede ser de utilidad para desarrollar acciones precisas y tratamientos para el control de mastitis y la promoción de la salud animal y la producción de leche. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to identify and to characterise Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with subclinical mastitis obtained from milk of lactating cows showing a California Mastitis Test (CMT) score result of traces, 1, 2, or 3. Coagulase, hemolysis, presence of capsule, slime formation, b [...] iofilm production, autoaggregation, hemagglutination and antibiotic susceptibility were assessed to evaluate S. aureus virulence factors expression potentially associated to bovine subclinical mastitis isolates. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis along the study was low and did not correlate with months or climatic variables. Most of S. aureus (20) were isolated from milk samples showing a CMT score result of 1. Formation of capsule, slime, biofilms and the occurrence of bacteria aggregation in all the tested isolates converged in the bacterial ability of adherence and persistence in the mammary gland and probably contribute to the further chronicity of the infection and even the colonization of dairy installations. Resistance against a set of commonly used antibiotics was low. The evaluation of virulence factors of S. aureus isolates in the context of subclinical mastitis in dairy farms may be useful to develop precise actions and treatments to control mastitis and to improve animal health and milk production in dairy bovine herds.

R, de los Santos; M, Fernández; S, Carro; P, Zunino.

198

Molecular Epidemiology of Two Klebsiella pneumoniae Mastitis Outbreaks on a Dairy Farm in New York State?  

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Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing. PMID:17928424

Munoz, Marcos A.; Welcome, Francis L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.

2007-01-01

199

Levels of glucose, serum albumin and somatic cells before and during early stages of acute clinical mastitis artificially induced in cows by means of human strains of group-B streptococci (GBS) administered intracisternally.  

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The investigation was performed on 3 cows, sampled repeatedly before and during the initial 48 h of artificially induced, acute, clinical mastitis. The results of the investigation both augment and support those of earlier work on the levels and significant correlations of glucose, serum albumin and somatic cells in normal and abnormal secretions monitored before and after the usual milking of healthy lactating cows had been suspended. During acute mastitis, udder secretions from artificially infected quarters showed highly significant escalations of somatic cell counts which coincided with equally significant increases of a high and intermediate level of serum albumin values in both the infected and non-infected quarters. Corresponding glucose values fluctuated from 0,07-0, 22 and 0,18-0, 32 mM in the former and latter quarters respectively. The selective and elevated transfer of serum albumin in otherwise unaffected quarters of acutely mastitic udders suggests rather specific collateral vascular and epithelial changes of unknown nature and magnitude. The data indicate that marked fluctuations of glucose may occur within and between quarters of individual and different cows respectively. Such variations could significantly affect phagocytosis and killing of bacteria challenging the intramammary leucocytic udder barrier before and particularly during manifestation of mastitis. Hence, udder health, although dependent on specific natural defence mechanisms such as the leucocytes and related systems in milk, may depend even more significantly on the supplies of glucose to and within the bovine mammary gland. PMID:7312308

Giesecke, W H; Van den Heever, L W

1981-06-01

200

Aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais da mastite induzida por inoculação intramamária de Staphylococcus aureus em vacas e búfalas / Clinical and laboratory aspects of mastitis induced by intramammary inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in cows and buffaloes  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vários aspectos relacionados à mastite bubalina precisam ser esclarecidos. Muitas condutas são adaptadas a essa espécie pelo conhecimento adquirido com a espécie bovina. Com este experimento, objetivou-se evidenciar particularidades da mastite em búfalas e vacas que tiveram uma glândula inoculada co [...] m 1,0 x 103 UFC de S. aureus. Os animais foram monitorados por cultura bacteriana do leite, California Mastitis Test (CMT), e escores para avaliação da severidade da mastite. Foram utilizados os seguintes critérios: temperatura retal, apetite, produção de leite (resposta sistêmica à inflamação), contagem de células somáticas (CCS), aparência/consistência da glândula e aparência da secreção láctea (resposta localizada à inflamação). Todos os animais desenvolveram mastite clínica superaguda. A bactéria foi recuperada de todas as glândulas desafiadas, sem diferença significativa no percentual de isolamento entre as espécies até o 11º dia pós-inoculação, porém com diferença (P Abstract in english Several aspects related to bubaline mastits need to be clarified. Many conducts are adapted to this species by the knowledge adquired with the bovine species. This experiment aimed to evidence particularities of mastits in buffaloes and cows submitted to one-gland inoculation with 1.0 x 103 CFU of S [...] . aureus. The animals were monitored through bacterial culturing milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and scores to assess the severity of mastitis. The following criteria were used: rectal temperature, appetite, milk production (systemic response to inflammation), somatic cell count (SCC), appearance/consistency of the gland and appearance of the milk secretion (localized response to inflammation). All animals developed hyperacute clinical mastitis. The bacteria was recovered from all challenged glands, with no significant difference in the percentage of isolation between the species until day 11 after inoculation, but with a difference (p

A.M., Lazzari; M.V.S., Oliveira; B., Moreti; G., Guimarães; F., Krug; G., Noleto; A.J., Mesquita; J.P., Neves.

1299-13-01

 
 
 
 
201

Neonatal Mastitis: A Clinico-Microbiological Study  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Neonatal breast hypertrophy is a common phenomenon in term infants, superadded infection can lead to mastitis and that can progress to breast abscess with short and long term detrimental effects. Our effort is to study the prevalence, risk factors, the current microbial profile and sensitivity pattern in these infections in order to suggest an optimal treatment plan for these patients. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Hospital based study conducted in Kashmir on the native population. DURATION: 2011 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 neonates with features of mastitis or abscess were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data, laboratory work-up were recorded for all these patients in a patient form. Gram stain of the purulent nipple discharge or pus obtained on drainage was done and the specimens were culture plated. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined by disk diffusion and categorized by current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Most babies were full term, the age range was 6-48 days. Peak incidence for mastitis was in the 2nd week and for abscess in the 4th week. The ratio of male: female was 1:2 in the entire group, there was greater preponderance of female involvement with increasing age. Massage for expression of secretions a common practice in the study population had been done in 15 patients, especially in male babies. The babies were generally well and associated skin pustulosis was common. Laboratory workup showed polymorphonuclear leucocytosis and CRP positivity. Gram staining showed gram positive cocci in 13 patients and gram negative rods in 1 patient. Culture revealed Staphylococcus aureus in 18, E.col in 2, klebsiella in 1 patient and was sterile in 2 patients. Most strains of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to macrolides and penicillins. Fifteen were methicillin sensitive and 3 were resistant but were sensitive to amikacin, ofloxacin and vancomycin. Gram negative rods were sensitive to, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, quinolones, piperacillin-tazobactum and cefoperazone-sulbactum, but were resistant to cephalosporins including third generation cephalosporins. Treatment with oral antibiotic was not successful. Patients responded well to open drainage via a stab incision away from the breast mound; 4 patients were managed by repeated needle aspirations. IV antibiotics were prescribed in all patients for 2-5 days, followed by oral continuation therapy of 7-14 days. CONCLUSIONS: From our study, we can conclude that parental counseling to avoid massage, and early treatment for pustulosis is important to prevent mastitis. Intravenous antibiotics should be used for this condition guided by gram stain or culture sensitivity once available. Empirically a drug with good anti-staph cover may be instituted till appropriate reports are available. Incision drainage gives uniformly good results, though; multiple sittings of needle drainage may obviate the need for incision drainage. Therapy can be shifted to oral drugs once clinical improvement is seen.

Talat Masoodi

2014-01-01

202

Effectiveness of Topical Curcumin for Treatment of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32 or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31. Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast inflammation before entering the study. The outcome of treatment was evaluated using the same index at 24, 48 and 72 hours of starting the treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics such as age (p=0.361 and duration of lactation (p=0.551. After 72-hour of therapy, patients in curcumin groups had significantly lower rate of moderate (p=0.019 and mild (p=0.002 mastitis. Patients in curcumin group had significantly lower scores for tension (p<0.001, erythema (p<0.001 and pain (p<0.001, after 72-hour of treatment. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that topical preparation of curcumin successfully decrease the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration without side effects. Thus, topical preparation of curcumin could be safely administered for those suffering from lactational mastitis after excluding infectious etiologies.

Raha Afshariani

2014-09-01

203

Effectiveness of Topical Curcumin for Treatment of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

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Objective To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32) or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31). Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast inflammation before entering the study. The outcome of treatment was evaluated using the same index at 24, 48 and 72 hours of starting the treatment. Results There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics such as age (p=0.361) and duration of lactation (p=0.551). After 72-hour of therapy, patients in curcumin groups had significantly lower rate of moderate (p=0.019) and mild (p=0.002) mastitis. Patients in curcumin group had significantly lower scores for tension (pcurcumin successfully decrease the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration without side effects. Thus, topical preparation of curcumin could be safely administered for those suffering from lactational mastitis after excluding infectious etiologies. PMID:25337308

Afshariani, Raha; Farhadi, Pooya; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Roozbeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

204

Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to ?-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants. PMID:21984431

Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

2011-12-01

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Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan  

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Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7% had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pathological lesions and change in udder secretion, in addition to that 276 quarters (31.4% showed subclinical mastitis. The incidence of mastitis was found to be increased in older cows. Staphylococcus aurous was considered to be the most common cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis and followed by coli forms, streptococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., proteus spp. and pseudomonas spp. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains using tertracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim.

Azmi D. Hawari

2008-01-01

206

Tuberculous Osteomyelitis of Sternum Secondary to Primary Tuberculous Mastitis  

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Sternal tuberculosis secondary to tuberculous mastitis is uncommon. The invasion of the sternum following a primary focus in the breast has not been reported. This may be due to the resistance offered by pectoral fascia and periosteum to the spread of infection into the bone. We present a case of tubercular sternal osteomtyelitis following tubercular mastitis in a 40-year old female. A brief case report and a review of literature are presented.

Bakhshi, Girish D.; Shenoy, Sachin S.; Jadhav, Kavita V.; Tayade, Mukund B.; Rawoot, Suhaib S.; Jain, Kavitha

2014-01-01

207

The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report  

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The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis

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The effect of recurrent episodes of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and other organisms on mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows.  

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The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of recurrent episodes of different types of clinical mastitis (CM) caused by gram-positive (Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp.) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas) bacteria, and other organisms (Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Corynebacterium bovis, yeast, miscellaneous) on the probability of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. Data from 30,233 lactations in cows of 7 dairy farms in New York State were analyzed. Cows were followed for the first 10 mo in lactation, or until death or culling occurred, or until the end of our study period. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of recurrent cases of the different types of CM and several other factors (herd, parity, month of lactation, current year and season, profitability, net replacement cost, other diseases) on cows' probability of death (model 1) or being culled (model 2). Primiparous and multiparous cows were modeled separately because they had different risks of mortality and culling and potentially different CM effects on mortality and culling. Approximately 30% of multiparous cows had at least one case of CM in lactation compared with 16.6% of primiparous cows. Multipara also had higher lactational incidence risks of second (10.7%) and third (4.4%) cases than primipara (3.7% and 1.1%, respectively). For primipara, CM increased the probability of death, with each successive case occurring in a month being increasingly lethal. In multipara, gram-negative CM increased the probability of death, especially when the gram-negative case was the first or second CM case in lactation. Primiparous cows with CM were more likely to be culled after CM than if they did not have CM, particularly after a second or third case. In multipara, any type of CM increased the probability of being culled. Gram-negative CM cases were associated with the numerically highest risk of culling. PMID:21943738

Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Bar, D; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Rauch, B J; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

2011-10-01

209

Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

F Zaini

2012-08-01

210

Genetic evaluation of mastitis liability and recovery through longitudinal analysis of transition probabilities  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods for the genetic analysis of mastitis use a cross-sectional approach, which omits information on, e.g., repeated mastitis cases during lactation, somatic cell count fluctuations, and recovery process. Acknowledging the dynamic behavior of mastitis during lactation and taking into account that there is more than one binary response variable to consider, can enhance the genetic evaluation of mastitis. Methods Genetic evaluation of mastitis was carried out by modeling the dynamic nature of somatic cell count (SCC within the lactation. The SCC patterns were captured by modeling transition probabilities between assumed states of mastitis and non-mastitis. A widely dispersed SCC pattern generates high transition probabilities between states and vice versa. This method can model transitions to and from states of infection simultaneously, i.e. both the mastitis liability and the recovery process are considered. A multilevel discrete time survival model was applied to estimate breeding values on simulated data with different dataset sizes, mastitis frequencies, and genetic correlations. Results Correlations between estimated and simulated breeding values showed that the estimated accuracies for mastitis liability were similar to those from previously tested methods that used data of confirmed mastitis cases, while our results were based on SCC as an indicator of mastitis. In addition, unlike the other methods, our method also generates breeding values for the recovery process. Conclusions The developed method provides an effective tool for the genetic evaluation of mastitis when considering the whole disease course and will contribute to improving the genetic evaluation of udder health.

Franzén Jessica

2012-04-01

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Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF-? genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk [...] cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p

Isabela, Fonseca; Priscila Vendramini, Silva; Carla Christine, Lange; Marta F.M., Guimarães; Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral, Weller; Katiene Régia Silva, Sousa; Paulo Sávio, Lopes; José Domingos, Guimarães; Simone E.F., Guimarães.

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Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors  

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A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10%) and services (5.47%). Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents. PMID:25093203

Sinha, Mukesh Kr.; Thombare, N. N.; Mondal, Biswajit

2014-01-01

213

Mastitis tuberculosa / Tuberculosis of the breast  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se informa un caso de mastitis granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis en una paciente inmunocompetente con lesiones inflamatorias crónicas de la mama, diagnosticada por la detección de ADN de la micobacteria mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de la secuencia de [...] inserción IS6110 presente en el complejo M. tuberculosis , en una biopsia de mama embebida en parafina. La tuberculosis primaria de la mama es rara, incluso en países con alta prevalencia de tuberculosis, y debe sospecharse en pacientes con mastitis granulomatosa crónica de causa no clara. El pilar del tratamiento es la quimioterapia antituberculosa y, ocasionalmente, la cirugía. Abstract in english We report a case of granulomatous mastitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an immunocompetent woman with chronic inflammatory lesions of the breast. It was diagnosed by detection of mycobacteria DNA using polymerase chain reaction technique targeting IS6110 insertion element of M. tuberculos [...] is complex in a paraffin-embedded histological specimen. The primary breast tuberculosis is rare, even in countries where the incidence and prevalence of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis are high. It should be suspected in female patients with chronic granulomatous mastitis with no apparent cause. The cornerstone of treatment is antituberculous chemotherapy, and surgery is rarely required.

Sonia Isabel, Cuervo; Diego Andrés, Bonilla; Martha Isabel, Murcia; Johana, Hernández; Julio César, Gómez.

214

Mastitis tuberculosa / Tuberculosis of the breast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se informa un caso de mastitis granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis en una paciente inmunocompetente con lesiones inflamatorias crónicas de la mama, diagnosticada por la detección de ADN de la micobacteria mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de la secuencia de [...] inserción IS6110 presente en el complejo M. tuberculosis , en una biopsia de mama embebida en parafina. La tuberculosis primaria de la mama es rara, incluso en países con alta prevalencia de tuberculosis, y debe sospecharse en pacientes con mastitis granulomatosa crónica de causa no clara. El pilar del tratamiento es la quimioterapia antituberculosa y, ocasionalmente, la cirugía. Abstract in english We report a case of granulomatous mastitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an immunocompetent woman with chronic inflammatory lesions of the breast. It was diagnosed by detection of mycobacteria DNA using polymerase chain reaction technique targeting IS6110 insertion element of M. tuberculos [...] is complex in a paraffin-embedded histological specimen. The primary breast tuberculosis is rare, even in countries where the incidence and prevalence of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis are high. It should be suspected in female patients with chronic granulomatous mastitis with no apparent cause. The cornerstone of treatment is antituberculous chemotherapy, and surgery is rarely required.

Sonia Isabel, Cuervo; Diego Andrés, Bonilla; Martha Isabel, Murcia; Johana, Hernández; Julio César, Gómez.

2013-03-01

215

Therapy of mastitis puerperalis  

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70 patients with mastitis were treated by low dose irradiation with soft X-rays and by secondary inhibition of the lactation by conservative physical measures. Breast abscesses were observed only in 6 of 70 patients. Therefore the antiinflammatory irradiation with low dose X-rays is a suitable method of treatment.

Behling, H.; Reich, W.; Schmeisser, G. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (German Democratic Republic))

1983-01-01

216

Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.  

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Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n?=?390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p?cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2)?=?0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

2014-10-01

217

Association between isolation of Staphylococcus aureus one week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count, clinical mastitis, and culling through the remaining lactation.  

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Cows with isolation of Staphylococcus aureus approximately 1 week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis (CM), and culling risk through the remaining lactation were assessed in 178 Norwegian dairy herds. Mixed models with repeated measures were used to compare milk yield and SCC, and survival analyses were used to estimate the hazard ratio for CM and culling. On average, cows with an isolate of Staph. aureus had a significantly higher SCC than culture-negative cows. If no post-milking teat disinfection (PMTD) was used, the mean values of SCC were 42,000, 61,000, 68,000 and 77,000 cells/ml for cows with no Staph. aureus isolate, with Staph. aureus isolated in 1 quarter, in 2 quarters and more than 2 quarters respectively. If iodine PMTD was used, SCC means were 36,000; 63,000; 70,000 and 122,000, respectively. Primiparous cows testing positive for Staph. aureus had the same milk yield curve as culture-negative cows, except for those with Staph. aureus isolated in more than 2 quarters. They produced 229 kg less during a 305-d lactation. Multiparous cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter produced 94-161 kg less milk in 2nd and >3rd parity, respectively, and those with isolation in more than 2 quarters produced 303-390 kg less than multiparous culture-negative animals during a 305-d lactation. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratio for CM and culling in cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter was 2.0 (1.6-2.4) and 1.7 (1.5-1.9), respectively. There was a decrease in the SCC and in the CM risk in culture-negative cows where iodine PMTD had been used, indicating that iodine PMTD has a preventive effect on already healthy cows. For cows testing positive for Staph. aureus in more than 2 quarters at calving, iodine PMTD had a negative effect on the CM risk and on the SCC through the remaining lactation. PMID:18922193

Whist, Anne Cathrine; Osterås, Olav; Sølverød, Liv

2009-02-01

218

Bovine Mastitis: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Major Pathogens in Dairy Farms of Holeta Town, Central Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2008 to April 2009 to estimate prevalence of mastitis and to see associated bacterial pathogens in lactating dairy cows in Holeta town. A total of 107 cross bred milking cows were tested using California Mastitis Test (CMT. Prevalence of mastitis at cow level was 71.0% (76/107, out of which 22.4% (24/107 and 48.6% (52/107 were clinical and subclinical, respectively. The quarter level prevalence was 44.9% (192/428; from this the clinical and subclinical forms were 10.0% (43/428 and 34.8% (149/428, respectively. Out of the 43 quarters with clinical cases, 31 had blind teats while 12 of them revealed active cases of mastitis. Samples from all 12 active clinical cases and 90.0% (134/149 of the CMT positive subclinical quarters were found to be culture positive. From 146 culture positive samples, a total of 153 bacteria were isolated, the most prevalent being S. aureus (47.1% followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS (30.1%. Other bacterial isolates included Streptococcus (7.2%, E.coli (4.6%, Micrococcus species (3.3%, Klebsella pneumonae (3.3%, Enterobater aerogen (1.3%, Corynebacterium species (2.0% and Bacillus (1.3%. Risk factors analysis revealed that prevalence significantly differed with the age (P < 0.05, parity (P < 0.05 and udder hygiene condition (P < 0.03. Thus, prevalence was relatively higher in adult cows (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.15, 3.64, cows with moderate calves (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.6, cows with injured teat (OR = 7.7, 95%CI = 0.9, 64.1 and cows with unwashed udder (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 0.8, 6.4 than those corresponding animals. In conclusion, this study revealed the importance of mastitis and associated bacterial pathogen in the study area. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 397-403

Mekibib

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Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584 had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584 had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584 had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%, Escherichia coli (25.2%, Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%, Klebsiella spp. (15.5% and Streptococcus spp. (1.6% were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3 and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1 were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

Davies M. Pfukenyi

2013-03-01

220

Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composi [...] te milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 10³ cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal-and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1% (123/584) had mastitis, 16.3% (95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%), Escherichia coli (25.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were I: associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

Simbarashe, Katsande; Gift, Matope; Masimba, Ndengu; Davies M, Pfukenyi.

 
 
 
 
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Mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática: una patología vigente Chronic idiopathic lobular granulomatous mastitis: a current pathology  

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Full Text Available Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es una patología benigna del seno, de carácter inflamatorio y de etiología desconocida. Sus principales manifestaciones clínicas se semejan a las del cáncer mamario. Dado que los hallazgos clínicos y de imágenes diagnósticas no son específicas, el diagnóstico inequívoco recae en el estudio histopatológico de 0 lesión. Objetivos: Describir las principales manifestaciones clínicas, los resultados de los métodos diagnósticos y hallazgos importantes de patología en los casos de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Materiales y métodos: Desde enero del año 2004 los autores establecieron el registro personal de tumores benignos, mastitis no lactacional y enfermedad inflamatoria ductal. Hasta septiembre de 2006, este registro recolectó información clínica, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento en 77 pacientes, 20 de los cuales correspondieron al diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo por las siguientes variables: 1. Edad. 2. Cuadro clínico. 3. Enfermedades asociadas. 4. Métodos diagnósticos utilizados. 5. Hallazgos histopatológicos. 6. Curso clínico. Resultados: El diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular se hizo inicialmente en 30 pacientes. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática en 20 pacientes, dado que en 10, se identificó la causa específica de la inflamación granulomatosa del seno. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue de 36 años; la más joven tenía 22 años. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue la aparición de masa inflamatoria en el seno. El hallazgo principal del estudio fue la asociación de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática con cáncer del seno contralateral y la infección con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, asociación no descrita en la literatura mundial. Conclusión: El diagnóstico de mastitis granu-lomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es un reto clínico formidable. Debido a que sus manifestaciones clínicas son yerras y se observa resolución espontánea de la enfermedad, esta patología posiblemente es dejada sin diagnosticar en una proporción importante de casos. La identificación de la causa subyacente de la inflamación granulomatosa en más de un tercio de los pacientes, hace que el estudio histopatológico sea considerado por nosotros como el método diagnóstico de escogencia para el diagnóstico incuestionable de esta patología.Background: Chronic idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (ICGM is a benign disease of the breast, of inflammatory nature and unknown etiology. The main clinical features of this entity resemble those of mammary cancer. Given that the clinical and diagnostic imaging findings are not specific, the correct diagnosis falls in the histopathologic study. Objectives: To describe the main clinical manifestations, the results of the diagnostic studies, and the most important findings in the pathlogical study of ICGM. Materials and methods: Beginning in January 2004, the authors implemented the personal registry of benign breast tumors, nonlactational mastitis, and ductal inflammatory disease; 77 patients were registered until September 2006, with data including clinical information, diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities. In this group of 77 patients, 20 had the diagnosis of ICGM. A descriptive statistical analysis based on the following variables was carried out: 1. Age; 2. Clinical presentation; 3. Associated illnesses; 4. Diagnostic methods employed; 5. histopathologic findings; 6. Clinical course. Results: The diagnosis of ICGM was initially made in 30 patient, and the diagnosis was confirmed in 20, while in the other 10 a specific inflammatory cause was identified. The average age of this group patients was 36 years, the youngest being 22.The most frequent clinical presentation was an inflammatory mass in the breast, while the outstanding finding was the association of ICGM w

Eduardo Torregroza-Diazgranados

2007-06-01

222

Mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática: una patología vigente / Chronic idiopathic lobular granulomatous mastitis: a current pathology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es una patología benigna del seno, de carácter inflamatorio y de etiología desconocida. Sus principales manifestaciones clínicas se semejan a las del cáncer mamario. Dado que los hallazgos clínicos y de imágenes diagnósticas no son e [...] specíficas, el diagnóstico inequívoco recae en el estudio histopatológico de 0 lesión. Objetivos: Describir las principales manifestaciones clínicas, los resultados de los métodos diagnósticos y hallazgos importantes de patología en los casos de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Materiales y métodos: Desde enero del año 2004 los autores establecieron el registro personal de tumores benignos, mastitis no lactacional y enfermedad inflamatoria ductal. Hasta septiembre de 2006, este registro recolectó información clínica, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento en 77 pacientes, 20 de los cuales correspondieron al diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo por las siguientes variables: 1. Edad. 2. Cuadro clínico. 3. Enfermedades asociadas. 4. Métodos diagnósticos utilizados. 5. Hallazgos histopatológicos. 6. Curso clínico. Resultados: El diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular se hizo inicialmente en 30 pacientes. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática en 20 pacientes, dado que en 10, se identificó la causa específica de la inflamación granulomatosa del seno. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue de 36 años; la más joven tenía 22 años. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue la aparición de masa inflamatoria en el seno. El hallazgo principal del estudio fue la asociación de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática con cáncer del seno contralateral y la infección con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, asociación no descrita en la literatura mundial. Conclusión: El diagnóstico de mastitis granu-lomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es un reto clínico formidable. Debido a que sus manifestaciones clínicas son yerras y se observa resolución espontánea de la enfermedad, esta patología posiblemente es dejada sin diagnosticar en una proporción importante de casos. La identificación de la causa subyacente de la inflamación granulomatosa en más de un tercio de los pacientes, hace que el estudio histopatológico sea considerado por nosotros como el método diagnóstico de escogencia para el diagnóstico incuestionable de esta patología. Abstract in english Background: Chronic idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (ICGM) is a benign disease of the breast, of inflammatory nature and unknown etiology. The main clinical features of this entity resemble those of mammary cancer. Given that the clinical and diagnostic imaging findings are not specific, the corre [...] ct diagnosis falls in the histopathologic study. Objectives: To describe the main clinical manifestations, the results of the diagnostic studies, and the most important findings in the pathlogical study of ICGM. Materials and methods: Beginning in January 2004, the authors implemented the personal registry of benign breast tumors, nonlactational mastitis, and ductal inflammatory disease; 77 patients were registered until September 2006, with data including clinical information, diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities. In this group of 77 patients, 20 had the diagnosis of ICGM. A descriptive statistical analysis based on the following variables was carried out: 1. Age; 2. Clinical presentation; 3. Associated illnesses; 4. Diagnostic methods employed; 5. histopathologic findings; 6. Clinical course. Results: The diagnosis of ICGM was initially made in 30 patient, and the diagnosis was confirmed in 20, while in the other 10 a specific inflammatory cause was identified. The average age of this group patients was 36 years, the youngest being 22.The most frequent clinical presentation was an

Eduardo, Torregroza-Diazgranados; María Constanza, Gómez Cruz; Luis Fernando, Viaña; Juan David, Figueroa.

2007-06-01

223

Longitudinal Analysis of Somatic Cell Count for Joint Genetic Evaluation of Mastitis and Recovery Liability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Text: Better models of genetic evaluation for mastitis can be developed through longitudinal analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) which usually is used as a proxy for mastitis. Mastitis and recovery data with weekly observations of SCC were simulated for daughter groups of 60 and 240 per sire. Data were created to define cases: 1 if SCC was above a pre-specified boundary, else 0. A transition from below to above the boundary indicates probability to contract mastitis, and the other way indicates recovery. The MCMCglmm package was used to estimate breeding values. In the 60 daughters group, accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 for mastitis and 0.22 to 0.23 for recovery. Whereas, in the 240 daughters group accuracies ranged from 0.83 to 0.85 for mastitis and 0.57 to 0.65 for recovery. Reasonable accuracies can be achieved from SCC based estimates.

Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; de Koning, D J

224

Mastitis in dairy buffalo and cattle in Egypt due to Clostridium perfringens: prevalence, incidence, risk factors and costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Clostridium perfringens is recognised as an important cause of clostridial enteric diseases, there is only limited knowledge about the association of particular C. perfringens toxinotypes (types A to E) with mastitis in domestic animals. In this study, mastitis was detected in 213/623 (34.12%) and 8/83 (9.64%) of the quarter milk samples collected from cases of clinical mastitis in cows and buffalo, respectively. The micro-organism was isolated in an incidence of 16/357 (4.48%) of milk samples from cows and 1/25 (4.0%) of samples from buffalo. Infection in one quarter was the most typical situation found (83% in cows and 87% in buffalo). Clostridium perfringens infection was also correlated to the season, with the highest proportion of isolates being found during spring (10.71%) and winter (7.07%). Using the classical toxin neutralisation typing method, 17 strains, isolated from cow and buffalo milk, were identified as C. perfringens type A, and selected for molecular analysis. Polymerase chain reaction detected the oecpa gene while the P/cpb and e/etx genes went undetected. The authors believe that C. perfringens has the potential to produce disease on its own or to predispose the udder to disease caused by major mastitis and environmental pathogens. PMID:20462154

Osman, K M; El-Enbaawy, M I; Ezzeldeen, N A; Hussein, H M G

2009-12-01

225

Bovine Mastitis in Subtropical Dairy Farms, 2005-2009  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of Clinical Mastitis (CM and Subclinical Mastitis (SCM, isolation and identification of the major pathogens and test the antimicrobial resistance of milk bacterial isolates in subtropical dairy farms in Guangxi region (south of China between 2005 and 2009. The average percentages of blind quarter(s at cow and quarter level were 11.5 and 3.7%, respectively. The incidence of CM at cow and quarter level were 8.7 and 3.7%, respectively while that of SCM at cow and quarter level were 48.8 and 19%, respectively. A total of 105 and 56 microorganisms were isolated from the 109 CM and 67 SCM samples, respectively. The most common bacterial isolates from CM cases were S. aureus (29.5%, E. coli (25.7% and C. neoformans (16.2%, however in SCM they were S. aureus (32.1%, CNS (19.7% and St. agalactiae (17.9%. The antimicrobial sensitivity test indicated that all the antimicrobial agents (except for ampicillin showed lower proportion of resistant isolates of all the isolated bacteria (except for C. neoformans, among the employed antimicrobials, Ruyanxiao showed the lowest proportion of resistant isolates.

Huang Qin-Hua

2011-01-01

226

Klebsiella Species Associated with Bovine Mastitis in Newfoundland  

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Klebsiella spp. is a common cause of bovine mastitis, but information regarding its molecular epidemiology is lacking from many parts of the world. On using mass spectrometry and partial sequencing of the rpoB gene, it was found that over a one year study, K. variicola and Enterobacter cloacae were misidentified as K. pneumoniae in a small number of clinical mastitis (CM) cases from Newfoundland. Results suggest that the currently used standard biochemical/phenotypic tests lack the sensitivity required to accurately discriminate among the three mentioned Gram negative bacteria. In addition, a single strain of K. variicola was associated with CM from one farm in the study as demonstrated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR. To the best of our knowledge, K. variicola, which is normally found in the environment, has not been isolated previously from milk obtained from cows with CM. Therefore, it is possible that K. variicola was not detected in milk samples in the past due to the inability of standard tests to discriminate it from other Klebsiella species. PMID:25180510

Podder, Milka P.; Rogers, Laura; Daley, Peter K.; Keefe, Greg P.; Whitney, Hugh G.; Tahlan, Kapil

2014-01-01

227

Avaliação do impacto econômico da mastite em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros / Influence of the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram simular, analisar e quantificar o impacto econômico da frequência média anual de mastite clínica em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros. A pesquisa foi realizada por meio de simulação no sistema computacional CU$TO MASTITE, considerando rebanhos leiteiros com 1, 7 e 15% de m [...] astite clínica. Foram consideradas como prevenção as despesas com monitoramento (cultura e antibiograma, contagem de células somáticas no tanque e contagem de células somática individual), pré e pós dipping, vacinação, tratamento de vacas secas e manutenção de ordenhadeira. Como medida curativa considerou-se apenas tratamento de casos clínicos. O impacto da mastite foi estimado como sendo o total em perdas acrescido das despesas com prevenção e tratamento de casos clínicos. O aumento da frequência média anual de mastite influenciou diretamente no impacto econômico da mastite, evidenciando a necessidade de monitoramento da mastite clínica e subclínica e adoção de medidas preventivas para diminuir os prejuízos ocasionados por essa enfermidade. As despesas com tratamento preventivo representaram, no máximo, 19,7% do impacto econômico, o que demonstra vantagens em investir nessa prática, pois ela irá contribuir significativamente para reduzir o impacto econômico da mastite. Abstract in english The objectives of this research were to analyze and quantify the economic impact of the annual average frequency of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The research was carried through data simulation in the CU$TO MASTITE computational system, considering dairy cattle with 1, 7 and 15% of clinical ma [...] stitis. The expenditures considered as prevention included those of monitoring (culture and antibiogram, bulk tank somatic cell count and individual somatic cell count) pre- and post-dipping, vaccination, treatment of dry cows and maintenance of the milking machine. The measures considered as healing consisted only of the treatment of clinical cases. The impact of the mastitis was estimated as being the total in losses in addition to the expenditures with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. The increase of the annual average frequency of mastitis directly influenced the economic impact of the mastitis. The higher economic impact evidences the need for the monitoring of clinical and subclinical mastitis and the adoption of preventative measures to diminish the damages caused by this disease. The expenditures with preventive treatment represented, at maximum, 19.7% of the economic impact, which demonstrates the advantages of investing in this practice, since it contributes significantly toward reducing the economic impact of mastitis.

M.A., Lopes; F.A., Demeu; C.M.B.M. da, Rocha; G.M. da, Costa; A., Franco Neto; G. dos, Santos.

228

Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance and milk somatic cell score in French Lacaune dairy sheep  

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Full Text Available Abstract Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance was studied from two data sets. Firstly, risk factors for different mastitis traits, i.e. culling due to clinical or chronic mastitis and subclinical mastitis predicted from somatic cell count (SCC, were explored using data from 957 first lactation Lacaune ewes of an experimental INRA flock composed of two divergent lines for milk yield. Secondly, genetic parameters for SCC were estimated from 5 272 first lactation Lacaune ewes recorded among 38 flocks, using an animal model. In the experimental flock, the frequency of culling due to clinical mastitis (5% was lower than that of subclinical mastitis (10% predicted from SCC. Predicted subclinical mastitis was unfavourably associated with the milk yield level. Such an antagonism was not detected for clinical mastitis, which could result, to some extent, from its low frequency or from the limited amount of data. In practice, however, selection for mastitis resistance could be limited in a first approach to selection against subclinical mastitis using SCC. The heritability estimate of SCC was 0.15 for the lactation mean trait and varied from 0.04 to 0.12 from the first to the fifth test-day. The genetic correlation between lactation SCC and milk yield was slightly positive (0.15 but showed a strong evolution during lactation, i.e. from favourable (-0.48 to antagonistic (0.27. On a lactation basis, our results suggest that selection for mastitis resistance based on SCC is feasible. Patterns for genetic parameters within first lactation, however, require further confirmation and investigation.

Astruc Jean-Michel

2001-07-01

229

[Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].  

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The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures. PMID:1659859

Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

1991-01-01

230

Epidemiology of Subclinical Mastitis and Their Antibacterial Susceptibility in Smallholder Dairy Farms, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis at the beginning of the rainy season to define the factors associated with subclinical mastitis caused by various pathogens and to identify antibiotic susceptibility and resistance. About 42 farms from the Mae-On Dairy Cooperative participating in the Herd Health Management Program (HHPM, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University were included in the study. The study was conducted in June, 2008. From the protocol of HHPM, all farms had to collect a milk sample from each milking cow for measurement of Somatic Cell Counts (SCC once a month. At the cut-off point of SCC = 200,000 cells mL-1 the cows were deemed to haveintramammary infection. Cows in 3 groups were checked for subclinical mastitis in quarter levels using the California mastitis test within 2 weeks after SCC measurement. A cow with CMT score ?+1 for at least one quarter was identified as a subclinical mastitis cow and was included into the study. Milk samples from subclinical mastitis quarters were collected with aseptic techniques. The fisher exact ?2-tests were used to evaluate the association of pathogens with antibiotic resistant and the associated factors. The significant levels were defined at pC. bovis (28% and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS (28% were the main bacteria isolated in this study. Stap. aureus (8% and St. agalactiae (2% as contagious pathogens were at low levels. An occurrence of subclinical mastitis from S. aureus was significantly associated with subclinical mastitis status in which most S. aureus subclinical mastitis showed chronic status of subclinical mastitis. Most subclinical cases occurred during late lactation (54%. Occurrences of subclinical mastitis from Stap. aureus and C. bovis were associated with period of lactation (pSt. uberis, S. aureus and S. dysgalactaie. Subclinical mastitis with St. uberis was resistant to most antibiotics (pStap. aureus and CNS wassusceptible for most antibiotics.

Witaya Suriyasathaporn

2011-01-01

231

Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11 or subclinical (strain O46 mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46 or severe (O11 mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4% were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland.

Le Maréchal Caroline

2011-02-01

232

Corynebacterium accolens isolated from breast abscess: possible association with granulomatous mastitis.  

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Corynebacterium accolens is rarely isolated as a human pathogen. We describe here a case of C. accolens isolated from a breast abscess in a patient previously diagnosed with granulomatous mastitis. The possible association of Corynebacterium accolens and granulomatous mastitis in this patient is discussed. PMID:17344355

Ang, Lei M N; Brown, Hamish

2007-05-01

233

Corynebacterium accolens Isolated from Breast Abscess: Possible Association with Granulomatous Mastitis?  

Science.gov (United States)

Corynebacterium accolens is rarely isolated as a human pathogen. We describe here a case of C. accolens isolated from a breast abscess in a patient previously diagnosed with granulomatous mastitis. The possible association of Corynebacterium accolens and granulomatous mastitis in this patient is discussed. PMID:17344355

Ang, Lei M. N.; Brown, Hamish

2007-01-01

234

Frequência de Staphylococcus aureus em casos de mastite bovina subclínica, na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul / Frequency of staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mastite bovina é uma doença importante na exploração leiteira, não apenas pelas perdas econômicas diretas que promove, mas também pelas perdas indiretas e o potencial risco à saúde pública. Dentre as principais causas de infecções intramamárias, destacam-se as bactérias do gênero Staphylococcus sp [...] p., sendo que Staphylococcus aureus é o agente etiológico predominante em mastite subclínica. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar a frequência de mastite subclínica em oito rebanhos localizados na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) e a relação da enfermidade com a presença de S. aureus. Adicionalmente, pesquisou-se a presença de S. intermedius e S. hyicus nas amostras de leite obtidas. Para identificação da doença, utilizou-se o California Mastitis Test (CMT). A identificação da espécie de Staphylococcus spp. foi feita em meio de cultura ágar Baird-Parker, com posterior confirmação das colônias suspeitas em coloração de gram, prova de catalase, pesquisa de coagulase livre e pesquisa de termonuclease. A mastite subclínica foi constatada em 53,6% dos animais testados. A presença de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva foi identificada em 12,6% dos animais com mastite subclínica. Nesses mesmos animais, a bactéria identificada como S. aureus foi o agente etiológico presente em 17,6% dos casos. Adicionalmente, pode-se perceber que, dentre o grupo identificado como coagulase positiva, 85,7% corresponderam a S. aureus, enquanto 8,5% mostraram características bioquímicas compatíveis com S. intermedius e 5,8% foram consideradas S. hyicus. Abstract in english Bovine mastitis is an important disease in dairy farming, not only by promoting direct economic losses, but also for indirect losses and the potential risk to public health. The main causes of intramammary infections include the bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus being [...] the predominant etiologic agent in subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of subclinical mastitis in eight herds from southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and the relationship of the disease with the presence of S. aureus. In addition, we checked for the presence of S. intermedius and S. hyicus in the milk samples obtained. For identification of the disease, we used the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Identification of Staphylococcus spp. species was made in Barid-Parker agar culture medium, with subsequent confirmation of suspected colonies by way of Gram stain and catalase test along with free-coagulase and thermonuclease research. Subclinical mastitis was identified in 53.6% of animals tested. The presence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was identified in 12.6% of animals with subclinical mastitis. In these same animals, bacteria identified as S. aureus were the etiologic agent present in 17.6% of cases. Additionally, it was revealed that among the group identified as coagulase positive, 85.7% corresponded to S. aureus, while 8.5% had biochemical characteristics consistent with S. intermedius and 5.8% were considered S. hyicus.

F.S., Bandeira; T., Picoli; J.L., Zani; W.P. da, Silva; G., Fischer.

2013-03-01

235

Treatment of mastitis during lactation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials.

Pyörälä S

2009-04-01

236

Effects of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and other organisms on the probability of conception in New York State Holstein dairy cows.  

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The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of different types of clinical mastitis (CM) on the probability of conception in New York State Holstein cows. Data were available on 55,372 artificial inseminations (AI) in 23,695 lactations from 14,148 cows in 7 herds. We used generalized linear mixed models to model whether or not a cow conceived after a particular AI. Independent variables included AI number (first, second, third, fourth), parity, season when AI occurred, farm, type of CM (due to gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, or other organisms) in the 6 wk before and after an AI, and occurrence of other diseases. Older cows were less likely to conceive. Inseminations occurring in the summer were least likely to be successful. Retained placenta decreased the probability of conception. Conception was also less likely with each successive AI. The probability of conception associated with the first AI was 0.29. The probability of conception decreased to 0.26, 0.25, and 0.24 for the second, third, and fourth AI, respectively. Clinical mastitis occurring any time between 14 d before until 35 d after an AI was associated with a lower probability of conception; the greatest effect was an 80% reduction associated with gram-negative CM occurring in the week after AI. In general, CM due to gram-negative bacteria had a more detrimental effect on probability of conception than did CM caused by gram-positive bacteria or other organisms. Furthermore, CM had more effect on probability of conception immediately around the time of AI. Additional information about CM (i.e., its timing with respect to AI, and whether the causative agent is gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, or other organisms) is valuable to dairy personnel in determining why some cows are unable to conceive in a timely manner. These findings are also beneficial for the management of mastitic cows (especially those with gram-negative CM) when mastitis occurs close to AI. PMID:20338432

Hertl, J A; Gröhn, Y T; Leach, J D G; Bar, D; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Rauch, B J; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Schukken, Y H

2010-04-01

237

SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES IN ATTOCK DISTRICT OF PUNJAB (PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Mastitis is the most costly disease of dairy industry throughout the world. Sub-clinical mastitis is not observed by the farmers but results in hidden losses in terms of production. The present study was conducted to determine the quarter wise and animal wise prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis in buffaloes in Attock district of Punjab, Pakistan. Milk samples were collected from apparently mastitis free 1200 quarters of 300 buffaloes. The samples were subjected to Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. The overall quarter wise prevalence was 58.75 percent, while animal wise prevalence was 77.98 percent. The maximum quarter wise prevalence was found to be 16.66 percent in Tehsil Jand, followed by 13.33, 11.67 and 13.33 percent in the tehsils Attock, Pindighaib, and Fateh Jang, respectively. The maximum animal wise prevalence was 82.61 percent in Tehsil Pindighaib, followed by 73.33, 80.00 and 76.00 percent in the tehsils Attock, Jand and Fateh Jang, respectively.

H. A. Bachaya, Z. Iqbal1, G. Muhammad2, A. Yousaf2 and H. M. Ali3

2005-07-01

238

Efeito da suplementação de selênio e vitamina E sobre a incidência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça holandesa Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on incidence of clinical mastitis in Holstein cows  

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Full Text Available Oitenta e quatro vacas da raça holandesa foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos (grupos: o grupo A recebeu 5mg Se/dia, o B recebeu 1000 UI vit. E/dia, o C 5mg Se + 1000 UI vit. E/dia e o D foi usado como controle. A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas quinzenalmente para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de Se e de vit. E. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, ao parto, aos 30 e aos 60 dias após o parto para determinação dos níveis de Se no soro sangüíneo das vacas. O teste de Tamis foi realizado semanalmente para detecção dos casos clínicos de mastite e iniciado logo após o parto, prolongando-se até a 12ª semana da lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos de Se superiores (PEighty four Holstein cows were randomly allotted to four groups: group A was supplemented with 5mg Se/day, group B with 1000 IU vitamin E/day, group C with 5mg Se/day+1000 IU vitamin E/day and D was used as a control. The supplementation period started 30 days prior to probable parturition date and ended at parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical, selenium and vitamin E analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, at parturition, and at 30 and 60 days after parturition to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test was weekly done to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration in comparison to the control group (P<0.05. The vitamin E (P<0.05 as well as selenium supplementation (P<0.08 decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis during the first 12 weeks of the lactation period.

J.J. Paschoal

2003-06-01

239

Tuberculous Mastitis Presenting as Breast Abscess  

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Full Text Available Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in its diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination with aspiration or surgical drainage are usually associated with an excellent outcome.

Leo Francis Tauro

2011-01-01

240

Diabetic Lymphocytic Mastitis: A Clinico-Imaging Mimicker of Malignancy [Clinico-Pathologic Review  

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Full Text Available The clinical and imaging appearance of diabetic lymphocytic mastitis and stromal fibrosis very much resembles a malignant lesion. These clinico-imaging findings are not specific and often create doubts about possibility of underlying malignancy ultimately leading to biopsy. Accurate diagnosis can reduce patient`s anxiety and prevent unnecessary surgery as these lesions are known to recur. Therefore, we present a classic case of this entity for the benefit of one and all. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 950-954

Smita B. Sankaye

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Mastitis bovina por Prototheca zopfii: primer aislamiento en Chile Bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: first isolation in Chile  

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Full Text Available El género Prototheca está formado por microalgas unicelulares sin clorofila, ampliamente distribuidas en el medio ambiente, algunas de las cuales pueden ser patógenas para el hombre y animales. Sin embargo, no existen antecedentes bibliográficos previos sobre la existencia de estas algas patógenas para el hombre y animales en Chile. Se examinó bacteriológicamente un total de 200 muestras de leche provenientes de 150 vacas lecheras con mastitis clínica, las cuales fueron sembradas en medio PIM modificado, selectivo para Prototheca. Se aisló Prototheca spp. en dos ocasiones consecutivas de una misma vaca muestreada con un intervalo de dos meses. El examen microscópico directo de las muestras de leche en fresco reveló la presencia células características de Prototheca spp. Mediante asimilación de fuentes de carbono se identificó la especie como P. zopfii, constituyendo el primer aislamiento de este agente a partir de un cuadro de mastitis clínica bovina en Chile. Este hallazgo es relevante para los programas de control de mastitis bovina en los rebaños lecheros ya que es un organismo poco frecuente y desconocido que no responde a los tratamientos antibióticos convencionales.The genus Prototheca includes unicellular achlorophyllous microalgae widely distributed in the environment, some of which could be pathogenic for human and animals. However, there is no previous report regarding these pathogenic microalgae causing infections in man or animals in Chile. Two-hundred milk samples collected from 150 dairy cows with clinical mastitis were inoculated onto PIM modified medium. Prototheca spp was isolated on two consecutive occasions from one cow sampled two months apart. Direct microscopic examination of wet smears made from milk samples revealed typical Prototheca cells. Biochemical tests based on carbon source assimilation identified the organism as Prototheca zopfii. This finding represents the first isolation of this environmental alga from bovine mastitis in Chile. This could be of great importance for mastitis control programs in dairy herds as Prototheca is an uncommon mastitis pathogen that does not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

L Zaror

2011-01-01

242

Enzyme activity and acute phase proteins in milk utilized as indicators of acute clinical E. coli LPS-induced mastitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of non-visual and on-line monitoring of udder health increases as the contact between humans and animals decreases, for example, in robotic milking systems. Several indicator systems have been introduced commercially, and a number of techniques are currently in use. This study describes the kinetics of seven indigenous milk parameters for monitoring udder inflammation in an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin)-induced mastitis model. Proportional milk from LPS-infused quarters was compared with milk from parallel quarters, which were placebo-treated with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. Somatic cell counts (SCCs), the acute phase proteins (APP), that is, milk amyloid A (MAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), and the enzymes N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were measured at fixed intervals during the period from -2 to +5 days after LPS and NaCl infusions. All parameters responded significantly faster and were more pronounced to the LPS infusions compared with the NaCl infusions. All parameters were elevated in the proportional milk collected at the first milking 7 h after infusion and developed a monophasic response, except Hp and MAA that developed biphasic response. SCC, LDH, NAGase and Hp peaked at 21 h followed by AP, AcP and MAA peaking at 31 h with the highest fold changes seen for MAA (23 780×), LDH (126×), NAGase (50×) and Hp (16×). In the recovery phase, AP, AcP and Hp reached base levels first, at 117 h, whereas LDH, NAGase and MAA remained elevated following the pattern of SCC. Minor increases of the milk parameters were also seen in the neighboring (healthy) quarters. Distinction between inflamed and healthy quarters was possible for all the parameters, but only for a limited time frame for AP and AcP. Hence, when tested in an LPS mastitis model, the enzymes LDH, NAGase and AP in several aspects performed equally with SCC and APP as inflammatory milk indicators of mastitis. Furthermore, these enzymes appear potent in the assessment of a valuable time sequence of inflammation, a necessary ingredient in modeling of programs in in-line surveillance systems.

Larsen, Torben; RØntved, Christine M.

2010-01-01

243

Using Disguised Clinical Case Material  

Science.gov (United States)

When, why, and how clinicians decide to write about clients are ethical concerns. There are risks and potential clinical ramifications as well as responsibilities for how these decisions are made. On the basis of 141 interviews with psychoanalysts who have published in 3 major national and international psychoanalytic journals, the author explores…

Kantrowitz, Judy L.

2010-01-01

244

Congenital ichthyosis: interesting clinical case  

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The research goal is to explore the clinical anamnestic features of congenital ichthyosis in newborns, to analyze the perinatal period for this child and to draw attention to one of the problems in neonatology — non-infectious diseases in newborns and skin care features on modified skin.

Dukhonina ?.?.; Chernenkov Yu.V.; Panina O.S.; Lavrova D.B.; Lyubimova M.A.

2013-01-01

245

Congenital ichthyosis: interesting clinical case  

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Full Text Available The research goal is to explore the clinical anamnestic features of congenital ichthyosis in newborns, to analyze the perinatal period for this child and to draw attention to one of the problems in neonatology — non-infectious diseases in newborns and skin care features on modified skin.

Dukhonina ?.?.

2013-06-01

246

[Primary hyperaldosteronism--4 clinical cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe four cases of primary hyperaldosteronism whose initial presentation was a moderate hypertension. Serum potassium and plasmatic aldosterone values were high although plasmatic renin levels were normal. The captopril test (Lyons version), abdominal CT and iodocholesterol (NP-59) scan proved useful to exclude essential hypertension. A good therapeutical results was achieved in all cases by unilateral adrenalectomy. After surgery, diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by histological studies. At one year follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic, with no hypertension without therapeutic and the serum potassium and plasmatic aldosterone and renin values were normal. PMID:8117459

Nuno, L; Ribeiro, H; Nunes, V; Linder, J; Pereira, D; Carvalho, E; Rabaçal, C; Gouveia, R; Santos, A R; Afonso, J S

1993-12-01

247

Testing the efficiency of different treatments of subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in cows during the dry period  

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Full Text Available Mastitis is still the most common disorder which is present in diary cows. Changes in genetics, nutrition and milking equipment affect the incidence of subclinical and clinical forms of mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of subclinical and clinical forms of mastitis. In the acute form it can cause malignant mastitis in the form of granulomatous and necrotic changes. Chronic forms of staphylococcal mastitis often develop as subclinical changes. Halting the entrance, the colonization and replication of the pathogen into the udder impose the constant need for regular milk controls and preventive and therapeutic measures in order to decrease the incidence of mastitis. A modern approach in the eradication and control of mastitis is immunoprophilaxis, aimed towards the innovation of new vaccines against the most common causes of mastitis. In this study we have applied the vaccine prepared with S. aureus isolated from milk taken from the experimental farm and the referent capsular strain. The vaccine was applied twice two months before calving in a dose of 5mL. The vaccine contained inactivated S. aureus JR3 bacterial cells in a quantity of 1 x 1010 cfu/mL and 5 mg SM capsule S. aureus 2286 strain. After vaccination of cows in late pregnancy, subclinical mastitis appears at a smaller frequency compared to the three experimental groups. To the first group of cows the antibiotic was applied intramammary, to the second group antibiotics were applied parenterally and intramammary and the third group served as the untreated control.

Vakanjac Slobodanka

2010-01-01

248

BACTERIOLOGY OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES IN TEHSIL SAMUNDRI OF DISTRICT FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Two hundred fore-milk samples collected from 200 mastitis quarters of buffaloes (clinically mastitis quarters n = 17, sub-clinically mastitis quarters n = 183 were subjected to microbiological examination. The diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis was based on the results of Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. A total of 214 isolates of 13 different microbial species were recovered. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently recovered bacterial species accounting for 49.53% of all the isolates, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23.83%, Staphylococcus hyicus (8.88%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.54%, Bacillus spp. (3.74%, Staphylococcus hominis (1.40%, Escherichia coli (1.40%, Staphylococcus xylosus (0.93%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (0.93% and Corynebacterial spp. (0.93%. Yeast and prototheca each accounted for 0.47 percent of isolates. Two (0.93% isolates were identified as coagulase negative staphylococci species. In view of preponderance of the contagious pathogens (S. aureus, Str. agalactiae, it is recommended that mastitis control in the area of study should be based on contagious mastitis control practice.

L. ALI, G. MUHAMMAD, M. ARSHAD1, M. SAQIB AND I. J. HASSAN2

2008-01-01

249

Antimicrobial susceptibility of corynebacteria isolated from ewe's mastitis.  

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The antimicrobial susceptibility of 50 coryneform isolates from subclinical mastitis in sheep was evaluated. Arcanobacterium pyogenes (five isolates) had a susceptibility pattern distinct from the Corynebacterium species tested. The Corynebacterium isolates could be divided in two groups according to the MIC values for ciprofloxacin. Their antimicrobial susceptibility was usually unpredictable and consequently antimicrobial susceptibility tests are necessary for clinical and epidemiological purposes. PMID:11738347

Fernández, E P; Vela, A I; Las Heras, A; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F; Moreno, M A

2001-12-01

250

Quantifying Degree of Mastitis from Common Trends in a Panel of Indicators for Mastitis in Dairy Cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper has 2 objectives. First, it argues that it is beneficial to regard degree of infection with respect to mastitis as a latent quantity varying continuously from 0 (truly healthy) to 1 (full-blown clinical mastitis). This quantity is denoted as degree of infection (DOI). The DOI is based on extracting common characteristics from a panel of indicators measured repeatedly over time. The indicators used in this paper are electrical conductivity (EC), somatic cell count (SCC), and the immune response related enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Second, this paper presents a statistical model for such data and a corresponding method for estimating the DOI from a panel of indicators. An empirical proof of concept is provided. Using DOI, there was a significant difference between the DOI of mastitic and healthy control cows beginning 5 d before the mastitic cows were treated for mastitis. Udgivelsesdato: February

HØjsgaard, S; Friggens, N C

2010-01-01

251

Neonatal sepsis: the clinical case  

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Full Text Available In Russia there are no unified approved criteria for diagnosing sepsis, and this fact complicating registration and statistical recording of its development and spread. Sepsis registration in neonatology is more difficult. The infection as a death-causing factor in full-terms newborns has been increasing for the last 10 years, even though there is the registration system, and its size is 0,51-0,60 per 1000 newborns. Early neonatal sepsis is characterized by intrauterine particularly intranatal ascending, contact or hematogenous infecting. We have analyzed the course of antenatal, intra-natal and neonatal periods in babies with congenital sepsis. To diagnose neonatal sepsis in clinical presentation of the disease three groups of criteria directly correlating with sepsis have been revealed.

Lyubimova ?.?.

2013-03-01

252

Risk factors for peripartum mastitis in pasture-grazed dairy heifers.  

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A longitudinal observational field study was conducted using 708 heifers in 30 spring-calving dairy herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand. The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors for subclinical and clinical mastitis (CM) in the peripartum period using path analysis methods and to find the factors most important at the population level as a basis for potential control programs. Body condition and udder hygiene scores, blood samples, and quarter mammary secretion samples for bacteriology were collected approximately 3 wk before the planned start of the seasonal calving period and again within 5 d following calving. Additionally, milk samples were collected from quarters diagnosed with CM within 14 d of calving. Significant risk factors for subclinical mastitis postcalving were precalving subclinical mastitis (3.32 incidence risk ratio; IRR), low minimum teat height above the ground (1.32 IRR), and unhygienic udder postcalving (1.32 IRR). Significant risk factors for clinical mastitis postcalving were precalving subclinical mastitis (2.14 IRR), Friesian breed (1.94 IRR), low minimum teat height above the ground (2.05 IRR), udder edema (1.81 IRR), and low postcalving nonesterified fatty acid serum concentration (1.55 IRR). Control of precalving subclinical mastitis and udder edema by producers, and enhancement of breed immunity by geneticists were important factors at a population level, and hence, are likely the most rewarding areas to target in any heifer mastitis management program. PMID:17699035

Compton, C W R; Heuer, C; Parker, K; McDougall, S

2007-09-01

253

Status of mastitis as an emerging disease in improved and periurban dairy farms in India.  

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While reviewing present status of mastitis in India, results of investigations from periurban dairy farms on epidemiological, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, bacterial isolation, in vitro drug sensitivity, and treatment of subclinical mastitis have been presented. Mastitis, on account of its causing serious wastage and undesirable milk quality, is emerging as a major challenge among the others (like breeding improvement, nutrition management, control of infectious, tick-borne, blood, and internal parasitic diseases) in dairy development of tropics. Subclinical mastitis was found more important in India (varying from 10-50% in cows and 5-20% in buffaloes) than clinical mastitis (1-10%). The incidence was highest in Purebred Holsteins and Jerseys and lowest in local cattle and buffaloes. An investigation on 250 animals from periurban farms indicated that the monsoon season was more prone to subclinical mastitis than summer or winter, prevalence increased with higher lactation number and animals in 4th-5th month of lactation were found more susceptible (59.49%), hind quarters were found more affected (56.52%) than fore quarters (43.47%). The factors like herd size, agro climatic conditions of the region, variations in sociocultural practices, milk marketing, literacy level of the animal owner, system of feeding, and management were found important affecting the incidence of subclinical mastitis. Comparison of efficacy of different diagnostic techniques for subclinical mastitis, such as modified California mastitis test (MCMT), bromo thymol blue (BTB), modified whiteside test, trypsin inhibition test, milk pH, and electric conductivity indicated MCMT to be most sensitive (95.16%) and specific (98.02%) test. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that most of the bacterial strains (gram positive, gram negative, and mixed) isolated from subclinical mastitis milk samples, were highly sensitive to enrofloxacin 53.91%, least sensitive to oxytetracycline 17.39% and ampicillin 7.83%, and resistant to streptomycin. The therapy with enrofloxacin and nimesulide was found more efficacious (92.30%) in treating subclinical mastitis cows. It was concluded that consideration of socioecological factors for mastitis control in periurban area would help to reduce the cost of mastitis control in clean milk production. PMID:17135496

Joshi, Sachin; Gokhale, Suresh

2006-10-01

254

Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from the estimated effect: creating stop gain/loss, affecting splice site or RNA structure (RNAsnp), predicted disruptiveness (SIFT), occurring in miRNA or miRNA target site, or in UTR or ncSNP overlapping with a GERP element. Their effects on mastitis traits were estimated in new validation samples from Finnish Ayrshire (SCC, clinical mastitis, udder conformation) and Valdostana (SCC, milk bacteriological results). Furthermore, association analysis across the regions was performed with a linear mixed model using imputed sequence for 845 Danish Red sires with nine mastitis phenotypes. Associations in five regions (on BTA3, BTA6, BTA8, BTA19, and BTA27) agreed across the breeds, but no identical associated SNPs were detected. Higher power (imputation to bigger population samples) will be needed to confirm results. On BTA6 the results indicate several QTL within a 5 Mb region. The results provide a basis for functional studies of promising candidates. The information can also be used for prior weighting of genomic segments in genomic selection

Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A

255

Herd-level association between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates on Canadian dairy farms.  

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Surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance is needed to manage antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. In this study, data were collected on antimicrobial use and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (n=562), isolated from intramammary infections and (sub)clinical mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Dairy producers were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles, and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify antimicrobial use. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate system (TREK Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH), containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level risk factors of penicillin, ampicillin, pirlimycin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine resistance in Staph. aureus isolates. Intramammary administration of the penicillin-novobiocin combination for dry cow therapy was associated with penicillin and ampicillin resistance [odds ratio (OR): 2.17 and 3.10, respectively]. Systemic administration of penicillin was associated with penicillin resistance (OR: 1.63). Intramammary administration of pirlimycin for lactating cow mastitis treatment was associated with pirlimycin resistance as well (OR: 2.07). Average herd parity was associated with ampicillin and tetracycline resistance (OR: 3.88 and 0.02, respectively). Average herd size was also associated with tetracycline resistance (OR: 1.02). Dairy herds in the Maritime region had higher odds of penicillin and lower odds of ampicillin resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 2.18 and 0.19, respectively). Alberta dairy herds had lower odds of ampicillin and sulfadimethoxine resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 0.04 and 0.08, respectively). Ontario dairy herds had lower odds of tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 0.05 and 0.33, respectively). Herd-level use of certain antimicrobials administered for mastitis treatment and control, such as intramammary penicillin and pirlimycin as well as systemically administered penicillin and florfenicol, was positively associated with antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis pathogens in the field conditions. Differences in antimicrobial resistance outcomes across 4 regions of Canada were observed. PMID:22459839

Saini, V; McClure, J T; Scholl, D T; DeVries, T J; Barkema, H W

2012-04-01

256

Effect of lactation counselling on subclinical mastitis among Bangladeshi women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subclinical mastitis, defined as raised milk sodium/potassium (Na/K) in the absence of clinical symptoms, is associated with poor infant weight gain and increased risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Similarly to clinical mastitis, subclinical mastitis appears to have multiple causes, one being poor lactation practice. We investigated whether a single session of lactation counselling around the time of delivery could decrease subclinical mastitis among women in rural Bangladesh. The counselling messages included the importance of giving colostrum, exclusive breastfeeding, feeding on demand and how to achieve good positioning and attachment. Women who had delivered prior to our instituting the counselling intervention (mean 1 month) constituted the uncounselled group. At 1 month postpartum, sodium and potassium were measured in spot milk samples from each breast by flame photometry and interleukin-8 (IL8) by ELISA. Geometric mean Na/K ratios and the proportion of milk samples with raised Na/K ratio were significantly (p 0.6] than in the non-counselled group [mean 0.49, 95% CI 0.45-0.53, n = 127; 25% Na/K ratio > 0.6]. Milk IL8 concentration did not differ between groups. The results show that among Bangladeshi women a simple lactation counselling intervention could improve lactation practice in ways likely to improve infant health. PMID:11926056

Flores, Maria; Filteau, Suzanne

2002-03-01

257

THE INNATE IMMUNITY IN BOVINE MASTITIS: THE ROLE OF PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTORS  

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Full Text Available Mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy farmers and industry, which are mainly caused by the entry of bacteria to the teat canal. Shortly after the entry of the invading bacteria, the innate immunity recognizes the invading pathogen through pattern recognition receptors and initiates the inflammatory response necessary to eliminate the invading bacteria. This initial inflammatory response releases cytokines and chemoattractants for the rapid and massive influx of neutrophils from the blood to the site of infection which form the first line of cellular defense against bacteria This article reviewed the role of the most recent knowledge regarding the innate immunity in bovine mastitis focusing in the two major mastitis pathogens: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus the S. aureus appears to mostly circumvent the host immune response, as the Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs signaling pathways. The Intramammary Infections (IMIs by this bacteria result in a very moderate host response with minimal observable innate immune response, which are related to well-known ability to this pathogen to establish chronic IMI. Otherwise, E. coli elicits a strong and earlier response, mainly through TLR4, that is associated with the severity of the mastitis and the clinical manifestation commonly observed in dairy cows infected with this pathogen. Suboptimal and dysfunctional mammary defenses may contribute to the development of severe acute inflammation or chronic mastitis that adversely affects the milk production and quality. Thus, a better understanding of mastitis pathogen interaction to the host may be useful for future control of mastitis.

Fernando Nogueira de Souza

2012-01-01

258

Sarcoidosis – A Clinical Case with Neuropsychiatric Presentation  

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Full Text Available Neurosarcoidosis can present neuropsychiatric manifestations, being a rare form of presentation of sarcoidosis, with a possible large spectrum of clinical manifestations, making the diagnosis more difficult. Neuroimage exams are an essential tool in detecting central nervous system (CNS lesions, but definitive diagnosis can only be established after biopsy and anatomopathological examination. The authors present a clinical case of neurosarcoidosis, where the first manifestations of the disease were tonic-clonic seizures and psychotic episode.

Ana Margarida Baptista

2013-11-01

259

Sarcoidosis – A Clinical Case with Neuropsychiatric Presentation  

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Full Text Available Neurosarcoidosis can present neuropsychiatric manifestations, being a rare form of presentation of sarcoidosis, with a possible large spectrum of clinical manifestations, making the diagnosis more difficult. Neuroimage exams are an essential tool in detecting central nervous system (CNS lesions, but definitive diagnosis can only be established after biopsy and anatomopathological examination. The authors present a clinical case of neurosarcoidosis, where the first manifestations of the disease were tonic-clonic seizures and psychotic episode.

Ana Margarida Baptista

2012-06-01

260

Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123  

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Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + ?-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + ?-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, an...

Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

 The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Also groups of pathogens were investigated, Gram-negative v. Gram-positive and contagious v. environmental pathogens. Data from 168 158 Danish Holstein cows calving first time between 1998 and 2006 were used in the analyses. Variances and covariances were estimated using uni- and bivariate threshold models via Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of heritabilities of pathogen-specific mastitis were lower than the heritability of unspecific mastitis, ranging from 0.035 to 0.076 for S. aureus and S. uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations among the pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteristics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study should be considered as different traits. Genetic evaluation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance may be beneficial despite lower heritabilities than unspecific mastitis because a pathogen-specific mastitis trait is a direct measure of an udder infection, and because the cost of a mastitis case caused by different pathogens has been shown to differ greatly. Sampling bias may be present because there were not pathogen information on all mastitis treatments and because some farms do not record pathogen information. Therefore, improved recording of pathogen information and mastitis treatments in general is critical for a successful genetic evaluation of udder health. Also, economic values have to be specified for each pathogen-specific trait separately

SØrensen, L P; Madsen, P

2009-01-01

262

Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Also groups of pathogens were investigated, Gram-negative v. Gram-positive and contagious v. environmental pathogens. Data from 168 158 Danish Holstein cows calving first time between 1998 and 2006 were used in the analyses. Variances and covariances were estimated using uni- and bivariate treshold models via Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of heritabilities of pathogen-specific mastitis were lower than the heritability of unspecific mastitis, ranging from 0.035 to 0.076 for S. aureus and S. uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations amongthe pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteritics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study should be considered as different traits. Genetic evaluation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance may be beneficial despite lower heritabilities than unspecific mastitis because a pathogen-specific mastitis trait is a direct measure of an udder infection, and because the cost of a mastitis case caused by different pathogens has been shown to differ greatly. Sampling bias may be present because there were not pathogen information on all mastitis treatments and because some farms do not record pathogen information. Therefore, improved recording of pathogen information and mastitis treatment sin general is critical for a successful genetic evaluation of udder health. Also, economic values have to be specified for each pathogen-specific trait separately.

SØrensen, Lars Peter; Madsen, P.

2009-01-01

263

Tylosin susceptibility of staphylococci from bovine mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 ?g tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 ?g disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ? 256 ?g/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 ?g disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ? 256 ?g/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 ?g/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. PMID:24461550

Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

2014-07-16

264

Marketing and clinical trials: a case study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. Results The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in – hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. Conclusion The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.

Entwistle Vikki A

2007-11-01

265

Natural variation in biomarkers indicating mastitis in healthy cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dairy herds are expanding and, with increasing numbers of animals in each herd, there is a need for automatic recording of indicators in milk in order to detect mastitis, inflammation of the udder. A number of biomarkers for mastitis have been suggested over the years. Mastitis usually occurs in one of the four udder quarters and since it is now possible to milk each udder quarter separately in automated milking systems, it is important to evaluate the normal variation in the biomarkers at udder quarter level. This study evaluated the normal variations between milkings for some biomarkers in clinically healthy cows, determined by repeated somatic cell count and bacteriological analysis. The biomarkers studied were serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), parameters that have been suggested as markers for mastitis. Ten cows were monitored on 42 consecutive milking occasions through collection of udder quarter milksamples and representative cow composite milk samples, giving a total of 2100 individual milk samples. Each cow had its individual profile for the concentrations and variations in the parameters analysed. Although there was relatively large variation between cows for the biomarkers analysed, the variation between milkings in clinically healthy quarters within cows was often below 10%. The biomarker with the lowest variation in this study was LDH. The results suggest that comparing quarters within an individual cow can identify deviations from the natural variations between milkings. This could be a valuable tool instead of, or in combination with, a cut-off value for each parameter in order to detect changes in the milk indicating mastitis.

Åkerstedt, Maria; Forsbäck, Linda

2010-01-01

266

Natural variation in biomarkers indicating mastitis in healthy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy herds are expanding and, with increasing numbers of animals in each herd, there is a need for automatic recording of indicators in milk in order to detect mastitis, inflammation of the udder. A number of biomarkers for mastitis have been suggested over the years. Mastitis usually occurs in one of the four udder quarters and since it is now possible to milk each udder quarter separately in automated milking systems, it is important to evaluate the normal variation in the biomarkers at udder quarter level. This study evaluated the normal variations between milkings for some biomarkers in clinically healthy cows, determined by repeated somatic cell count and bacteriological analysis. The biomarkers studied were serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), parameters that have been suggested as markers for mastitis. Ten cows were monitored on 42 consecutive milking occasions through collection of udder quarter milk samples and representative cow composite milk samples, giving a total of 2100 individual milk samples. Each cow had its individual profile for the concentrations and variations in the parameters analysed. Although there was relatively large variation between cows for the biomarkers analysed, the variation between milkings in clinically healthy quarters within cows was often below 10%. The biomarker with the lowest variation in this study was LDH. The results suggest that comparing quarters within an individual cow can identify deviations from the natural variations between milkings. This could be a valuable tool instead of, or in combination with, a cut-off value for each parameter in order to detect changes in the milk indicating mastitis. PMID:21134311

Akerstedt, Maria; Forsbäck, Linda; Larsen, Torben; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin

2011-02-01

267

Application of the support vector machine to predict subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

Mammadova, Nazira; Keskin, Ismail

2013-01-01

268

Mastitis in Camelus dromedarius in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The correlation between camels' milk samples collected from abnormal inflamed udders and samples positive in the California Mastitis Test (CMT) was +0.803 (P less than 0.01). The bacterial count ranges of milk samples differed significantly (P less than 0.05) for those with a negative CMT and those with a positive CMT. Infection with many but not all bacterial species was associated with positive CMT results. The highest percentage of camel milk samples was included in the bacterial count range of 3.0 x 10(2) to 3.0 x 10(3) cfu/ml rather than in the greater than 3.0 x 10(3) cfu/ml range for most of the bacterial species. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. followed by eight other flora. Chloramphenicol was the most effective antimicrobial agent of six tested against 118 bacterial isolates. Preliminary observations are made on chemotherapy of mastitis cases in camels. PMID:4060241

Barbour, E K; Nabbut, N H; Frerichs, W M; Al-Nakhli, H M; Al-Mukayel, A A

1985-08-01

269

Floating Vitreous Cyst: Two Clinical Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To report two cases of solitary unilateral vitreous cyst. Methods A complete ocular examination, fundus photography, B-scan ultrasound and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed in both patients. Results The first patient (a 39-year-old man) presented with transient blurred vision in the right eye. The second patient (a 78-year-old man) reported transient blurred vision in the right eye when changing head position. He was referred to the Eye Hospital because of vitreomacular traction in the other eye. After examination, a diagnosis of vitreous cyst was made in both cases. Conclusions Vitreous cysts are rare clinical findings. They can occur in normal eyes or in eyes with certain ocular pathologies. When a cyst floats into the visual axis area, it can disturb visual function; therefore, patients usually report transient blurring of vision. A prompt clinical examination is necessary for differentiating this rare condition. PMID:24348410

Lavric, Alenka; Urbancic, Mojca

2013-01-01

270

Epidemiological Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy cows in Assiut Governorate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this investigation, some epidemiological studies were run on subclinical mastitis for totally 350 dairy cows of different breeds, ages and distributed in different villages in Assiut governorate, Assiut, Egypt, along a whole year (during the period from June 2006 till July 2007 through field screening surveys by using of the California mastitis test (CMT for each quarter milk sample followed by bacteriological examination to identify the major causative agents of intramammary infection (IMI. The dairy cows were differed from the breed point of view as 230 Holstein Friesian breed and 120 native breed. Also, they were differed from the age point of view as a group of 95 cows aged from 2 to 4 years old and another group of 255 cow aged from 5 to 8 years old. All dairy cows were apparently healthy with clinically sound udder secreting apparently normal milk. All the cows lived nearly under the same conditions of breeding from the habitat, hygiene and feeding systems. The obtained results revealed that 67 cows (19.14% had 80 infected quarters (5.71%. It was found that the most frequently major causative agents isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli from the positive CMT samples with prevalence 52.5, 31.25 and 16.25%, respectively. With studying the breed factor, it was found Friesian breed was sensitive towards infection (20.43% at the cow level and 6.09% at the quarter level than of native breed (16.67% at the cow level and 5% at the quarter level. It was also noticed that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in hot weather as during summer (9.14% at the cow level and 2.64% at the quarter level and during spring (4.86% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level was higher than in cold weather as during winter (2% at the cow level and 0.64% at the quarter level and during autumn (3.14% at the cow level and 1.07% at the quarter level. In relation to age susceptibility, 5-8 years old cows (15.43% at the cow level and 4.36% at the quarter level were susceptible than those of 2-4 years (3.71% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level. The degree of quarter attack according to positive CMT was varied from 35 quarters (2.50% showed degree (+++, to 45 ones (3.22% showed degree (++, to 120 ones (8.57% showed degree (+ and the rest (85.71% showed degree (-. The obtained results threw the light on the epidemiology of subclinical mastitis in Assiut villages and provided an importance of the CMT for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis due to it is a reliable, easy, rapid and cheap tool helping in diagnosis and controlling the disease because it directs attention to individual mammary quarter that is secreting milk of high somatic cell content (SCC. Programs for control of subclinical mastitis may be planned around the routine examination of all lactating cows, and consequently early treatment can be applied towards positive cases rapidly for preventing their conversion towards clinical form among dairy cows and for protecting the herd health, milk hygiene and consequently the consumer health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 373-380

Ahmed Abdel-Rady

271

Bovine mastitis: frontiers in immunogenetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow's natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity(+)™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID:25339959

Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

2014-01-01

272

Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID:25339959

Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

2014-01-01

273

Theodor Kocher's surgical and clinical case presentations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of an analysis of the clinical case presentations elaborated in manuscript by Theodor Kocher (1841-1917) in his first years as a professor at the University of Bern, Switzerland (1872-75), are summarized in order to indicate a hitherto little-known source for the history of surgery and to illustrate the early career of the Nobel Prize winner of 1909. PMID:15161090

Isepponi, Oliver; Huwiler, Valentin; Boschung, Urs

2004-01-01

274

Effect of mastitis on macro-minerals of bovine milk and blood serum in Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk and blood serum from clinically mastitis infected, subclinically mastitis infected and healthy Friesian cows (15 samples from each of 3 groups were evaluated for macrominerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. The milk from cows infected with subclinical mastitis revealed a significant decrease in potassium (P < 0.001 and a significant increase in sodium and phosphorus content (P < 0.01. Similarly, the milk from cows with the clinical form of the disease showed a significant increase in sodium (P < 0.001 and a significant decrease in potassium, magnesium (P < 0.001 and calcium (P < 0.01. Comparison of healthy cow's milk with that from cows with subclinical mastitis revealed a highly significant increase in sodium (P < 0.001. Comparison of healthy cow's milk with that of clinically mastitic milk showed a highly significant decrease in levels of calcium, magnesium (P < 0.001 and potassium (P < 0.01. However, sodium increased highly significantly (P < 0.001. Comparison of macro-minerals in milk from cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis revealed a significant decrease in potassium contents (P < 0.05 compared with that of healthy cows. Potassium levels were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05 in subclinically infected cow's blood serum. However, calcium and phosphorus showed a significant decrease (P < 0.01 in blood serum samples from the clinically infected cows.

G.E. Mohamed

2012-06-01

275

Mastitis bovina por Prototheca zopfii: primer aislamiento en Chile / Bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: first isolation in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El género Prototheca está formado por microalgas unicelulares sin clorofila, ampliamente distribuidas en el medio ambiente, algunas de las cuales pueden ser patógenas para el hombre y animales. Sin embargo, no existen antecedentes bibliográficos previos sobre la existencia de estas algas patógenas p [...] ara el hombre y animales en Chile. Se examinó bacteriológicamente un total de 200 muestras de leche provenientes de 150 vacas lecheras con mastitis clínica, las cuales fueron sembradas en medio PIM modificado, selectivo para Prototheca. Se aisló Prototheca spp. en dos ocasiones consecutivas de una misma vaca muestreada con un intervalo de dos meses. El examen microscópico directo de las muestras de leche en fresco reveló la presencia células características de Prototheca spp. Mediante asimilación de fuentes de carbono se identificó la especie como P. zopfii, constituyendo el primer aislamiento de este agente a partir de un cuadro de mastitis clínica bovina en Chile. Este hallazgo es relevante para los programas de control de mastitis bovina en los rebaños lecheros ya que es un organismo poco frecuente y desconocido que no responde a los tratamientos antibióticos convencionales. Abstract in english The genus Prototheca includes unicellular achlorophyllous microalgae widely distributed in the environment, some of which could be pathogenic for human and animals. However, there is no previous report regarding these pathogenic microalgae causing infections in man or animals in Chile. Two-hundred m [...] ilk samples collected from 150 dairy cows with clinical mastitis were inoculated onto PIM modified medium. Prototheca spp was isolated on two consecutive occasions from one cow sampled two months apart. Direct microscopic examination of wet smears made from milk samples revealed typical Prototheca cells. Biochemical tests based on carbon source assimilation identified the organism as Prototheca zopfii. This finding represents the first isolation of this environmental alga from bovine mastitis in Chile. This could be of great importance for mastitis control programs in dairy herds as Prototheca is an uncommon mastitis pathogen that does not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

L, Zaror; K, Valenzuela; J, Kruze.

276

Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

Laerte Francisco Filippsen

1999-03-01

277

Bovine mastitis in the metropolitan area of Curitiba: antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial control of the infection  

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Full Text Available A study from cows with mastitis was performed and Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen in 46.4 % among 153 studied strains from 276 milk samples of infected cows. Antibiotic resistance of 71 S. aureus isolates was determined in order to search resistant strains to antibiotics of clinical interest, as well as to determine their degree of multi-resistance. It was found that 60% of the S. aureus strains presented resistance to ?-lactams, but none to oxacillin, teicoplamin or vancomycin. On the other hand, with the aim of reducing the use of current antibiotics and their associated resistance, a new formulation was introduced. The antimicrobial compounds (P22-P32, demonstrated to be effective in 55% of the 76 mastitis cases studied. The use of P22-P32 reduced the number of somatic cell to less than 300,000 SCC/mL-1 in 75.2 % of milk samples analyzed, normalizing the milk quality, fat and lactose levels and increasing the volume of production in 10.1 %.

José Luis Parada

2011-08-01

278

Bovine mastitis in the metropolitan area of Curitiba: antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial control of the infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A study from cows with mastitis was performed and Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen in 46.4 % among 153 studied strains from 276 milk samples of infected cows. Antibiotic resistance of 71 S. aureus isolates was determined in order to search resistant strains to antibiotics of clinic [...] al interest, as well as to determine their degree of multi-resistance. It was found that 60% of the S. aureus strains presented resistance to ?-lactams, but none to oxacillin, teicoplamin or vancomycin. On the other hand, with the aim of reducing the use of current antibiotics and their associated resistance, a new formulation was introduced. The antimicrobial compounds (P22-P32), demonstrated to be effective in 55% of the 76 mastitis cases studied. The use of P22-P32 reduced the number of somatic cell to less than 300,000 SCC/mL-1 in 75.2 % of milk samples analyzed, normalizing the milk quality, fat and lactose levels and increasing the volume of production in 10.1 %.

José Luis, Parada; Dicezar, Gonçalves; Vanete Tomaz, Soccol; Marisa, Lima; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

2011-08-01

279

Vacinação com Escherichia coli J5 no pré-parto e ocorrência de mastite e produção de leite de vacas mestiças leiteiras / Escherichia coli J5 vaccination during pre-calving and mastitis and milk production of crossbred cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 no período pré-parto e a ocorrência de mastite e de produção de leite. Foram utilizadas 93 vacas, sendo 43 vacinadas e 50 não vacinadas. Para a análise dos dados de produção e CCS (contagem de células somáticas), utilizou-se delineamento inteir [...] amente ao acaso em sistemas de parcelas subdivididas. Os dados de CCS e duração de casos clínicos de mastite foram transformados em Log10CCS. Para as médias de CCS e a duração de casos clínicos, usou-se o teste t. Para comparações de médias de recidivas de casos clínicos, usou-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. Para frequência de microrganismos e de mastite subclínica, usou-se o teste de qui-quadrado. A interação dessas variáveis foi analisada pelo teste de McNemar. Não houve redução na prevalência de infecções por coliformes entre a secagem e o parto nos dois grupos. A duração total dos casos clínicos de mastite em animais que apresentaram mastite clínica foi menor em vacas vacinadas. O número de episódios clínicos e a intensidade dos casos clínicos não diferiu entre os grupos. A prevalência de animais com mastite subclínica no pós-parto e a (CCS) nos 100 primeiros dias de lactação foram mais baixas no grupo de animais vacinados. Não foi observada diferença na produção de leite entre os grupos. A vacinação de vacas com E. coli J5 melhora a saúde da glândula mamária de vacas leiteiras e, consequentemente, reduz a prevalência de animais com mastite subclínica no pós-parto, bem como a duração dos casos clínicos de mastite e a CCS nos 100 primeiros dias de lactação. Abstract in english The effect of immunization with Escherichia coli J5 vaccine in the pre-partum on the occurrence of mastitis and milk production in crossbred dairy cows was evaluated. Ninety-three cows were used as follows: forty-three were vaccinated and fifty cows were unvaccinated. For the production analysis, da [...] ta and CCS were used in a completely randomized split-plot system. CCS data and duration of clinical cases of mastitis were transformed into Log10CCS. For the CSS averages and duration of clinical cases we used the t test. For comparisons of means of recurrences of clinical cases we used the Mann-Whitney test. For frequency of subclinical mastitis organisms and we used the chi-square test. The interaction of these variables was analyzed using the McNemar test. There was no reduction in the prevalence of infections caused by coliforms between drying-off and parturition in both groups. The total duration of clinical mastitis in animals with clinical mastitis was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. The number of clinical episodes and intensity of clinical cases did not differ between groups. The prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum and somatic cell count (SCC) in the first 100 days of lactation was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. However, there was no difference in milk production between groups. Vaccination of cows with E. coli J5 improves mammary gland health by reducing the prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum, as well as the duration of the clinical cases of mastitis and SCC in the first 100 days of lactation.

P.V., Maia; L.R., Molina; E.J., Facury Filho; R.L., Gonçalves; L.P.V., Moreira; A.Ú., Carvalho.

280

Vacinação com Escherichia coli J5 no pré-parto e ocorrência de mastite e produção de leite de vacas mestiças leiteiras / Escherichia coli J5 vaccination during pre-calving and mastitis and milk production of crossbred cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 no período pré-parto e a ocorrência de mastite e de produção de leite. Foram utilizadas 93 vacas, sendo 43 vacinadas e 50 não vacinadas. Para a análise dos dados de produção e CCS (contagem de células somáticas), utilizou-se delineamento inteir [...] amente ao acaso em sistemas de parcelas subdivididas. Os dados de CCS e duração de casos clínicos de mastite foram transformados em Log10CCS. Para as médias de CCS e a duração de casos clínicos, usou-se o teste t. Para comparações de médias de recidivas de casos clínicos, usou-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. Para frequência de microrganismos e de mastite subclínica, usou-se o teste de qui-quadrado. A interação dessas variáveis foi analisada pelo teste de McNemar. Não houve redução na prevalência de infecções por coliformes entre a secagem e o parto nos dois grupos. A duração total dos casos clínicos de mastite em animais que apresentaram mastite clínica foi menor em vacas vacinadas. O número de episódios clínicos e a intensidade dos casos clínicos não diferiu entre os grupos. A prevalência de animais com mastite subclínica no pós-parto e a (CCS) nos 100 primeiros dias de lactação foram mais baixas no grupo de animais vacinados. Não foi observada diferença na produção de leite entre os grupos. A vacinação de vacas com E. coli J5 melhora a saúde da glândula mamária de vacas leiteiras e, consequentemente, reduz a prevalência de animais com mastite subclínica no pós-parto, bem como a duração dos casos clínicos de mastite e a CCS nos 100 primeiros dias de lactação. Abstract in english The effect of immunization with Escherichia coli J5 vaccine in the pre-partum on the occurrence of mastitis and milk production in crossbred dairy cows was evaluated. Ninety-three cows were used as follows: forty-three were vaccinated and fifty cows were unvaccinated. For the production analysis, da [...] ta and CCS were used in a completely randomized split-plot system. CCS data and duration of clinical cases of mastitis were transformed into Log10CCS. For the CSS averages and duration of clinical cases we used the t test. For comparisons of means of recurrences of clinical cases we used the Mann-Whitney test. For frequency of subclinical mastitis organisms and we used the chi-square test. The interaction of these variables was analyzed using the McNemar test. There was no reduction in the prevalence of infections caused by coliforms between drying-off and parturition in both groups. The total duration of clinical mastitis in animals with clinical mastitis was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. The number of clinical episodes and intensity of clinical cases did not differ between groups. The prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum and somatic cell count (SCC) in the first 100 days of lactation was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. However, there was no difference in milk production between groups. Vaccination of cows with E. coli J5 improves mammary gland health by reducing the prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum, as well as the duration of the clinical cases of mastitis and SCC in the first 100 days of lactation.

P.V., Maia; L.R., Molina; E.J., Facury Filho; R.L., Gonçalves; L.P.V., Moreira; A.Ú., Carvalho.

1367-13-01

 
 
 
 
281

Efeito da suplementação de selênio e vitamina E sobre a incidência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça holandesa / Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on incidence of clinical mastitis in Holstein cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Oitenta e quatro vacas da raça holandesa foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos (grupos): o grupo A recebeu 5mg Se/dia, o B recebeu 1000 UI vit. E/dia, o C 5mg Se + 1000 UI vit. E/dia e o D foi usado como controle. A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando [...] -se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas quinzenalmente para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de Se e de vit. E. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, ao parto, aos 30 e aos 60 dias após o parto para determinação dos níveis de Se no soro sangüíneo das vacas. O teste de Tamis foi realizado semanalmente para detecção dos casos clínicos de mastite e iniciado logo após o parto, prolongando-se até a 12ª semana da lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos de Se superiores (P Abstract in english Eighty four Holstein cows were randomly allotted to four groups: group A was supplemented with 5mg Se/day, group B with 1000 IU vitamin E/day, group C with 5mg Se/day+1000 IU vitamin E/day and D was used as a control. The supplementation period started 30 days prior to probable parturition date and [...] ended at parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical, selenium and vitamin E analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, at parturition, and at 30 and 60 days after parturition to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test was weekly done to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration in comparison to the control group (P

J.J., Paschoal; M.A., Zanetti; J.A., Cunha.

2003-06-01

282

Efeito da suplementação de selênio e vitamina E sobre a incidência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça holandesa / Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on incidence of clinical mastitis in Holstein cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Oitenta e quatro vacas da raça holandesa foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos (grupos): o grupo A recebeu 5mg Se/dia, o B recebeu 1000 UI vit. E/dia, o C 5mg Se + 1000 UI vit. E/dia e o D foi usado como controle. A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando [...] -se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas quinzenalmente para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de Se e de vit. E. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, ao parto, aos 30 e aos 60 dias após o parto para determinação dos níveis de Se no soro sangüíneo das vacas. O teste de Tamis foi realizado semanalmente para detecção dos casos clínicos de mastite e iniciado logo após o parto, prolongando-se até a 12ª semana da lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos de Se superiores (P Abstract in english Eighty four Holstein cows were randomly allotted to four groups: group A was supplemented with 5mg Se/day, group B with 1000 IU vitamin E/day, group C with 5mg Se/day+1000 IU vitamin E/day and D was used as a control. The supplementation period started 30 days prior to probable parturition date and [...] ended at parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical, selenium and vitamin E analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, at parturition, and at 30 and 60 days after parturition to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test was weekly done to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration in comparison to the control group (P

J.J., Paschoal; M.A., Zanetti; J.A., Cunha.

283

The clinical case for proton beam therapy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.

Foote Robert L

2012-10-01

284

Antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from veterinary clinical cases in the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a leading aetiologic agent of pyoderma and other body tissue infections in dogs and cats. In recent years, an increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has been reported. Isolation of MRSP in serious infections poses a major therapeutic challenge as strains are often resistant to all forms of systemic antibiotic used to treat S. pseudintermedius -related infections. This study investigates the occurrence of MRSP from a total of 7183 clinical samples submitted to the authors' laboratories over a 15-month period. Identification was based on standard microbiological identification methods, and by S. pseudintermedius-specific nuc polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PBP2a latex agglutination and mecA PCR. Susceptibility against non-beta-lactam antibiotics was carried out using a disc-diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. In addition, susceptibility to pradofloxacin--a new veterinary fluoroquinolone--was also investigated. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated from 391 (5%) samples and 20 were confirmed as MRSP from cases of pyoderma, otitis, wound infections, urinary tract infection and mastitis in dogs only. All 20 isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Nineteen were resistant to chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin; additionally, seven isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Fifteen isolates carried SCCmec type II-III, four isolates had type V and one harboured type IV. To date, only a few scientific papers on clinical MRSP strains isolated from the UK have been published, thus the results from this study would provide additional baseline data for further investigations. PMID:24974679

Maluping, R P; Paul, N C; Moodley, A

2014-01-01

285

Using Clinical Gait Case Studies to Enhance Learning in Biomechanics  

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Clinical case studies facilitate the development of clinical reasoning strategies through knowledge and integration of the basic sciences. Case studies have been shown to be more effective in developing problem-solving abilities than the traditional lecture format. To enhance the learning experiences of students in biomechanics, clinical case

Chester, Victoria

2011-01-01

286

External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying an internal quality control strain, i.e. including the same strain of Streptococcus agalactiae in all iterations of the proficiency test, served to gauge the bias caused by the year-to-year variation in the selection of test strains. A total of 73% of all uploaded results over the years were correct, with the internal quality control strain exhibiting a statistically significant ascending trend from 54% correct identifications in 2006 to 91% in 2011 (p-value=0.0082; n=13).Even if specifics were not recorded as regards the laboratory methods employed at the veterinary clinics for identification of mastitis pathogens, the results from this study indicate that the practices’ application of basic biochemical analyses in this context could be optimized. In addition, dissemination of information on new methods and updated nomenclature appeared to be an area which future efforts with advantage could aim at.

Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.

2013-01-01

287

EVALUACIÓN DE LA SENSIBILIDAD Y ESPECIFICIDAD DEL DIAGNÓSTICO MOLECULAR DEL Staphylococcus aureus EN LECHE DE VACAS AFECTADAS POR MASTITIS / EVALUATION OF SENSITIVITY AN SPECIFICITY OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS FOR Staphylococcus aureus IN MILK OF COWS AFFECTED BY MASTITIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre los agentes contagiosos que inducen mastitis severas en la vaca, se encuentra el Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), de difícil cura bacteriológica y alta resistencia antimicrobiana. Debido a que el cultivo microbiológico de las muestras clínicas, solo ofrece resultado en un 50% de los casos (1 [...] ) el diagnóstico por PCR es una alternativa. El objetivo de este estudio fue probar si los cebadores descritos por Cremonesi et al. (2) para el diagnóstico de S. aureus, como de buena sensibilidad y especificidad, sirven para ser usados en muestras clínicas. Los resultados demostraron que las siguientes secuencias de nucleótidos como cebadores: F 5' AGC TGT GGA TTG TCC TTT GG 3' y R 5' TCG CTC GCT CAC CTT AGA A 3', para obtener un amplificado de 499 pb no sirven en muestras clínicas por su baja especificidad (62,95%). Se requiere buscar nuevos cebadores que amplifiquen regiones del S. aureus que no se compartan con otras bacterias, en especial aquellas que producen mastitis en vacas productoras de leche. Abstract in english Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the infectious agents that induce severe mastitis in cows with a difficult bacteriological cure and high antimicrobial resistance. Because the microbiological culture of clinical samples only shows results in 50% of the cases (Koskinen et al., 2009), diagn [...] ostic through PCR is an alternative. The aim of this study was to prove if the primers described by Cremonesi et al. (2006) for the S. aureus diagnosis, with good sensitivity and specificity, could be used in clinical samples too. The results showed that the following nucleotide sequences can be used as primers: F 5' AGC TGT GGA TTG TCC TTT GG 3' and R 5' TCG CTC GCT CAC CTT AGA A 3' in order to obtain a 499 pb enlargemenr are not useful in clinical samples due their low specificity (62.95%). It is required to search new primers to amplify S. aureus regions not shared with other bacteria, especially those cauding mastitis in dairy cows.

Juan, Restrepo; Luisa, Ortiz; Ximena, Cardona; Martha, Olivera.

288

Utilization of zinc methionine supplementation in Friesian cows: somatic cell count in milk and mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Two hundreds and forty lactating Friesian cows on the 1st to 8th of lactation and different stages of lactation were used to study some factors affecting on somatic cell count and its effects on milk yield and composition. Also, 12 normal cows, 15 subclinical and 15 clinical mastitis cows were used to study the effect of zinc methionine supplementation on somatic cell count and mastitis. Cows were divided into three similar groups, the first groups was unsupplemented, while the second and third groups were supplemented with 5 and 10 gm zinc methionine / head / day, respectively. Subclinical and clinical mastitis cows were intramammary injected by antibiotic Gentamast (Gentamicin 100 mg) till complete recovery. The obtained results showed that winter season showed significantly (P < 0.05) the highest somatic cell count followed by summer season, while the lowest value was in autumn season. Somatic cell count tended to decrease with the progress of lactation up to the peak period and increased significantly (P < 0.05) thereafter and also with the progress number of lactation. The percentages of normal, subclinical and clinical mastitis cows were 77.71, 15.82 and 6.46%, respectively. Milk yield and composition and its output decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing somatic cell count. Zinc methionine supplementation resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decrease in somatic cell count in milk. Zinc methionine supplementation for subclinical and clinical plementation for subclinical and clinical mastitis cows led to significant decrease (P < 0.05) on somatic cell count, electrical conductivity, recovery time and the cost of therapy compared with unsupplemented group. It could be concluded that increasing somatic cell count decreased milk yield and composition. Zinc methionine supplementation at the level of 5 g per head daily to lactating Friesian cows reduced somatic cell count in milk, recovery time and therapy cost of mastitis. (author)

289

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609

Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

2014-01-01

290

Lithiasic cholecystitis in children - a clinical case  

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Full Text Available Objective: We present the clinical case of a girl suffering for a chronic lithiasic cholecystitis, discussing the indication for surgical treatment. Material and Methods: The patient was a thirteen years old girl who suffered of an abdominal dyspeptic syndrome for two years, the diagnosis of chronic lithiasic cholecystitis being delayed because of ultrasonographic difficulties to visualize biliary stones of little dimensions. As an associate pathology, the patient was diagnosed two years before with a cortical right renal cyst, which was considered to be responsible for the right quadrant pain. The patient underwent a laparoscopic retrograde cholecystectomy, and then she was treated with gastric antisecretory drugs.Results: At 18 months after the surgery, she is free of symptoms. Conclusion: surgery is the treatment of choice even for children when they present symptomatic lithiasic cholecystitis.

Daciana N. Chiril?

2011-06-01

291

EFECTO DE LA MASTITIS SUBCLÍNICA SOBRE EL RENDIMIENTO EN LA FABRICACIÓN DEL QUESO COSTEÑO / THE EFFECT OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS ON COASTAL CHEESE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La inflamación de las glándulas mamarias produce un descenso en la síntesis de los diferentes componentes de la leche, como respuesta para neutralizar agentes infecciosos, reparar el epitelio alveolar y retornar a la función normal. En la mastitis clínica y subclínica, hay un aumento del número de c [...] élulas somáticas cuya función es fagocitar, lisar a los patógenos, remover los deshechos producidos en el foco de infección mediante enzimas bacterianas que se incorporan a la leche reduciendo la vida útil de los diferentes derivados. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la mastitis subclínica sobre el rendimiento del queso costeño. Se realizó un estudio observacional transversal, en una empresa ganadera con dos grupos, seleccionando cinco cuartos con resultados grado 3 del CMT y 5 cuartos con reacciones negativas al CMT. Se minimizó la variabilidad por raza y lactancia. Los análisis fisicoquímicos se efectuaron por triplicado y se llevaron a cabo, teniendo en cuenta los métodos referenciados, el RCS se realizó en un contador electrónico de células somáticas. Los resultados de la calidad fisicoquímica de la leche con y sin mastitis, se compararon por medio de la prueba t-Student y se procesaron en el software SAS 9.0. Los quesos elaborados con leches sin mastitis subclínicas mostraron un 5.8 % de mayor rendimiento sobre los quesos elaborados con leches provenientes de vacas con mastitis subclínica. El rendimiento de la leche en la elaboración de queso costeño está directamente relacionado con el número de células somáticas. Abstract in english The mammary gland inflammation diminishes the synthesis of different milk compounds as a response to neutralize pathogens, repair the alveolar epithelium and return to normal functioning. In clinical and subclinical mastitis there is a significant increase of somatic cell count whose function is to [...] phagocytose, lyse pathogens, and to remove wastes in the infection focus through bacterial enzymes that are added to milk, reducing the life span of different derivates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical mastitis on coastal cheese production efficiency. A cross sectional observational study was carried out in a cattle enterprise having two groups from which five quarters with California Mastitis Test grade 3 and five quarters with negative California Mastitis Test reaction were selected. The variability by breed and lactation was minimized. The physical and chemical milk analyses were done in triplicate and were carried put considering reference methods. The somatic cells count was measured with an electronic somatic cell counter. The results of the physicochemical quality of the milk with and without mastitis were compared using the t-Student test and were processed using the SAS software 9.0. The cheese made using milk without sub clinic mastitis showed 5.8% better output over the cheese prepared with milk coming from cows with sub clinic mastitis. The efficiency of milk in the production of coastal cheese is directly related with somatic cell counts.

Alfonso, Calderón; Margarita Rosa, Arteaga; Virginia Consuelo, Rodríguez; Germán Javier, Arrieta; Diana Carolina, Bermudez; Viviana Patrícia, Villareal.

2011-12-01

292

Prevalence of Caprine Subclinical Mastitis in Mymensingh Area, Bangladesh and Characterization of Associated Bacterial Agents and the Risk Factors  

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Full Text Available The prevalence of caprine subclinical mastitis in Mymensingh area was assessed by California Mastitis Test (CMT. Milk samples were also analyzed for the isolation and identification of bacterial agents that might be associated with caprine subclinical mastitis including their antibiotic sensitivity pattern against commonly used antibiotics. In addition, the influence of certain risk factors such as age of animal, parity, length of lactation period, type of farming system and type of housing floor, on the prevalence of caprine subclinical mastitis was also evaluated. Milk samples were collected from 59 goats (113 udder halves. The overall prevalence of caprine subclinical mastitis as determined by CMT was 18.64%. On an udder half basis the prevalence was 15.04%. Certain risk factors associated with caprine subclinical mastitis were identified. The prevalence was higher in older animals, with greater parity and longer lactation period. The prevalence was also higher in farms where goats were raised under traditional farming system with earthen floors. The predominant bacterial species isolated from milk that were collected from the subclinical mastitis positive cases were Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis, that showed various degrees of sensitivity to the antibiotics used in the study.

Khandkar Muhammad Alimul Razi

2012-06-01

293

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis--a prospective study of 49 women and treatment outcomes with steroid therapy.  

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an infrequently reported benign breast disease of unknown etiology. Surgical treatment has been widely advocated but can be disfiguring. We describe demographic and clinico-pathologic features of women with IGM in a safety net hospital, and evaluate steroid therapy as a breast-conserving modality of treatment. We also examine a possible ethnic predominance in Hispanic women. We conducted an observational prospective cohort study of all women with biopsy-proven granulomatous mastitis in the breast clinics of an urban safety net public hospital from 2006 to 2010. Demographic, ethnic and clinical data, treatment history, and response to treatment were collected. Patients were followed up prospectively to determine the type of treatment prescribed, complete resolution of disease, and median time to resolution. A nested case-control study was conducted to examine Hispanic prevalence using chi-square statistic. The mean age was 35 years. 80% were Hispanic. 80% presented with a painful breast mass. 59% initially received antibiotics with incomplete resolution. 90% women were prescribed oral steroids, 3% underwent surgical treatment, and 6% remained under observation with spontaneous resolution. Of those who received steroid, 80% had complete resolution of disease with a median time to complete resolution of 159 days (IQR 120-241 days). Ethnicity data in a nested case-control study revealed that women in the IGM group were more likely to be Hispanic than in the control group with an odds ratio of 3 (95% CI 1.42-6.24, p-value 0.0032). IGM is a benign but locally aggressive breast disease. Treatment with steroids is an effective breast-conserving option. Predominance in Hispanic women of childbearing age suggests a common genetic, environmental, immunologic, or infectious etiology and warrants further study with a multi-disciplinary approach. PMID:24673796

Pandey, Tanu S; Mackinnon, Jennifer C; Bressler, Leah; Millar, Amy; Marcus, Elizabeth E; Ganschow, Pamela S

2014-01-01

294

A genetic and spatial Bayesian analysis of mastitis resistance  

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Full Text Available Abstract A nationwide health card recording system for dairy cattle was introduced in Norway in 1975 (the Norwegian Cattle Health Services. The data base holds information on mastitis occurrences on an individual cow basis. A reduction in mastitis frequency across the population is desired, and for this purpose risk factors are investigated. In this paper a Bayesian proportional hazards model is used for modelling the time to first veterinary treatment of clinical mastitis, including both genetic and environmental covariates. Sire effects were modelled as shared random components, and veterinary district was included as an environmental effect with prior spatial smoothing. A non-informative smoothing prior was assumed for the baseline hazard, and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC were used for inference. We propose a new measure of quality for sires, in terms of their posterior probability of being among the, say 10% best sires. The probability is an easily interpretable measure that can be directly used to rank sires. Estimating these complex probabilities is straightforward in an MCMC setting. The results indicate considerable differences between sires with regards to their daughters disease resistance. A regional effect was also discovered with the lowest risk of disease in the south-eastern parts of Norway.

Frigessi Arnoldo

2004-09-01

295

Mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum en una paciente HIV negativa Mastitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient  

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Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente HIV negativa de 39 años con una mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum, sin antecedentes patogénicos previos. Fue tratada en base a las pruebas de susceptibilidad a antibióticos y quimioterápicos y a la evidencia empírica citada por la bibliografía, con kanamicina, doxiciclina, ciprofloxacina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se obtuvo la remisión completa de sus lesiones luego de 15 meses de tratamiento. Se comenta la capacidad de producir lesiones de esta micobacteria de crecimiento rápido, su diagnóstico y tratamiento.A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented.

Domingo J. Palmero

2004-12-01

296

[Dizziness and syncope : clinical case examples].  

Science.gov (United States)

Syncope is defined as a transient, self-limiting loss of consciousness and postural tone due to transient global cerebral hypoperfusion. After syncope the following questions have to be answered: was it a syncopal episode, has the etiological diagnosis been determined, are there data suggestive of a high risk of cardiovascular events or death and what are the therapeutic options? Therefore, a standardized diagnostic work-up is necessary. This diagnostic work-up with differential diagnostic considerations is given for three clinical cases: a 52-year-old man experienced syncope while driving a car and on the morning of the same day syncope had previously occurred while in a standing position. The initial cardiological and neurological evaluation revealed no pathological findings but after implantation of a loop recorder a further syncope with a sinus arrest of 17 s occurred 1 year later. The patient received a single chamber pacemaker. The second case is a 79-year-old female with Parkinson's disease for many years and a primary autonomic dysfunction leading to dizziness and syncope due to pronounced blood pressure fluctuations with hypertensive and hypotensive phases. The last patient is a 22-year-old female with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and recurrent syncope. The diagnostic evaluation and treatment proved to be difficult. PMID:24898287

Athanasiadis, A; Sechtem, U

2014-06-01

297

The intramammary efficacy of first generation cephalosporins against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in cattle causes important financial losses in the dairy industry due to lower yield and bad milk quality. Although S. aureus is susceptible to many antimicrobials in vitro, treatment often fails to cure the infected udder. Hence, comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobials against S. aureus mastitis is desirable to direct treatment strategies. The mouse mastitis model is an elegant tool to evaluate antimicrobials in vivo while circumventing the high costs associated with bovine experiments. An evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of the intramammary (imam) applied first generation cephalosporins cefalexin, cefalonium, cefapirin and cefazolin, was performed using the S. aureus mouse mastitis model. In vivo determination of the effective dose 2log(10) (ED(2log10)), ED(4log10), protective dose 50 (PD(50)) and PD(100) in mouse mastitis studies, support that in vitro MIC data of the cephalosporins did not fully concur with the in vivo clinical outcome. Cefazolin was shown to be the most efficacious first generation cephalosporin to treat S. aureus mastitis whereas the MIC data indicate that cefalonium and cefapirin were more active in vitro. Changing the excipient for imam application from mineral oil to miglyol 812 further improved the antimicrobial efficacy of cefazolin, confirming that the excipient can influence the in vivo efficacy. Additionally, statistical analysis of the variation of S. aureus-infected, excipient-treated mice from fourteen studies emphasizes the strength of the mouse mastitis model as a fast, cost-effective and highly reproducible screening tool to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial compounds against intramammary S. aureus infection. PMID:22677480

Demon, Dieter; Ludwig, Carolin; Breyne, Koen; Guédé, David; Dörner, Julia-Charlotte; Froyman, Robrecht; Meyer, Evelyne

2012-11-01

298

Teledermatology: Clinical case profiles and practical issues  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: Teledermatology is an area that has shown rapid growth in the recent past. However, not many studies have been conducted with regards to the application of teledermatology in India. Aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical profiles of cases referred for teledermatology consultation at our center, and to assess and compare the different modalities of teledermatology consultations done at our center along with the practical issues related to such a service. Methods: A retrospective study of teledermatology consultations at our center over a 3-year period was carried out. Store-and-forward (SAF, realtime consults (RTC, and hybrid (combining the two were included.Two trained dermatologists were involved in carrying out the consultations in the referral center. Results: Of the 120 consultations, 68 male and 52 female patients in the age range of 2-77 years were seen. In more than 90% of the cases, teleconsultation was the first contact for the patient with the dermatologist (for the present condition. In 68% of the cases, the reference was for both diagnosis and management, while in the rest, the reference was mainly related to management issues (appropriate diagnosis having already been made. Certainity of diagnosis was maximum for hybrid, SAF, and RTC. Conclusions: Teledermatology can prove valuable as a tool to provide healthcare in areas of shortage of specialists. A hybrid system combining SAF and RTC could be the ideal form of teledermatology consultations in the future. Many practical issues need to be addressed before the effectiveness of teledermatology in India can be fully recognized.

Kaliyadan Feroze

2009-01-01

299

Factores asociados a mastitis en vacas de la microcuenca lechera del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia / Factors Associated to Mastitis in Cows from the Dairy Production Basin in the Northern Highlands of Antioquia, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Fatores associados à mastite em vacas da microbacia leiteira do altiplano norte da Antioquia, Colômbia [...] Abstract in spanish Se efectuó un estudio de corte sobre la prevalencia de mastitis bovina en una muestra representativa de las granjas lecheras del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia. Se evaluaron los resultados del California Mastitis Test (CMT), Recuento de Células Somáticas (RCS) y cultivo bacteriológico de lec [...] he, y se analizaron los factores de riesgo asociados a mastitis bovina. El análisis estadístico de la información se efectuó por medio de estadística descriptiva, análisis de razón de prevalencias y regresión logística multinivel. Con la prueba de CMT se detectó un 20% de cuartos afectados con mastitis, la prevalencia de mastitis sub-clínica por vaca fue del 39,5% y la de mastitis clínica fue del 1,7%. Se efectuaron 648 cultivos de muestras de leche, de las cuales 23,9% fueron negativas, 34% positivas a Streptococcus agalactiae y 10,2% a Estafilococo coagulasa negativo. El análisis de regresión reveló que las vacas que tuvieron más de seis meses de lactancia presentaron una Odds Ratio (OR) de 2,65 en comparación con las de un mes de lactancia (p Abstract in english A study was conducted on the prevalence of bovine mastitis in a representative sample from dairy farms in the northern highlands of Antioquia, Colombia. The results of California Mastitis Test (CMT) were evaluated, as well as the Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and the bacteriological culture of milk. The [...] risk factors associated with bovine mastitis were also analyzed, and the statistical analysis of the information was made through descriptive statistics, prevalence ratio analysis and multilevel logistic regression. The CMT test detected that 20% of the cow were affected with mastitis, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis per cow was of 39.5%, and of clinical mastitis was 1.7%. Six hundred and forty eight (648) cultures were made of milk samples, 23.9% of which came out negative, 34% positive with Streptococcus agalactiae, and 10.2% with coagulase-negative staphylococci. The regression analysis revealed that cows that had more than six months of lactation showed an Odds Ratio (OR) of 2.65 compared to cows that had one month of lactation (p

Nicolás, Ramírez Vásquez; Ofelia, Arroyave Henao; Mario, Cerón-Muñoz; Manuel, Jaramillo; Juan, Cerón; Luis Guillermo, Palacio.

2011-12-01

300

Distribution of contagious and environmental mastitis agents isolated from milk samples collected from clinically health buffalo cows between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year  

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Full Text Available The present study was performed to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of clinically health quarters submitted to milking and also to observe the distribution of contagious and environmental agents between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year. During nine months 734 quarters from 37 buffalo cows were submitted monthly to udder inspection, palpation and strip cup test before milking. 734 asseptic milk samples were inoculated in 10% ovine blood agar and in MacConkey agar media, then incubated for 72 hours at 37oC. Among the 580 isolated microrganisms, 182 (31,38% were recovered from samples collected during the rainy season and 398 (68,62% from the dry season. In the rainy period the most prevalent agents were: bacteria from the genus Corynebacterium sp (53,30%, Staphylococcus sp (19,78% and Rhodococcus equi (13,74%. In the dry period, the commonest ones were: Corynebacterium sp (44,97%, Staphylococcus sp (18,84% and Micrococcus sp (9,55%. The results demonstrated that the methods used to select health quarters in brazilian dairy buffalo farms allow the transmission of contagious bacteria during both seasons of the year, maintaining Ital.J.Anim.Sci. vol. 6, (Suppl. 2, 896-899, 2007 897 VIII World Buffalo Congress agents known to cause mainly subclinical inflammatory reactions that compromise cronically the physiology and production of the mammary gland.

R.P. Maia

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

Erythroderma: A clinical study of 97 cases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythroderma is a rare skin disorder that may be caused by a variety of underlying dermatoses, infections, systemic diseases and drugs. Methods We reviewed the clinical, laboratory and biopsy material of 97 patients diagnosed with erythroderma who were treated in our department over a 6-year period (1996 through 2002. Results The male-female ratio was 1.85:1. The mean age at diagnosis was 46.2 years. The most common causative factors were dermatoses (59.7%, followed by drug reactions (21.6%, malignancies (11.3% and idiopathic causes (7.2%. Carbamazepine was the most common drug (57.1%. The best clinicopathologic correlation was found in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and pityriasis rubra pilaris related erythroderma. Apart from scaling and erythema that were present in all patients, pruritus was the most common finding (97.5%, followed by fever (33.6%, lymphadenopathy (21.3%, edema (14.4% and hyperkeratosis (7.2%. Conclusion This study outlines that underlying etiologic factors of erythroderma may show geographic variations. Our series had a high percentage of erythroderma secondary to preexisting dermatoses and a low percentage of idiopathic cases. There was no HIV-infected patient among our series based on multiple serum antibody tests. The clinical features of erythroderma were identical, irrespective of the etiology. The onset of the disease was usually insidious except in drug-induced erythroderma, where it was acute. The group associated with the best prognosis was that related to drugs.

Toosi Siavash

2005-05-01

302

Mammographic and sonographic features of tuberculous mastitis  

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From December 1999 to April 2001, 10 cases of tuberculous mastitis were presented to the Radiology Unit at the Medical Research Institute of Alexandria University for mammographic and sonographic evaluation. Sixty percent presented with masses, 50% mastalgia, 40% discharge, and 10% complained of skin sinus. In 30% of the patients the complaint was bilateral. All cases underwent full mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) studies, and US-guided fine needle aspiration. Also pathological, bacteriological analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done to all patients to prove the tuberculous nature of their lesions. Thirty percent of the cases had surgical excision on their masses. On mammography 30% were found to have mass lesion mimicking malignant tumors, 40% smooth bordered masses, 40% axillary or intramammary adenopathy, 30% asymmetric density, 30% duct ectasia, 20% with skin thickening and nipple retraction, 20% with macrocalcification, and 10% with skin sinus. On US 60% had hypoechoic masses, 40% focal or sectorial duct ectasia, and 50% axillary adenopathy. History of tuberculosis was found in 30% of the cases. Chest X-ray was positive in 20% and breast magnetic resonance imaging was done to one patient who had skin sinus.

Sakr, Ayman A. E-mail: fahmi.sakr@link.netaymansakr12345@hotmail.com; Fawzy, Rawya K.; Fadaly, Gylan; Baky, Moustafa Abdel

2004-07-01

303

Mammographic and sonographic features of tuberculous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From December 1999 to April 2001, 10 cases of tuberculous mastitis were presented to the Radiology Unit at the Medical Research Institute of Alexandria University for mammographic and sonographic evaluation. Sixty percent presented with masses, 50% mastalgia, 40% discharge, and 10% complained of skin sinus. In 30% of the patients the complaint was bilateral. All cases underwent full mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) studies, and US-guided fine needle aspiration. Also pathological, bacteriological analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done to all patients to prove the tuberculous nature of their lesions. Thirty percent of the cases had surgical excision on their masses. On mammography 30% were found to have mass lesion mimicking malignant tumors, 40% smooth bordered masses, 40% axillary or intramammary adenopathy, 30% asymmetric density, 30% duct ectasia, 20% with skin thickening and nipple retraction, 20% with macrocalcification, and 10% with skin sinus. On US 60% had hypoechoic masses, 40% focal or sectorial duct ectasia, and 50% axillary adenopathy. History of tuberculosis was found in 30% of the cases. Chest X-ray was positive in 20% and breast magnetic resonance imaging was done to one patient who had skin sinus

304

Cubicle Refusal and Rearing Accommodation as Possible Mastitis Risk Factors in Cubicle-Housed Dairy Heifers  

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Full Text Available Fifty-nine of the 65 dairy farms with cubicle sheds in the Norwegian county of Oppland in 1990 were included in a study of rearing accommodation, cubicle refusal and mastitis incidence. The farmers recorded the favoured resting location of the individual cows and heifers throughout the final week of pregnancy as well as during calving. The observations were matched with individual records of mastitis cases during the first 30 days after calving. Mastitis incidence in the heifers was analysed by logistic regression using rearing accommodation and cubicle refusal as independent variables, controlling for herd as a clustering factor. Cubicle refusal was found in 29% of the heifers, but in only 3% of older cows. The results of the analysis indicated a tendency for cubicle refusal to be associated with an increased mastitis incidence among the heifers (OR = 2.2, c.i.95%OR = 0.9–5.4, P = 0.08. Cubicle refusal accounted for 21% (0–32% of the mastitis cases in the study population (PAF = 0.21.

Simensen E

2001-03-01

305

Efeito da suplementação de vitamina A sobre a incidência de mastite em vacas da raça Holandesa Effect of vitamin A on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows  

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Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the influence of prepartum vitamin A supplementation on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Forty two cows were randomly distributed into blocks according to the parity and divided in two treatments: control and supplemented with 180,000IU vit.A/day. The supplementation started 30 days before probable parturition date up to parturition. The Tamis test was performed weekly for clinical mastitis detection, and milk samples were collected for somatic cell counts. Vitamin A treatment decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis (P<0.05, however no effect on milk somatic cell count was observed.

J.J. Paschoal

2004-04-01

306

Efeito da suplementação de vitamina A sobre a incidência de mastite em vacas da raça Holandesa / Effect of vitamin A on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This experiment was designed to evaluate the influence of prepartum vitamin A supplementation on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Forty two cows were randomly distributed into blocks according to the parity and divided in two treatments: control and supplemented with 180,000IU vit.A/day. The [...] supplementation started 30 days before probable parturition date up to parturition. The Tamis test was performed weekly for clinical mastitis detection, and milk samples were collected for somatic cell counts. Vitamin A treatment decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis (P

J.J., Paschoal; M.A., Zanetti.

307

Efeito da suplementação de vitamina A sobre a incidência de mastite em vacas da raça Holandesa / Effect of vitamin A on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This experiment was designed to evaluate the influence of prepartum vitamin A supplementation on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Forty two cows were randomly distributed into blocks according to the parity and divided in two treatments: control and supplemented with 180,000IU vit.A/day. The [...] supplementation started 30 days before probable parturition date up to parturition. The Tamis test was performed weekly for clinical mastitis detection, and milk samples were collected for somatic cell counts. Vitamin A treatment decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis (P

J.J., Paschoal; M.A., Zanetti.

2004-04-01

308

Outbreak of endemic form of protothecal mastitis on a dairy farm  

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Full Text Available In this paper an outbreak of mastitis in cows resistant to antibiotic treatment on a Holstein-Friesian cattle farm in Vojvodina (Serbia and Montenegro was described. Microbiological examination of 73 milk samples from lactating cows revealed the presence of Prototheca zopfii in 22 samples (30.13%. Identification of the isolates was performed on the basis of growth features, microscopic appearance, assimilation patterns and antimicrobial susceptibility. Protothecal infection of the mammary gland resulted in clinical symptoms of chronic mastitis in 19 animals. Histopathological findings revealed distinct granulomatous inflammations of the mammary gland interstitium.

Milanov Dubravka

2006-01-01

309

Tonsillolith: A report of three clinical cases  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish El tonsilolito es una calcificación distrófica rara que surge como consecuencia de la inflamación crónica de las amígdalas. Se relatan tres casos asintomáticos de tonsilolitos, descubiertos durante el examen radiográfico de rutina por medio de radiografías panorámicas, que mostraron distintos tamaño [...] s de imágenes radiopacas, que variaron entre 2 y 5 mm. Los casos I y III presentaron imágenes que no se sobrepusieron a la línea de la mandíbula, lo que condujo a un diagnóstico probable de calcificación de tejido suave. El caso II tenía una imagen radiopaca unilateral, con densidad ósea, sobreponiéndose a la línea de la mandíbula, conduciendo a una lesión benigna intra-ósea, que fue considerada como el diagnóstico diferencial. No se encontraron síntomas en ningún caso. Sólo el caso I tenía características clínicas, mostrando unas placas blancas, visibles a través de la mucosa. Fueron solicitadas tomografías computarizadas de la región maxilo-facial para averiguar la ubicación exacta de estas imágenes, ya que la mayor parte de la superposición de las imágenes radiopacas en la línea mandibular era muy similar a anormalidades intra-óseas. Las tomografías computarizadas mostraron imágenes hiperdensas en las amígdalas palatinas, confirmando el diagnóstico de tonsilolitos. Los pacientes están actualmente en seguimiento. No se requiere tratamiento si no existen síntomas. Concluyendo que los tonsilolitos pueden mostrar imágenes en las radiografías panorámicas similares a alteraciones intra-óseas. El diagnostico es relativamente fácil cuando la tomografía computarizada es solicitada, a pesar de que las imágenes no son patognomónicas. Abstract in english Tonsillolith is a rare dystrophic calcification as a result of chronic inflammation of the tonsils. Three asymptomatic cases of tonsillolith are reported, incidentally discovered through panoramic radiographs, which showed different sizes of radiopaque images, varying from 2 to 5mm; cases I and III [...] images did not overlap the mandible ramus, which led to a probable diagnosis of soft tissue calcification. Case II had radiopaque unilateral images, with osseous tissue density, overlapping the mandibular ramus, leading to a benign intra-osseous lesion, which was considered as differential diagnosis. No symptoms were reported in any case. Only case I had clinical characteristics, showing highly consistent white plaques partially visible through the mucosa. Computed tomography of the maxillofacial region/head and neck were requested to find out the exact location of these images, since most of the overlapping radiopaque images in the mandibular ramus were very similar to intra-osseous abnormalities. The computed tomography showed hyperdense images in the palatine tonsils, confirming the diagnosis of tonsillolith. The patients are currently under follow-up. No treatment is required if there is no symptom. In conclusion, tonsillolith might show images on panoramic radiographs similar to intra osseous abnormalities. The diagnosis is relatively easy when computed tomography is requested, although the images are not pathognomonic. Therefore, clinicians should consider other pathologies as differential diagnosis.

Mariela Dura Gontijo de, Moura; Davidson Fróis, Madureira; Luiz Cláudio, Noman-Ferreira; Evandro Neves, Abdo; Evandro Guimarães de, Aguiar; Freire, Addah Regina da Silva.

310

Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the [...] positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%).

Radhwane, Saidi; Djamel, Khelef; Rachid, Kaidi.

311

Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed ??Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40% was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%, Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%, Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%, S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%, and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%.

Radhwane Saidi

2013-05-01

312

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Plant-Derived Diterpenes against Bovine Mastitis Bacteria  

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Full Text Available We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL?1 against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect, but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis.

Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani

2013-07-01

313

Mastitis in One Humped She-Camels (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish data on mastitis in she-camels in Jordan. Milk samples were collected from 90 dromedary camels in south province of Jordan. California Mastitis Test (CMT gave results with 70 milk samples; 42 samples (60% showed positive CMT. Infection with some bacterial species was associated with positive CMT. About 21% of the camels revealed clinical signs of mastitis. The highest percentage of bacterial count, which range from 3.0x102 to <3.0x103 cfu mL-1, was founded in the milk samples. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Gentamycin, Ampicillin and Tetracycline were the most effective antimicrobial agents against the bacterial isolates.

Azmi D. Hawari

2008-01-01

314

Pérdidas económicas ocasionadas por la mastitis bovina en la industria lechera - Economic causalties inflicted by the bovine mastitis in the milk industry  

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Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo fue hacer una revisión bibliográfica sobre las pérdidas económicas que ocasiona la mastitis bovina en la industria lechera en el Mundo, en México y Michoacán. La mastitis es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa más costosa de las vacas lecheras debido a que induce a una disminución en la producción del 4 al 30% de leche y baja su calidad, además de incrementar los costos del cuidado de la salud del hato y un desecho prematuro de animales genéticamente mejorados. En el documento, se hace una descripción de los conceptos concernientes a la mastitis bovina, su clasificación, características de la enfermedad tanto en su forma de presentación clínica y subclínica en el ganado bovino lechero, así mismo se hace referencia a las pérdidas económicas que ésta ocasiona tanto en la industria lechera a nivel mundial, como en México y en el Estado deMichoacán; finalmente, se aborda lo relacionado a los costos de prevención, tratamiento y control de la enfermedad. Se concluye que las pérdidas económicas que ocasiona la mastitis bovina a la industria lechera son considerables, esto en base a diversos estudios reportados por diferentes autores.summaryThe objective of the present paper was to make a revision of literature on the economic causalties that the bovine mastitis in the milk industry in the World inflicts, in Mexico and Michoacan. The mastitis is considered infectious the disease more expensive of the milk cows because it induces to a diminution in the production from the 4 to 30% of low milk and his quality, besides to increase the costs of the care of the health of the cattle ranch and a premature animal remainder genetically improved. In the document, a description of the concepts concerning the bovine mastitis, its classification,characteristics of the disease as much in its form of clinical and subclinical presentation in the milk bovine cattle becomes, also reference to the economic losses that this one causes so much in the milk industry at worldwide level, like in Mexico and the State of Michoacan; finally, the related thing to the costs of prevention, treatment and control of the disease is approached. On the basis of diverse studies reported by different authors concludes that the economic casualties that the bovine mastitis to the milk industry inflicts are considerable.

Bedolla, CC;

2008-04-01

315

Genetic Diversity of Streptococcus uberis Strains Isolated from Clinical and Subclinical Cases of Bovine Intramammary Infections in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was employed on twenty-four Streptococcus uberis isolates from cases of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis from five smallholder dairy herds in Malaysia. Three ten-mer primers namely OPA-01, OPA-05 and OPA-07 were selected out of a 20 primers set. A high degree of genetic polymorphism was revealed among the isolates of S. uberis by RAPD-PCR. Fourteen distinct RAPD fingerprint patterns were generated with primer OPA-05, while primers OPA-01 and OPA-07 produced 12 and 11 RAPD patterns respectively. The discriminatory power of this technique could be further improved by the parallel use of several primers. Most of the isolates were genetically different strains, however, identical patterns were noted among different cows within the same farm or from different cows from different farming regions. These findings indicate that RAPD analysis is a rapid and reproducible method for molecular sub-typing of bovine S. uberis isolates and therefore, represents a powerful tool for epidemiological studies.

Md. Firoz Mian

2002-01-01

316

Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows  

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Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119, Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104 and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA (n=12. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay microdilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64% followed by S. aureus (44.25% and MRSA (5.11%. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23s rRNA (E. coli , 16s-23s rRNA (S. aureus and MRSA (mecA and blaZ could be amplified from 119, 104 and 12 isolates with a percentage positivity of 50.64 (119/235, 89.64 (104/116 and 10.34 (12/116 respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in bovine mastitis pathogens was high. Most MRSA pathogens were multidrug resistant. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were resistant to few antimicrobials.

D. Chandrasekaran

2014-06-01

317

Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of inhibition zone diameters of bovine mastitis pathogens in Flanders, Belgium.  

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In dairy farms, antimicrobial drugs are frequently used for treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis. Determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens is needed to come to a correct use of antimicrobials. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus (n=768), Streptococcus uberis (n=939), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=444), Escherichia coli (n=563), and Klebsiella species (n=59) originating from routine milk samples from (sub)clinical mastitis were subjected to the disk diffusion method. Disks contained representatives of frequently used antibiotics in dairy. A limited number of clinical breakpoints were available through CLSI, and showed that susceptibility of Staph. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella was moderate to high. For streptococcal species however, a large variation between the tested species and the different antimicrobials was observed. In a next step, wild type populations were described based on epidemiological cut off values (EUCAST). Because of the limited number of official cut off values, the data were observed as a mastitis subpopulation and self-generated cut off values were created and a putative wild type population was suggested. The need for accurate clinical breakpoints for veterinary pathogens is high. Despite the lack of these breakpoints, however, a population study can be performed based on the distribution of inhibition zone diameters on the condition that a large number of strains is tested. PMID:24703745

Supré, K; Lommelen, K; De Meulemeester, L

2014-07-16

318

Prevalence of some mastitis causes in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis, the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67% in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%, Enterobacter spp. (15.00%, C. pyogenes (10.00%, Micrococcus spp. (5.00%, Pasteurells spp. (5.00% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%. Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.

A.A. Al-Juboori1

2014-05-01

319

Experiment on radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis in 78 women are presented. It is shown that the radiotherapy is the method of choice. Application of radiotherapy at different stages of disease promotes either complete resolution of infiltration (1-2 irradiations) or stipulates the decrease in temperature, abatement of pains and improvement of general state (at the presence of purulent fusion of mammary tissue). X-ray therapy of postnatal mastitis has does not affect the lactational function of mammary gland

320

MANAGEMENT INFLUENCE ON MASTITIS IN DAIRY COWS  

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Full Text Available An analyze of the teats of cows from four farms with milking parlor was carried out to see the environment impact on mastitis The major causes of the mastitis were the low preoccupation for the maintenance of the normal function of the milking machine, the lack to keep the waiting time in a standing position, after the milking, the lack of instruction of the milking personnel.

I. ?IBRU

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Case Finding in the Clinic: Refractive Errors  

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Full Text Available The detection of refractive errors includes effective screening programmes in the school or community. However, the lack of human and other resources often prevent such programmes from occurring. Therefore, patients with many conditions, both refractive and non-refractive, present at clinics. The separation of these patients into refractive and non-refractive conditions is important in the good organisation of eye care clinics, as members of the eye clinic team can then carry out their different duties more effectively.

Kovin Naidoo

2002-01-01

322

Cytotoxic Activity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Bovine Mastitis  

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Secreted toxins play important roles in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. In this study, we examined the presence of secreted cytotoxic factors of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from bovine clinical and subclinical mastitis. A 34- to 36-kDa protein with cell-rounding cytotoxic activity was found in many CoNS strains, especially in Staphylococcus chromogenes strains. The protein caused cell detachment and cell rounding in several cell lines, including HEp-2, Int 407, CHO-K1, a...

Zhang, Songlin; Maddox, Carol W.

2000-01-01

323

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from bovine mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine mastitis is a serious veterinary disease that causes great loss to the dairy industry worldwide. It is a major infectious disease and is difficult to manage and control. Furthermore, emerging multidrug resistant bacteria that cause mastitis have complicated such management. The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is a potent antimicrobial agent. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus (MBSA) and Escherichia coli (MBEC), which were isolated from bovine mastitis. Fifteen MBSA isolates and fifteen MBEC were collected from subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis. Biocompatible polymeric particles composed of alginate/chitosan or chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of thiol groups of MSA-containing particles formed S-nitroso-MSA particles, which are NO donors. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA particles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The antibacterial activity of NO-releasing particles was evaluated by incubating the particles with an MBSA multi-resistant strain, which is responsible for bovine mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration for S-nitroso-MSA-alginate/chitosan particles against MBSA ranged from 125 ?g/mL to 250 ?g/mL. The results indicate that NO-releasing polymeric particles are an interesting approach to combating bacteria resistance in bovine mastitis treatment and prevention. PMID:24979535

Cardozo, Viviane F; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Narciso, Adélia M; Valereto, Elaine C S; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Seabra, Amedea B; Nakazato, Gerson

2014-10-01

324

The early pathogenesis of bovine mastitis due to Escherichia coli.  

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The pathogenesis of coliform mastitis was studied after infusing each of ten lactating quarters of three dairy cows with a large dose (ca. 1 x 10(9) colony-forming units) of virulent Escherichia coli strain B117. This approach was adopted first to maximize the chance of observing microscopic lesions in the tissues of a gland and secondly to overwhelm the differences that might be shown between animals in their response to the infection. The infected glands were examined at intervals of up to 4 h after infection by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and by light microscopy. The earliest lesions were seen after 1 h and consisted of necrosis and sloughing of the epithelial cells of the teat and lactiferous sinuses. After 2 h this was more severe, and was followed by an intense neutrophil response. Neutrophils migrated through the epithelial lesions and at first remained attached to the epithelial surface, forming large mounds. This resulted in gross underestimation of the number of cells in the lumen of the gland when neutrophils in the secretion were counted. At no stage was there evidence of attachment of organisms to the epithelial cells. Tissue damage did not extent beyond the basement membrane, which helps to explain the rapid clinical resolution seen in most field cases of the disease. There was considerable variation in the degree of response shown by the three cows, and also within the infected glands, where the damage was most severe in the lactiferous and teat sinuses. It seems unlikely that all aspects of the disease could be attributed to endotoxin. PMID:6109290

Frost, A J; Hill, A W; Brooker, B E

1980-09-26

325

Bowenoid papulosis: clinical and histological study of eight cases.  

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Eight cases of bowenoid papulosis are reported. The clinical diagnoses were confirmed by histology. In one case an immunoperoxidase method showed the presence of papillomavirus antigen in the nucleus of the most superficial epidermal cells. We consider bowenoid papulosis to be a condition with specific features that distinguish it clinically and histologically from carcinoma in situ and condylomata acuminata.

Gimeno, E.; Vilata, J. J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Lloret, A.; Fortea, J. M.

1987-01-01

326

The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report  

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The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis.

Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Sa Rah; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [CHA University, Bundang CHA Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

327

Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 quarters and received 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin in one quarter and 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin together with 20 mg prednisolone in another quarter. At 24 h (n?=?3) or 48 h (n?=?3) post-challenge, tissue samples from control and treated quarters were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression analysis of challenged, un-treated quarters revealed an up-regulation of transcripts associated with immune response functions compared to un-challenged quarters. Both treatments resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts compared to challenged, un-treated quarters most prominently for genes representing Chemokine and TLR-signaling pathways. Gene expression of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP), CCL2 and CXCL2 were only significantly down-regulated in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters compared to un-treated controls. Down-regulation of chemokines was further confirmed on the basis of protein levels in milk whey for CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 in both treatments with a greater decrease in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters. The data reveal a significant effect of treatment on cell recruitment with a more pronounced effect in cefapirin-prednisolone treated quarters. Provided a rapid bacteriological clearance, combination therapy may prevent neutrophil-induced tissue damage and promote recovery of the gland. PMID:24454893

Sipka, Anja; Klaessig, Suzanne; Duhamel, Gerald E; Swinkels, Jantijn; Rainard, Pascal; Schukken, Ynte

2014-01-01

328

Impact of Livestock Hygiene Education Programs on Mastitis in Smallholder Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

A project implemented from 2003–2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p = 0.08, 95% CI 0.17–1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15–7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd ((p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08–0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested positive for tetracycline residues. PMID:20655119

Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I.P.; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadkha, Rupak

2010-01-01

329

Evaluation of a culture-based pathogen identification kit for bacterial causes of bovine mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate identification of mastitis-causing bacteria supports effective management and can be used to implement selective use of antimicrobials for treatment. The objectives of this study were to compare the results from a culture-based mastitis pathogen detection test kit ('VetoRapid', Vétoquinol) with standard laboratory culture and to evaluate the potential suitability of the test kit to inform a selective treatment programme. Overall 231 quarter milk samples from five UK dairy farms were collected. The sensitivity and specificity of the test kit for the identification of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis and Enterococcus spp. ranged from 17 per cent to 84 per cent and 92 per cent to 98 per cent, respectively. In total, 23 of 68 clinical samples were assigned as meeting the requirement for antimicrobial treatment (Gram-positive organism cultured) according to standard culture results, with the test kit results having sensitivity and specificity of 91 per cent and 78 per cent, respectively. Several occurrences of misidentification are reported, including S. aureus being misidentified as coagulase-negative staphylococci and vice versa. The test kit provides rapid preliminary identification of five common causes of bovine mastitis under UK field conditions and is likely to be suitable for informing selective treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Gram-positive organisms. PMID:25013087

Viora, L; Graham, E M; Mellor, D J; Reynolds, K; Simoes, P B A; Geraghty, T E

2014-07-26

330

Brote de mastitis clínica por Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococcus dysgalactiae en cabras en Salta, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las infecciones mamarias son un problema grave para la producción lechera en cabras a nivel mundial. Staphylococcus spp. es el patógeno más prevalente en las infecciones intramamarias de los pequeños rumiantes, sin embargo, es escasa la información acerca de mastitis caprinas en LA Argentina. El obj [...] etivo de esta comunicación es describir un brote de mastitis clínica que afectó a 12 de 24 cabras lecheras. Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococus dysgalactiae fueron aislados en forma pura de las muestras de leche. Todos los aislamientos fueron identificados bioquímicamente y sometidos a prueba de sensibilidad antibiótica. Abstract in english ntramammary infections are a serious problem for goat’s milk production worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the most prevalent pathogens responsible for intramammary infection in small ruminants; however, there is only little information about goat mastitis in Argentina. The objective of this communi [...] cation was to describe an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 12 of 24 lactating goats. Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates were identified by biochemical tests and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests.

J.F, Micheloud; V, Neder; F, Nuovo; V.H, Suarez; L, Calvinho.

2014-04-01

331

Fine Mapping QTL for mastitis resistance on BTA9 in three Nordic red cattle breeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A QTL affecting clinical mastitis and/or somatic cell score (SCS) has been reported previously on chromosome 9 from studies in 16 families from the Swedish Red and White (SRB), Finnish Ayrshire (FA) and Danish Red (DR) breeds. In order to refine the QTL location, 67 markers were genotyped over the whole chromosome in the 16 original families and 18 additional half-sib families. This enabled linkage disequilibrium information to be used in the analysis. Data were analysed by an approach that combines information from linkage and linkage disequilibrium, which allowed the QTL affecting clinical mastitis to be mapped to a small interval (BM4208 and INRA084. This QTL showed a pleiotropic effect on SCS in the DR and SRB breeds. Haplotypes associated with variations in mastitis resistance were identified. The haplotypes were predictive in the general population and can be used in marker-assisted selection. Pleiotropic effects of the mastitis QTL were studied for three milk production traits and eight udder conformation traits. This QTL was also associated with yield traits in DR but not in FA or SRB. No QTL were found for udder conformation traits on chromosome 9

Sahana, G; Lund, M S

2008-01-01

332

RESEARCH ON SUBLINICAL MASTITIS EFFECT ON MILK QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Having considered that mastitis are the most costly disease in dairy farms, the present study was conducted in order to emphasize the effect of subclinical mastitis on milk composition and hygiene. On this purpose, large amounts of statistical data were analyzed, including all three main bovine breeds in Romania. Firstly, mastitis causing factors have been studied (breed, age, season, milking system. Afterwards, comparative study was achieved on fat, protein, lactose, salts. A significant increase in salts concomitantly with decreasing lactose percent has been revealed. Pathogen involved in subclinical mastitis has been also analyzed. According to our research, defectuous mechanical milking is the most frequent cause of subclinical mastitis occurrence.

C. ?ONEA

2013-07-01

333

Vesical Leiomyoma: Presentation of a clinical case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vesical leiomyoma is a tumor of mesenchymal origin, and extremely rare. Most of them are diagnosed casually after the pathologic study of samples collected after surgery. Few cases were found in the reviewed literature, leading us to think of the scarce incidence of this kind of tumors. We present a case treated in our service, of an 18-years-old female patient, assisting to our consultation presenting a polaquiuria, ardor and mictional effort. The complementary exams led to the surgical treatment and follow up of the patient

334

[Musculoskeletal tuberculosis - a clinical case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis of the chest wall constitutes 1% to 5% of all cases of musculoskeletal TB. Abscesses of the chest wall are rare tuberculous locations. Because of the resurgence of the tuberculosis associated to AIDS, that diagnosis must be considered more frequently. The authors present a case of osseous tuberculosis with an abscess rib in a patient with HIV. The combination of indolent ons