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Sample records for clinical mastitis cases

  1. Mastitis, a Radiographic, Clinical, and Histopathologic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Reddy, Vijaya; Solmos, Gene; Watkins, Latanja; Cimbaluk, David; Bitterman, Pincas; Ghai, Ritu; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign inflammatory process of the breast with heterogeneous histopathological findings, which clinically and radiographically may mimic a mammary carcinoma. We undertook a retrospective study on 37 cases of mastitis in our institution to correlate the radiographic imaging features and the clinical presentation with the histopathological findings. Histologically, there were 21 granulomatous, 7 fibrous, 3 plasma cell, 3 lupus, 2 lymphocytic, and 1 case of acute mastitis. Radiographically, 16/25 (64%) patients with ultrasound studies showed irregular hypoechoic masses suspicious for malignancy. Clinically, 38% of patients had an associated systemic disease. PMID:25940456

  2. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations. PMID:26126595

  3. Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy cows: incidence and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Cabal, M. A.; Yaici, S.; Alenda, R.

    2008-07-01

    Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.

  4. Granulomatous mastitis: a report of seven cases

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, A; Magrath, IM; Riddell, RH; Talbot, IC

    1982-01-01

    The clinical history and histological features of seven cases of granulomatous mastitis are presented. The lesion occurs in young parous women as a tender extra-areolar breast lump. Histologically, non-caseating discrete granulomas are present, confined to breast lobules with, in three cases, coalescence of the granulomas and microabscess formation. Pathogenesis of the changes is discussed. It is thought that granulomatous mastitis is an entity morphologically distinct from duct ectasia/plasm...

  5. Evidence of no protection for a recurrent case of pathogen specific clinical mastitis from a previous case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Elva; Hertl, Julia; Schukken, Ynte; Tauer, Loren; Welcome, Frank; Gröhn, Yrjö

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of a previous case of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) protects Holstein dairy cows against a recurrent case. Pathogens studied were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trueperella pyogenes. A total of 40 864 lactations (17 265 primiparous and 23 599 multiparous) from 19 835 cows from 5 large, high milk producing New York State dairy herds were analysed. We estimated the effects of parity, calving diseases, milk yield, current season and number of CM cases in the previous lactation on the risk of a first CM case using generalised linear mixed models with a log link and Poisson error distribution. The aforementioned risk factors and the occurrence of previous cases of pathogen-specific CM within the current lactation were evaluated as risks for second and third cases of pathogen-specific CM. Cows with more CM cases in the previous lactation were at greater risk of pathogen-specific CM in the current lactation. Multiparous cows were at greater risk of a second CM case if they had suffered from a first CM case that was caused by the same pathogen as the second case. In contrast, a second CM case generally put cows at greater risk of a third case, irrespective of whether the third case was caused by the same or a different pathogen. Our results showed that a previous case of pathogen specific CM does not generally protect against a recurrent case. PMID:26568557

  6. Candida Mastitis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Louisa; Cruz, Stacie A

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been demonstrated to have many benefits for both mother and child. Nipple pain in the breastfeeding woman is a common complaint; it is the second most common cause of breastfeeding discontinuation in the first six months after childbirth. This case report addresses the characteristics of breast pain induced by Candida mastitis and the risk factors for and treatment of mastitis. Educating family physicians and other clinicians about how to recognize and treat this often diffi...

  7. Udder quarter risk factors associated with prevalence of bovine clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakov Dimitar; Trajcev Metodija

    2012-01-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out to estimate prevalence of clinical mastitis on udder quarters level and to determinate the quarter risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis during lactation.The individual risk factors included assessments of parity, season of year when case of clinical mastitis was occurred, conformation characteristics of udder quarters and teats and distance from front and rear teat end to the floor. Cows with clinical mastitis were detected ...

  8. Patterns of clinical mastitis manifestations in Danish organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    Danish organic dairy production is characterized by a low input of antibiotics for udder treatment and a high input of other mastitis control procedures. A study was conducted in 14 organic dairy herds with the objectives of obtaining a comprehensive description of clinical mastitis cases and...... identifying characteristic patterns in these results. Clinical signs, inflammatory reactions and microbiological identifications were obtained from 367 cases of clinical mastitis occurring over 18 months. Cow characteristics and preincident values such as milk yield and somatic cell count were obtained for...... each cow. Signs of previous udder inflammation were present in two-thirds of the clinical mastitis cases. Severe local inflammatory reactions were found in 21% of the cases and some indication of generalized signs such as fever and reduced appetite were found in 35% of the cases. Logistic regression...

  9. A peptide derived from human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) exerts bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical cases of bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for approximately one-third of the clinical cases of bovine mastitis and can elicit a life-threatening, systemic inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a membrane component of all Gram-negative bacteria and is largely responsible for evoking the de...

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of mastitis pathogens isolated from acute cases of clinical mastitis in dairy cows across Europe: VetPath results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Valrie; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; Simjee, Shabbir; El Garch, Farid; Morrissey, Ian; Marion, Herv; Vall, Michel

    2015-07-01

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry not recently treated with antibiotics. Non-replicate milk samples were collected from cows with acute clinical mastitis in eight countries. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis were isolated by standardised methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined in a central laboratory by CLSI broth microdilution methodology; results were interpreted using clinical breakpoints where available. Among E. coli (n=280), resistance to tetracycline (14.3%) and cefapirin (11.1%) were most common. Resistance to other ?-lactam antibiotics was absent (ceftiofur) or very low (cefalexin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). The MIC90 of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin was 0.03 and 0.06?g/mL, respectively, with 0.7% of strains displaying a deviating high MIC. Staphylococcus aureus (n=250) were susceptible to most antibiotics tested, although 36.0% were resistant to penicillin G. For other ?-lactam antibiotics where a CLSI breakpoint was available, no resistance was detected. Tetracycline resistance was low (5.2%). Streptococcus uberis (n=282) were susceptible to all ?-lactam antibiotics, although 29.8% were intermediately susceptible to penicillin G; 18.8% of strains were resistant to erythromycin and 28.7% to tetracycline. This European study shows that bacteria associated with acute clinical mastitis are susceptible to most antibiotics with the exception of penicillin G against S. aureus, and erythromycin and tetracycline against S. uberis. The results of this study should serve as a reference baseline. This work also highlights the urgent need to set additional clinical breakpoints for antibiotics frequently used to treat mastitis. PMID:26003836

  11. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Varshochi; Mehdi Haghdoost; Omid Mashrabi

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis (GLM) or autoimmune mastitis is a rare and benign disease which, except one case reported in an old man, is usually seen during pregnancy or lactation period. This disease was described for the first time by Kessler. Approach: Our case is a 34 year-old woman who has a child with a history of using OCP that primary complaint was swelling, heat and erythema in the right breast. She was diagnosed with mastitis and treated with...

  12. Periductal mastitis. Clinical characteristics and outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuad F. Ammari; Rami J. Yaghan; Abdel-Karim H. Omari

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review our experience with periductal mastitis and address the clinical characteristics, management and outcome. METHODS A retrospective study was carried out at Princess Basma Teaching Hosptal, Irbid, Jordan. Thirty-five patients with the diagnosis of periductal mastitis from the year 1994 through to 2000 were reviewed. Patients presenting with periareolar non-lactating inflammation, a periareolar inflammatory mass, abscess, mammary fistula, or nipple inversion were in...

  13. Mastitis crnica granulomatosa idioptica: reporte de un caso / Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Takano; Percy, Prial.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis cnica granulomatosa idioptica es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en mujeres, preferentemente en edad reproductiva, con caractersticas clnicas, mamogrficas, ecogrficas y citolgicas sugestivas de cncer mamario. Se informa un caso de patologa mamaria en paciente mujer de 35 ao [...] s de edad, portadora de tumoracin eritematosa, sensible, localizada en mama izquierda. La lesin fue tratada como "mastitis" con antibiticos y corticoides durante dos semanas. La persistencia de tumoracin y sensibilidad, as como los controles mamogrficos y ecogrficos sugestivos de neoplasia, decidieron la extirpacin quirrgica. El diagnstico histopatolgico fue de mastitis crnica granulomatosa idioptica. Abstract in english Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor [...] localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis.

  14. Mastitis crnica granulomatosa idioptica: reporte de un caso / Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Takano; Percy, Prial.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis cnica granulomatosa idioptica es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en mujeres, preferentemente en edad reproductiva, con caractersticas clnicas, mamogrficas, ecogrficas y citolgicas sugestivas de cncer mamario. Se informa un caso de patologa mamaria en paciente mujer de 35 ao [...] s de edad, portadora de tumoracin eritematosa, sensible, localizada en mama izquierda. La lesin fue tratada como "mastitis" con antibiticos y corticoides durante dos semanas. La persistencia de tumoracin y sensibilidad, as como los controles mamogrficos y ecogrficos sugestivos de neoplasia, decidieron la extirpacin quirrgica. El diagnstico histopatolgico fue de mastitis crnica granulomatosa idioptica. Abstract in english Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor [...] localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis.

  15. Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the...... predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis...

  16. Granulomatous lobular mastitis ,A case series.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Pourzand; Mohammad Amin Mohammadzadeh-Gharabaghi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is an inflammatory disease of the breast, which can mimic breast cancer in clinical and radiological findings. We conducted the present study in order to determine the diagnostic and other important aspects of this disease. METHODS: In this study, we reviewed the records of 38 patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis in order to describe the clinical, imaging, laboratory, pathologic, and treatment aspects of this disease. RESULTS: All of th...

  17. Granulomatous lobular mastitis ,A case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourzand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM is an inflammatory disease of the breast, which can mimic breast cancer in clinical and radiological findings. We conducted the present study in order to determine the diagnostic and other important aspects of this disease. METHODS: In this study, we reviewed the records of 38 patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis in order to describe the clinical, imaging, laboratory, pathologic, and treatment aspects of this disease. RESULTS: All of the patients ages were in the range of 22-62 years (mean age: 42 years. All of them had children, history of oral contraceptive pill (OCP usage, antibiotic therapy and mammoplasty. In physical examination, dimpling, edema, inflammation, ulcer, abscess, and firm mass were detected. Size of masses was in the range of 2 2 to 8 6 cm and their location, in most cases, was in the superior lateral quadrant or central region. In Ultrasonography, a hypoechoic fibroglandular mass and collection, and in pathologic findings, granulomatous reaction was reported. These patients were treated by antibiotics, corticosteroids, and surgery. CONCLUSIONS: GLM is a chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast which can mimic breast cancer. A history of child bearing, lactation, and OCP drug usage have suspicious roles in the formation of GLM. The most common clinical sign in these patients is a painful mass in the breast. We uncovered that clinical and radiological findings are not specific and sufficient for diagnosis of GLM. Therefore, for better diagnosis of this disease, usage of core, incisional, or excisional biopsy are recommended.

  18. Bilateral Tubercular Mastitis - Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A K; Mubin, S; Yousuf, N A; Rahman, M; Islam, M A; Ahmed, S U

    2015-07-01

    Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis. Moreover the disease is often overlooked and misdiagnosed as carcinoma or pyogenic abscess. Reports on breast tuberculosis have been few; reported incidence of breast tuberculosis amongst the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.1 and 4 percent. Bilateral involvement is still more uncommon (3%). Here we report 3 cases of adult female ranging from 27 to 35 years who presented with 1 to 4 months history of firm lumps in both breasts and no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of breast lump in all 3 cases were done but in 1 case showed evidence of tubercular mastitis and other 2 cases findings were inconclusive. Subsequent Excisional Biopsy of those 2 cases showed features of tuberculosis. All 3 were prescribed with four drug anti-tubercular treatments continued for 12 months in 2 cases and 9 months in other case depending upon their response. The lumps disappeared and ulcer healed after anti-tubercular treatment. PMID:26329964

  19. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis; Clinical presentation, radiological features and treatmant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the clinical characteristic, clinical presentations and radiological features of diopathic granulomatous mastitis, and the best treatment approaches of this clinical entity. Between 1996 and 2003 the files and histopathology reports of 25 patients with granulomatous mastitis at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital Jeddah, Kindom of Saudi Arabia were reviewed. The data were analyzed and a Medline search was carried out from 1970 to 2003 to review relevant cases. The age of patients ranged from 24-66 years and the mean age was 36.6+-9.43 years. All patients were females. The most common clinical presentation was palpable tender mass. The most common mammographic finding was ill-defined mass. However, mixed hypo- and hyper-echogenic lesions with tubular connections were the common ultrasonic findings. Treatment approaches were conservative or surgical excision or steroid. Conservative treatment associated with the higher rate of complications, while treatment with steroid showed complete remission of disease. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, benign breast disease that is usually underestimated or misdiagnosed. The clinical and radiological features resemble those of infectious mastitis or breast carcinoma. Early recognition and initiation of steroid treatment will result in complete remission of the disease and prevent complications. (author)

  20. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis mimicking breast cancer: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaiem, F; Korbi, S; Tlili, T; Haddad, I; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S; Gara, F; Mzabi, S

    2012-06-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease of unknown aetiology that is frequently mistaken for breast carcinoma both clinically and mammographically. In this paper, the authors report two cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis that occurred in two parous women aged 38 and 45 years. Clinically, both patients presented with a tender palpable lump in the left breast. Mammography showed an poorly-defined mass in both patients with microcalcification in the first case and skin retraction in the second case. Breast lumpectomy was performed in both patients. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed non-caseating granulomas confined to breast lobules. Special staining for fungi and tuberculosis were all negative. Correct diagnosis ofidiopathic granulomatous mastitis requires the exclusion of malignancy, other granulomatous disease and infectious aetiologies. Histopathologic examination remains the gold standard for diagnosis. This disease is rare, and therefore the optimum treatment protocol is still being established. PMID:22931042

  1. Mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii: relato de um caso Clinical bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de mastite clnica causada por Prototheca zopfii em uma vaca de um rebanho leiteiro localizado na Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais foi estudado. O animal apresentou sinais clnicos nos quartos mamrias anteriores e queda acentuada na produo de leite. Aps o diagnstico inicial, o animal foi observado durante onze meses, do incio da manifestao da doena at 12 dias aps o parto. Exames microbiolgicos do leite foram realizadas aos 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 e 331 dias aps o isolamento inicial, sendo os dois ltimos exames realizados 7 e 12 dias aps o parto. As amostras de P. zopfii isoladas apresentaram resistncia in vitro a: ampicilina, canamicina, cefatoridina, enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, neomicina, oxacilina, penicilina, sulfonamidas e trimetoprim x sulfametoxazol. Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade in vitro das amostras de P. zopfii a um produto natural constitudo de extrato de sementes de frutas ctricas, obtido comercialmente. A menor concentrao que inibiu totalmente a alga foi 1:500. Recomendou-se um tratamento com a diluio a 1:200 do extrato em soluo fisiolgica estril contendo timerosal a 1:30.000 como conservante, em doses dirias de 20ml, por via intramamria. O tratamento foi realizado inicialmente durante sete dias. Aps este perodo houve reduo, mas no a completa eliminao dos organismos do leite. Foi, ento, recomendado mais um perodo de 15 dias de tratamento, de modo semelhante ao primeiro. Trinta e nove dias aps o diagnstico inicial no foi mais isolado P. zopfii do leite dos quartos afetados e a produo retornou a nveis semelhantes de antes da infeco. Amostras de leite naturalmente infectadas foram congelados a -20C. Clulas viveis de P. zopfii foram recuperadas de amostras mantidas at 38 dias nestas condies.A clinical case of mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in a cow from a dairy herd located in the region of Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, was studied. The cow showed clinical signs of mastitis in both front mammary quarters and marked reduction on milk production. Following the diagnosis the animal was accompanied for 11 months. Milk samples collected at days l, 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 and 331 were cultured. The last two exams were conducted at 7 and 12 days after calving. The P. zopfii strains were resistant in vitro to: ampicillin, kanamycin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, streptomycin, gentamycin, neomycin, oxacillin, penicillin G, sulfonamides and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The strains showed sensitivity in vitro to a natural extract made of citrous seed, commercially available. The smallest concentration that completely inhibited the growth of the organisms was 1:500. The infected glands were treated intrammamary, with an extract preparation of a 1:200 dilution in 0.85%(p/v NaCl containing 1:30,000 thimerosal as preservative. Doses of 20ml were applied daily, during seven days. After this period, P. zopfii was still isolated from milk samples, although in smaller numbers. The treatment was resumed for a period of 15 days. At day 39 after diagnosis the infected quarters were cultured negative and microbiological exams carried out from day 39 onward resulted negative. The milk production returned to levels as before infection. Naturally infected milk samples were kept frozen (-20C and viable P. zopfii were recovered until 38 days under this condition.

  2. Clinical Mastitis and Combined Defensin Polymorphism in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szyda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defensins are particularly active against gram-positive bacteria and fungi but at higher concentrations they are also, capable of destroying gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, enveloped viruses and some protozoons. The aim of this study was to search for associations between the occurrence of clinical mastitis and Combined Defensin Genotypes (CDG and to investigate the possibility of using defensin gene polymorphisms in marker-assisted selection for immunity towards mastitis in dairy cows. This study included such indicators as the number of clinical cases of mastitis acuta and chronica, number of affected udder quarters and duration of the condition in 1,025 cows (Polish Holstein-Friesian breed kept on a farm located in the North-Western region of Poland. The cows were of different ages and in different lactations parities (from 1st to 6th. An analysis of associations between selected CDGs and susceptibility/immunity towards mastitis has showed statistically significant relations with regard to all the indicators under study and CDGs. Moreover, some genotypes have been found to have different effects on chronic and acute infections.

  3. The clinical and mammographic features of plasma cell mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and mammographic features of plasma cell mastitis. Methods: Twenty-five patients (28 lesions) with histologically confirmed plasma cell mastitis, aged from 26 to 70 years (mean age 41 years), were examined with X-ray mammography. The clinical manifestations and imaging features were retrospectively reviewed. Results: No case was in lactation. The painful irregular masses, ranged from 1.3 to 8cm in size, were found in 22 patients, while 3 patients with acute episode. Recurrent episodes of breast masses were noted in 4 patients. Based on the mammographic appearances, the plasma cell mastitis were classified as the following four types: inflammation-like type (2/28), ductal ectasia type (3/28), focal infiltration type (10/28) and nodular type (13/28). The valuable radiographic signs: (1) An asymmetrically increased density along the lactiferous duct with a flame-like appearance, inhomogeneous low density tubular structures and scattered stick-shape calcifications. (2) Architectural distortion and oil cysts formation in adjacent area, (3) Subareolar ductal ectasia. Conclusions: The clinical and mammographic characteristics of plasma cell mastitis are critical to avoiding unnecessary surgery. Histopathological result is needed for the diagnosis in patients highly suspected of malignancy. (authors)

  4. The cost of clinical mastitis in the first 30 days of lactation: An economic modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, E; Dhuyvetter, K C; Overton, M W

    2015-12-01

    Clinical mastitis results in considerable economic losses for dairy producers and is most commonly diagnosed in early lactation. The objective of this research was to estimate the economic impact of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation for a representative US dairy. A deterministic partial budget model was created to estimate direct and indirect costs per case of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation. Model inputs were selected from the available literature, or when none were available, from herd data. The average case of clinical mastitis resulted in a total economic cost of $444, including $128 in direct costs and $316 in indirect costs. Direct costs included diagnostics ($10), therapeutics ($36), non-saleable milk ($25), veterinary service ($4), labor ($21), and death loss ($32). Indirect costs included future milk production loss ($125), premature culling and replacement loss ($182), and future reproductive loss ($9). Accurate decision making regarding mastitis control relies on understanding the economic impacts of clinical mastitis, especially the longer term indirect costs that represent 71% of the total cost per case of mastitis. Future milk production loss represents 28% of total cost, and future culling and replacement loss represents 41% of the total cost of a case of clinical mastitis. In contrast to older estimates, these values represent the current dairy economic climate, including milk price ($0.461/kg), feed price ($0.279/kg DM (dry matter)), and replacement costs ($2,094/head), along with the latest published estimates on the production and culling effects of clinical mastitis. This economic model is designed to be customized for specific dairy producers and their herd characteristics to better aid them in developing mastitis control strategies. PMID:26596651

  5. Granulomatous lobular mastitis ,A case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourzand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM is an inflammatory disease of the breast, which can mimic breast cancer in clinical and radiological findings. We conducted the present study in order to determine the diagnostic and other important aspects of this disease. METHODS: In this study, we reviewed the records of 38 patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis in order to describe the clinical, imaging, laboratory, pathologic, and treatment aspects of this disease. RESULTS: All of the patients’ ages were in the range of 22-62 years (mean age: 42 years. All of them had children, history of oral contraceptive pill (OCP usage, antibiotic therapy and mammoplasty. In physical examination, dimpling, edema, inflammation, ulcer, abscess, and firm mass were detected. Size of masses was in the range of 2 × 2 to 8 × 6 cm and their location, in most cases, was in the superior lateral quadrant or central region. In Ultrasonography, a hypoechoic fibroglandular mass and collection, and in pathologic findings, granulomatous reaction was reported. These patients were treated by antibiotics, corticosteroids, and surgery. CONCLUSIONS: GLM is a chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast which can mimic breast cancer. A history of child bearing, lactation, and OCP drug usage have suspicious roles in the formation of GLM. The most common clinical sign in these patients is a painful mass in the breast. We uncovered that clinical and radiological findings are not specific and sufficient for diagnosis of GLM. Therefore, for better diagnosis of this disease, usage of core, incisional, or excisional biopsy are recommended.

  6. Mining sensor data to discover clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    When cows are milked with an automatic milking system (AMS), clinical mastitis (CM) cannot be detected adequately without using electronic sensing devices. This paper describes approaches to improve automated CM detection in AMS using sensor inputs and data mining. Sensor data and observational CM data, both at quarter level, were collected over two years at nine Dutch AMS farms. Decision-tree induction was used for model development using data from cows that were highly likely to be healthy ...

  7. Efficacy of a botanical preparation for the intramammary treatment of clinical mastitis on an organic dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Pinedo, Pablo; Karreman, Hubert; Bothe, Hans; Velez, Juan; Risco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a botanical product (PHYTO-MAST) for the intra-mammary treatment of clinical mastitis (CM) in dairy cows managed in an organic system. The study involved 194 naturally occurring cases of clinical mastitis. Treatment was applied every 12 hours for 3 days and cows were evaluated for clinical cure starting on day 4. Outcomes of interest consisted of mastitis resolution at day 4, time to resolution, somatic cell score (SCS) after recovery, and bacter...

  8. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis (GLM or autoimmune mastitis is a rare and benign disease which, except one case reported in an old man, is usually seen during pregnancy or lactation period. This disease was described for the first time by Kessler. Approach: Our case is a 34 year-old woman who has a child with a history of using OCP that primary complaint was swelling, heat and erythema in the right breast. She was diagnosed with mastitis and treated with antibiotics for one month, later on she had experienced stiffness in the breast and a mass was also palpable. The patient was performed surgical drainage and treated with wide spectrum antibiotics being diagnosed with abscess. After one month, a solid mass was palpable so, mammography was performed and the mass was surgically resected with a suspicion of tumor. Results: The pathology report revealed granulomatous mastitis with non caseified granuloma. For Anti-TB treatment was started as medication regime and after 40 days fistula with frequent secretions appeared. Antituberculosis medications stopped and other conditions resulting in none caseified granuloma. In microscopic view granulomatous mastitis along with abscess was reported. Corticosteroids were started and the mass became smaller gradually, the fistula also closed and secretions dried out. Conclusion: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis is a benign inflammatory breast disease. Cause of disease is still unknown, but some factors have been suggested such as local autoimmune, reaction to the delivery, previous use of contraceptives and infectious causes. The best treatment proposed is corticosteroid therapy in which the mass dwindle and the fistula is closed and secretions dried. The case is now under treatment with corticosteroids and all her symptoms have improved.

  9. Low somatic cell count : a risk factor for subsequent clinical mastitis in a dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Suriyasathaporn, W.; Schukken, Y. H.; Nielen, M; Brand, A.

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to evaluate factors measured at the udder inflammation-free state as risk factors for subsequent clinical mastitis. The factors including somatic cell count (SCC), body condition score, milk yield, percentages of milk fat and milk protein, and diseases were evaluated for their association with the results of udder inflammatory response. The results of the response were specified as presence (case) and absence (control) of clinical signs of mastitis. Data on ...

  10. Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Sargeant, J M; Scott, H. M.; Leslie, K.E.; Ireland, M. J; Bashiri, A

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to ma...

  11. Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet Erözgen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an infectious or non-infectious breast disease associated with breast inflammation. It is observed most frequently during milk stasis (engorgement and lactation period (puerperal with superimposed infection. Most mastitides heal with simple self-help measures, however, sometimes antibiotherapy and abscess drainage may be required. Other than lactating period, mastitides are encountered in the presence of recurrent infections and abscess. Although various factors, such as smoking, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis can at times be the root causes of mastitis, they are frequently observed in granulomatous mastitides. Treatment approaches not involving biopsy are disadvantageous and harmful in such cases which can be confused with breast cancer. Ultrasound-guided abscess drainage in patients with breast abscess and irrigation of the pouch with saline are the preferred treatment approach today. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 150-2

  12. An Unusual Case of Bilateral Granulomatous Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pistolese, C. A.; Di Trapano, R.; Girardi, V.; Costanzo, E.; Di Poce, I.; Simonetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate ...

  13. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Maede Moosavi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Mohsen Ghavami; Amin Tamado?

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ? 150 DIM), duration of masti...

  14. Tuberculous Mastitis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal A. Pandit; Sunita S. Dantkale; Nisha V. Thakare; Smita S. Pudale

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis of breast is an uncommon diseaseclinically mimicking breast carcinoma. Wepresent a case of a 22 years old female whocomplained of a breast mass and axillary swell-ing of three months duration. Clinically she wasdiagnosed as having phyllodes tumour. Thebreast mass ultrasonography revealed a benigncystic hypoechoic lesion. Grossly the excisedmass was a cyst containing serous fluid alongwith a small solid yellowish white nodule withfoci of caseation. The axillary lymph nodes alsosho...

  15. Effect of clinical mastitis on the lactation curve: a mixed model estimation using daily milk weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D J; González, R N; Hertl, J; Schulte, H F; Bennett, G J; Schukken, Y H; Gröhn, Y T

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the milk production losses associated with clinical mastitis using mixed linear models and correlation structures that have not been available previously. Data used included computer-recorded daily milk yields and detailed and accurate recordings of clinical mastitis cases. Two commercial Holstein dairy farms in New York State participated in the study, one with 650 lactating cows and another that began the study with 830 lactating cows and increased to 1120 cows by the end of the study. Cows on both farms were housed in free stall barns and milked 3 times daily in milking parlors. Electrical conductivity was used as a diagnostic aid for clinical mastitis on both farms. Date of clinical onset was recorded for every episode of clinical mastitis as well as for 8 other diseases defined using standardized case definitions (dystocia, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, and cystic ovarian disease) during the study period of October 1, 1999 to July 31, 2001. The mixed linear model for explaining variation in the outcome variable daily milk yield relative to non-mastitic herdmates found the terms for all 9 diseases studied, including clinical mastitis, significant. The model with an autoregressive correlation structure was preferred based on -2 * log likelihood, Akaike's information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion as well as savings in degrees of freedom. Separate analyses were run for first lactation cows and for second-plus lactation cows because their lactation curves were shaped differently. Adjusting for the effects of the other 8 diseases, milk production loss from clinical mastitis during the whole lactation was estimated as approximately 598 kg for second-plus lactation cows. However, cows that contracted mastitis had a daily production advantage of 2.6 kg over their herdmates until they contracted the disease. When compared with this potentially higher milk production, the total loss from clinical mastitis was estimated as 1181 kg. PMID:15328219

  16. Granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Going, J J; Anderson, T J; Wilkinson, S; Chetty, U.

    1987-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of nine cases of granulomatous mastitis were compared with those of 10 cases of duct ectasia/periductal mastitis (DE/PM), all of which were associated with active granulomatous inflammation. Granulomatous mastitis affects a younger age group, and although there is some overlap with DE/PM, it has distinctive pathological features, particularly a lobule centred distribution, for which the term "granulomatous lobular mastitis" is recommended. There is a str...

  17. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis masquerading as carcinoma of the breast: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tuli, Richard; O'Hara, Brian J; Hines, Janet; Anne L. Rosenberg

    2007-01-01

    Background Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is an uncommon, benign entity with a diagnosis of exclusion. The typical clinical presentation of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis often mimics infection or malignancy. As a result, histopathological confirmation of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis combined with exclusion of infection, malignancy and other causes of granulomatous disease is absolutely necessary. Case Presentation We present a case of a young woman with idiopathic granulomatous ma...

  18. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Mdegela

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69. Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91. Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91 while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90. Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353, while for bacteria and fungi it was 16 % and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n =67. The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

  19. Somatic cell count distributions during lactation predict clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M J; Green, L. E.; Schukken, Y H; Bradley, A. J.; Peeler, E.J.; Barkema, H.W.; de Haas, Y; Collis, V.J.; Medley, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated somatic cell count (SCC) records during lactation, with the purpose of identifying distribution characteristics (mean and measures of variation) that were most closely associated with clinical mastitis. Three separate data sets were used, one containing quarter SCC (n = 1444) and two containing cow SCC (n = 933 and 11,825). Clinical mastitis was defined as a binary outcome, present or absent, for each lactation, and SCC were log (base 10) transformed. A generalized ...

  20. [Herd-specific estimation of milk yield reduction due to recurrent clinical mastitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoche-Golob, Veit; Spilke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To decide about investments in preventive measures improving udder health it is important that the farmer knows the monetary loss due to mastitis on his specific farm. The Saxon dairy herd improvement association (Schsischer LandeskontrolIverband e.V., LKV) is developing a computer program called "Daten- und Informationsplattform Tier (DIT)"which determines - among other analyses - the milk loss caused by mastitis for a specific herd based on individual cow's mastitis and daily milk yield data. The present article introduces the linear mixed model which is taken as a basis for calculating the reduction in performance through clinical mastitis. The short and long term decrease in daily milk yield is described by expanding the lactation curve model of Ali and Schaeffer (1987). For falculating the short term drop, the model includes the laps of time in days since the mastitis incident as secon-ddegree polynomial. The coefficients are estimaged specifically for the first respectively every following case of mastitis (class of episode). Classes of episode are also considered calculating the long term decrease by estimating lactation curves without mastitis as well as corresponding to the classes of episode. By integrating the statistic software R (R Development Core Team, 2012) into the processes of the DIT the estimation of the farm specific model parameters is largely automated on the servers of the LKV.Thereby, milk yield can be estimated for every day in milk according to episode number and laps of time since the incident or with no mastitis incident respectively for a particular period of time in a specific dairy herd. The loss resulting from reduced performance due to clinical mastitis is specified by adding up the differences and can serve as a valuable basis for management decisions. PMID:23901581

  1. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R H, Mdegela; R, Ryoba; E D, Karimuribo; E J, Phiri; T, Lken; O, Reksen; E, Mtengeti; N A, Urio.

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clini [...] cal changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69). Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91). Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91) while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90). Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353), while for bacteria and fungi it was 16% and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n = 67). The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

  2. Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Rathore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Somatic Cell Count (SCC and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy control. Antioxidant parameters measured in blood were superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration. Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation (LPO was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA production. Results: Significant (P<0.05 decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentration and an increase in erythrocytic lipid peroxides was observed in cows with clinical mastitis. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a compromise in antioxidant defense of the body in dairy cows with clinical mastitis resulting in oxidative damage, therefore, necessitate the use of antioxidants and other protective compounds along with conventional therapy for mastitis control. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 271-273

  3. Recovery from Mastitis in Dairy Cows Development of Behaviour, Milk Production and Inflammatory Markers in the Weeks during and after Naturally Occurring Clinical Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis results from invasion of infectious pathogens into a mammary gland and constitutes a significant problem in dairy herds around the world. In addition to economic consequences for the farmer, episodes of clinical mastitis in dairy cows are associated with discomfort and increased risk of culling and death. Although mastitis has received significant scientific attention, one aspect of bovine mastitis has only been touched upon very briefly; the characterization of the recovery period and its potential for modulation. Hence, in order to increase the understanding of the recovery period after bovine mastitis and to create a basis for future facilitation of recovery, the present thesis focussed on two selected aspects of recovery; a behavioural as well as an inflammatory aspect, aiming to 1) describe the behaviour of dairy cows in the days before, during and after antibiotic treatment for naturally occurring mastitis and to compare with behaviour of healthy cows; 2) describe the development within milk production and inflammatory markers before, during and after antibiotic treatment of naturally occurring mastitis, and to compare with healthy cows, with special focus on the expected post-mastitis stabilisation within these measures and 3) investigate a possible relationship between behaviour, milk production and inflammatory markers during naturally occurring bovine mastitis and its early recovery. Overall, the focus was on dairy cows housed in free stalls with automatic milking systems (AMS). This type of housing is gaining ground in the modern dairy farm. Furthermore, these settings are well suited for studies, like the present, where the use of automatically recorded measures are prioritised. The aims were achieved by two studies, the results of which are described in three papers included in this thesis. Study 1 was a cohort study using matched pair design where clinical registrations, production data and automatically recorded behavioural and inflammatory measures were collected prior to, during and after antibiotic treatment of naturally occurring mastitis. Based on 30 mild cases without systemic symptoms, the daily activity, feed intake and behaviour during milking of the infected animals were shown to differ from the healthy controls. For the majority of the examined behavioural measures, a lack of stabilisation during the week after finalisation of antibiotic treatment was found, suggesting that even within relatively mild cases of clinical mastitis, the cows were not recovered within this time frame. The description of the inflammatory aspect of mastitis focussed on changes in milk yield and inflammatory markers. Based on Study 1, the local clinical symptoms faded after antibiotic treatment but persisted for at least a week afterwards, which may have affected the welfare of the cows. The results of Study 2, involving automatically recorded measurements of milk yield and inflammatory markers from 174 mastitic and 858 control lactations, confirmed the findings of Study 1 and showed that milk yield, inter-quarter milk yield ratio and lactate dehydrogenase activity stabilised within one to three weeks post antibiotic treatment, but did not reach the pre-mastitis levels during the observation period of eight weeks post-mastitis. Hence, mastitis had a long-term effect on the measured variables and the infected cows were not fully recovered within eight weeks after antibiotic treatment. The presented combination of inflammatory as well as behavioural aspects of the recovery from bovine mastitis is new, and these results provide a more complete description of the recovery status of individual cows after a mastitis infection than what has been available until now. The co-development within the measures obtained in Study 1, which has been described in Paper III, e.g. showing a negative relationship between clinical score and lying time, has not been described before and may be considered as a first step to increase the understanding of the effect of mastitis infections in terms of animal welfare. Overall, the results

  4. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in three dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govignon-Gion, A; Dassonneville, R; Baloche, G; Ducrocq, V

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a routine genetic evaluation on occurrence of clinical mastitis in three main dairy cattle breeds - Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO) and Holstein (HO) - was implemented in France. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days of the first three lactations. Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three breeds. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2% and 4% depending on the breed. Despite its low heritability, the trait exhibits genetic variation so efficient genetic improvement is possible. Genetic correlations with other traits were estimated, showing large correlations (often>0.50, in absolute value) between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS), longevity and some udder traits. Correlation with milk yield was moderate and unfavorable (ρ=0.26 to 0.30). High milking speed was genetically associated with less mastitis in MO (ρ=-0.14) but with more mastitis in HO (ρ=0.18). A two-step approach was implemented for routine evaluation: first, a univariate evaluation based on a linear animal model with permanent environment effect led to pre-adjusted records (defined as records corrected for all non-genetic effects) and associated weights. These data were then combined with similar pre-adjusted records for others traits in a multiple trait BLUP animal model. The combined breeding values for clinical mastitis obtained are the official (published) ones. Mastitis estimated breeding values (EBV) were then combined with SCSs EBV into an udder health index, which receives a weight of 14.5% to 18.5% in the French total merit index (ISU) of the three breeds. Interbull genetic correlations for mastitis occurrence were very high (ρ=0.94) with Nordic countries, where much stricter recording systems exist reflecting a satisfactory quality of phenotypes as reported by the farmers. They were lower (around 0.80) with countries supplying SCS as a proxy for the international evaluation on clinical mastitis. PMID:26592099

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P L; Leigh, J A; Bradley, A J; Archer, S C; Emes, R D; Green, M J

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. PMID:26491180

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J. A.; Bradley, A. J.; Archer, S. C.; Emes, R. D.; Green, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. PMID:26491180

  7. [Evidence-based aspects of clinical mastitis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansion-de Vries, E M; Hoedemaker, M; Krmker, V

    2015-10-14

    Mastitis is one of the most common and expensive diseases in dairy cattle. The decision to treat clinical mastitis is usually made without any knowledge of the etiology, and can therefore only be evidence-based to a limited extent. Evidence-based medicine relies essentially on a combination of one's own clinical competence and scientific findings. In mastitis therapy, those insights depend mostly on pathogen-specific factors. Therefore, in evidence-based therapeutic decision making the pathogen identification should serve as a basis for the consideration of scientifically validated therapeutic concepts. The present paper considers evidence-based treatment of clinical mastitis based on a literature review. The authors conclude that an anti-inflammatory treatment using an NSAID should be conducted regardless of the pathogen. However, the choice of an antibiotic therapy depends on the mastitis causative pathogen, clinical symptoms and the animal itself. In principle, a local antibiotic treatment should be chosen for mild and moderate mastitis. It should be noted, that the benefit of an antibiotic therapy for coliform infections is questionable. With knowledge concerning the pathogen, it appears entirely reasonable to refrain from an antibiotic therapy. For severe (i.???e. feverish) mastitis, a parenteral antibiotic therapy should be selected. An extension of the antibiotic therapy beyond the manufacturer's information is only reasonable for streptococcal infections. It is important to make the decision on a prolonged antibiotic therapy only with the knowledge of the mastitis-causative pathogen. In terms of the therapy of a staphylococcus or streptococcus infection, a narrow-spectrum antibiotic from the penicillin family should be adopted when selecting the active agents. PMID:26365364

  8. Prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in the dry period and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Mosaferi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (3/33%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (9/99% and (6/66%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.

  9. Comparative Efficacy of Different Mastitis Markers for Diagnosis of Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Langer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred ninety six milk samples from 266 quarters of 69 lactating cows were subjected to microbiological investigations for identification of pathogens. One hundred ninety bacterial isolates were recovered from 89 infected quarters, among these monomicrobial infection was found in 50 (56.2% quarters, whereas, mixed infection was observed in 39 (43.8% quarters. Bacterial isolates identified were Staph. chromogenes (49.47%, Staph. hyicus (21.1%, Staph. epidermidis (11.05%, Str. agalactiae (5.8%, Staph. aureus (4.2%, Staph. intermedius (3.1%, Enterobacter sp. (1.5%, Klebsiella sp., E. coli (1.05%, Micrococcus sp. (1.05% and Serratia marcescens (0.52%. Milk samples from every quarter of each cow were also subjected to 6 mastitis marker tests named Somatic cell count (SCC, California mastitis test (CMT, electrical conductivity (EC by EC-meter as well as by Hand-held mastitis detector, pH detection by impregnated paper strip and also by pH meter. Efficacy of mastitis markers for diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis was determined by comparing results of mastitis marker tests with microbiological findings. Mean value of SSC in milk from healthy quarters was significantly lower (p than that in milk from infected quarters. Significantly higher (p value of SSC was observed in milk samples having coagulase positive staphylococci as compared to that in milk from quarter with coagulase negative pathogens. The mean electrical conductivity (EC in milk samples from infected quarters was significantly higher (P<0.05 than that from healthy quarters. Numbers and percentages of samples showing true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative results with SSC, CMT, EC by EC-meter, EC by hand-held meter, pH by impregnated strips, pH by digital pH-meter tests were evaluated and compared. The sensitivity and specificity of impregnated pH paper strip, CMT, pH-meter test, SCC, electrical conductivity by EC-meter and the same by Hand-held mastitis detector were evaluated The compatibility between the results of SCC, impregnated pH paper strip, CMT, EC-meter, pH-meter, Hand-held mastitis detector and bacteriological culture examination (reference test was found to be 64.4, 63.4, 61.5, 59, 59 and 53 respectively.

  10. A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland Suzanne M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design was used. Women with mastitis (cases, n = 100 were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (emergency departments, breastfeeding clinics and postnatal wards. Breastfeeding women without mastitis (controls, n = 99 were recruited from maternal and child health (community centres and the rooms of a private obstetrician. Women completed a questionnaire and nasal specimens were collected from mother and baby and placed in charcoal transport medium. Women also collected a small sample of milk in a sterile jar. Results There was no difference between nasal carriage of S. aureus in breastfeeding women with mastitis (42/98, 43% and control women (45/98, 46%. However, significantly more infants of mothers with mastitis were nasal carriers of S. aureus (72/88, 82% than controls (52/93, 56%. The association was strong (adjusted OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.30, 8.27 after adjustment for the following confounding factors: income, private health insurance, difficulty with breastfeeding, nipple damage and tight bra. There was also a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis (adjusted OR 9.34, 95%CI 2.99, 29.20. Conclusion We found no association between maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus and mastitis, but nasal carriage in the infant was associated with breast infections. As in other studies of mastitis, we found a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis. Prevention of nipple damage is likely to reduce the incidence of infectious mastitis. Mothers need good advice about optimal attachment of the baby to the breast and access to skilled help in the early postpartum days and weeks.

  11. A Cross Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Sub Clinical Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in and Aronund Gondar, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibret Moges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on 322 local (n = 57 and crossbred (n = 265 lactating hand milked small holder cows in and around Gondar. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis and the associated risk factors by clinical examination and using california mastitis test. Bacterial culture was also conducted to determine the casual agents of mastitis. The prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis in the study area was 0.93 and 31.67%, respectively with an overall prevalence of 32.6%. Out of 1288 quarters examined 164 were infected while 39 were blind. The number of clinically and sub clinically infected quarters were 7 and 157, respectively. Several pyogenic bacteria have been isolated from cases of sub clinical mastitis during the study period. The major bacteria isolated in this study were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae with a prevalence of 16.5, 15.9 and 14.0%, respectively. Among the risk factors considered, breed, age, parity and stage of lactation have been shown statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in the prevalence of mastitis. Sub clinical mastitis in both breeds has been reported to be higher than clinical mastitis. The odds of occurrence of mastitis were two times more likely in crossbreds compared to local zebu. The present study disclosed that high prevalence of sub clinical mastitis and the occurrence Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp. as dominant bacterial species from mastitic milk of the study area. All the risk factors considered were significant effect on the prevalence of mastitis. Appropriate control and prevention methods should be applied to reduce the prevalence and effect of mastitis in dairy cows.

  12. Clinical features and treatment of lactational mastitis: the experience from a binational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrakis, G; Zervoudis, S; Ceausu, I; Peitsidis, P; Tomara, I; Bakalianou, K; Hudita, D

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of 38 patients with mastitis are listed in this study, including nationality, age, parity, history of mastitis, clinical and laboratory findings, and medical treatment. Differential diagnosis was mainly correlated to breast engorgement. Mastitis was primarily related to staphylococcus aureus and it was more common in primiparous patients. PMID:23971258

  13. Cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis in Brazilian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A

    2015-10-01

    Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis. PMID:26302854

  14. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    González, R N; J.S. Cullor; Jasper, D E; Farver, T B; Bushnell, R B; Oliver, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical c...

  15. Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

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    S. A. Hussein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

  16. Efficacy of extended cefquinome treatment of clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, J M; Cox, P; Schukken, Y H; Lam, T J G M

    2013-08-01

    Clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is difficult to cure. Extended antimicrobial treatment is often advocated as a practical approach to improve cure rates; however, scientific evidence of this hypothesis is lacking. A multi-centered, nonblinded, randomized, positive-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 5 European countries-France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom-to study the efficacy of an extended intramammary cefquinome treatment (5 d) compared with a standard intramammary cefquinome treatment (1.5 d) of Staph. aureus clinical mastitis. Least squares means estimates of bacteriological cure during lactation were 34% [standard error (SE)=9.9%] for the standard treatment group and 27% (SE=8.4%) for the extended treatment group. In the final model, extended therapy was not significantly better. The only factor predicting bacteriological cure was pretreatment cow somatic cell count (SCC). Cows with >250,000 cells/mL in milk before treatment were less likely to cure. Least squares means of clinical cure during lactation was 60% (SE=19%) for the standard treatment group and 82% (SE=12%) for the extended treatment group. In the final model, clinical cure after extended treatment was significantly better. Pretreatment cow udder firmness predicted clinical cure. Firm udders were less likely to cure clinically. Irrespective of treatment regimen, new infection rates with pathogens other than Staph. aureus were higher (42%) after bacteriological cure than after nonbacteriological cure (22%) and cured cows had a significantly lower SCC. In conclusion, independent of the treatment protocol, cows with an SCC Extended treatment improved clinical, but not bacteriological, cure rates compared with the standard treatment. These results indicate that extending treatment of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis with cefquinome should not be recommended. PMID:23706485

  17. Impact of subclinical and clinical mastitis on sensitivity to pain of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M D P; Silveira, I D B; Fischer, V

    2015-12-01

    A total of 90 cows from three commercial farms were used to evaluate the relationship between subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis and thermal nociceptive threshold. Milk strips from all udder quarters were tested for clinical mastitis with visual inspection of milk and udder alterations and for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test. Milk yield was recorded, milk was sampled and further analyzed for somatic cells count (SCC). Cows were considered healthy when SCC200 000 cells/ml and no visual alterations in milk and/or udder, with moderate subclinical mastitis when SCC>500 000 cells/ml and no visual alterations in milk and/or udder and with clinical mastitis when visual alterations in milk and/or udder were detected. Nociceptive threshold was evaluated with the thermal threshold meter apparatus applied to the rear legs. Thermal threshold (TT) decreased when we compared healthy cows with cows presenting clinical mastitis and tended to decrease when we compare healthy cows with those with moderate subclinical mastitis. TT was lower at the ipsilateral rear leg compared with the contralateral leg to the infected mammary gland. TT linearly decreases as log10SCC increased and it showed sharp decrease as log10SCC exceed the value of 6.4. Increase in one unit of log10SCC increased the odds of low thermal threshold (lower than 55.8C). Subclinical mastitis might be a welfare issue as it tended to decrease nociceptive thermal threshold. PMID:26220469

  18. Automatic detection of clinical mastitis is improved by in-line monitoring of somatic cell count

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, C.; Sherlock, R.; Jago, J.; Mein, G.; Hogeveen, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the potential value of in-line composite somatic cell count (ISCC) sensing as a sole criterion or in combination with quarter-based electrical conductivity (EC) of milk, for automatic detection of clinical mastitis (CM) during automatic milking. Data generated from a New Zealand research herd of about 200 cows milked by 2 automatic milking systems during the 2006¿2007 milking season included EC, ISCC, monthly laboratory-determined SCC, and observed cases of CM that were tr...

  19. Phylogeny, virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated in clinical bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Suojala, Leena; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Simojoki, Heli; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa.; Pitkälä, Anna; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify specific phylogeny groups, virulence genes or antimicrobial resistance traits of Escherichia coli isolated in bovine mastitis associated to clinical signs, persistence of intramammary infection in the quarter and recovery from mastitis. A total of 154 E. coli isolates from bovine clinical mastitis, 144 from the acute stage and 10 from follow-up samples three weeks later, originating from 144 cows in 65 dairy herds in Southern Finland w...

  20. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Vojislav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis poses a major economic and health problem in herds of dairy cows. The many years of taking different approaches to treating mastitis have not resulted in an adequate solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. The treatment of mastitis using antibiotics yields satisfactory results, but it implies substantial costs for treatment and losses in rejecting milk. Due to the above reasons, a new area of scientific research offers possibilities for finding new solutions to the ever present problem of mastitis - immunoprophylaxis. Vaccines against mastitis available at this time are still not sufficiently effective in general practice, and they are at the level of experimental vaccines. All barn vaccines which have been worked on so far have been significantly experimentally successful. The success is in a significant increase in the antibody titer in serum (but not in milk, as well as in reducing the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases among experimental and control animals. Nevertheless, it is still believed that immunoprophylaxis, as a method for preventing inflammation of the udder and the occurrence of mastitis, is still an insufficiently investigated field of scientific research. Many scientists are engaged on the problem of finding a vaccine against mastitis, but the coplexity of the mammary gland and the specific permeability of the blood-milk barrier do not permit these efforts to be as successful as they might be if this were not the case.

  1. Pathogen-Specific Effects of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Clinical Mastitis and Somatic Cell Count in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srensen, Lars Peter; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, Jrn Rind; Lund, Mogens Sand

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mastitis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second parity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL affecting SCS. The 5 most common mastitis pathogens in the Danis...

  2. CNS SPECIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN CLINICAL AND SUBCLINICAL BOVINE MASTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Persson Waller, K.; Aspán, A; Nyman, A.; Persson, Y.; Grönlund Andersson, U.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are often associated with bovine mastitis. Knowledge about the relative importance of specific CNS species in different types of mastitis, and differences in antimicrobial resistance among CNS species is, however, scarce. Therefore, the aims of this study were to compare prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of CNS species in clinical and subclinical mastitis using material from two national surveys. Overall, S. chromogenes and ...

  3. Virulence Properties of Escherichia coli Isolated from Clinical Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Leyla; GÜNDÜZ, Kadri

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the presence of the genes for some virulence factors in Escherichia coli isolates from clinical bovine mastitis. A total of 100 E. coli isolates, each isolated from individual cows in different herds between 2000 and 2005, were examined. Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to detect the presence of the genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (stx1 and stx2), intimin (eaeA), heat-stable enterotoxin a (Sta), and F5 (K99), F41, and F17 f...

  4. Chronic mastitis in cows caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojkić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in dairy cows is an economically important disease because it makes up 38% of all diseases that occur in intensive cattle breeding. Mastitis affects milk production, either temporarily or permanently, depending on the course of infection and type of pathogen agent. Regular and timely therapy of mastitis based on the application antimicrobials, apart from prophylaxis, is very important for good health of breeding stock. This paper presents the case of repeated mastitis in a cow, Holstein-Friesian breed, 5 years old, which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Milk samples from each separate quarter of the udder were collected under aseptic conditions and sent to the laboratory for further bacteriological tests, for isolation and identification of pathogens, as well as to test pathogen resistance to some antibiotics. On the basis of bacteriological examinations, there was confirmed the presence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which showed sensitivity to ampicillin, cloxacillin and augmentin, intermediate resistance to tetracycline and resistance to kotrimeksazol.(cotrimoxazole-proveriti [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085

  5. Short communication: Protease activity measurement in milk as a diagnostic test for clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; van Werven, T; Roffel, S; Hogeveen, H; Nazmi, K; Bikker, F J

    2015-07-01

    Due to the increasing use of automated milking systems, automated detection of clinical mastitis is becoming more important. Various in- or on-line diagnostic tests are in use, but generally suffer from false mastitis alerts. In this study, we explored a new diagnostic approach based on measurement of protease activity using fluorogenic protease substrates, which can be performed on site, at high speed, and at low costs. Samples from cows with clinical mastitis submitted for bacteriological culture at the University Farm Animal Practice were collected during several months and kept at -20°C until protease activity measurement. A reference set of milk samples from clinically healthy cows were collected on 9 different farms and were tested for protease activity directly and after freezing at -20°C to allow for comparison with the samples from clinical cases. The protease activity in mastitic milk samples was significantly higher than in samples from healthy animals. Based on 71 clinical mastitis samples and 180 milk samples from clinically healthy quarters, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was estimated to be between 0.88 and 0.90, and at a threshold of 38 fluorescence per minute the test had a specificity of 0.99 at a sensitivity of 0.58. Protease activity measured in fresh milk from clinically healthy cows was significantly associated with somatic cell count and parity, but not with electrical conductivity, whereas protease activity in milk that had been frozen was statistically significantly associated with all 3 parameters. This study indicates that protease activity measurement as a stand-alone test can be used for detecting mastitis samples, using milk samples that have been frozen. Because protease activity acts in part on a different biological mechanism than somatic cell count or electrical conductivity, this test may increase the accuracy of mastitis diagnosis in combination with currently available in- or on-line tests in automated milking systems. PMID:25981067

  6. Managerial and environmental determinants of clinical mastitis in Danish dairy herds

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    Houe Hans

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.

  7. Incidence rate of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on conventional and organic Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, L J; Miller-Cushon, E K; Tucker, A L; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a common and costly production disease on dairy farms. In Canada, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) has been determined for conventionally managed dairy farms; however, no studies to date have assessed rates in organically managed systems. The objectives of this observational study were (1) to determine the producer-reported IRCM and predominant pathogen types on conventional and organic dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, and (2) to evaluate the association of both mean overall IRCM and pathogen-specific IRCM with management system, housing type, and pasture access. Data from 59 dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, distributed across conventional (n=41) and organic management (n=18) systems, were collected from April 2011 to May 2012. In addition to management system, farms were categorized by housing method (loose or tie-stall) and pasture access for lactating cows. Participating producers identified and collected samples from 936 cases of clinical mastitis. The most frequently isolated mastitis pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The IRCM was higher on conventional farms than organic (23.7 vs. 13.2 cases per 100 cow-years) and was not associated with housing type (loose or tie-stall), pasture access, or herd-average milk yield. Bulk tank somatic cell count tended to be lower on conventional farms than organic (222,000 vs. 272,000cells/mL). Pathogen-specific IRCM attributed to Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp., and E. coli was greater on conventional than organic farms, but was not associated with housing or any other factors. In conclusion, organic management was associated with reduced overall and pathogen-specific IRCM. PMID:26686728

  8. Tuberculous mastitis simulating carcinoma of the breast in a young Nigerian woman: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabageh, Donatus; Amao, Emmanuel Afolabi; Ayo-Aderibigbe A, Adebisi; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous mastitis is an uncommon disease even in countries where tuberculosis is highly endemic. It typically presents a diagnostic challenge masquerading as carcinoma or other primary disease of the breast. We report the case of a young multiparous Nigerian woman who presented with a tender left breast lump and enlargement of the left axillary lymph nodes for which a provisional diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast was made after clinical and radiological evaluation. The mass was pathologically diagnosed as tuberculous mastitis and anti-tuberculous therapy was instituted although she later absconded. This case shows that TM may present a diagnostic challenge on clinical, radiologic and microbiological investigation. Therefore, a high index of suspicion as well as FNAC and/or histological evaluation of tissue samples remain very important its diagnosis. PMID:26327962

  9. Clinical characteristics and persistence of bovine mastitis caused by different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci identified with API or AFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taponen, S.; Simojoki, H.; Haveri, M.; Larsen, Helle D.; Pyorala, S.

    The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP...... strains of these species. Approximately half of the mastitis cases were clinical, and in the majority clinical signs were mild. The severity and persistence of intramammary infection were unaffected by CNS species. Fifty-nine percent of the quarter cases were treated with antimicrobials, and the rest were...... left without treatment. Mastitis due to P-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were P-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as...

  10. Investigation of the association between the test day milk fat-protein ratio and clinical mastitis using a Poisson regression approach for analysis of time-to-event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoche-Golob, V; Heuwieser, W; Krmker, V

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between the milk fat-protein ratio and the incidence rate of clinical mastitis including repeated cases of clinical mastitis to determine the usefulness of this association to monitor metabolic disorders as risk factors for udder health. Herd records from 10 dairy herds of Holstein cows in Saxony, Germany, from September 2005-2011 (36,827 lactations of 17,657 cows) were used for statistical analysis. A mixed Poisson regression model with the weekly incidence rate of clinical mastitis as outcome variable was fitted. The model included repeated events of the outcome, time-varying covariates and multilevel clustering. Because the recording of clinical mastitis might have been imperfect, a probabilistic bias analysis was conducted to assess the impact of the misclassification of clinical mastitis on the conventional results. The lactational incidence of clinical mastitis was 38.2%. In 36.2% and 34.9% of the lactations, there was at least one dairy herd test day with a fat-protein ratio of 1.5, respectively. Misclassification of clinical mastitis was assumed to have resulted in bias towards the null. A clinical mastitis case increased the incidence rate of following cases of the same cow. Fat-protein ratios of 1.5 were associated with higher incidence rates of clinical mastitis depending on week in milk. The effect of a fat-protein ratio >1.5 on the incidence rate of clinical mastitis increased considerably over the course of lactation, whereas the effect of a fat-protein ratio 1.5 on the precedent test days of all cows irrespective of their time in milk seemed to be better predictors for clinical mastitis than the first test day results per lactation. PMID:26164530

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus Strain Isolated from a Cow with Clinical Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Paresh; Reddy, D Peddi; Kumar, P Anand; Gadicherla, Ramya; George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Staphylococcus aureus causing clinical mastitis in a cow from India. It is a major causative agent of mastitis and, further, livestock-associated strains are emerging as a potential threat to public health, thereby warranting studies to understand the genome of this deadly pathogen. PMID:26294628

  12. Occurrence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffaloes in the State of Haryana (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sindhu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to determine the occurrence and etiology of mastitis in traditionally managed buffaloes. A total of 5707 quarter milk samples from 2057 buffaloes were examined. Of these, 2948 (51.65% samples were found culturally positive. Among these, 1070 cases were from clinical mastitis and rest 1878 cases were positive for subclinical mastitis. As many as 3447 isolates were obtained from infected quarters. Out of these, 38.81% were Staphylococcus spp., 32.4% Streptococcus spp., 11.80% E. coli, 5.2% Corynebacterium spp., 1.36% Bacillus spp., 2.03% Klebsiella spp., 0.78% Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 0.14% Proteus , 0.14% yeast. Staphylococcus spp. was predominant mastitogenic organisms followed by Streptococcus spp. Of the staphylococcal organisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most prevalent being present in the 63.15% of the isolates. Among streptococci, Streptococcus agalactiae were the predominant organisms followed by Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. The mixed infections were detected in 7.33% quarters in different combinations. Most common combination was of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. followed by Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Results of Antibiotic sensitivity were variable.

  13. Effects of repeated episodes of generic clinical mastitis on mortality and culling in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, D; Grhn, Y T; Bennett, G; Gonzlez, R N; Hertl, J A; Schulte, H F; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Schukken, Y H

    2008-06-01

    Bovine clinical mastitis (CM) can be detrimental to a dairy farm's profitability, not only in terms of lost production and treatment costs, but also because of the loss of the cows themselves. Our objective was to estimate the effects of multiple occurrences of generic bovine CM on mortality and culling. We studied 16,145 lactations from 5 large, high-producing dairy herds, with 3,036 first, 758 second, and 288 third CM cases observed in the first 10 mo after calving. Generalized mixed models, with a random herd effect, were used to quantify the effect of CM on mortality and culling. Other control variables included in the models were parity, stage of lactation, and other diseases. Clinical mastitis in the current month significantly increased mortality in all parities. Among primipara, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 5.6 (1.7, 18.0), 23.3 (7.1, 76.2), and 27.8 (3.7, 209.9) for the first, second, and third CM episode, respectively. Among multipara, respective estimates were 9.9 (7.4, 13.2), 12.0 (8.0, 18.0), and 11.5 (6.1, 21.4). Clinical mastitis significantly increased the risk of a cow being culled for a period of at least 2 mo after any CM case. Our findings provide dairy producers with information on mortality and culling associated with CM cases without considering the causative agent, and can also be used for economic analysis of CM management options. PMID:18487642

  14. Relationship between teat-end callosity and occurrence of clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Neijenhuis, F.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal study in 15 herds, with a total of 2157 cows, was conducted to examine the relationship between teat-end callosity (TEC) and the incidence of clinical mastitis. During the 1.5-yr study period, clinical mastitis was diagnosed by the farmers based on clinical signs. Teat-end callosity was scored every month according to a teat-end callosity classification system, which discriminates between teat-end callosity thickness (TECT) and roughness (TECR). Differences in TECT between heal...

  15. Risk factors and therapy for goat mastitis in a hospital-based case-control study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Gerrit; Islam, Md Nurul; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Khatun, Momena; Ferdous, Jinnat; Sayeed, Md Abu; Islam, Shariful; Ahaduzzaman, Md; Akter, Sazeda; Mannan, Abdul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Dissanayake, Ravi; Hoque, Md Ahasanul

    2016-02-01

    Bangladesh has a large population of goats, which contribute to the income, nutrition and welfare of the households of many families. Mastitis in goats has a low incidence, but is often very severe, making veterinary care necessary. The aim of this study was to identify seasonality and risk factors for goat mastitis in a hospital-based matched case-control study in a teaching veterinary hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh and to describe the range of antimicrobial treatments applied in this situation. Cases of mastitis and controls were drawn from the hospital patient recording system, along with their risk factor status. Multiple imputation was applied to deal with the missing values in the data analysis. Mastitis occurred somewhat more in the rainy season, and comprised about 3% of all goats admitted to the hospital during January 2011-June 2014. Free-ranging farming system, poor body condition score and non-native goat breeds were significantly associated with case status. Treatment of clinical mastitis was variable and unsystematic, but the use of gentamicin was commonly recorded. The need for more prudent and evidence-based antimicrobial therapies is discussed. PMID:26775816

  16. Characterization of Staphylococcus simulans strains isolated from cases of bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Larsen, H. D.; Jensen, N. E.

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize Staphylococcus simulans isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. A total of 134 isolates of S. simulans selected from 80 quarters from 61 cows or heifers in 37 different herds were characterized by EcoRI ribotyping. From 22 quarters two to seven consecutive......, where 76 paired or multiple isolates were at disposal, the same ribotype was constantly found in the same quarter. This study showed that S. simulans causing bovine mastitis could be divided into relatively large number of different types, but that two types predominated. More than one type could be...... isolates taken at weekly intervals were selected. Furthermore, three isolates from clinical infections in humans and two reference strains were included. A total of 16 different ribotypes were found, however, two types predominated. In most herds more than one type was found. From the 22 different quarters...

  17. A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Garland Suzanne M; Amir Lisa H; Lumley Judith

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design...

  18. Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis...

  19. Mastite clinica caprina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes / Clinical mastitis in goat due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Garino Jr; R.A.T., Matos; E.G., Miranda Neto; J.N.N., Bernardino; E.D., Santos; G.M.N., Aguiar.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This paper reports the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State - Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. Amastectomywasperformedasclinical treatment. [...

  20. Tuberculous mastitis presenting as a lump: a mimicking disease in a pregnant woman case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, A; Degrieck, N; Rasschaert, M; Lockefeer, F; Huizing, M; Tjalma, W

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the breast is a rare entity, and can be confused with many other breast disorders, like mamma carcinoma or inflammatory breast cancer. When finding granulomatous mastitis (GM) on histology, it is important to make a differential diagnosis and seek actively for clues on the presence of tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis, or idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, since treatment strategies differ and maltreatment has major implications on morbidity and mortality. An extensive clinical evaluation, laboratory work up, and imaging will lead in most cases to the right diagnosis. Anti-tuberculous therapy is the core treatment for breast TB, and surgery is indicated for extensive or persistent residual disease. Here we present a case of tuberculous mastitis and a review of literature on GM. PMID:25056489

  1. Detection of clinical mastitis with the help of a thermal camera

    OpenAIRE

    Hovinen, Mari; Siivonen, Jutta; Taponen, Suvi; HÀnninen, Laura; Pastell, Matti; Aisla, Anna-Maija; PyörÀlÀ, Satu (ed.)

    2008-01-01

    Increasing dairy farm size and increase in automation in livestock production require that new methods are used to monitor animal health. In this study, a thermal camera was tested for its capacity to detect clinical mastitis. Mastitis was experimentally induced in 6 cows with 10 mu g of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS was infused into the left forequarter of each cow, and the right forequarters served as controls. Clinical examination for systemic and local signs and sampl...

  2. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiology. Due to the high number of unknown causes of clinical mastitis, studies were undertaken to gain more insight into the role of viruses in this important disease. For the first time, we found tha...

  3. Mammographic and sonographic findings of periductal mastitis : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Yang [Pochon CHA Univ. College of Medicine, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Periductal mastitis arises from major ducts. Radiographic reports describing the phases of duct ectasia and secretory calcifications, have been published, but descriptions of the phases of periductal mastitis are rare. We report the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of periductal mastitis in a 30-year-old woman who presented with a breast lump.

  4. Mammographic and sonographic findings of periductal mastitis : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periductal mastitis arises from major ducts. Radiographic reports describing the phases of duct ectasia and secretory calcifications, have been published, but descriptions of the phases of periductal mastitis are rare. We report the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of periductal mastitis in a 30-year-old woman who presented with a breast lump

  5. Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A) in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound) and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A) in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT) test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood sa...

  6. Making sense of sensor data : detecting clinical mastitis in automatic milking systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Farmers milking dairy cows are obliged to exclude milk with abnormal homogeneity or color for human consumption (e.g., Regulation (EC) No 853/2004), where most abnormal milk is caused by clinical mastitis (CM). With automatic milking (AM), farmers are no longer physically present during the milking process. AM systems use sensors in order to replace the visual monitoring of udder health. Sensor measurements are used by CM detection models as input data to produce mastitis alert lists. These l...

  7. Veterinary treatment strategies for clinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waller, K; Hårdemark, V; Nyman, A-K; Duse, A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate if Swedish veterinary guidelines on use of antimicrobials in cases of clinical mastitis in dairy cows have been adopted by veterinary practitioners, their treatment strategies were evaluated in a cross-sectional study using a web-based questionnaire. Another aim was to study if the strategies differed among veterinarians due to year and country of exam, sex, region, numbers of mastitis cases per month, and postgraduate training in herd health using multivariable logistic regression models. In total, 267 of 741 (36 per cent) veterinarians contacted answered the questionnaire satisfactorily. Most considered bacteriological diagnostics important, but many veterinarians made treatment decisions without collecting information on antimicrobial susceptibility. Moreover, few veterinarians used measuring tape to assess bodyweight before dosing parenteral antimicrobials. Year of exam and postgraduate training were the veterinary demographic factors associated with most treatment routines. The questions associated with most demographic factors were if antimicrobial treatment is affected by knowledge on earlier udder pathogens in the herd, and how often NSAID and follow-up of treatment using milk somatic cell count are used. Overall, the veterinarians followed the Swedish guidelines rather well, but discrepancies in need for improvement were found. PMID:26864025

  8. A Cross Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Sub Clinical Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in and Aronund Gondar, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nibret Moges; Yilikal Asfaw; Kelay Belihu

    2011-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted on 322 local (n = 57) and crossbred (n = 265) lactating hand milked small holder cows in and around Gondar. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis and the associated risk factors by clinical examination and using california mastitis test. Bacterial culture was also conducted to determine the casual agents of mastitis. The prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis in the study area was 0.93 and 3...

  9. Investigations of efficacy of intramammary applied antimicrobials and glucocorticosteroides in the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis in cows, presents one of the most acute problems in intensive dairy production, inflicting huge economic losses. In the course of one year, 80 samples were taken at investigated farms from udder quarters of cows with clinical mastitis and 160 samples from udder quarters of cows with subclinical mastitis. The efficacy of three preparations, A, B, and C, was examined in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows. The investigations indicate that antibiotic preparation A (neomycin, polimixine B, oleandomycin and prednisolone exhibited a greater efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus sp., but a smaller efficacy in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation B (amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone exhibited a higher efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus, but a weaker effect in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation C (procaine penicillin G, streptomycin, neomycin sulfate and prednisolone acetate exihibited efficacy in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichie coli. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molekularno-genetička i ekofiziološka istraživanja u zaštiti autohtonih animalnih genetičkih resursa, očuvanju dobrobiti, zdravlja i reprodukcije gajenih životinja i proizvodnji bezbedne hrane

  10. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SOME INDIRECT DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS AND BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. IQBAL, M. AMJED1, M. A. KHAN, M. S. QURESHI1 AND U. SADIQUE1

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare five laboratory diagnostic tests for sub-clinical mastitis in cattle and buffaloes and to compute cost, time taken by each test and its ranking for availability, adoptability, interpretability and sensitivity. There were 352 cases with each test type viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Side Test (WST, White Side + Dye (WSTD, Surf Test and Surf + Dye, and 880 cases with each species type (cattle and buffaloes. Result scores (1760 for sub-clinical mastitis in each category of negative, trace, single positive, double positive and triple positive by species, and laboratory tests, were analyzed using nonparametric tests. Chi-square statistics showed that CMT was equally effective at both locations (farm vs. laboratory. Correlation further suggested that the association was highly significant. Moreover, cases in category of negative, trace and single positive strongly differed (P0.05. The study further suggested that CMT was the most sensitive test, followed by WST/WSTD and Surf/Surf + Dye. Although, the five tests showed slight discrepancy in the trace category reaction, a strong relationship of Surf Test to CMT, its low cost, easy availability and readily adoptable qualities should spur the relevant authorities to recommend the use of Surf test as a routine practice in dairy farming and add this test in the curriculum of diploma and degree programmes.

  11. Assessment of sub-clinical mastitis and its associated risk factors in dairy livestock of Lamjung, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal T; Pandit A

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mastitis is one among the top three threats faced by dairy farmers. The study was carried out to assess sub-clinical mastitis, management practices and associated risk factors for mastitis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Chandreshwor and Archalbot VDCs of Lamjung district taking 63 dairy livestock randomly each from a herd along with questionnaire survey to respective owner. Tem ml of milk sample from each quarter was taken in a sterilized syringe...

  12. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N

    2016-03-01

    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with the placebo [0.66 (standard error=0.04) versus 0.50 (standard error=0.06), respectively], although the proportion of glands from which no bacteria were isolated posttreatment did not differ between groups. No difference was observed in the somatic cell count between groups pre- or posttreatment. The proportion of cows that underwent artificial insemination by 21d after the voluntary waiting period was unaffected by treatment. Treatment with meloxicam was associated with a higher proportion of cows conceiving to their first artificial insemination (0.31 versus 0.21), and a higher proportion of meloxicam-treated cows were pregnant by 120d after calving (0.40 versus 0.31). The number of artificial inseminations required to achieve conception was lower in the meloxicam compared with control cows (2.43 versus 2.92). No difference was observed between groups in the proportion of cows pregnant by 200d after calving or in the proportion of cows that were culled, died, or sold by 300d after calving (17% versus 21% for meloxicam versus control, respectively). It was concluded that use of meloxicam, in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy, for mild to moderate cases of clinical mastitis, resulted in a higher probability of bacteriological cure, an increased probability of conception to first artificial insemination, fewer artificial inseminations, and a greater proportion of cows pregnant by 120d in milk. PMID:26778316

  13. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a mimicking disease in a pregnant woman: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Rodiguez, Juan A; Pattullo, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, benign, inflammatory chronic condition of unclear etiology. This case is reported because it illustrates how idiopathic granulomatous mastitis can mimic other diseases, making it difficult to associate the presenting symptoms and the correct diagnosis; This disease is a challenge for clinicians to diagnose, manage and avoid iatrogenic complications, and requires consultation with experts in several specialties. Case presentation The pati...

  14. Comparative analysis of agr groups and virulence genes among subclinical and clinical mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates from sheep flocks of the Northeast of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lara M. de, Almeida; Mayra Zilta P.R.B. de, Almeida; Carla L. de, Mendona; Elsa M., Mamizuka.

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent mastitis causative agents in small ruminants. The expression of most virulence genes of S. aureus is controlled by an accessory gene regulator (agr)locus. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups and to evaluate the oc [...] currence of encoding genes for cytotoxin, adhesins and toxins with superantigen activity in S. aureus isolates from milk of ewes with clinical and subclinical mastitis in sheep flocks raised for meat production The agr groups I and II were identified in both cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Neither the arg groups III and IV nor negative agr were found. The presence of cflA gene was identified in 100% of the isolates. The frequency of hla and lukE-D genes was high -77.3 and 82.8%, respectively and all isolates from clinical mastitis presented these genes. The sec gene, either associated to tst gene or not, was identified only in isolates from subclinical mastitis. None of the following genes were identified: bbp, ebpS, cna, fnbB, icaA, icaD, bap, hlg, lukM-lukF-PV and se-a-b-d-e.

  15. Diagnostics, incidence and course of nonpuerperal mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinic of radiology at the university of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostics, incidence and course of nonpuerperal mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goelles, M.; Kopp, W.; Beaufort, F.

    1985-02-01

    The clinic of radiology at the University of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made.

  17. Sub-acute mastitis associated with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a cow: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Duraisamy Chandrasekaran; Periasamy Venkatesan; Krishnasamy Gopalan Tirumurugaan; Balakrishnan Gowri; Subramanian Subapriya; Subramanium Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-01-01

    A 5-year old Holstein Friesian cross breed cow was presented to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history of reduced milk yield. Clinical examination of udder revealed normal milk color and soft udder. The milk pH was 7.0, with California Mastitis Test score 3+, Electrical Conductivity 270U, and Somatic Cell Count as 328,000. Isolation and identification of causative agent revealed Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from the sub-acute mastitis sample. Agar d...

  18. Effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on probability of conception in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Grhn, Y T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM), occurring in different weekly intervals before or after artificial insemination (AI), on the probability of conception in Holstein cows. Clinical mastitis occurring in weekly intervals from 6 wk before until 6 wk after AI was modeled. The first 4 AI in a cow's lactation were included. The following categories of pathogens were studied: Streptococcus spp. (comprising Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and other Streptococcus spp.); Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level that can be detected from our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample and cases with contamination (? 3 pathogens in the sample); and other pathogens [including Citrobacter, yeasts, Trueperella pyogenes, gram-negative bacilli (i.e., gram-negative organisms other than E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter, and Citrobacter), Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium spp., Pasteurella, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, and others]. Other factors included in the model were parity (1, 2, 3, 4 and higher), season of AI (winter, spring, summer, autumn), day in lactation of first AI, farm, and other non-CM diseases (retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Data from 90,271 AI in 39,361 lactations in 20,328 cows collected from 2003/2004 to 2011 from 5 New York State dairy farms were analyzed in a generalized linear mixed model with a Poisson distribution. The largest reductions in probability of conception were associated with CM occurring in the week before AI or in the 2 wk following AI. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. had the greatest adverse effects on probability of conception. The probability of conception for a cow with any combination of characteristics may be calculated based on the parameter estimates. These findings may be helpful to farmers in assessing reproduction in their dairy cows for more effective cow management. PMID:25173468

  19. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Grhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (? 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of CM increased with case number. Mastitic cows were generally higher producers before the CM episode than their nonmastitic herdmates. Milk loss varied with pathogen and case number. In primiparas, the greatest losses were associated with E. coli and "other not treatable" organisms. In multiparas, the greatest losses were associated with Klebsiella spp. and "other not treatable" organisms. Milk loss was not associated with occurrence of CNS. The findings may help farmers to make optimal management decisions for their cows. PMID:24418269

  20. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...... was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3?d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic...

  1. Severity variation of clinical E.coli mastitis in cows: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutrophils are key effector cells that underpin both defence and severity of clinical coliform mastitis. Increased turnover and viability of neutrophils in the lumen of the bovine mammary gland facilitate the physiological response and acute inflammation that fuel this effective mammary defence mec...

  2. Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and an environmental spread of Escherichia coli IMI in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were calculated into the total annual net costs of IMI during lactation per scenario and compared with a default scenario. Input parameter values were based on the scientific literature. The scenarios were 3-d intramammary lactational treatment (default), 5-d intramammary treatment, 5-d intramammary treatment and 3-d systemic treatment, 3-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows, and 5-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on parameter input values. The results showed that interventions including antibiotic treatment combined with culling unrecovered clinical IMI cows resulted in the lowest transmission, number of IMI cases, and persistent subclinical IMI cases. Nonetheless, the high associated costs of culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows made the other scenarios with a long and intensive antibiotic treatment, but without culling, the most cost effective. The model was sensitive to changes to the cure rate of clinical IMI following treatment, but the ranking of the intervention scenarios did not change. The model was most sensitive to the changes to the transmission rate of Staph. aureus. The ranking of the intervention scenarios changed at low transmission rate of this pathogen, in which the default scenario became the most cost-effective scenario. In case of high transmission of contagious IMI pathogens, long and intensive treatment of clinical IMI should be preceded by strategies that lower the transmission.

  3. Detection of clinical mastitis with the help of a thermal camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovinen, M; Siivonen, J; Taponen, S; Hänninen, L; Pastell, M; Aisla, A-M; Pyörälä, S

    2008-12-01

    Increasing dairy farm size and increase in automation in livestock production require that new methods are used to monitor animal health. In this study, a thermal camera was tested for its capacity to detect clinical mastitis. Mastitis was experimentally induced in 6 cows with 10 microg of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS was infused into the left forequarter of each cow, and the right forequarters served as controls. Clinical examination for systemic and local signs and sampling for indicators of inflammation in milk were carried out before morning and evening milking throughout the 5-d experimental period and more frequently on the challenge day. Thermal images of experimental and control quarters were taken at each sampling time from lateral and medial angles. The first signs of clinical mastitis were noted in all cows 2 h postchallenge and included changes in general appearance of the cows and local clinical signs in the affected udder quarter. Rectal temperature, milk somatic cell count, and electrical conductivity were increased 4 h postchallenge and milk N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity 8 h postchallenge. The thermal camera was successful in detecting the 1 to 1.5 degrees C temperature change on udder skin associated with clinical mastitis in all cows because temperature of the udder skin of the experimental and control quarters increased in line with the rectal temperature. Yet, local signs on the udder were seen before the rise in udder skin and body temperature. The udder represents a sensitive site for detection of any febrile disease using a noninvasive method. A thermal camera mounted in a milking or feeding parlor could detect temperature changes associated with clinical mastitis or other diseases in a dairy herd. PMID:19038934

  4. Study on some characteristics of Staphylococci isolated from sheep sub clinical mastitis milk in Shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococci release a large number of enzymes. Some of these, such as coagulase, beta lactamase, hemolysins and biofilms are considered indices of pathogenicity. The aim of the current study was based on the isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS strains from sheep sub clinical mastitis and examining their biofilm, beta lactamase, hemolysins production and antibiotic resistance pattern. Materials and methods: 55 Staphylococci strains were isolated from seventy cases of sheep subclinical mastitis. Thirty three were determined as Staphylococcus aureus (60% and 22 (40% as CNS. The hemolytic activity was evaluated by plating Staphylococci strains on 5% bovine blood agar. The biofilm assay was performed by using micro titer plates. Beta Lactamase production was detected by test tube iodometric technique and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined for isolated strains by the disk diffusion method. Results: Twenty six (78.8% S. aureus strains were biofilm producers. For CNS (59.9% strains were positive in biofilm production. Two isolates (6.06%, of S. aureus were ?, the same number ? and 6 (18.2% isolates were ? hemolysin producers. Six isolates of CNS (27.27% were ? and ten (45.45% ? hemolysin producers. Sixteen S. aureus (48.5% and five CNS (22.72% isolates were positive in beta lactamase production. The isolated Staphylococci show a low sensitivity pattern to methicillin and streptomycin. Discussion and conclusion: A high percentage of strains make ? toxin that play a role in S. aureus biofilm formation. Twenty one out of 33 (63.63% isolated Staphylococci were biofilm producers that can have deleterious effects because biofilm formation is thought to play an important role in the survival of virulent strains of Staphylococci. Sixteen out of 33 (48.5% isolated S. aureus were positive in beta lactamase test, Excluding resistant to methicillin, all of these isolates show a marked sensitivities to other examined beta lactam drugs. High percentage of hemolysins, biofilm and beta lactamase production by isolated Staphylococci, suggest an important role of these virulence factors in the pathogenesis of isolated Staphylococci from mastitis sheep milk samples.

  5. Effect of extended cefquinome treatment on clinical persistence or recurrence of environmental clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, J M; Lam, T J G M; Green, M J; Bradley, A J

    2013-09-01

    The effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis (CM) is classically evaluated using bacteriological cure, which provides a concise and objective way of assessing efficacy but does not reflect the situation in the field where persistence or recurrence of clinical signs lead to perceived treatment failure. If clinical signs persist or recur, intramammary (IMM) treatment is often extended or supplemented with parenteral therapy in the expectation of a more efficient elimination of clinical signs or a lower probability of recurrence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy against clinical persistence or recurrence of three cefquinome treatment regimes, standard 1.5-day intramammary (SIMM), 5-day extended intramammary (EIMM) and combination of EIMM plus 5-day extended parenteral (ECOMBO) treatment. The study was conducted on three dairy farms with a high recurrence rate of environmental mastitis. Efficacy was evaluated using a multi-level model at the quarter and at the cow level, based on the persistence or recurrence of clinical signs at any time during a 105-day period following the end of the initial treatment, independent of pathogen. The most prevalent pathogens were E. coli (16.9%) and S. uberis (11.97%). EIMM and ECOMBO significantly decreased the persistence or recurrence of CM by 8% and 6% at the quarter level and by 9% and 8% at the cow level, respectively. ECOMBO may not reduce the persistence or recurrence of CM beyond EIMM. Whilst extended treatment regimens offered an improved outcome in this study, the producer and practitioner need to carefully consider such regimens from the perspective of prudent antibiotic use. PMID:23702283

  6. Detection of clinical mastitis with sensor data from automatic milking systems is improved by using decision-tree induction

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Heesterbeek, J A P; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a clinical mastitis (CM) detection model by means of decision-tree induction. For farmers milking with an automatic milking system (AMS), it is desirable that the detection model has a high level of sensitivity (Se), especially for more severe cases of CM, at a very high specificity (Sp). In addition, an alert for CM should be generated preferably at the quarter milking (QM) at which the CM infection is visible for the first time. Data were collected ...

  7. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3?d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment, this difference persisted until at least 10?d after diagnosis. Sick cows spent less time lying in the initial days after treatment, reversing to the level of the control cows within the 10?d posttreatment period. In the 48?h before antibiotic treatment, the mastitic cows showed increased restlessness during milking, as seen by a higher frequency of tripping and kicking. Mastitic cows continued to show increased kicking during milking even after the antibiotic treatment period. These results show that the behavioral changes induced by naturally occurring mastitis persisted beyond the days of antibiotic treatment, thereby calling for further investigation into management of mastitic dairy cows to optimize recovery and ensure animal welfare during the recovery period after clinical mastitis.

  8. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogsgaard, K K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Herskin, M S

    2015-03-01

    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment, this difference persisted until at least 10 d after diagnosis. Sick cows spent less time lying in the initial days after treatment, reversing to the level of the control cows within the 10 d posttreatment period. In the 48 h before antibiotic treatment, the mastitic cows showed increased restlessness during milking, as seen by a higher frequency of tripping and kicking. Mastitic cows continued to show increased kicking during milking even after the antibiotic treatment period. These results show that the behavioral changes induced by naturally occurring mastitis persisted beyond the days of antibiotic treatment, thereby calling for further investigation into management of mastitic dairy cows to optimize recovery and ensure animal welfare during the recovery period after clinical mastitis. PMID:25547306

  9. Costs of mastitis: facts and perception

    OpenAIRE

    Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2008-01-01

    A model to calculate the economic losses of mastitis on an average Dutch dairy farm was developed and used as base for a tool for farmers and advisors to calculate farm-specific economic losses of mastitis. The economic losses of a clinical case in a default situation were calculated as 210, varying from 164 to 235 depending on the month of lactation. The total economic losses of mastitis (subclinical and clinical) per cow present in a default situation varied between 65 and 182/cow per ...

  10. Investigations on Prevalence and Oxidative Stress Aspects of Mastitis in Buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, V. K.; Sharma, A.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, M

    2010-01-01

    The 424 quarter milk samples collected from 106 apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were screened for mastitis using bacterial cultural examination and somatic cell count. The prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM), latent mastitis and non-specific mastitis were found to be 9.90% (42/424), 4.24% (18/424), and 15.80% ( 67/424), respectively. There was significant (P?0.05) elevation of blood malondialdehyde (MDA) level in SCM and clinical mastitis cases. Besides, milk malondialdehyde l...

  11. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF VARIETY PLANTS AGAINST THE RESISTANT STREPTOCOCCUS WHICH CAUSE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    SHAZA ANWAR AL LAHAM; FRDOOS MOHAMMAD AL FADEL

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus is considered to be one of the most dangerous causes of Clinical mastitis in cows. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of extracts prepared from different parts of the flowing plants: Oleaeuropea Linn(Oleaceae), Myrtuscommunis Linn (Liliaceae) ,thymus vulgaris Linn (Laminaceae), Rosemery Linn(Laminaceae), Ficuscarica Linn (Moraceae), and Achilleafalcata Linn(Asteraceae) against resistant Streptococcus in 1371 Samples of milk. This work was achieved in four...

  12. Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Barua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commercial dairy farms and 55 from backyards lactating dairy cows were considered. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM was determined using three different indirect screening tests: California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Slide Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. Sensitivity and specificity were also determined to measure the accuracy of those tests. Results: The prevalence of SCM by CMT, WST and SFMT were 32.43% (n=144, 33.56% (n=149 and 31.53% (n=140, respectively. Distribution of SCM in relation to different variables at quarter level and animal level was also recorded. The prevalence of SCM was significantly (P4 than others at quarter level. No significant difference (P>0.05 was found in relation to breed. Using CMT as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of WST and SFMT were also calculated at 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and disease prevalence by WST and SFMT were comparable. Conclusion: This study recommends that regular screening of sub-clinical mastitis will reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, dry cow therapy specially in high yielding dairy cows.

  13. Revisiting QTL Affecting Clinical Mastitis by High-Density GWAS and Resequencing in the Finnish Ayrshire Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Schulman, Nina F; Dolezal, Malies A; Bagnato, Alessandro; Soller, Morris; Panitz, Frank; Holm, Lars-Erik

    Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cattle, causing high economic losses each year. Studies to locate QTL affecting clinical mastitis and milk somatic cell counts have been carried out to increase our understanding of the disease. As part of the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we have used most...... recent genomic tools to characterize QTL affecting mastitis incidence in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Clinical mastitis diagnoses from -15 to 50 days and 51 to 300 days of first lactation and SCC (geometric mean of SCS observations between 5 to 170 days of first lactation) were included. In total, 1920...... BovineHD chip, and the remaining bulls imputed to high density genotypes using Beagle software. GWAS was repeated with the imputed HD-data with GRAMMAS (GenABEL in R). Thereby 17 peaks on 12 chromosomes were identified. Eight high priority peaks were defined based on both 50K and imputed HD results, and...

  14. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  15. Discriminating between true-positive and false-positive clinical mastitis alerts from automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; van der Gaag, L C; Ouweltjes, W; Mollenhorst, H; Hogeveen, H

    2010-06-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) generate alert lists reporting cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Dutch farmers indicated that they use non-AMS cow information or the detailed alert information from the AMS to decide whether to check an alerted cow for CM. However, it is not yet known to what extent such information can be used to discriminate between true-positive and false-positive alerts. The overall objective was to investigate whether selection of the alerted cows that need further investigation for CM can be made. For this purpose, non-AMS cow information and detailed alert information were used. During a 2-yr study period, 11,156 alerts for CM, including 159 true-positive alerts, were collected at one farm in The Netherlands. Non-AMS cow information on parity, days in milk, season of the year, somatic cell count history, and CM history was added to each alert. In addition, 6 alert information variables were defined. These were the height of electrical conductivity, the alert origin (electrical conductivity, color, or both), whether or not a color alert for mastitic milk was given, whether or not a color alert for abnormal milk was given, deviation from the expected milk yield, and the number of alerts of the cow in the preceding 12 to 96 h. Subsequently, naive Bayesian networks (NBN) were constructed to compute the posterior probability of an alert being truly positive based only on non-AMS cow information, based on only alert information, or based on both types of information. The NBN including both types of information had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC; 0.78), followed by the NBN including only alert information (AUC=0.75) and the NBN including only non-AMS cow information (AUC=0.62). By combining the 2 types of information and by setting a threshold on the computed probabilities, the number of false-positive alerts on a mastitis alert list was reduced by 35%, and 10% of the true-positive alerts would not be identified. To detect CM cases at a farm with an AMS, checking all alerts is still the best option but would result in a high workload. Checking alerts based on a single alert information variable would result in missing too many true-positive cases. Using a combination of alert information variables, however, is the best way to select cows that need further investigation. The effect of adding non-AMS cow information on making a distinction between true-positive and false-positive alerts would be minor. PMID:20494164

  16. Bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii: clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects in a Brazilian dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbellini, L G; Driemeier, D; Cruz, C; Dias, M M; Ferreiro, L

    2001-12-01

    The clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of protothecal mastitis in a Brazilian dairy herd are described. Prototheca zopfii infection was diagnosed in 11 of 121 milking cows. Clinical mastitis refractory to usual therapy was observed in 7 cows. Several environmental conditions conducive to the growth of Prototheca spp., such as wetness, muddiness and the presence of organic material, were present in the dairy. Improper milking practices and insanitary infusion of the intramammary antibiotics were also observed. Six cows with protothecal mastitis were slaughtered and the affected quarters of each cow were examined by histology and immunohistochemical staining for bovine keratin and P. zopfii. The histological lesions were characterized by interstitial infiltrates of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes; algae were seen in the alveolar lumen and interstitium. The lack of a positive reaction with an antiserum against bovine keratin in the mammary alveolar epithelial layer in some affected areas suggests destruction of milk-producing tissues, which may be related to the low milk production observed. The algal organisms stained positively with a polyclonal antibody against P. zopfii. PMID:11770201

  17. A field study evaluation of Petrifilm plates as a 24-h rapid diagnostic test for clinical mastitis on a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansion-de Vries, Elisabeth Maria; Knorr, Nicole; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Zinke, Claudia; Hoedemaker, Martina; Krmker, Volker

    2014-03-01

    Clinical mastitis is one of the most common and expensive diseases of dairy cattle. To make an informed treatment decision, it is important to know the causative pathogen. However, no detection of bacterial growth can be made in approximately 30% of all clinical cases of mastitis. Before selecting the treatment regimen, it is important to know whether the mastitis-causing pathogen (MCP) is Gram-positive or Gram-negative. The aim of this field study was to investigate whether using two 3M Petrifilm products on-farm (which conveys a higher degree of sample freshness but also bears a higher risk for contamination than working in a lab) as 24-h rapid diagnostic of clinical mastitis achieved results that were comparable to the conventional microbiological diagnostic method. AerobicCount (AC)-Petrifilm and ColiformCount (CC)-Petrifilm were used to identify the total bacterial counts and Gram-negative bacteria in samples from clinical mastitis cases, respectively. Missing growth on both plates was classified as no bacterial detection. Growth only on the AC-Petrifilm was assessed as Gram-positive, and growth on both Petrifilm plates was assessed as Gram-negative bacterial growth. Additionally, milk samples were analysed by conventional microbiological diagnostic method on aesculin blood agar as a reference method. Overall, 616 samples from clinical mastitis cases were analysed. Using the reference method, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mixed bacterial growth, contaminated samples and yeast were determined in 32.6%, 20.0%, 2.5%, 14.1% and 1.1% of the samples, respectively. In 29.7% of the samples, microbiological growth could not be identified. Using the Petrifilm concept, bacterial growth was detected in 59% of the culture-negative samples. The sensitivity of the Petrifilm for Gram-positive and Gram-negative MCP was 85.2% and 89.9%, respectively. The specificity was 75.4% for Gram-positive and 88.4% for Gram-negative MCP. For the culture-negative samples, sensitivity was 41.0% and specificity was 91.0%. The results indicate that the Petrifilm concept is suitable for therapeutic decision-making at the farm level or in veterinary practice. As this concept does not allow any statement about the genus or species of microorganisms, relevant MCP should be assessed periodically at the herd level with conventional microbiological diagnostics. PMID:24382427

  18. UPDATE ON BOVINE MASTITIS ETIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND TREATMENT ASPECTS IN KHARTOUM STATE, SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Reem Rabie MOHAMMED SALIH

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in certain area at Khartoum State determine the causative agent of bovine mastitis and the susceptibility of different isolates to different antibiotics use for treatment of bovine mastitis. The total number of dairy cows, which were examined in 34 investigated farms, equals 500. The result as follows: 55% acute mastitis, 44% chronic mastitis and 1% gangrenous mastitis. The isolated genera were as follows: 74% Bacillus spp., 24% Staphylococcus spp., 1% Corynebacterium...

  19. Clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about clinical cases and the contribution of the PET - CT Fag application in the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer. The cases presented were: neck diseases, epidermoid carcinoma, liver damage and metastasize, lymphoma, thrombosis, colonic cancer and lung disease

  20. Efecto de la mastitis clnica y subclnica sobre la concentracin plasmtica de metabolitos, protenas totales y albmina en hembras bovinas / Effect of clinic and subclinic mastitis on the plasmatic concentration of metabolites, total protein, and albumen in bovine females

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aleidy J, Aranguren Parra; Aura A, Lpez Ortega; Carmen A, Mendoza; Norka, Delgado.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la mastitis es considerada, en el mbito agropecuario, como una de las enfermedades ms costosas debido a las prdidas econmicas que desde el punto de vista productivo genera. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la mastitis clnica y subclnica en hembras bovinas l [...] echeras, sobre algunos parmetros metablicos plasmticos. Se utilizaron 30 vacas mestizas Holstein de una finca lechera comercial, ubicada en Quibor, Lara, Venezuela, sometidas a las mismas condiciones de manejo, distribuidas en tres grupos de 10 animales cada uno: vacas sanas, con mastitis subclnica y con mastitis clnica. La concentracin de glucosa, colesterol total y sus fracciones Col-HDL y Col-LDL, triglicridos, protenas totales y albmina se cuantificaron por kits comerciales. En ambos tipos de mastitis hubo un aumento altamente significativo (P Abstract in english At present time, mastitis is considered, in the farming scope, one of the most expensive diseases due to the economic losses from the productive point of view. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the clinical and subclinical mastitis in milk bovine females on some plasmatic met [...] abolic parameters. Thirty racially mixed cows Holstein were used from a commercial milk farm which is located in Quibor, Lara, Venezuela, managed under the same conditions and distributed in three groups of 10 animals each: healthy cows, with subclinical mastitis, and clinical mastitis. The concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and its fractions Col- HDL and Col-LDL, triglycerides, proteins, and albumen were quantified by commercial kits. In both types of mastitis there was a highly significant increase (P

  1. The use of successive milking as a procedure for the elimination of infection on due to Prototheca spp in cases of bovine clinical mastitis. (A case report / Utilizao de ordenhas sucessivas como procedimento para eliminao de infeco por prototheca spp de casos de mastite clnica bovina (relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrcia Kiyoe Shimada

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work relates the case of two animals (Black and White Holstein from a bovine milking herd, from north of Paran State, in which mastitis due Prototheca spp was diagnosed. As a procedure for the infection elimination, it was opted for the use of successive milking performed six times daily, during eight days. The animals were followed up through mycological cultures from milk Samples after 15, 30 and 60 days from the beginning of the procedure. The clinical signs regressed after three days and the mycologicai cultures were negative after the 15th day.O presente trabalho relata um caso de dois animais HPB de um rebanho bovino leiteiro, da regio norte do Estado do Paran, dos quais diagnosticou-se mastite clnica por Prototheca spp. Como procedimento para eliminao da infeco optou-se peta utilizao de ordenhas sucessivas praticadas seis vezes diariamente durante oito dias. Os animais foram acompanhados atravs de culturas micolgicas das amostras de leite aps 15, 30 e 60 dias do inicio do procedimento. Os sinais clnicos regrediram aps trs dias, e a partir do 15 dia as culturas foram negativas.

  2. QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

  3. Relationship Between Some Teat and Body Measurements of Holstein Cows and Sub-Clinical Mastitis and Milk Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sekkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between some teat and body measurements of lactating cows and sub-clinical mastitis and milk yield. The material was consisted of 125 Holstein cows. The teat diameter, length and height from floor surface, wither height, hip height and chest girth of cows were measured. The cows were grouped according to Californian Mastitis Test (CMT score as positive (CMT Score: 2-4 and negative (CMT Score: 0 and 1 and also according to the 305 days corrected milk yield as low (=5000 kg and high (>5000 kg milk production. The significant differences were found between sub-clinical mastitis groups in terms of teat height, left and right hind teat diameter and right hind teat length (p<0.05. About 305 days corrected milk yield means of positive and negative sub-clinical mastitis groups were 5185.91180.81 and 4994.94210.80 kg, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to milk yield and body measurement between sub-clinical mastitis groups. There were no significant differences between milk yield groups with regard to teat measurements except for right front and hind diameter means (p<0.05. The means of wither height, hip height and chest girth according to low and high milk yield groups were found significant (p<0.001.

  4. Environmental Streptococcal and Coliform Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, G. M.; Swisher, Jerry M., 1949-

    2009-01-01

    Today, many well-managed farms that have successfully controlled contagious mastitis and consistently produce milk with somatic cell counts (SCC) below 300,000 have problems with increased clinical mastitis.

  5. iTRAQ-proteomics and bioinformatics analyses of mammary tissue from cows with clinical mastitis due to natural infection with Staphylococci aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jinming; Luo, Guojing; Zhang, Zijing; Wang, Xiuge; Ju, Zhihua; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Changfa; LI, Rongling; Li, Jianbin; Yin, Weijun; Xu, Yinxue; Moisá, Sonia J; Loor, Juan J; Zhong, Jifeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Proteomics and bioinformatics may help us better understand the biological adaptations occurring during bovine mastitis. This systems approach also could help identify biomarkers for monitoring clinical and subclinical mastitis. The aim of the present study was to use isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) to screen potential proteins associated with mastitis at late infectious stage. Results Healthy and mastitic cows’ mammary gland tissues were analyzed usi...

  6. Investigation of subclinical mastitis cases in GCSAR Damascus goats from Humeimeh research station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roukbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the performance of California mastitis test, electrical conductivity measurement and lactose content as markers for subclinical-intramammary infection (IMI in goats. It was performed at Humeimeh research station for Damascus goats, General commission for scientific agricultural research (GCSAR from February to march 2011 and done on dairy goats aged 2 to 6 years. Milk samples were taken from 134 dairy goats during morning milking according to habitual procedure and screened for evidence of subclinical mastitis by California Mastitis Test (CMT, electrical conductivity measurement (EC and lactose content (LC of milk. Positive (+1 to +3 CMT and/or high electrical conductivity milk samples were subjected to bacteriological examination to distinguish between healthy (absence of mastitis agents and infected (presence of contagious or environmental mastitis agents. The overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was found to be 24.6%. Percentage of positive (+1 to +3, suspected and negative CMT reactions were 76.85, 8.95 and 14.2%, respectively. The values of electrical conductivity for negative, suspected and positive (+1, +2 and +3 CMT milk samples were 3.93 ± 0.64, 4.47 ± 0.61, 4.68 ± 0.72, 4.81 ± 0.76 and 6.56 ± 0.85 ms/cm, respectively. T-test has been shown statistical differences in California mastitis test reactions and electrical conductivity readings, and not statistically for milk lactose content, between positive and negative results for bacterial growth. Intramammary infection was found in 40.9% milk samples caused by Staphylococcus (75%, alone E. coli (16.6% or associated with streptococci (8.3%. Correlation coefficient between CMT reactions with electrical conductivity readings was R = 0.494. Higher coefficient correlation for electrical conductivity measurement and Kappa agreement index (R = 0.491 and 0.42 respectively with positive bacterial growth milk samples than for CMT (R = 0.35 and 0.12 respectively make the electrical conductivity measurement more compatible with the results of bacteriological analysis than CMT despite a slight increase of CMT sensitivity, and reduced number of real negative cases.

  7. Discriminating between true-positive and false-positive clinical mastitis alerts from automatic milking systems

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, W.; Gaag, L.C. van der; Ouweltjes, W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) generate alert lists reporting cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Dutch farmers indicated that they use non-AMS cow information or the detailed alert information from the AMS to decide whether to check an alerted cow for CM. However, it is not yet known to what extent such information can be used to discriminate between true-positive and false-positive alerts. The overall objective was to investigate whether selection of the alerted cows that need furt...

  8. A descriptive epidemiological study of mastitis in 12 Irish dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett Damien J; Doherty Michael L; Healy Anne M

    2005-01-01

    Factors relating to the occurrence of mastitis were studied on 12 Irish dairy herds with histories of elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and/or increased incidence of clinical mastitis cases. Milk recording data were analysed, housing conditions and calving areas were examined; dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis records, milking technique and aspects of milking machine function were assessed. Herds with a ratio of less than 110 cubicles per 100 cows were more likely to experience environmenta...

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococci Isolated from Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Two Regions of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITON SYLEJMANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate antibiotic susceptibility of 26 strains of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS and 18 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from samples of dairy cows with clinical mastitis. The isolates species of staphylococci were identified by using coagulase test (using rabbit plasma and API Staph system (bioMėrieux SA which differentiates S. aurues from other staphylococci. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility on Mueller Hinton agar by dick diffusion method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI/NCCLS. The findings of this study showed that the most effective in vitro drugs for S. aureus strains isolated from cows with clinical mastitis were amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (83.3%, tetracycline (77.8%, gentamycin (77.8% and trimethoprim (66.7% and for CNS strains trimethoprim (88.5%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (84.6%, tetracycline (77% and gentamicin (69.2% while the isolates of S. aureus and CNS were found to be more resistant to penicillin (55.5% and 53.8%, respectively, streptomycin (50% and 46.1%, respectively and ampicillin (38.9% and 46.1%, respectively.

  10. Mastitis in a neonatal filly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilday, Rebecca; Lewis, Danyse; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal mastitis is a rare occurrence in the horse. This report documents a case of mastitis caused by an organism within the Streptococcus dysgalactiae group in a 1-week-old Paint filly. PMID:25565717

  11. Optimal insemination and replacement decisions to minimize the cost of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, E; Kristensen, A R; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Grhn, Y T

    2014-04-01

    Mastitis is a serious production-limiting disease, with effects on milk yield, milk quality, and conception rate, and an increase in the risk of mortality and culling. The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) to develop an economic optimization model that incorporates all the different types of pathogens that cause clinical mastitis (CM) categorized into 8 classes of culture results, and account for whether the CM was a first, second, or third case in the current lactation and whether the cow had a previous case or cases of CM in the preceding lactation; and (2) to develop this decision model to be versatile enough to add additional pathogens, diseases, or other cow characteristics as more information becomes available without significant alterations to the basic structure of the model. The model provides economically optimal decisions depending on the individual characteristics of the cow and the specific pathogen causing CM. The net returns for the basic herd scenario (with all CM included) were $507/cow per year, where the incidence of CM (cases per 100 cow-years) was 35.6, of which 91.8% of cases were recommended for treatment under an optimal replacement policy. The cost per case of CM was $216.11. The CM cases comprised (incidences, %) Staphylococcus spp. (1.6), Staphylococcus aureus (1.8), Streptococcus spp. (6.9), Escherichia coli (8.1), Klebsiella spp. (2.2), other treated cases (e.g., Pseudomonas; 1.1), other not treated cases (e.g., Trueperella pyogenes; 1.2), and negative culture cases (12.7). The average cost per case, even under optimal decisions, was greatest for Klebsiella spp. ($477), followed by E. coli ($361), other treated cases ($297), and other not treated cases ($280). This was followed by the gram-positive pathogens; among these, the greatest cost per case was due to Staph. aureus ($266), followed by Streptococcus spp. ($174) and Staphylococcus spp. ($135); negative culture had the lowest cost ($115). The model recommended treatment for most CM cases (>85%); the range was 86.2% (Klebsiella spp.) to 98.5% (Staphylococcus spp.). In general, the optimal recommended time for replacement was up to 5 mo earlier for cows with CM compared with cows without CM. Furthermore, although the parameter estimates implemented in this model are applicable to the dairy farms in this study, the parameters may be altered to be specific to other dairy farms. Cow rankings and values based on disease status, pregnancy status, and milk production can be extracted; these provide guidance when determining which cows to keep or cull. PMID:24534495

  12. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman Alibeigi; Omid Reza Hosseini; Sepideh Assar

    2010-01-01

    Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas adm...

  13. Nordic dairy farmers' threshold for contacting a veterinarian and consequences for disease recording : Mild clinical mastitis as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espetvedt, Mari; Lind, Ann-Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have addressed the differences in registered disease incidence between the Nordic dairy disease recording systems. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic dairy farmers have varying intention to contact a veterinarian the same day as detecting signs of mild clinical mastitis (MCM) in a lactating dairy cow. This is the first, and necessary, step in the process leading to a disease event being recorded. The second objective was to study underlying behavioural components influencing this threshold for action. A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The questionnaire was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour from the field of social psychology. After performing qualitative face-to-face elicitation interviews a set of statements about treatment of MCM was identified. These were grouped into behavioural, normative and control beliefs. The most frequently mentioned beliefs were rephrased as questions. Behavioural intention, a proxy for the behaviour of interest, was assessed using case scenarios. The target and eligible herds were in milk recording and had an average herd size of at least 15 cows. The questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly sampled dairy producers per included country. The response rate was around 50% in all four countries. The hypothesis of differences in behavioural intention between the countries was tested using Wilcoxon's rank-sum tests. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the country-specific variability in behavioural intention as explained by attitude, subjective norm or perceived behavioural control alone, or in combination. The Spearman rank correlations between behavioural intention and each belief, weighted by its outcome evaluation or the motivation to comply, were estimated to find the most important drivers, constraints and social referents for the behaviour of interest. There were significant (p <0.01) differences in behavioural intention between all countries except Denmark and Norway. Swedish farmers had the weakest behavioural intention and Finnish farmers the strongest. Attitude explained most of the variability in behavioural intention in all four countries. The most important driver in all countries was to achieve a quick recovery for the cow. The varying behavioural intention partly explain the differences in completeness of disease data in the Nordic countries: if farmers have different thresholds for contacting a veterinarian the registered incidence of clinical mastitis will be affected. Knowledge about the importance of attitudes and specific drivers may be useful in any communication about mastitis management in the Nordic countries. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of two proteins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis with homology to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goji, Noriko; Potter, Andrew A; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2004-04-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative agent of bovine mastitis and vaccines developed to control this disease showed limited protection due in part to the lack of common antigens among the mastitis isolates. We isolated and identified two genes encoding proteins with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity from a S. aureus strain isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. The GapB and GapC proteins share considerable homology to the GapB and GapC products of human strains of S. aureus. These two proteins could be distinguished by their different GAPDH activities and binding to bovine transferrin properties. Both gapB and gapC genes were conserved in 11 strains tested, and the GapC protein was present on the surface of all S. aureus strains. PMID:15066729

  15. Pathogen group specific risk factors for clinical mastitis, intramammary infection and blind quarters at the herd, cow and quarter level in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Ayana, Z; Piepers, S; Supr, K; De Vliegher, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ?90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1.02-5.71)] were risk factors for quarters being blind. In conclusion, replacement of old cows, prevention of teat injuries/lesions, drying teats with 1 towel per cow before milking, improving fertility in order to shorten the lactation period, allowing (restricted) suckling, access to feed and water immediately after milking, and improving tick control could improve udder health in Jimma. PMID:26008577

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from crossbred dairy cows with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Fekadu; Araya, Mengistu

    2012-08-01

    Following the rapidly expanding dairy enterprise, mastitis has remained the most economically damaging disease. The objective of this study was mainly to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Combretum molle (R.Br.Ex.G.Don) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) against antibiotic-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis using agar disc diffusion method. The leaf and bark extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus at concentrations of 3 mg/ml while the stem and seed extract did not show any bioactivity. Although both leaf and bark extracts were handled in the same manner, the antibacterial activity of the bark extract against the bacterial strains had declined gradually to a lower level as time advanced after extraction. The leaf extract had sustained bioactivity for longer duration. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the leaf extract is not obviously different between S. aureus and S. agalactiae. Also, there was no difference in susceptibility to the leaf extract between the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive bacteria. Further phytochemical and in vivo efficacy and safety studies are required to evaluate the therapeutic value of the plant against bovine mastitis. PMID:22207479

  17. Evaluation of a polyherbal topical aerosol spray as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Selvam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal topical aerosol spray Wisprec and reg; Advanced (M/S. Natural Remedies Private Limited, India as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 41 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis were selected, and Wisprec and reg; Advanced was sprayed on mastitis affected quarters of udder two times a day along with a parenteral antibiotic till complete recovery. The rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder, swelling of udder, consistency of milk, recovery period and product satisfaction score were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of Wisprec and reg; Spray. Topical application of Wisprec and reg; Advanced Spray have shown a significant improvement (p<0.001 in alleviation of rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder and swelling of udder, and the consistency of milk was restored to normal after 3 to 4 days of treatment. The results demonstrate that the Wisprec and reg; Advanced spray could be considered as an alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis of dairy cows. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 285-290

  18. Accuracy of Clinicians in Predicting the Bacterial Cause of Clinical Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    White, Maurice E.; Glickman, Lawrence T.; Barnes-Pallesen, Frances D.; Stem, Edgar S.; Dinsmore, Page; Powers, Michael S.; Powers, Pamela; Smith, Mary C.; Jasko, David

    1986-01-01

    We examined the ability of clinicians to predict the causative organism of bovine mastitis in our practice. We obtained 118 milk culture results from 112 mastitic cows and compared the culture results to the predictions of clinicians at the time of milk sample collection. Sixty of 118 culture results were accurately predicted. The positive predictive value for coliform mastitis was 42% and the negative predictive value was 79% in a study population with a 31% prevalence of coliform mastitis. ...

  19. Automatic detection of clinical mastitis is improved by in-line monitoring of somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, C; Sherlock, R; Jago, J; Mein, G; Hogeveen, H

    2008-12-01

    This study explored the potential value of in-line composite somatic cell count (ISCC) sensing as a sole criterion or in combination with quarter-based electrical conductivity (EC) of milk, for automatic detection of clinical mastitis (CM) during automatic milking. Data generated from a New Zealand research herd of about 200 cows milked by 2 automatic milking systems during the 2006-2007 milking season included EC, ISCC, monthly laboratory-determined SCC, and observed cases of CM that were treated with antibiotics. Milk samples for ISCC and laboratory-determined SCC were taken sequentially at the end of a cow milking. Both samples were derived from a composite cow milking obtained from the bottom of the milk receiver. Different time windows were defined in which true-positive, false-negative, and false-positive alerts were determined. Quarters suspected of having CM were visually checked and, if CM was confirmed, sampled for bacteriological culturing and treated with an antibiotic treatment. These treated quarters were considered as gold-standard positives for comparing CM detection models. Alert thresholds were adjusted to achieve a sensitivity of 80% in 3 detection models: using ISCC alone, EC alone, or a combination of these. The success rate (also known as the positive predictive value) and the false alert rate (number of false-positive alerts per 1,000 cow milkings) were used to evaluate detection performance. Normalized ISCC estimates were highly correlated with normalized laboratory-determined SCC measurements (r = 0.82) for SCC measurements >200 x 10(3) cells/mL. Using EC alone as a detection tool resulted in a range of 6.9 to 11.0% for success rate, and a range of 4.7 to 7.8 for the false alert rate. Values for the ISCC model were better than the model using EC alone with 12.7 to 15.6% for the success rate and 2.9 to 3.7 for the false alert rate. Combining sensor information to detect CM, by using a fuzzy logic algorithm, produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in the success rate (range 21.9 to 32.0%) and a 2- to 3-fold decrease in the false alert rate (range 1.2 to 2.1) compared with the models using ISCC or EC alone. Results suggest that the performance of a CM detection system improved when ISCC information was added to a detection model using EC information. PMID:19038931

  20. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...... was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic...... treatment, this difference persisted until at least 10 d after diagnosis. Sick cows spent less time lying in the initial days after treatment, reversing to the level of the control cows within the 10 d posttreatment period. In the 48 h before antibiotic treatment, the mastitic cows showed increased...

  1. Genome-wide association study using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequences for clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik; Panitz, Frank; Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Bendixen, Christian; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy...... cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to...... highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known...

  2. Altered plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride in cows affected with severe clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorden, P J; Kleinhenz, M D; Wulf, L W; KuKanich, B; Lee, C J; Wang, C; Coetzee, J F

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a frequent problem among dairy cows, reducing milk yield and increasing cull rates. Systemic therapy with the cephalosporin antimicrobial ceftiofur hydrochloride (CEF) may improve therapeutic outcomes, but the incidence of CEF violative residues has increased annually since 2011. One potential explanation is that disease status may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of CEF. To test this hypothesis, we compared the plasma PK of CEF in healthy cows with those with severe endotoxic mastitis. Eight cows with naturally occurring mastitis and 8 clinically healthy cows were treated with 2.2 mg of CEF per kilogram of body weight once daily for 5d via the intramuscular route. Blood was collected at 0, 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16, and 24h after the first CEF administration and every 8h thereafter until 120h after the final dose. Plasma samples were analyzed for CEF concentrations using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. With the exception of time 0, CEF was detected at all time points. The disease group had a significantly higher plasma CEF concentration at t=3h after the first injection and a significantly lower plasma concentration from 40 to 152h following the first injection, with the exception of the t=64h time point. Data following the first injection (time 0-24 h) were fit to a single-dose, noncompartmental PK model. This model indicated that the disease group had a shorter plasma half-life. A multidose, noncompartmental model was used to determine steady-state PK. Compared with control cows, the disease group had an initially higher peak concentration and a higher volume of distribution and drug clearance rates. The disease group also had a lower area under the curve per dosing interval, steady-state concentration maximum, and dose-adjusted peak steady-state concentration. All other PK parameters were not different between the 2 groups. Altered PK, as suggested by this trial, may contribute to an increased risk for the development of a violative residue in meat. Further research is needed to more completely characterize drug distribution in diseased cattle and to study the effect of coadministration of other drugs on drug distribution. PMID:26601579

  3. Dynamics of lingual antimicrobial peptide, lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in the milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Korematsu, Kiyoshi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Okita, Miki; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in innate immune factors in the milk of mastitic dairy cows treated with antibiotics. Cows in the antibiotics group (n = 13) were infused into the mammary gland with cefazolin on the sixth day after mastitis was diagnosed (the day of the mastitis diagnosis = day -6). The control group (n = 12) was not treated. Milk samples were collected once every 2 days from days -6 to 12 and somatic cell count (SCC), lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), and lactoferrin (LF) concentrations and lactoperoxidase (LPO) activity were measured. SCC and LF concentrations in the antibiotics group markedly decreased after the antibiotic treatment. When cows in the antibiotics group were divided according to SCC on day 0, LAP concentrations and LPO activity in cows with a lower SCC on day 0 (<5 × 10(6) cell/mL) were significantly higher and lower than those in cows with a higher SCC, respectively. These results suggest that LF concentration decreased with decrease in SCC after treatment and that LAP concentration and LPO activity differed depending on the severity of mastitis. This is the first report to reveal the dynamics of innate immune factor in milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis. PMID:25185977

  4. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Danish Holstein cattle affecting clinical mastitis, somatic cell score, udder conformation traits, and assessment of associated effects on milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M S; Guldbrandtsen, B; Buitenhuis, A J; Thomsen, B; Bendixen, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to 1) detect QTL across the cattle genome that influence the incidence of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS) in Danish Holsteins, and 2) characterize these QTL for pleiotropy versus multiple linked quantitative trait loci (QTL) when chromosomal regions affecting clinical mastitis were also affecting other traits in the Danish udder health index or milk production traits. The chromosomes were scanned using a granddaughter design where markers were typed for 1...

  5. Molecular analysis of virulent genes (coa and spa) of staphylococcus aureus involved in natural cases of bovine mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to determine the distribution and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from naturally occurring mastitis in cattle and buffaloes. For this purpose a total of 1445 lactating cattle (653) and buffaloes (792) present at two experimental livestock farms Okara (Bahadarnagar) and Sahiwal (Qadiarabad), in and around district Faisalabad and slaughtered at an abattoir due to low milk yield and were screened for mastitis. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to detect sub clinical mastitis. The positive quarter milk samples were collected for culturing of S. aureus isolates. taphylococcus aureus isolates were identified on the basis of growth features, biochemical characteristics, coagulase test and as well as amplification of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes specific to its virulence. S. aureus isolates (n=265) were characterized by Polymerase chain reaction to determine the frequency of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes. From these isolates the amplification of the coagulase (coa) gene yielded three different PCR products approximately 204bp to 490bp while spa (spa-X) gene produced five different products ranging in size from 190bp to 320bp. PCR revealed that from all the coagulase positive S. aureus isolates 261(98.5%) had spa (spa-X) gene. The results of the present study indicated that S. aureus isolates recovered from bovine mastitis were genetically different within and among the various herds which may provide essential and valuable strategies to control staphylococcal infections in future. (author)

  6. An estimation of the clinical mastitis incidence per 100 cows per year based on routinely collected herd data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it was possible to (1) estimate the clinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI) for all Dutch dairy herds and (2) to detect farms with a high CMI based on routinely collected herd data. For this study, 240 dairy farms with a conventional milking system that participated in the milk recording program every 4 to 6 wk were randomly selected and agreed to participate. From the initial 240 herds, data of clinical mastitis (CM) registrations and routinely collected herd data of 227 herds were complete and could be used for analysis. Routinely collected herd data consisted of identification and registration records, antimicrobial usage, test-day records from the milk recording program, bulk tank milk (BTM) somatic cell count data and results of diagnostic tests on BTM samples. For each of the 227 herds, the CMI per 100 cows per year was calculated per quarter of the year and was combined with the available herd data. Two models were developed to predict the CMI for all dairy herds and to detect individual herds that belonged to the 25% herds with the highest CMI. Records of 156 (67%) herds were used for development of the models and the remaining 71 (33%) were used for validation. The model that estimated the CMI in all herds consisted of 11 explanatory variables. The observed and predicted averages of the validation herds were not significantly different. The model estimated a CMI per 100 cows per year of 32.5 cases (95% confidence interval=30.2-34.8), whereas the farmers registered 33.4 cases (95% confidence interval=29.5-37.4). The model that aimed at detecting individual herds with a high CMI contained 6 explanatory variables and could correctly classify 77% of all validation herds at the quarter-year level. The most important variables in the model were antibiotic usage for treating CM and BTM somatic cell count. In conclusion, models based on routinely collected herd data gave an accurate prediction of CMI for all Dutch dairy herds and could detect individual dairy herds with a high CMI. With these models it is possible to periodically monitor CMI both at the herd and at the national level, which is valuable for monitoring purposes and can motivate farmers to continuously improve udder health in their herds. PMID:26278495

  7. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Iraguha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski® Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5% were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes.

  8. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden

    2015-01-01

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5%) were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes. PMID:26244583

  9. Clinical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about a case of a patient with liver tumor. The ultrasound scan and Tc technique were used for the diagnosis and treatment. The application of PET - CT FDG contributed to detect peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, the lymph node distance to guide the therapeutic and the recurrence in case of a negative morphological methods.

  10. STUDIES ON MASTITIS AMONG DAIRY BUFFALOES

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    A total of 2340 mammary glands of 585 primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffaloes in different stages of lactation were examined with California Mastitis Test ( CMT) and laboratory examination was carried out to identify the most prevalent micro-organisms in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. The physical examination revealed 2.61 per cent blind teats and CMT revealed 6.71 per cent positive quarters for mastitis. Microbiological examination of 157 sub-clinical mastitis milk samples and ...

  11. Supplementation to prevent subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    A.K.Upadhayay; Pritee Gangwar and Mahesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Effect of supplementation of Zinc, Copper and Levamisole on incidence of subclinical mastitis was studied. The level of zinc increases significantly after supplementation and 75% animals was recovered. However in copper supplemented animals (12) only two animals showed complete recovery. None of the animals in Zinc and Copper supplemented group developed clinical mastitis. In levamisole supplemented group, 50% cows remained in subclinical state while 50% converted in clinical mastitis. So, th...

  12. Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in the united Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, J.E.; Green, M. J.; Bradley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis (CM) during lactation were investigated during a 12-mo longitudinal study on 8 commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy farms in the southwest of England. The individual risk factors studied on 1,677 cows included assessments of udder and leg hygiene, teat-end callosity, and hyperkeratosis; body condition score; and measurements of monthly milk quality and yield. Several outcome variables for CM were used for statisti...

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy Assessment of Sensititre and Agar Disk Diffusion for Determining Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bovine Clinical Mastitis Pathogens?

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, V; Riekerink, R. G. M. Olde; McClure, J T.; Barkema, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the accuracy and precision of a measuring instrument is pertinent in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This study was conducted to predict the diagnostic accuracy of the Sensititre MIC mastitis panel (Sensititre) and agar disk diffusion (ADD) method with reference to the manual broth microdilution test method for antimicrobial resistance profiling of Escherichia coli (n = 156), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 154), streptococcal (n = 116), and enterococcal (n = 31) bovine clinical ...

  14. Sub-acute mastitis associated with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a cow: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Chandrasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year old Holstein Friesian cross breed cow was presented to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history of reduced milk yield. Clinical examination of udder revealed normal milk color and soft udder. The milk pH was 7.0, with California Mastitis Test score 3+, Electrical Conductivity 270U, and Somatic Cell Count as 328,000. Isolation and identification of causative agent revealed Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from the sub-acute mastitis sample. Agar disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility revealed that the MRSA was sensitive to Enrofloxacin, Gentamicin, Oxytetracycline and Amoxicillin+Sulbactam. On the other hand, the isolate was resistance to Amoxicillin, Penicillin G, Ceftriaxone and Methicillin. The isolate was positive for β-lactamase resistance by Nitrocefin test. The MRSA was confirmed for the presence of mecA and blaZ target genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The cow was treated with Enrofloxacin, Vitamin E and inorganic Selenium, and was recovered after 5 days of post-treatment.

  15. Indicators of inflammation in the diagnosis of mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pyörälä, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Mastitis affects the quality of milk and is a potential health risk for the other cows. In a well managed dairy herd, in addition to clinical mastitis, subclinical mastitis should be efficiently detected. Bacteriological sampling is not feasible as a routine test to identify subclinical mastitis, and indirect tests of mastitis are more suitable for selecting cows with intramammary infections for subsequent bacteriological sampling. Mastitis affects the composition of milk, and the degree of c...

  16. Genetics of resistance to mastitis in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Boichard, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established in dairy cattle. Many studies focused on polygenic variation of the trait, by estimating heritabilities and genetic correlation among phenotypic traits related to mastitis such as somatic cell counts and clinical cases. The role of Major Histocompatibility Complex in the susceptibility or resistance to intrammamary infection is also well documented. Finally, development from molecular genome mapping led to accumulating information...

  17. Lifetime risk and cost of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in relation to heifer rearing conditions in southwest Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, J; Svensson, C

    2009-07-01

    Relationships between heifer rearing conditions and the risk of veterinary-reported clinical mastitis (VRCM) during productive life were studied by generalized linear mixed modeling at the lactation level. Data consisted of 5,693 lactations in 2,126 Swedish Reds, Swedish Holsteins, or dairy cows of other or mixed breeds, representing all female animals born in 110 herds in southwest Sweden in 1998. During a lactation, a cow was defined as affected by VRCM if one or more cases were reported by a veterinarian, starting from 7 d precalving. The applied model of VRCM included effects of breed, parity, diarrhea between 3 and 7 mo of age, increase in body weight from weaning to first breeding, increase in daily concentrate ration before first calving, herd-level median age at first calving, cow housing, and random effects of cow and herd. The VRCM incidence was 14% in a given lactation, or 0.11 cases/cow annually; 31% of the cows had VRCM at least once during their productive life. Ninety percent of the variation in mastitis risk was due to factors at the lactation level such as parity, milk yield, cow diseases, and other disturbances, instead of cow or herd factors. Severe diarrhea between 3 and 7 mo of age was associated with 2.8-fold higher odds of VRCM compared with mild diarrhea during the same period, whereas the VRCM odds of calves with mild diarrhea were half that without diarrhea. The odds of VRCM had a predicted maximum at an estimated prepubertal growth rate of 859 g/d and increased with 10% for every 1-kg increase in concentrate ration during the last 2 mo before first calving. Costs of VRCM were estimated based on assumptions regarding veterinary service, extra labor, culling and herd replacement, discarded milk, and production loss depending on parity and lactation stage when VRCM was diagnosed. The total mean costs of VRCM were estimated to be $735 per lactation with a diagnosis of CM, $103 per lactation across all cows, or $95 per cow annually during lifetime. PMID:19528604

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.

    2013-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently isolated from cases of subclinical bovine mastitis. Reported here is a draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, an isolate recovered from a chronic intramammary infection of a Holstein cow. Unexpectedly, a cluster of genes encoding gas vesicle proteins was found within the 2,755-kb genome. PMID:24336375

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus chromogenes Strain MU 970, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Pamela R.; Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Suntrup, Douglas G.; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.; Middleton, John R

    2014-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococcal species are a common cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being one of the most frequently identified species in these cases. The draft genome sequence of an S. chromogenes isolate (MU 970) recovered from the milk of a cow with a chronic intramammary infection is reported here.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.; Middleton, John R

    2013-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently isolated from cases of subclinical bovine mastitis. Reported here is a draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, an isolate recovered from a chronic intramammary infection of a Holstein cow. Unexpectedly, a cluster of genes encoding gas vesicle proteins was found within the 2,755-kb genome.

  1. Bovine mastitis due to algae of the genus Prototheca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E O; Ribeiro, A R; Melville, P A; Prada, M S; Carciofi, A C; Watanabe, E T

    1996-01-01

    Protothecosis was described in many animals, with bovine mastitis being the main form. The increasing number of isolations of Prototheca spp. from bovine mastitis cases indicates the need of a detailed evaluation of this problem. Besides this, these algae do not respond to treatment with the antimicrobians most frequently applied, leading to elimination of the affected animals, as the best method to control the disease. In two dairy farms in the State of So Paulo, Brazil, a total of 155 lactating cows and 52 dry cows were examined. Milk samples were aseptically collected from lactating cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis. From dry cows, secretion samples from all quarters were collected. All samples were then taken to microbiological exams. At dairy farm 1, Prototheca spp. was isolated from 14.95% milk samples from lactating cows, (all of them cases of subclinical mastitis), and from 8.06% samples from dry cows. At dairy farm 2, Prototheca spp. was isolated from 5.1% milk samples and there were ten cases of clinical mastitis due to this agent. Although clinical mastitis has been considered the main form of occurrence of this pathology until now, it is important to consider Prototheca spp. as subclinical mastitis pathogen. Prototheca zopfii was the main specie isolated. In this study a high rate of intramammarian infections, as clinical or subclinical mastitis during lactation as well as in dry period, was observed, high lighting the importance of suitable diagnosis, so that control and preventive measures can be implemented to avoid dissemination of the agent. PMID:8751827

  2. Surgical management of unilateral gangrenous mastitis in a doe: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Samun Sarker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of gangrenous mastitis was surgically managed in a cross breed doe aging 3.5 years and weighing 25 kg at SA Quadery Teaching Veterinary Hospital of Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Confirmatory diagnosis of the case was done based on physical changes of udder, and identification of associated bacterial agents; two bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli could be isolated from the milk sample. Parenteral administration of combined antimicrobials (Gentamycin + Sulphadimidine + Trimethoprim and concurrent intra-mammary infusion of antimicrobials (Streptomycin + Penicillin along with supportive treatments for 7 days could not save the quarter rather the condition deteriorated. After performing the antibiogram of the isolated bacteria, only Ciprofloxacin was found to be sensitive. Mastectomy was done, and together with supportive medicine, Ciprofloxacin (dosed at 10 mg/kg body weight was given intramuscularly as antimicrobial. The doe recovered without any complication after 7 days of post-treatment and management.

  3. Revisiting QTL Affecting Clinical Mastitis by High-Density GWAS and Resequencing in the Finnish Ayrshire Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Iso-Touru, Terhi

    Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cattle, causing high economic losses each year. Studies to locate QTL affecting clinical mastitis and milk somatic cell counts have been carried out to increase our understanding of the disease. As part of the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we have used most recent genomic tools to characterize QTL affecting mastitis incidence in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Clinical mastitis diagnoses from -15 to 50 days and 51 to 300 days of first lactation and SCC (geometric mean of SCS observations between 5 to 170 days of first lactation) were included. In total, 1920 progeny tested bulls were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 chip. After quality control, 38473 SNPs were analyzed using a mixed linear model (software package DMU). Associations (5% Bonferroni threshold) were detected in 9 peaks on 5 chromosomes. A set of 238 of the bulls were re-genotyped with the BovineHD chip, and the remaining bulls imputed to high density genotypes using Beagle software. GWAS was repeated with the imputed HD-data with GRAMMAS (GenABEL in R). Thereby 17 peaks on 12 chromosomes were identified. Eight high priority peaks were defined based on both 50K and imputed HD results, and overlap with previous QTL findings. Eighteen ancestral Finnish Ayrshire bulls were sequenced to over 20X coverage, and this data was used to identify sequence variations in regions flanking 2.5 Mb each side of the high priority peaks. The variations were ranked according to estimated effect by a pipeline developed within the Quantomics project

  4. Profile of patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis presenting to a university teaching hospital in UAE: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manda Venkatramana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the profile of five patients diagnosed as having idiopathic granulomatous mastitis by histopathological examination. Materials and Methods: This presentation is a case series of patients, diagnosed as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis by histopathological examination of excised specimens. The total number of cases included in the report was five females over a 4-year period from 2005 to 2009. Results: The mean age of the patients was 29.6 years and the duration of symptoms varied from 3 weeks to 4 months. All the patients presented with a palpable mass in the breast, and two patients had associated pain and one had a bloody nipple discharge. The average size of the excised mass was 3.8 3.1 cm. Four out of the five patients diagnosed to have breast abscess or segmental mastitis had taken a course of antibiotics. One patient had a persistent wound sinus which subsided with ATT and the rest of the patients had no post-operative complications. Conclusion: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a relatively rare disease which mimics the common breast disorders in the reproductive age group including malignancy

  5. Genetic correlations between pathogen-specific mastitis and somatic cell count in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srensen, L P; Mark, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations (ra) between 2 lactation average somatic cell count (LASCC) traits and 6 different mastitis traits in 226,482 first-parity Danish Holstein cows that calved between 1998 and 2008. The LASCC traits were defined from 5 to either 170 d (LASCC_170) or 300 d (LASCC_300) after calving, and the mastitis traits were unspecific mastitis (all mastitis treatments, both clinical and subclinical, regardless of the causative pathogen) and mastitis caused by either Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus uberis. Variance components were estimated using bivariate threshold-Gaussian models via Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of ra between LASCC_170 and the mastitis traits were greatest for unspecific mastitis (ra = 0.71), followed by CNS, Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and E. coli (ra = 0.54 to 0.69) and were lowest for Staph. aureus mastitis (ra = 0.44). The genetic correlation between LASCC_300 and the mastitis traits were generally smaller (ra = 0.47 to 0.69). Caution should be taken when interpreting the results, however, because some posterior density intervals for ra were large (between 0.14 and 0.47 units). Phenotypically, Staph. aureus is known to be associated with high SCC and especially with subclinical mastitis through chronic infections, so the low ra between Staph. aureus mastitis and LASCC, compared with ra for the other pathogens, was not expected. Subclinical cases are usually submitted to dry cow therapy (not included in the present study), not treated at all, or wrongly recorded as clinical cases. Thus, the incidence of Staph. aureus mastitis is likely too low, and the genetic correlation between Staph. aureus mastitis and LASCC may therefore be underestimated in the present study. The results for the remaining pathogens were as expected, smallest for E. coli and larger but similar for Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and CNS. Selection for lower LASCC is expected to decrease the incidence of pathogen-specific mastitis, especially for Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and CNS and, to a lesser extent, for Staph. aureus and E. coli. Data recording should preferably be improved, and economic weights for the pathogen-specific mastitis traits should be estimated before implementing an udder health index that includes pathogen-specific mastitis traits

  6. Genome Sequences of Two Bovine Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Florent; Loux, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the main pathogenic agents causing inflammatory infections in the bovine udder. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two strains isolated from different cases of clinical mastitis. PMID:25858841

  7. Genome Sequences of Two Bovine Mastitis-Causing [i]Escherichia coli[/i] Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Florent; Loux, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the main pathogenic agents causing inflammatory infections in the bovine udder. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two strains isolated from different cases of clinical mastitis.

  8. A case of Panton–Valentine leucocidin toxin‐positive Staphylococcus aureus‐mediated neonatal mastitis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Connor, Ciara

    2014-09-01

    Introduction: Neonatal mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast frequently associated with Staphylococcus aureus. While Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL), a B‐pore‐forming cytotoxin, is commonly associated with enhanced virulence in community‐acquired methicillin‐resistant S. aureus isolates, this is the first report to our knowledge of neonatal mastitis caused by PVL‐positive S. aureus.\\r\

  9. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Alibeigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

  10. Correlation of hypothetical virulence traits of two Streptococcus uberis strains with the clinical manifestation of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Riccardo; McNeilly, Tom N; Sipka, Anja; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. Several virulence mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the species' ability to cause disease. Here, virulence characteristics were compared between S. uberis strains FSL Z1-048, which consistently caused clinical mastitis in a challenge model, and FSL Z1-124, which consistently failed to cause disease in the same model, to ascertain whether in vitro virulence characteristics were related to clinical outcome. Macrophages derived from bovine blood monocytes failed to kill FSL Z1-048 whilst reducing survival of FSL Z1-124 by 42.5%. Conversely, blood derived polymorphonuclear cells caused more reduction (67.1 vs. 44.2%, respectively) in the survival of FSL Z1-048 than in survival of FSL Z1-124. After 3h of coincubation with bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1, 1000-fold higher adherence was observed for FSL Z1-048 compared to FSL Z1-124, despite presence of a frame shift mutation in the sua gene of FSL Z1-048 that resulted in predicted truncation of the S. uberis Adhesion Molecule (SUAM) protein. In contrast, FSL Z1-124 showed higher ability than FSL Z1-048 to invade BME-UV1 cells. Finally, observed biofilm formation by FSL Z1-124 was significantly greater than for FSL Z1-048. In summary, for several hypothetical virulence characteristics, virulence phenotype in vitro did not match disease phenotype in vivo. Evasion of macrophage killing and adhesion to mammary epithelial cells were the only in vitro traits associated with virulence in vivo, making them attractive targets for further research into pathogenesis and control of S. uberis mastitis. PMID:26497306

  11. Oleogranulomatous Mastitis: A Topical Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladios, Cherif; Kadoch, Vaneesa; Bodin, Frederic; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine; Wilk, Astride; Mathelin, Carole

    2015-10-01

    Paraffin and petrolatum have been known for more than 100 years as volumizing products. Certain countries still use them despite important complications. The authors report the case of a 39-year-old patient presenting a bilateral oleogranulomatous mastitis. An injection of petrolatum had been realized 2 years ago in Chechnya for cosmetic reasons. Clinically, she presented dense, erythemic, and painful breasts. The radiological examination found diffuse oily cysts. After first abdominal expansion, a bilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction was performed. The authors present a literature review about the clinical and radiological data and the possible treatments, and underline the numerous risks of this procedure, which should be strictly forbidden. PMID:26579342

  12. Oleogranulomatous Mastitis: A Topical Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoch, Vaneesa; Bodin, Frederic; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine; Wilk, Astride; Mathelin, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Paraffin and petrolatum have been known for more than 100 years as volumizing products. Certain countries still use them despite important complications. The authors report the case of a 39-year-old patient presenting a bilateral oleogranulomatous mastitis. An injection of petrolatum had been realized 2 years ago in Chechnya for cosmetic reasons. Clinically, she presented dense, erythemic, and painful breasts. The radiological examination found diffuse oily cysts. After first abdominal expansion, a bilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction was performed. The authors present a literature review about the clinical and radiological data and the possible treatments, and underline the numerous risks of this procedure, which should be strictly forbidden. PMID:26579342

  13. Detection of clinical mastitis with sensor data from automatic milking systems is improved by using decision-tree induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, C; Mollenhorst, H; Heesterbeek, J A P; Hogeveen, H

    2010-08-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a clinical mastitis (CM) detection model by means of decision-tree induction. For farmers milking with an automatic milking system (AMS), it is desirable that the detection model has a high level of sensitivity (Se), especially for more severe cases of CM, at a very high specificity (Sp). In addition, an alert for CM should be generated preferably at the quarter milking (QM) at which the CM infection is visible for the first time. Data were collected from 9 Dutch dairy herds milking automatically during a 2.5-yr period. Data included sensor data (electrical conductivity, color, and yield) at the QM level and visual observations of quarters with CM recorded by the farmers. Visual observations of quarters with CM were combined with sensor data of the most recent automatic milking recorded for that same quarter, within a 24-h time window before the visual assessment time. Sensor data of 3.5 million QM were collected, of which 348 QM were combined with a CM observation. Data were divided into a training set, including two-thirds of all data, and a test set. Cows in the training set were not included in the test set and vice versa. A decision-tree model was trained using only clear examples of healthy (n=24,717) or diseased (n=243) QM. The model was tested on 105 QM with CM and a random sample of 50,000 QM without CM. While keeping the Se at a level comparable to that of models currently used by AMS, the decision-tree model was able to decrease the number of false-positive alerts by more than 50%. At an Sp of 99%, 40% of the CM cases were detected. Sixty-four percent of the severe CM cases were detected and only 12.5% of the CM that were scored as watery milk. The Se increased considerably from 40% to 66.7% when the time window increased from less than 24h before the CM observation, to a time window from 24h before to 24h after the CM observation. Even at very wide time windows, however, it was impossible to reach an Se of 100%. This indicates the inability to detect all CM cases based on sensor data alone. Sensitivity levels varied largely when the decision tree was validated per herd. This trend was confirmed when decision trees were trained using data from 8 herds and tested on data from the ninth herd. This indicates that when using the decision tree as a generic CM detection model in practice, some herds will continue having difficulties in detecting CM using mastitis alert lists, whereas others will perform well. PMID:20655431

  14. Imaging features of tuberculous mastitis : Comparison with non-tuberculous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Mi Sook; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Kim, Young Mook; Lee, Myung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included.

  15. Imaging features of tuberculous mastitis : Comparison with non-tuberculous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included

  16. EFFECT OF CLINICAL STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS MASTITIS ON EARLY LACTATION DAIRY GOATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to characterize the effect of induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on physical parameters and milk constituents of first lactation Alpine dairy goats in early lactation (22 d in milk). The right udder half of seven goats was challenged with approximately 120 colony-forming u...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium bovis DSM 20582, Which Causes Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Jasmin; Glaub, Alina; Schneider, Jessica; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bovine mastitis represents the most economically important disease in dairy cows and can be caused by Corynebacterium bovis, a commensal in the bovine udder. The draft genome sequence provides insights into the adaptation of this bacterium to the bovine habitat and its lipolytic capabilities to utilize components of cow's milk.

  18. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azizollah Ebrahimi; Azar Moatamedi; Sharareh Lotfalian; Pejhman Mirshokraei

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were bio...

  19. Identification of polymorphism in exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene and its association with incidence of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Krishanender; Verma, Archana; Das Gupta, Ishwar; Thakur, Yash Pal; Verma, Nishant; Arya, Ashwani

    2015-04-01

    Lactoferrin gene is one of the important candidate genes for mastitis resistance. The gene is located on chromosome BTA 22 and consists of 17 exons spanning over 34.5kb of genomic DNA. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to identify allelic variants in exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene and to analyze association between its genetic variants and incidence of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffalo. The amplification of exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene yielded amplicons of 232- and 461-bp sizes. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 232-bp amplicon using BccI restriction enzyme revealed three genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) with frequencies of 0.62, 0.22, and 0.16, respectively. The frequencies of two alleles, A and B, were estimated as 0.73 and 0.27. Hpy188I-RFLP for 461-bp amplicon revealed polymorphism with three genotypes, CC, CD, and DD, with respective frequencies of 0.06, 0.39, and 0.56, whereas frequencies for C and D alleles were 0.25 and 0.75. The chi-square (?(2)) analysis revealed a significant association between incidence of clinical mastitis and genetic variants of exon 7, and animals of AA genotype of exon 7 were found to be least susceptible to mastitis. The findings indicate potential scope for incorporation of lactoferrin gene in selection and breeding of Murrah buffaloes for improved genetic resistance to mastitis. PMID:25677166

  20. Risk factors for the occurrence of new and chronic cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, L L; Thaler Neto, A; Souza, G N; Picinin, L C A; Felipus, N C; Reche, N L M; Schmidt, F A; Werncke, D; Simon, E E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the risk factors for new and chronic subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) using the monthly somatic cells count of dairy cows. The study took place at 30 dairy herds with approximately 1,700 cows in lactation. Data characterizing the dairy farms and their milking management were obtained from a survey questionnaire. The somatic cells count values from 2 consecutive months were used to classify cows as either healthy or with new or chronic infections. A chi-squared test was used in the analysis of subclinical IMI to evaluate associations between each independent variable, followed by logistic regression to estimate the risk of a new infection in healthy cows and of chronic infection in cows with new infections. Factors increasing the odds ratio of a cow developing a new case of subclinical mastitis were (1) cows with more than 3 lactations, (2) cows with a mean hyperkeratosis score above 3, (3) cows with the udder below the hock, (4) cows with very dirty udders, and (5) milking of infected animals before healthy cows. Factors increasing the risk of a subclinical chronic infection compared with new cases of subclinical mastitis were (1) a lack of regular maintenance of milking machinery, (2) cows over 100 d in lactation, and (3) cows with the udder on or below the hock. The risk factors identified in this study can be used in IMI control programs to reduce the frequency of new and chronic cases of subclinical mastitis. PMID:26298754

  1. Genome-wide association study using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequences for clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions.

  2. Difference in virulence between Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing gangrenous mastitis versus subclinical mastitis in a dairy sheep flock

    OpenAIRE

    Vautor, Eric; Cockfield, Joshua; Le Marechal, Caroline; Le Loir, Yves; Chevalier, Marlne; Robinson, D.; Thiery, Richard; Lindsay, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy sheep ranges from subclinical mastitis to lethal gangrenous mastitis. Neither the S. aureus virulence factors nor the host-factors or the epidemiological events contributing to the different outcomes are known. In a field study in a dairy sheep farm over 21 months, 16 natural isolates of S. aureus were collected from six subclinical mastitis cases, one lethal gangrenous mastitis case, nasal carriage from eight ewes and one isolate from ambient air in th...

  3. Difference in virulence between Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing gangrenous mastitis versus subclinical mastitis in a dairy sheep flock.

    OpenAIRE

    Vautor, Eric; Cockfield, Joshua; Le Marechal, Caroline; Le Loir, Yves; Chevalier, Marlène; Robinson, D.; Thiery, Richard; Lindsay, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy sheep ranges from subclinical mastitis to lethal gangrenous mastitis. Neither the S. aureus virulence factors nor the host-factors or the epidemiological events contributing to the different outcomes are known. In a field study in a dairy sheep farm over 21 months, 16 natural isolates of S. aureus were collected from six subclinical mastitis cases, one lethal gangrenous mastitis case, nasal carriage from eight ewes and one isolate from ambient air in th...

  4. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis in two Uruguayan dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    de los Santos, R.; Fernández, M.; Carro, S.; P. Zunino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and to characterise Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with subclinical mastitis obtained from milk of lactating cows showing a California Mastitis Test (CMT) score result of traces, 1, 2, or 3. Coagulase, hemolysis, presence of capsule, slime formation, biofilm production, autoaggregation, hemagglutination and antibiotic susceptibility were assessed to evaluate S. aureus virulence factors expression potentially associated to bovine subclinical mast...

  5. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    OpenAIRE

    Mahantesh M. Kurjogi; Basappa B. Kaliwal

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the o...

  6. The effect of repeated episodes of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis on mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, E; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Grhn, Y T

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a first and repeated cases of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis (CM) on the risk of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. The pathogens studied were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Trueperella pyogenes, others, and no growth on aerobic culture. A total of 50,166 lactations were analyzed from 5 large, high-milk-producing dairy herds in New York State from 2003/2004 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of parity, month of lactation, CM, calving diseases, pregnancy status, current season, and economic values on the risk of mortality and culling. Among first-lactation cows, the presence of a first CM case generally exposed cows to a greater risk of mortality in the current month (compared with the absence of a first case). This was especially acute with a first case of Klebsiella spp., where cows were 4.5 times more at risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-7.6] of mortality, and with a first case of E. coli were 3.3 times more at risk (95% CI: 2.5-4.5). In first-parity cows, the risk of culling generally increased with a case of bacteria-specific CM. This was observed among cows with a first case of T. pyogenes [relative risk=10.4 (95% CI: 8.4-12.8)], a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=6.7 (95% CI: 5.5-8.1)], a first case of Staph. aureus [relative risk=4.8 (95% CI: 2.7-8.4)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.6)], and a third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=5.0 (95% CI: 3.1-8.0)]. In general, the presence of a first or second/third case resulted in cows in parity ?2 with a greater risk of mortality. This was greatest for cows with a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.3)], followed by a second/third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.2 (95% CI: 2.5-4.0)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.0 (95% CI: 2.7-3.3)], and a first case of other CM [relative risk=1.8 (95% CI: 1.6-2.0)]. Among cows of parity ?2, the risk of culling was greater for cows as they progressed through lactations [i.e., cows in parity 4+ were 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0-2.2) times more likely to be culled compared with cows in lactation 2 (the baseline)]. The risk of culling dependent on the cow's characteristics can be easily calculated from the parameter estimates in the provided tables. PMID:23769361

  7. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis in two Uruguayan dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R de los Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify and to characterise Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with subclinical mastitis obtained from milk of lactating cows showing a California Mastitis Test (CMT score result of traces, 1, 2, or 3. Coagulase, hemolysis, presence of capsule, slime formation, biofilm production, autoaggregation, hemagglutination and antibiotic susceptibility were assessed to evaluate S. aureus virulence factors expression potentially associated to bovine subclinical mastitis isolates. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis along the study was low and did not correlate with months or climatic variables. Most of S. aureus (20 were isolated from milk samples showing a CMT score result of 1. Formation of capsule, slime, biofilms and the occurrence of bacteria aggregation in all the tested isolates converged in the bacterial ability of adherence and persistence in the mammary gland and probably contribute to the further chronicity of the infection and even the colonization of dairy installations. Resistance against a set of commonly used antibiotics was low. The evaluation of virulence factors of S. aureus isolates in the context of subclinical mastitis in dairy farms may be useful to develop precise actions and treatments to control mastitis and to improve animal health and milk production in dairy bovine herds.

  8. A comparative study on the blood and milk cell counts of healthy, subclinical and clinical mastitis Karan Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanned Alhussien

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to study the use of cell counts as an early indicator of mammary health. Materials and Methods: Milk and blood cell counts were estimated from 8 healthy, 8 subclinical (SCM, and 8 clinically mastitis (CM groups of Karan Fries (KF cows. Results: Total leucocyte counts and neutrophil percent in blood and milk somatic cells and milk neutrophil percent of healthy cows increased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM cows and CM cows. Viability of blood and milk neutrophils was more in healthy cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM and CM cows. Significant (p<0.05 decrease were also observed in both the blood and milk lymphocytes and monocytes of SCM and CM cows. Phagocytic activity (PA of blood neutrophils also decreased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM cows. There was no difference between the PA of SCM and CM cows. Milk neutrophil percent was more in the SCM and clinically infected milk than in the blood of these cows. About 96-97% of the neutrophils had segmented nucleus in both healthy and subclinical milk, whereas, 2-3% were having band shaped or immature nuclei. There was a significant decrease in the segmented neutrophils, whereas, band neutrophils increase significantly to about 5% in the infected milk of mastitic cows. Viability of the milk neutrophils decreased more in case of subclinical and clinical milk as compared to that of blood. PA was found to be highest in the milk of healthy group of cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05 in subclinically infected cows. However, there was no difference between the PA of milk neutrophils of SCM and CM cows. PA of milk was also found to be significantly lower in the milk of healthy cows when compared to that of blood neutrophils. Conclusion: This study indicated that percent neutrophils and their type in conjunction with milk somatic cell counts can be used as a more reliable indicator of mammary health in cows.

  9. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy. PMID:21984469

  10. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  11. Nordic veterinarians' threshold for medical treatment of dairy cows, influence on disease recording and medicine use : Mild clinical mastitis as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espetvedt, Mari N.; Rintakoski, Simo

    2013-01-01

    National databases for dairy cows in the four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have been found to capture varying proportions of disease events on farm. A variation in the thresholds of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment may be a reason for this. Studying these thresholds may increase the understanding of prudent use of antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic veterinarians, on a between country-level, vary in their intention to start medical treatment of a dairy cow with mild clinical mastitis, on the same day as making the diagnosis. The threshold for initiating treatment was quantified as an intention score. Secondary, underlying behavioural components of the intention score was studied within each country. A social psychology model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), was used to design a questionnaire that was distributed to 1047 veterinarians in cattle practice in the four countries during autumn 2010. The response rate was around 50% in all the countries, and 543 observations were retained for analysis. The between-country differences in intention were tested with one-way analysis of variance. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the proportion of variability in intention explained by the three behavioural components, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The Spearman rank correlations between specific beliefs about the behaviour and intention scores were estimated to find beliefs of high influence on the decision to treat or not. Intention scores differed between all countries (p <0.05) except between NO and SE (p = 0.06). The mean intention scores were 0.71, 0.42, 0.58 and 0.50 in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. As measured by the adjusted R-2 in linear regression models, the underlying behavioural components of the TPB explained 0.37, 0.41, 0.40 and 0.48 of the variation in intention scores in OK, Fl, NO and SE, respectively. Attitude was the most important predictor in DK, NO and SE, but perceived behavioural control was most important in Fl. In all countries the specific attitude belief of highest influence was that starting treatment the same day as diagnosing a case of mild clinical mastitis gives the best result, compared to delaying treatment. The varying intentions of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment are likely to influence centrally registered mastitis incidence. This study has given an improved understanding of this behaviour, which may be useful in intervention studies or campaigns aiming at prudent use of antibiotics on dairy farms. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for chronic mastitis in morocco and egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Hanna N; Soliman, Amr S; Omar, Omar S; Youssef, Tamer F; Karkouri, Mehdi; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmad; Blachley, Taylor; Tahri, Ali; Merajver, Sofia D

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62-1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07-3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39-5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36-1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions. PMID:24327928

  13. Mammographic features of isolated tuberculous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To present the mammography findings in 8 patients with tuberculosis (TB) of the breast, with a review of the literature. This study is a retrospective data collection. Each chart with confirmed breast TB based on bacteriology or pathologic findings was analyzed for clinical presentation, gender, nationality, demographic data, prior history of TB, investigation, management, mammographic findings and ultrasound, when available. Mammograms were reviewed by 2 consultant radiologists without knowing the previous diagnosis or the nature of the study. The study was carried out at The State Tuberculosis Registry and Radiology Department, Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar, from 1990 to 2002. Out of 13 females with TB mastitis, only 8 cases had mammograms preoperatively. The incidence of breast TB in Qatar is rare (1/1000 mammograms per year). Three types of TB mastitis were identified in our study; the nodular (50%), the diffuse (37.5%) of which 77% were limited to one sector of the breast and the sclerosing (12.5%) mastitis. Three patients (43%) were reported as carcinoma. Although mammography identified 3 types of TB, it was not helpful in differentiating TB from carcinoma of the breast. However, the careful evaluation of the degree of density and trabecular thickening of the mass in relation to it size might reduce the number of false positive cases of carcinoma diagnosed with mammograms. Biopsy specimen remains the best diagnostic tool in TB mastitis. (author)

  14. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there i...

  15. Diagnosis of clinical bovine mastitis by fine needle aspiration followed by staining and scanning electron microscopy in a Prototheca zopfii outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elizabeth Oliveira; Ribeiro, Mrcio Garcia; Ribeiro, Andra Rentz; Rocha, Noeme Sousa; de Nardi Jnior, Geraldo

    2004-07-01

    Biopsy by fine needle aspiration together with microbiological examination and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated in diagnosis of clinical bovine mastitis in a Prototheca zopfii outbreak. Fine needle aspiration was performed in 21 mammary quarters from ten Holstein cows presenting clinical mastitis caused by P. zopfii. The algae were previously identified in the microbiological examination of milk collected from these cows. Material aspirated from these 21 mammary glands was submitted to cytological staining (Gram, Giemsa and/or Shor staining). Fine needle aspiration enabled cytological identification of the algae in these 21 mammary glands, from which P. zopfii was isolated in the milk. Simultaneously, five mammary fragments collected by fine needle aspiration from these 21 mammary glands presenting clinical mastitis were also submitted to microbiological examination. P. zopfii was also isolated from these five fragments. Scanning electron microscopy technique also identified three of these five P zopfii strains isolated from mammary fragments collected by cytological aspiration. These results suggest that fine needle aspiration may be an alternative method for the diagnosis of clinical mastitis. PMID:15487325

  16. Intramammary administration of platelet concentrate as an unconventional therapy in bovine mastitis: first clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Consiglio, A; Spelta, C; Garlappi, R; Luini, M; Cremonesi, F

    2014-10-01

    Bovine udder infections induce a variety of changes in gene expression of different growth factors that may suggest their possible role in glandular tissue protection or repair processes. Growth factors and also chemokines and cytokines may act synergistically to increase the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages to promote angiogenesis, fibroplasia, matrix deposition, and, ultimately, re-epithelialization. Considering the vast applications, typically in human medicine, of platelet concentrate (PC) and its ease of preparation, the aim of our study was to evaluate an alternative therapy to stimulate the regeneration of glandular tissue, administering a concentration in excess of the growth factors contained in the PC. In each one of the 3 farms examined in the trial, PC was prepared from donor cows in good health, free from infections, and with no records of medications administered during the previous 2 mo. The platelet produced in one farm was used only for treating the cows of the same farm in a heterologous way. A total of 229 mastitic quarters were divided in 3 groups: antibiotic group (treated with intramammary antibiotic), antibiotic and PC group (treated intramammarily with antibiotics in association with PC), and PC group (treated with intramammary PC alone). The diagnosis of mastitis was based on somatic cell count and bacteriological evaluation of the milk from the affected quarter. Platelet concentrate, alone or in association with antibiotic, was used for 3 consecutive days as an unconventional therapy in bovine acute and chronic mastitis. Our data show that the associated action of antibiotic and PC performed significantly better than the antibiotic alone, either for the recovery of the affected mammary quarters or for somatic cell count reduction. In the same way, the association antibiotic plus PC showed significantly fewer relapses compared with the antibiotic alone, either for acute or chronic mastitis. The treatment with only PC did not show statistically significant differences compared with both antibiotic alone or associated treatment for acute mastitis, and it was better than the use of only antibiotic for chronic mastitis. Our results show that PC alone may be useful for a quick resolution of the inflammatory response, playing a role in limiting the tissue damage to the mammary gland parenchyma and reducing the recurrence rates. PMID:25108856

  17. Enfermidades digitais em vacas de aptido leiteira: associao com mastite clnica, metrites e aspectos epidemiolgicos Foot diseases in dairy cows: association with clinical mastitis, metrites and predisposed factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antnio Franco da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se nesse estudo 5300 vacas de aptido leiteira, provenientes de 80 propriedades rurais, que adotavam manejo intensivo ou semi-extensivo, com o objetivo de averiguar a existncia de possvel associao entre enfermidades digitais, mastite clnica e/ou metrite e identificar possveis fatores de risco das enfermidades digitais. Em 325 (6,13% vacas foram diagnosticados apenas enfermidades digitais, em 35 (0,66% enfermidades digitais e mastite clnica, em 52 (0,98% enfermidades digitais e metrite, em 28 (0,53% enfermidades digitais, mastite clnica e metrite, em 128 (2,42% apenas metrite, em 165 (3,11% somente mastite clnica, e em 89 (1,68% vacas metrite e mastite clnica. As mudanas bruscas na alimentao, o excesso de sujidades nas instalaes, os pisos irregulares e abrasivos, a no utilizao ou uso incorreto de pedilvio, a falta de casqueamento preventivo, a ausncia de quarentena, e a aquisio de animais sem a preocupao com o aspecto sanitrio foram considerados os fatores de risco de maior ocorrncia. Foi constatada diferena significativa entre a ocorrncia de enfermidades digitais, mastite clnica e metrite, alm de associao fraca entre tais enfermidades, concluindo-se que no houve relao expressiva entre enfermidades podais, mastite clnica e metrite em vacas lactantes.With the objective to investigate a possible association between foot diseases, clinical mastitis and/or metritis and predisposing factors for foot diseases, 5300 dairy cows from 80 intensive and semi-intensive farms were used. In 325 (6.13% cows only foot disease was diagnosed, in 35 (0.66% foot disease and clinical mastitis, in 52 (0.98% foot disease and metritis, in 28 (0.53% foot disease, clinical mastitis and metritis, in 128 (2.42% only metritis, in 165 (3.11% only clinical mastitis, and in 89 (1.68% cows metritis and clinical mastitis. Rapid changes in the diet, high exposure time of hoof horn to slurry and wet conditions, concrete floors, use of footbaths, low frequency of claw trimming, irregular quarantine, and no attention to health aspects during acquisition of the animals were considered as major risk factors for the occurrence of those diseases. The McNemar test for dependent samples showed significant statistical differences between the occurrence of foot disease, clinical mastitis and metritis, in spite of the poor association between those diseases. It was concluded that there was no expressive relationship between foot diseases, clinical mastitis and metritis in lactent cows.

  18. [Breast cancer treated by antibiotherapy? Granulomatous mastitis with Corynebacterium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, J; Grignon, Y; Gallon, F

    2015-09-01

    Granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease, often associated with Corynebacterium infection. It raises the problem of diagnosis of breast tumor with a fast evolution and inflammatory character. We report two cases of granulomatous mastitis with Corynebacterium. It concerns the clinical and radiological description, followed by the therapeutic alternatives and future of the patients. The clinical presentation is variable. The treatment consists in a surgical procedure of resection. The medical treatment based of corticosteroids also proves efficient. The association between Corynebacterium presence and this pathology seems frequent and needs a specific bacteriological search. PMID:25721346

  19. Clinical Case Registries (CCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Clinical Case Registries (CCR) replaced the former Immunology Case Registry and the Hepatitis C Case Registry with local and national databases. The CCR:HIV and...

  20. ETIOLOGY OF THE BOVINE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN GOIÂNIA ETIOLOGIA DA MASTITE CLÍNICA BOVINA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Moreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    There is an estimate that the mastitis in dairy herds causes production losses between 5 and 35%, equivalent from 85 to 500 million dollars per year. 231 milk samples from 231 cows on different stages of lactation, with clinic mastitis, from 35 farms of Goiânia, were analyzed in order to map the pathogens implicated in these process and to discover the microorganisms with major prevalence. All the samples had positive growth. The principal agents were Staphylococcus coagulase positive (32.90%, Streptococcus sp. (22.07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12.12%, Enterobacter sp. (10.38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8.65%, Escherichia coli (8.22%, Bacillus sp. (8.22%, Proteus sp. (6.49%, Klebsiella sp. (4.32% and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (3.46%. The Nocardia genus was isolated in 0.86% of the cases.

    KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; etiology; isolated microorganisms.

    Estima-se que a presença de mastite bovina em rebanhos produtores provoque perdas de produção entre 5 e 35%, o que equivale de 85 a 500 milhões de dólares ao ano. Com o objetivo de mapear os patógenos envolvidos nesse processo e evidenciar os microrganismos com maior freqüência foram examinadas amostras de leite de 231 vacas, em diferentes estágios de lactação, que apresentaram sinais de mastite clínica e eram pertencentes a 35 propriedades rurais da bacia leiteira de Goiânia. Todas as amostras tiveram crescimento bacteriano positivo. Os principais agentes isolados foram o Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (32,90%, Streptococcus sp. (22,07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12,12%, Enterobacter sp. (10,38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8,65%, Escherichia coli (8,22%, Bacillus sp. (8,22%, Proteus sp. (6,49%, Klebsiella sp. (4,32% e Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (3,46%. O gênero Nocardia foi isolado em 0,86 % dos casos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite bovina; etiologia; microrganismos isolados.

  1. Primary tubercular mastitis masquerading as malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Prathima, S; Kalyani, R.; Parimala, S.

    2014-01-01

    The significance of primary tubercular mastitis is due to rare occurrence and often overlooked and misdiagnosed as pyogenic breast abscess or malignancy. Despite the high incidence of tuberculosis in India, reports of breast tuberculosis among the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.64% and 3.59%. We report a case of a 35-year-old lady with breast lump of 3 months duration, which simulated malignancy on clinical examination but fine needle aspiration cytology revealed granulom...

  2. Eosinophilic mastitis masquerading as breast carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, M; Kumar, S.; Neogi, S

    2012-01-01

    We report the sixth case of Eosinophilic Mastitis, presenting similarly enough to be confused with breast carcinoma. A 50 year old lady presented with a six month history of progressively enlarging asymptomatic breast lump, cough and breathlessness. Clinical examination, mammography and axillary lymphadenopathy suggested malignant disease. Ronchi were heard on chest auscultation. Needle cytology was twice inconclusive and Tru-cut biopsy showed acute on chronic inflammation. Blood investigatio...

  3. Recurrent granulomatous mastitis mimicking inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ergin, Ahmet Bahadir; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Daw, Hamed; Tahan, Gulgun; GONG, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon benign breast lesion. Diagnosis is a matter of exclusion from other inflammatory, infectious and granulomatous aetiologies. Here, we presented an atypical GM case, which had clinical and radiologic features overlapping with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The disease had multiple recurrences. The patient is a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with a sudden onset of left breast swelling accompanied by diffuse skin redness, especially of the subareolar reg...

  4. A cross-sectional study of 329 farms in England to identify risk factors for ovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S; Huntley, S J; Crump, R; Lovatt, F; Green, L E

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) and identify risk factors for clinical mastitis in suckler ewes to generate hypotheses for future study. A postal questionnaire was sent to 999 randomly selected English sheep farmers in 2010 to gather data on farmer reported IRCM and flock management practices for the calendar year 2009, of which 329 provided usable information. The mean IRCM per flock was 1.2/100 ewes/year (CI:1.10:1.35). The IRCM was 2.0, 0.9 and 1.3/100 ewes/year for flocks that lambed indoors, outdoors and a combination of both, respectively. Farmers ran a variety of managements before, during and after lambing that were not comparable within one model, therefore six mixed effects over-dispersed Poisson regression models were developed. Factors significantly associated with increased IRCM were increasing percentage of the flock with poor udder conformation, increasing mean number of lambs reared/ewe and when some or all ewes lambed in barns compared with outdoors (Model 1). For ewes housed in barns before lambing (Model 2), concrete, earth and other materials were associated with an increase in IRCM compared with hardcore floors (an aggregate of broken bricks and stones). For ewes in barns during lambing (Model 3), an increase in IRCM was associated with concrete compared with hardcore flooring and where bedding was stored covered outdoors or in a building compared with bedding stored outdoors uncovered. For ewes in barns after lambing (Model 4), increased IRCM was associated with earth compared with hardcore floors, and when fresh bedding was added once per week compared with at a frequency of ≤2 days or twice/week. The IRCM was lower for flocks where some or all ewes remained in the same fields before, during and after lambing compared with flocks that did not (Model 5). Where ewes and lambs were turned outdoors after lambing (Model 6), the IRCM increased as the age of the oldest lambs at turnout increased. We conclude that the reported IRCM is low but highly variable and that the complexity of management of sheep around lambing limits the insight into generating hypotheses at flock level for risks for clinical mastitis across the whole industry. Whilst indoor production was generally associated with an increased IRCM, for ewes with large litter size indoor lambing was protective, we hypothesise that this is possibly because of better nutrition or reduced exposure to poor weather and factors associated with hygiene. PMID:26809634

  5. Coliform mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Joe; Larry Smith, K.

    2003-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria that commonly cause bovine mastitis are classified as environmental pathogens. The point sources of coliform bacteria that cause infections include bedding materials, soil, manure and other organic matter in the environment of cows. Rates of coliform mastitis increase during climatic periods that maximize populations in the environment. The portal of entry into the mammary gland for Gram-negative bacteria is the teat canal. Once in the gland, bacteria must utilize avail...

  6. Fatores de risco, etiologia e aspectos clnicos da mastite em ovelhas de corte no Paran / Risk factors, etiology and clinical aspects of mastitis in meat ewes of Parana, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscilla F. V., Pereira; Erika S., Stotzer; Lucienne G., Pretto-Giordano; Ernst E., Mller; Jlio A. N., Lisba.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mastite em ovelhas da raa Santa Ins apresenta-se como um problema de grande proporo e gravidade e dificilmente tratada com sucesso. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar aspectos clnicos, epidemiolgicos e etiolgicos da mastite clnica em ovelhas de corte criadas no norte do Paran. O p [...] resente estudo foi realizado entre os meses de outubro de 2009 a setembro de 2010 envolvendo 54 rebanhos de ovinos de corte de diferentes raas. Durante as visitas s propriedades, um questionrio foi preenchido com a finalidade de caracterizar o problema. Setenta ovelhas com mastite clnica foram examinadas e amostras de secreo lctea foram colhidas para exame microbiolgico. A mastite foi considerada um problema relevante em 39 propriedades (72,3%), com frequncia mdia de 6,74%. Casos crnicos e agudos de mastite foram observados em 69% e 31% das ovelhas examinadas, respectivamente. Em ambos os casos, a mastite flegmonosa foi a forma mais encontrada (65,5% dos casos). O agente etiolgico mais prevalente foi Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (54,5%), seguido por S. aureus e A. pyogenes (11,5% cada). Mannheimia haemolytica foi isolada em dois casos. Sistema de criao no extensivo e raa Santa Ins foram identificados como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de mastite clnica. Secagem das fmeas aps 120 dias de lactao e separao de fmeas doentes do rebanho foram associadas com menor ocorrncia da doena. Recomenda-se a limpeza adequada das instalaes e a secagem mais tardia, principalmente em rebanhos Santa Ins. Abstract in english Mastits is infrequent in meat ewes. However Santa Ines ewes have a high incidence of this disease and it is severe and difficult to treat. The goal of this study was to characterize clinical, epidemiological and etiological aspects of clinical mastitis in meat ewes reared in the north of Parana, Bra [...] zil. Fifith four farms were visited from October 2009 to September 2010. The surveyed data included frequency, breeds of sheep affected, lamb mortality rates, main clinical signs, attempts and outcome of treatment, method and period of weaning and management features. Seventy ewes with clinical mastitis were fully examinated and samples of mammary secretion were asseptically taken for bacteriological culture. Mastitis was identified in 39 farms (72.3%) as a relevant problem (mean frequency was 6,74%). Chronic and acute mastitis were observed in 69% and 31% of the examinated ewes, respectively. In both cases, phlegmonous mastitis was the most prevalent form (65.5%). Coagulase negative Staphylococccus (CNS) was the main isolated microorganism (54.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (11.5%, each one). Mannheimia haemolytica was found in two cases. The risk factors for clinical mastitis were intensive management system and Santa Ines breed. Weaning after 120 days of lactation and isolation of affected ewes were associated with lower frequency of mastitis. Preventive measures recommended are daily cleaning of facilities and delayed weaning, mainly in Santa Ines flocks.

  7. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih ALTINTOPRAK; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a che...

  8. Bovine mastitis associated with Prototheca blaschkeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Jlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A R; Thompson, Gertrude

    2008-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates were genetically characterized. The algae are part of Prototheca isolates that were collected during a 6-year period, isolated from the milk of 41 dairy cows in a total of 22 herds with a history of increasing somatic cell counts, mild clinical signs of udder infection, and unsuccessful response to the usual therapy. PCR amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), amplified rDNA restriction analysis, and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rDNA sequences were performed. Thirty-seven isolates were identified as P. zopfii var. hydrocarbonea and four as Prototheca blaschkeae. These data suggest a high incidence of P. zopfii var. hydrocarbonea mastitis in the region and demonstrate for the first time the involvement of P. blaschkeae with bovine mammary gland infections. PMID:18434557

  9. The magnetic resonance image findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rare disease of breast. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year old female patient with the diagnosis, concentrating on magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and its clinical application. There have been other reports on MRI findings in this entity in the radiological literature, but in our case report clinical, cytological, pathological and radiological correlations are also provided. (author)

  10. Using sensor data patterns from an automatic milking system to develop predictive variables for classifying clinical mastitis and abnormal milk

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, A.; Pietersma, D; Tol, R. van; Wiedermann, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Dairy farmers using automatic milking are able to manage mastitis successfully with the help of mastitis attention lists. These attention lists are generated with mastitis detection models that make use of sensor data obtained throughout each quarter milking. The models tend to be limited to using the maximum or average value of the sensor data pattern, potentially excluding other valuable information. They often put cows on the lists unnecessarily, and their sensitivity for abnormal milk cla...

  11. The association between farmers participation in herd health programmes and their behaviour concerning treatment of mild clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Ann-Kristina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Denmark, it has recently become mandatory for all dairy farmers with more than 100 cows to sign up for a herd health programme. Three herd health programmes are available. These differ in a number of aspects, including the frequency of veterinary visits and the farmers access to prescription drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy farmers behavioural intentions, i.e. to call a veterinarian or start medical treatment on the day that they detect a cow with mild clinical mastitis (MCM, are different depending on the type of herd health programme. Methods A questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was conducted. TPB proposes that a persons behavioural intention is strongly correlated with his or her actual behaviour. Three behavioural factors determine the behavioural intention: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Each of these factors is decided by a set of beliefs, each of which in turn is weighted by an evaluation: 1 the expected outcomes of performing the behaviour, 2 what a person believes that others think of the behaviour, and 3 the persons perceived power to influence the behaviour. A set of statements about the treatment of MCM based on interviews with 38 dairy farmers were identified initially. The statements were rephrased as questions and the resulting questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly selected Danish dairy farmers who use the two most restrictive herd health programmes, either Core or Module1, and to all 669 farmers with the least restrictive herd health programme, Module2. The association between intention and the herd health programme was modelled using logistic regression. Results The farmers with the Module2 herd health programme had a significantly higher behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, when compared to farmers with a more restrictive herd health programme (OR = 2.1, p Conclusion Danish dairy farmers who participate in Module2 herd health programme had a higher intention to treat cases of MCM, compared to farmers who participate in a more restrictive herd health programme in which the veterinarian initiates treatments.

  12. A case of non-lacrimal immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related orbital disease with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Tahir Ali; Mudhar, Hardeep; Sandramouli, S

    2016-02-01

    IgG4-related orbital disease is a recognised cause for orbital inflammation. As its awareness increases and diagnostic accuracy improves there will be an increased number of cases being identified. This unique case demonstrates for the first time, with histological evidence, a case of a non-lacrimal IgG4-related orbital disease with concurrent IgG4-related mastitis. We describe a 47 year old who presented with a supraorbital swelling and mass. This was initially successfully treated with oral steroids and was later excised on recurrence. Immunohistochemical and blood serum analysis confirmed IgG4-related orbital disease. On systemic enquiry she was found to have a mass of the breast, which was shown to be IgG4-related mastitis. She is currently asymptomatic with no sign of recurrence and is under long-term surveillance. This case highlights the importance of systemic work up in patients presenting with orbital foci of IgG4 disease. PMID:26700191

  13. The environmental impact of mastitis: a case study of dairy herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector

  14. The environmental impact of mastitis: a case study of dairy herds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hospido, Almudena [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: ahospido@usc.es; Sonesson, Ulf [Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK), PO Box 5401, SE-402 29 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector.

  15. Immunoprophylaxis of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in diary cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in cows represents one of the most actual problems in intensive dairy production. The prevention of pathogen penetration in the udder, its colonization and reproduction impose the constant need for regular milk check-ups, and preventive and therapeutic measures. Staphylococcus aureus causes subclinical and clinical mastitis, which when in the acute form can originate difficult and malignant udder infections with granulomatous and necrotic changes. Chronic forms of Staphylococcal mastitis most often pass as subclinical cases. An efficient commercial vaccine has not been introduced yet, though the application of autochthonous vaccines in the prevention of mastitis can give satisfactory results. In this study we have developed and applied an autochthonous vaccine prepared from S. aureus isolated from milk samples taken from an experimental farm, as well as from the referent capsular strain S. aureus. The vaccine was applied to experimental dairy cattle twice before calving in a dose of 5 mL. It consisted of inactivated bacterial S. aureus JR3 cells in a quantity of 1x1010 cfu/mL and 5 mg SM capsule of the strain S. aureus 2286. This vaccination of dairy cows has resulted in a significant decrease of subclinical and clinical manifested mastitis in the treated group, when compared to the vaccinated group of experimental animals. .

  16. EFICACIA ANTIBACTERIANA DE EXTRACTOS DE PLANTAS: APLICACIN CLNICA EN MASTITIS BOVINA / ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF PLANT EXTRACTS: CLINICAL APPLICATION IN BOVINE MASTITIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco, Leal.

    2014-06-30

    Full Text Available La mastitis en los bovinos es una enfermedad que afecta la calidad y la cantidad de la leche, teniendo un impacto directo sobre la salud pblica. Muchos tratamientos han sido utilizados, con el fin de disminuir la inflamacin y la infeccin, causados por este problema; sin embargo, la utilizacin de [...] casi todos los frmacos conlleva a residuos en la leche. Se evaluaron extractos fitoteraputicos, con capacidad antibacteriana reportada, contra tres bacterias causantes de mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae y Escherichia coli. Los extractos empleados fueron obtenidos de Thymus vulgaris, Calendula officinalis y Salvia officinalis. Los hallazgos in vitro revelaron efecto bactericida con C. officinalis, en diluciones ½, ¼ y 1:8, en comparacin con un efecto bactericida de los otros extractos, en las dos primeras diluciones. Con el grupo control con vehculo de propilenglicol, se obtuvo un menor efecto bactericida. Con base en los efectos in vitro, se intent disminuir las clulas somticas en bovinos con mastitis diagnosticada. Los resultados en los grupos tratados fueron en promedio un 23% de tasa de curacin de los cuartos infectados. Se obtuvieron reacciones adversas en el 60% de los cuartos tratados. Con lo anterior, se concluy que, a pesar de existir un comportamiento bactericida in vitro, no se puede asegurar que se obtendrn resultados antiinflamatorios en la glndula mamaria y que las reacciones adversas a la mezcla de extractos se deben ms al uso per se de los extractos que al vehculo, tomando en cuenta que el propilenglicol es un vehculo comn de preparaciones farmacuticas tpicas y parenterales. Abstract in english Mastitis in cattle is a disease that affects the quality and quantity of milk, having a direct impact on public health. Many treatments have been used to reduce inflammation and infection caused by this problem. However, the use of almost all drugs needs a withdrawal time. Using herbal extracts with [...] reported antibacterial capacity, were used against three common mastitis-causing bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli. Extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Calendula officinalis and Salvia officinalis were evaluated. In vitro findings revealed bactericidal effect in all dilutions of C. officinalis ½, ¼ and 1:8, as compared with the bactericidal effect of other extracts in the first two dilutions. Control group using propylene glycol demonstrated lower bactericidal effect. Based on these in vitro effects minimization of somatic cell count in bovine mastitis was attempted. The results in the treated groups were of an average of 23% cure rate of infected quarters. Adverse reactions were obtained in 60% of treated quarters. With the above it was conclude that the behavior of the extracts in vitro and in vivo is different. Adverse reactions to the mixture of extracts apparently were not due to the vehicle, taking into account that propylene glycol is a common vehicle for topical and parenteral pharmaceutical preparations.

  17. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Ozturk; Murat Akin; Mehmet F. Can; Ismail Ozerhan; Bulent Kurt; Gokhan Yagci; Turgut Tufan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To discuss the clinical and radiological features and treatment approaches in 14 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (GM). METHODS We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings, and treatment approaches in 14 patients with idiopathic GM in the General Surgery Department, Gulhane School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between April 2000 and June 2006. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 34.5 years (range 27-41 years)....

  18. Mouse model of plasma cell mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Jian-jun; Bao Shan-lin; Yu Sheng-lin; Zhang Da-Qing; Loo Wings TY; Chow Louis WC; Su Li; Cui Zhen; Chen Kai; Ma Li-Qiong; Zhang Ning; Yu Hui; Yang Yun-Zhen; Dong Yu; Yip Adrian YS

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasma cell mastitis is distinct from the common form of mastitis and clinically resembles breast carcinoma. The lesion occurs in non-lactating young women, and the incidence rate is rising. Surgical resection is the main treatment, but cannot prevent recurrence of the disease. Disfigurement or removal of breast after the operations can cause marked physical and psychological distress. The etiology of plasma cell mastitis is unclear up till now. It is therefore necessary t...

  19. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette; Laker, C.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire was...... administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured for...... isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms...

  20. Prevalence of blaZ gene and other virulence genes in penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis cases in Gansu, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Feng; Wang, Qi; WANG, XURONG; Wang, Ling; Xiao, Min; LI, XINPU; LUO, JINYIN; Zhang, Shidong; Li, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiological agent of bovine mastitis worldwide. In this study, 37 strains of S. Aureus resistant to penicillin were isolated from bovine mastitis cases in Gansu Province for investigating blaZ and virulence-related genes, including tst, eta, etb, lukPV, lukED, lukM, hla, hlb, hld, and edin. Antibiotic resistance was based on disk diffusion method and blaZ and virulence-associated genes were studied by polymerase chain reaction. Penicillin resistance gene blaZ ...

  1. Investigation of subclinical mastitis cases in GCSAR Damascus goats from Humeimeh research station

    OpenAIRE

    M. Roukbi; A. N. Omar; Salam, Z.; K. Dibeh

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the performance of California mastitis test, electrical conductivity measurement and lactose content as markers for subclinical-intramammary infection (IMI) in goats. It was performed at Humeimeh research station for Damascus goats, General commission for scientific agricultural research (GCSAR) from February to march 2011 and done on dairy goats aged 2 to 6 years. Milk samples were taken from 134 dairy goats during morning milking according to habitual pro...

  2. Characterization of Prototheca zopfii Genotypes Isolated from Cases of Bovine Mastitis and Cow Barns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Hou, Rongguang; Zhang, Shiyao; Ding, Laidi; Han, Dandan; Deng, Zhaoju; Rahman, Abdur; Han, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Protothecal mastitis, caused mostly by Prototheca zopfii (P. zopfii), is increasing in dairy herds and is being reported globally. The present study was aimed at studying the epidemiology of mastitis and at molecular characterization of P. zopfii isolates from dairy herds and their surroundings in three provinces of China using microbiological, biochemical and molecular methods, and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Samples from milk (n = 620) of mastitic cows and their barns sources (n = 410) including feces, feed, bedding materials and drinking water were analyzed. Among other pathogens recovered from mastitic milk, 84 (13.5 %) of the isolates were identified as P. zopfii. All of the P. zopfii isolates recovered from milk were recognized as genotype 2, whereas 58 (73.4 %) and 21 (26.6 %) isolates from environmental sources were found to be P. zopfii genotypes 1 and 2, respectively. The isolates were susceptible to some antibiotics and antifungal agents, including amikacin (78.1 %), streptomycin (58.5 %), gentamicin (17.8 %), amphotericin B (68.6 %) and nystatin (64.4 %). Additionally, the two genotypes displayed versatile patterns of susceptibility to different antimicrobials agents. Phylogeny of the genotypes on the basis of 18S SSU rDNA and 28S SSU rDNA was also investigated. The isolates of the two genotypes separated into different clades, and no interrelationship was observed among these as shown by phylogenetic analysis. The genotype 1 isolates from cow barn sources were non-pathogenic and may not present any risk of mastitis. We conclude that P. zopfii genotype 2 might play an important role in bovine mastitis in China. PMID:26450620

  3. Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Ins ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep. PMID:23178047

  4. Radiodiagnostic aspects of non-puerperal mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients. (orig.)

  5. Radiodiagnostic aspects of non-puerperal mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overhagen, H. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Lameris, J.S.

    1988-09-01

    The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients.

  6. Periductal mastitis in a male breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination

  7. Periductal mastitis in a male breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Jung Im; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Woo Chan; Hahn, Seong Tai [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination.

  8. Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae?

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Jlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude

    2008-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates ...

  9. Episodes of clinical mastitis and its relationship with duration of treatment and seasonality in crossbred cows maintained in organized dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study aimed to evaluate the different episodes of clinical mastitis (CM and influence of duration of treatment and seasonality on the occurrence of different episodes of CM in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 1194 lactation data of crossbred CM cows were collected from mastitis treatment record from 2002 to 2012. Data of CM cows were classified into types of episodes (pattern of repeated or multiple episodes occurrence and number of episodes (magnitude of multiple cases. Types of episodes were divided as single (clinical cure by a single episode of treatment, relapse (retreatment of the same cow within 21 days, recurrence (new CM at least 21 days after treatment, and both (relapse and recurrence. The season was classified as winter (December to March, summer (April to June, rainy (July to September, and autumn (October to November. The difference between incidences of different types of CM episodes and the association between number or type of CM episodes with duration of treatment and seasons of CM occurrence were analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Among 1194 animals suffered with CM, 53, 16, and 18% had the single episode, relapse, and recurrence, respectively; while 13% suffered by both relapse and recurrence. We estimated the duration of treatment and found 80% of the cows treated 1-8 days, in which 65% treated for 1-4 days, while 35% cows were treated for 5-8 days. Further, 12% cows treated for 9-15 days and 7.5% cows treated >15 days. The relationship between duration of treatment and different episodes of CM revealed that 1-8 days treated cows were mostly cured by the single episode with less relapse and recurrence. In contrast, the incidences of recurrence and relapse episodes were higher in cows treated for more than 9 days. The highest incidence of relapse was noticed in winter (36% than other seasons (10-28%, while the recurrence was less during autumn (9% compared to other seasons (20-40%. Conclusion: Cows those suffered by both relapse and recurrence were more susceptible to CM, and they need to be culled from farm to control the transmission of infections. Although the influence of seasonality was difficult to understand, the higher magnitude of relapse and recurrence during winter suggested the adverse effects of cold stress on treatment outcome.

  10. Bovine mastitis therapy and why it fails : continuing education

    OpenAIRE

    J.H. Du Preez

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of bovine mastitis depends on the cause, the clinical manifestation and the antibiotic susceptibility of the agent. Mastitis therapy is commonly unsuccessful owing to pathological changes that occur in the udder parenchyma as a result of the inflammatory reaction to mastitogenic bacteria, pharmacokinetic properties of antimicrobial mastitis drugs, mastitogenic bacterial and related factors, and poor animal husbandry and veterinary interventions.

  11. Sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Savannah Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu Aminu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical mastitis limits milk production and represents an important barrier to profitable livestock economics worldwide. Milk production from cows in Nigeria is not at optimum levels in view of many factors including sub-clinical mastitis. Results The overall herd-level prevalence rate for SCM was 85.33% (256/300 heads of cows while the quarter-level prevalence rate of SCM was 43.25% (519/1,200 quarters. The prevalence of SCM was 50.67%, 43.67%, 39.67% and 39.13% for the left fore-quarter, right hind-quarter, left hind-quarter and right fore-quarter, respectively. The Rahaji breed had the highest prevalence of SCM with 65.91% (29/44, while the White Fulani breed had the least with 32.39% (57/176. A total of 32.33% (97/300 had only one mammary quarter affected, 30.33% (91/300 had two quarters affected, 16.00% (48/300 had three quarters affected while 6.67% (20/300 had all the four quarters affected. A total of 53.00% had SCM in multiple quarters (159/300. The risk of SCM decreased significantly among young lactating cows compared to older animals (OR = 0.283; P P = 0.013; 95% CI = 1.557; 43.226. Improved sanitation (washing hands before milking will decrease the risk of SCM (OR = 0.173; P = 0.003; 95% CI = 0.054; 0.554. Conclusion SCM is prevalent among lactating cows in the Nigerian Savannah; and this is associated with both animal characteristics (age, breed and individual milk quarters and milking practices (hand washing.Good knowledge of the environment and careful management of the identified risk factors with improved sanitation should assist farm managers and veterinarians in implementing preventative programmes to reduce the incidence of SCM.

  12. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; vall-Jskelinen, Silja

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S.aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S.aureus strains from bovine mastitis. PMID:25908141

  13. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis.

  14. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: rare but important

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, M J; Rogers, A; R.Vidya

    2010-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman attended the breast clinic with unresolving mastitis and an associated mass, following failed treatment with antibiotics. Triple assessment confirmed idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Unresponsive to further conservative management and steroid therapy, she underwent surgical excision and made uneventful recovery. No evidence of recurrence was detected at 18 months follow-up.

  15. Tubercular Mastitis - A Great Masquerader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia GON

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubercular mastitis is a rare clinical entity as mammary gland tissue, like spleen and skeletal muscle, offers resistance to the survival and multiplication of the tubercle bacillus. Tuberculosis of the breast can mimic carcinoma, whereas in young patients it can be mistaken for a pyogenic breast abscess, thus labeled a great masquerader in recognition of its multifaceted presentation. Breast tuberculosis commonly affects women in the reproductive age group, between 21 and 30 years, and is rare in prepubescent females and elderly women. Fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful and it is a promising technique in expert hands. In tuberculosis-endemic countries, the finding of granuloma on fine needle aspiration cytology warrants empirical treatment for tuberculosis even in the absence of positive acid-fast bacilli and without culture results. We hereby report a case of tubercular mastitis in a post-menopausal seronegative female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology with a positive acid-fast bacilli and a review of the recent literature.

  16. Mastite granulomatosa idiopática: aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e ultra-sonográficos Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Caetano Stefanon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as características clínicas, mamográficas e ultra-sonográficas de três casos de mastite granulomatosa idiopática. Esta afecção pode simular câncer de mama nos exames clínico e mamográfico, porém os achados ultra-sonográficos de múltiplas imagens tubulares hipoecóicas, contíguas e confluentes em mulheres jovens com história de lactação recente sugerem o diagnóstico de mastite granulomatosa idiopática.The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings of three cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. This disease can mimic breast carcinoma on clinical and mammographic examinations. However, ultrasound examinations showing multiple clustered and often contiguous tubular hypoechoic lesions in young women with history of recent lactation suggest the diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

  17. Arcanobacterium pluranimalium leading to a bovine mastitis: species identification by a newly developed pla gene based PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, A.; R. Stephan; Sager, J; Corti, S.; Lehner, A

    2013-01-01

    We are describing a clinical case of bovine mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pluranimalium in a Holstein-Friesian heifer, delivering bloody milk on the left hindquarter. Moreover, we report on the development and evaluation of PCR primers based on the pluranimaliumlysin (pla) gene for the identification of this species. With the primer pair PlaF/PlaR the A. pluranimalium type strain as well as the mastitis isolate 704 revealed a correctly sized amplification product (458 bp), whereas no amplif...

  18. Mastitis diagnosis in dairy goats through somatic cell counts and California mastitis test. Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Álvaro (Ed.); Valentim, Ramiro; Nunes, Manuel; Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Trigo, Margarida; Maurício, Raimundo; Costa, Cristina; Coelho, Alípio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate somatic cell count (SCC) and Californian mastitis test (CMT) reliability as methods to survey mastitis in Serrana goats. Microbiological diagnosis, SCC and CTM were performed on 2028 samples, collected from individual goat glands during a lactation period. According to results CMT (predictive negative value = 69.5%) may be used as a cheap and practical method for sub clinical mastitis survey in Serrana goats. Decision on SCC use will depend on additional r...

  19. Genotypic characterization and evaluation of an antibiotic resistance of Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes) isolated from milk of dairy cows with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastempowska, Ewa; Lassa, Henryka

    2012-12-28

    Trueperella pyogenes, recently reclassified from the genus Arcanobacterium, is considered the causative agent of acute suppurative mastitis called summer mastitis. T. pyogenes produces a variety of known and putative virulence factors that include pyolysin and factors promoting adhesion to host cells. The objective of this study was to report the presence of virulence genes in T. pyogenes isolates that were identified as etiological agents of clinical mastitis in cows, as well as to determine antimicrobial resistance and distribution of selected determinants that can be associated with phenotypic resistance among these isolates. The presence of genes (plo, nanH, nanP, cbpA, fimA, fimC, fimE, fimG, tet(W), erm(X), erm(B)) was examined by conventional PCRs. Resistance to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined by the broth microdilution method. Among T. pyogenes isolates of bovine mastitis origin the genes encoding all virulence factors occurred. Besides pyolysin gene plo, the fimA was the only gene detected in all isolates, whereas other virulence factor genes were found with different frequencies. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was observed to tetracycline (85.5% isolates) and erythromycin (9.1%). Isolates non-susceptible to erythromycin simultaneously exhibited increased MIC of pirlimycin. Beta-lactams were active against isolates. We found the correlation between the presence of tetracycline and macrolide resistance genes and corresponding resistance phenotype. Genotypic characterization of a large number of T. pyogenes isolates from different herds performed in this study may be useful in explanation, which virulence factors play a significant role in the establishment of bovine mammary gland infection. PMID:22868181

  20. Comparison of a commercialized phenotyping system, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and tuf gene sequence-based genotyping for species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cases of bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Capurro, A.; Artursson, K.; Waller, K Persson; Bengtsson, B.; Ericsson-Unnerstad, H.; Aspán, A

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of a commercialized phenotyping system, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and tuf gene sequence-based genotyping for species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cases of bovine mastitis

  1. Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kudinha

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %, followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 % and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1 %, whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2 % and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2 % the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 % of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95 % of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9 %, S. epidermidis (7.4 % and S. hominis (5.9 %. They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90 %of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6 %, followed by lincomycin (13.7 %. About 8 % of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.

  2. Extended antibiotic treatment of persistent bovine mastitis during lactation : Efficacy, economics and social influences

    OpenAIRE

    Swinkels, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder caused by bacteria that invade the udder through the teat canal, causing either persistent intramammary infections, or short, transient infections. Mastitis is the most costly disease on a dairy farm because it directly affects the production of milk, the primary source of income for the dairy farmer. Mastitis can be visible (clinical mastitis) or invisible (subclinical mastitis). A large proportion of farmers repeats antibiotic treatment after initial...

  3. Vaccines against bovine mastitis in the New Zealand context: what is the best way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Wedlock, D N; Lacy-Hulbert, S J; Hillerton, J E; Buddle, B M

    2009-06-01

    Mastitis is an important animal health disease which constitutes a serious problem for the dairy industry in New Zealand. Mastitis reduces milk yield and quality, necessitates the use of antibiotic therapy, with associated risks of contaminating the raw milk supply, and imposes a serious economic burden, currently estimated at NZ$300 million per year. Mastitis is caused by a variety of infectious agents. In the New Zealand context, with cattle grazing on pasture, Streptococcus uberis is a major bacterial pathogen, responsible for a significant proportion of clinical cases, especially during early lactation and the dry period. Other pathogens of significance include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Escherichia coli, as well as so-called 'minor pathogens', namely coagulase-negative staphylococci(CNS). Current strategies aimed at reducing cases of mastitis include improved hygiene in the farm environment, particularly with regards to the health and cleanliness of teats. Once mastitis occurs, antibiotic therapy is a favoured option, and as a prophylactic tool, in the form of dry-cow therapy, has also shown value. Prevention of mastitis using immunological tools such as vaccines lags behind the major vaccine breakthroughs that have been achieved in preventing and/or reducing the severity of numerous infectious diseases in animals. In this review, the current state of research in the area of development of vaccines against mastitis is summarised, with particular emphasis on bacteria important to the dairy farming industry in New Zealand. Few, if any, effective vaccines have been designed to prevent or mitigate intramammary infections. It is argued that novel approaches must be considered to search for vaccine candidates, and vaccines need to be designed and constructed within the special framework of their uses, in the mammary gland which offers a unique immunological environment. In addition, effective vaccines against mastitis due to Strep. uberis may be more likely to emerge from strategies that target the cell-mediated arm of the immune response rather than strategies that target specific antibody responses. PMID:19521461

  4. PERINATAL LEUKODYSTROPHY CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mihut

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the authors want to present a case of a premature newborn who presented an extremely rare disease for medical practice. Low prevalence of the perinatal leukodystrophy, the difficulty of the clinical diagnosis and the echography resemblance with other diseases of the periventricular white matter is the subjects of this presentation.

  5. Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions

  6. Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.

  7. Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomsen, Bo; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2013-01-01

    observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate......A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same...... population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits...

  8. Genetic evaluation of mastitis liability and recovery through longitudinal analysis of transition probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Franzén Jessica; Thorburn Daniel; Urioste Jorge I; Strandberg Erling

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many methods for the genetic analysis of mastitis use a cross-sectional approach, which omits information on, e.g., repeated mastitis cases during lactation, somatic cell count fluctuations, and recovery process. Acknowledging the dynamic behavior of mastitis during lactation and taking into account that there is more than one binary response variable to consider, can enhance the genetic evaluation of mastitis. Methods Genetic evaluation of mastitis was carried out by mode...

  9. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment

  10. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Knight, Christopher Harold; Mulholland, Sally

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that if inappropriately managed, may lead women to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. The aim of this paper is to report the incidence of mastitis in the first six months postpartum in a Scottish population, its impact on...... questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice they...... received from health professionals. RESULTS: In total, 74 women (18%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis. More than one half of initial episodes (53%) occurred within the first four weeks postpartum. One in ten women (6/57) were inappropriately advised to either stop breastfeeding from the...

  12. Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL

  13. Ovine Mastitis Due to Histophilus ovis

    OpenAIRE

    Beauregard, M.; Higgins, R.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical, pathological and bacteriological findings related to ovine mastitis caused by Histophilus ovis are described. A high proportion of the ewes belonging to a flock were infected, but the source of the contamination could not be determined.

  14. Treatment of Sporadic Acute Puerperal Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, W. David; Barton, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this study were to compare the efficacy of amoxicillin and cephradine for the treatment of sporadic acute puerperal mastitis (SAPM) and to evaluate the microbiology and clinical parameters of this infection.

  15. Antepartum Mastitis: A Rare Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sushma; Patil, Varsha Anant; Korday, Charusheela Sujit; Shah, Dipti Parag

    2015-08-01

    Puerperal or lactational mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast that is commonly encountered in breastfeeding mothers. It occurs most commonly in the postpartum period, generally in the first 6 weeks of breastfeeding. In contrast, antepartum mastitis is an uncommon condition, and if not treated adequately, it may be complicated by the formation of a breast abscess. The authors present a case of a 24-year-old, second gravida mother who developed unilateral antepartum mastitis with abscess formation at 34 weeks of gestation, which was initially treated with antibiotics and surgical drainage. However, her symptoms persisted over the next 2 weeks, and she was referred to the authors' institution, where she was managed with antibiotics and surgical drainage after delivering a healthy near-term infant. The abscesses healed completely 2 months later, with sequelae of residual scarring and a nonprotractile nipple. The authors wish to emphasize that health care providers should be aware of the occurrence of mastitis in the antepartum period. Early recognition with adequate treatment of mastitis is the key to avoiding complications, and this will prevent lactation issues and also reduce morbidity in the mother and neonate. PMID:25952032

  16. [Occurrence of Prototheca mastitis in dairy farms in Hesse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, R; Zschck, M; Kloppert, B; Wolter, W

    1997-08-01

    During January 1994 and August 1996 from dairy farms in Hessia a total of 305,609 milk samples were investigated. Prototheca sp. as etiological agent of a mastitis was isolated from milk samples of seven dairy herds. According to our experiences and to several reports from various countries dealing with Prototheca infections in dairy herds, mastitis control programs should include Prototheca algae as potential pathogens. Mastitis due to this organism usually occurs in different semeiologies, one with clinical symptoms, and the other, more common type, as subclinical mastitis. In both cases, Prototheca organisms use to persist in the tissue of the mammary gland also during the dry period and antimicrobial treatment proves to be ineffective. Considering the wide distribution of these algae as saprophytes in the environment and in feces of several domestic animals, predisposing factors like a humid aerobic milieu and unsanitary milking conditions are necessary for Prototheca infections becoming manifest in the udder of dairy cows. Control measures should preferably stress the identification and removal of infected animals, in particular when the disease is sporadic in the herd. Due to the more questionable occurrence of spontaneous healing and the lack of an efficient drug, slaughtering of infected cows appears as a suitable method to eliminate the disease from the herd. Additionally, improvement of the hygiene status concerning feeding and milking management within a herd is as essential as in the control of other opportunistic udder pathogens. PMID:9441042

  17. Expanding Disease Spectrum Associated With Puerperal Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    McAdoo, Gregg L.; Monif, Gilles R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus and the β-hemolytic streptococci are the commonest causes of puerperal mastitis which tends to be a localized disease process. This report describes 2 cases attributable to these bacteria that resulted in extramammary involvement and augmented morbidity. Cases: Two cases of postpartum mastitis are described, one leading to necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococci and the other leading to toxic shock syndrome (TSS) caused by S. aureus. Conclusion: ...

  18. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems. A questionnaire was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms were very low. Farmers had no knowledge on sub-clinical mastitis. Staphylococcus species were the most common isolates and more than 50% of the isolates were resistant to the commonly used antibiotics penicillin and tetracycline.

  19. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  20. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  1. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to discuss the clinical and radiological features and treatment approaches in 14 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (GM). We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings and treatment approaches in 14 patients with idiopathic GM in the General Surgery Department, Gulhane School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between April 2000 and June 2006. The mean age of the patients was 34.5 years (range 27-41 years). The complaints at admission were a mass in the breast in 7 (50%) patients, an abscess and a mass in 6 (42.8%) and a skin fisculain one (7.2%). Granulomatous mastitis was unilateral in all subjects (on the right in 5 patients and on the left in 9). All of the patients underwent ultrasonographic evaluation. Mammography was performed in 8 and magnetic resonance imaging in 5 patients. Seven patients (50%) were suspected to have breast carcinoma according radiological findings. We performed the large excision in 11, incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage in one, and incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage plus medical treatment (prednisolone, methotrexate) in 2 patients. Due to the development of abscess after 9 months, drainage and large excision were performed in one patient who received medical treatment. Idiopathic GM is a disease that generally affects young women of reproductive age and may be mistaken for breast carcinoma in clinical and radiological evaluations. The gold standard for the diagnosis is histopathologic evaluation. (author)

  2. Fatal mastitis of dairy cows: a retrospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazlett, M J; Little, P.B.; Maxie, M.G.; Barnum, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The necropsy records of dairy cows with mastitis were reviewed from the provincial veterinary laboratory in Guelph (44 cases of mastitis in nine years) and from the Ontario Veterinary College (168 cases in 14 years). Mastitis was considered to be the primary cause of death in 167 of 212 cows (79%). Of these 167 cases of mastitis, Escherichia coli was involved in 107 (64%), Klebsiella sp. in 12 (7%) and Staphylococcus aureus in 11 (7%). Bacteriology was not reported in 22 cases. Coliform masti...

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology of granulomatous mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, G M K; Poon, C S P; Law, B K B; Pang, L M; Chu, W C W; Ma, T K F

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon breast lesion that mimics carcinoma. The fine needle aspiration cytological (FNAC) features of GM have rarely been discussed in the literature. These features are reported in eight histologically confirmed cases of GM.

  4. Expanding Disease Spectrum Associated With Puerperal Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    McAdoo, Gregg L.; Monif, Gilles R. G.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus and the ?-hemolytic streptococci are the commonest causes of puerperal mastitis which tends to be a localized disease process. This report describes 2 cases attributable to these bacteria that resulted in extramammary involvement and augmented morbidity.

  5. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject comprises detecting the presence or absence of a genetic marker that is linked to a trait indicative of mastitis resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Locus...... method and kit of the present invention can be applied for selection of bovine subjects for breeding purposes. Thus, the invention provides a method of genetically selecting bovine subjects with mastitis resistance, thereby yielding cows less prone to mastitis...... (QTL) for the determination of mastitis resistance in a bovine subject. The determination of mastitis resistance involves resolution of the specific microsatellite status. Furthermore, the invention relates to a diagnostic kit for detection of genetic marker(s) associated with mastitis resistance. The...

  6. Lactoferrin gene promoter variants and their association with clinical and subclinical mastitis in indigenous and crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, A; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chakravarty, A K; Vohra, V

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) gene promoter was screened for the presence of single nucleotide polymphism in indigenous and crossbred cattle from North India and to evaluate its association with Mastitis. Study revealed the presence of genetic variation in regulatory region of bovine Lactoferrin gene using PCR-RFLP technique. Three genotypes namely GG, GH and HH were identified. A single nucleotide change, from guanine to adenine at 25th position was found to be significantly associated (pmilch cattle. PMID:26618577

  7. Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomsen, Bo; Lund, Mogens Sand

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP...

  8. Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy cows in the Moghan region of Ardabil State, Iran : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ghazaei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma bovis were diagnosed in Ardabil State, Iran. An investigation was carried out with the aim of establishing the extent of mycoplasma infections in dairy cows in Ardabil State. Milk samples obtained from 80 cows with clinical mastitis were cultured in the laboratory for the presence of mycoplasmas. Similarly, 48 bulk-tank milk samples were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. A modified Hayflick broth was used to isolate the mycoplasmas and an immunoperoxidase test used for the species identification of the isolates. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 39 (48.75 % of the clinical mastitis samples and from 48 of the bulk-tank milk samples tested. This indicated that mycoplasma udder infections were more prevalent in dairy cows in Ardabil State than previously thought.

  9. Climatic effects on occurrence of clinical mastitis in different breeds of cows and buffaloes / Efectos climticos sobre la ocurrencia de mastitis clnica en diferentes razas de vacas y bfalas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.C., Jingar; R.K., Mehla; M., Singh.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado para hallar la influencia estacional sobre la incidencia de la mastitis a lo largo del ao, en vacas indgenas, vacas cruzadas y bfalas Murrah. Se analizaron los registros de lactacin correspondientes a un periodo de 12 aos, la incidencia de mastitis fue comparada con l [...] os climogramas de la zona de Karnal, Haryana, India. El clima clido y hmedo afect negativamente a la incidencia de mastitis en todas las razas bovinas y los bfalos. La incidencia fue afectada significativamente por la estacin (p Abstract in english The study was conducted to find out the effect of different seasons on incidence of mastitis throughout the year in Indigenous cows, crossbred cows and Murrah buffaloes. Lactation records pertaining to the 12 year period were collected and incidence of mastitis was plotted against the climograph of [...] the Karnal zone, Haryana, India. The hot humid climate was found to adversely affect the incidence of mastitis in all the breeds of cows and Murrah buffaloes. The incidence was significantly affected by the season (p

  10. Profilaxis, immunoprophylaxis and therapy of staphylococcal mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis, in cows presents one of the most acute problems in intensive milk production, incurring huge economic losses which reach from 20-80% even in developed countries in the past decade. On the grounds of the programme of the respective Ministry, the Veterinary Service of the Republic of Serbia is obliged to monitor, detect, curb and control infective inflammation of the mammary gland caused by staphylococcus and streptococcus. Long-term different approaches to mastitis treatment did not result in the required solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. In order to prevent the infiltration of the pathogenic cause into the mammary gland, its populating and multiplication, it is necessary to maintain constant and regular controls of milk, as well as undertake of preventive and therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the incidence of mastitis. Immunization and immunotherapy of mastitis are new and very interesting areas for scientific investigations and work. In the recent decades vaccines against staphylococcal mastitis are being successfully developed, whose success is reflected in the reduced incidence of clinical and subcilinical mastitis.

  11. Risk Factors for Chronic Mastitis in Morocco and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Oltean, Hanna N.; Soliman, Amr S; Omar S. Omar; Youssef, Tamer F.; Karkouri, Mehdi; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmad; Blachley, Taylor; Tahri, Ali; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, fr...

  12. The effect of a national control program on mastitis occurence in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Borne, B.H.P., van den; Lam, T.G.J.M.; Sampimon, O.C.; Jansen, J.; Schalk, G.

    2011-01-01

    A 5-year national mastitis control program was initiated in the Netherlands in 2005. Knowledge transfer and improvements of dairy farmers motivation towards udder health were used as means to decrease mastitis occurrence in Dutch dairy herds. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the control program on (sub)clinical mastitis occurrence and on farmers mindset and behaviour in relation to clinical mastitis. Two identical surveys were conducted in the same herds at the beginning...

  13. The Effect of Supplementation Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L. and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat, Total Solid and Milk Acidity of Sub-clinical Mastitiss Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nurdin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A research about The Effect of Supplementation Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L. and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat, Total Solid and Milk Acidity of Sub-clinic Mastitiss Holstein Dairy Cows had been done in a small farm at Nagrak Kulon Valley, Lembang-Bandung. The aim of this research is to know about the effect of supplementation Sunflower and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat (SNF, Total Solid (TS and Milk Acidity (pH of sub-clinic Mastitiss Holstein Dairy Cows. This research using 16 Holstein Dairy Cows with 2-4 lactation periode and 2-4 lactation month. The method that using in this research is Random groups method with 4 treatment such as R0 (control, R1 (0.01% body weight of sunflowers, R2 (100 gram of BIOPLUS and R3 (R1 + R2. As the result of this research is no effect (P>0.05 of supplementation sunflowers and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat, Total Solid and Milk Acidity of Sub-clinical Mastitiss Holstein Dairy Cows. SNF is 8.50 % - 8.75 %, TS is 12.51 % - 12.65 % and pH is 6.72 6.85. (Animal Production 9(2: 79-81 (2007 Key Words : Sunflowers, BIOPLUS, Sub-clinical Mastitis, SNF, TS, pH

  14. A genome-wide association study for clinical mastitis in first parity US Holstein cows using a single-step approach and a genomic matrix re-weighting procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the health disorders with largest impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. Previous studies have consistently shown that CM is under genetic control but knowledge about regions of the genome associated with resistance to CM in US Holstein is lacking...

  15. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  16. A genetic and spatial Bayesian analysis of mastitis resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Frigessi Arnoldo; Sb Solve

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A nationwide health card recording system for dairy cattle was introduced in Norway in 1975 (the Norwegian Cattle Health Services). The data base holds information on mastitis occurrences on an individual cow basis. A reduction in mastitis frequency across the population is desired, and for this purpose risk factors are investigated. In this paper a Bayesian proportional hazards model is used for modelling the time to first veterinary treatment of clinical mastitis, including both ge...

  17. Trends in Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Mastitis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Dhama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT; R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins and herbs (Terminalia spp. are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant or chimeric (pauA; live (S. uberis 0140J stain based and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR 2 and 4, interleukin (IL 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1 and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1 are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition.

  18. Indicators of inflammation in the diagnosis of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyörälä, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Mastitis affects the quality of milk and is a potential health risk for the other cows. In a well managed dairy herd, in addition to clinical mastitis, subclinical mastitis should be efficiently detected. Bacteriological sampling is not feasible as a routine test to identify subclinical mastitis, and indirect tests of mastitis are more suitable for selecting cows with intramammary infections for subsequent bacteriological sampling. Mastitis affects the composition of milk, and the degree of changes depends on the infecting agent and the inflammatory response. Indicators of inflammation in the milk which can be determined using rapid, reliable and easy routine techniques, can be used for the early detection of mastitis. The measuring of the somatic cell count in milk is the standard method, but the analysis technique is problematic for routine use in herds. The most promising parameters for monitoring subclinical mastitis are milk N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity, lactose, and electrical conductivity along with some other indicators such as optical and milk flow measurements, preferably with an inter-quarter evaluation included in the test. Acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, are also potential candidates for mastitis monitoring. New mastitis detection systems which can be adapted into on-line use are urgently needed, since dairy units are growing bigger and automatic milking systems are being taken into use. PMID:14556695

  19. Tuberculous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find out the different clinical presentations of breast tuberculosis and its treatment outcome. Subjects and Methods: Fifty consecutive female patients above 13 years presenting with breast lump, multiple sinuses, axillary lymphadenopathy, and cold abscess were included in the study. Medical records of the patients presented were reviewed and analyzed. Data was collected regarding the patient's name, age and marital and lactational status. Clinical Examinations and investigations were carried out by triple assessment i.e. clinical, radiological and histological/cytological evaluation. Results: The commonest presentation was a solitary breast lump in 30 (60%) patients, breast lump with axillary lymphadenopathy in 13 (26%). Four (8%) patients presented with generalized breast swelling (edema) with ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. Two (4) presented with breast abscess and axillary lymphadenopathy and one (2%) with axillary sinus and breast lump. Upper outer quadrant was most frequently involved in 29 (58%) of patients. Thirty two (64%) cases were secondary to tuberculosis in other sites, mostly (40%) from tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis. Forty eight (96%) patients responded well to one year antituberculous treatment with complete disappearance of the lumps except 2 patients who had shrinkage of lump size only, underwent excision of lump. Conclusion: Solitary lump and enlarged lymph nodes are the commonest presentation of mammary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and treatment is necessary to prevent disfigurement of breast. Antituberculous therapy is the treatment of choice. Surgery should be reserved for unresponsive lumps. (author)

  20. Hygiene-related and feed-related hoof diseases show different patterns of genetic correlations to clinical mastitis and female fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjort; Srensen, Anders Christian

    2011-01-01

    Hoof diseases are a problem in many dairy herds. To study one aspect of the problem, genetic correlations between 4 hoof diseases, protein yield, clinical mastitis, number of inseminations, and days from calving to first insemination were estimated in first-parity Swedish Red cows using trivariate linear animal models. Occurrence of dermatitis, heel horn erosion, sole hemorrhage, and sole ulcer were reported by hoof trimmers. The data set contained about 314,000 animals with records on at least one of the traits; among these, about 64,000 animals had records on hoof diseases. Heritabilities were low for all hoof diseases (0.03 to 0.05). The hoof diseases fell into 2 groups: (1) dermatitis and heel horn erosion (i.e., diseases related to hygiene) and (2) sole hemorrhage and sole ulcer (i.e., diseases related to feeding). The genetic correlations between traits within the 2 groups were high (0.87 and 0.73, respectively), whereas the genetic correlations between traits in different groups were low (?0.23). Theseresults indicate that the 2 groups of hoof diseases are partly influenced by the same genes. All genetic correlations between hoof diseases and protein yield were low to moderate and unfavorable. Moderate and favorable genetic correlations were found between the feed-related hoof diseases and clinical mastitis (0.35 and 0.32), whereas the genetic correlations between the hygiene-related hoof diseases and clinical mastitis were low and not significantly different from zero. The genetic correlations between the hygiene-related hoof diseases and number of inseminations were low to moderate and favorable (0.32 and 0.22), and the genetic correlations between the feed-related hoof diseases and number of inseminations were low and not significantly different from zero. A moderate genetic correlation was found between sole ulcer and days from calving to first insemination (0.33), whereas the genetic correlations between days from calving to first insemination and sole hemorrhage and the hygiene-related hoof diseaseswere low and not significantly different from zero. In general, the 2 groups of hoof diseases showed different patterns of genetic correlations to the other functional traits, but both were unfavorably correlated to protein yield. A simulation study showed that inclusion of hoof diseases in the selection index will not only reduce the genetic decline in resistance to hoof diseases but also be favorable for other functional traits and improve overall genetic merit

  1. Breast Carcinoma Occurring from Chronic Granulomatous Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Luqman, Mazlan; Shahrun Niza, Abdullah Suhaimi; Saladina Jaszle, Jasmin; Nani Harlina, Md Latar; Sellymiah, Adzman; Rohaizak, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous mastitis is known as a benign and relatively rare disorder that is often difficult to differentiate from breast carcinoma. We highlight the case of a 34-year-old woman who had recurrent episodes of right breast swelling and abscess for 8 years. These were proven to be chronic granulomatous mastitis by tissue biopsies on 3 different occasions. Her condition improved on similar courses of antibiotics and high-dose prednisolone. However, she subsequently developed progressi...

  2. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lnne

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective antimicrobial treatment in mastitis cases caused by gram-negative bacteria.

  3. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerhuus, S N; Ingvartsen, K L; Bennedsgaard, T W; Røntved, C M

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective antimicrobial treatment in mastitis cases caused by gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23141826

  4. A Genome-Wide Association Study for Clinical Mastitis in First Parity US Holstein Cows Using Single-Step Approach and Genomic Matrix Re-Weighting Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiezzi, Francesco; Parker-Gaddis, Kristen L.; Cole, John B.; Clay, John S.; Maltecca, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the health disorders with large impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CM in first-lactation Holstein. Producer-recorded mastitis event information for 103,585 first-lactation cows were used, together with genotype information on 1,361 bulls from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Single-step genomic-BLUP methodology was used to incorporate genomic data into a threshold-liability model. Association analysis confirmed that CM follows a highly polygenic mode of inheritance. However, 10-adjacent-SNP windows showed that regions on chromosomes 2, 14 and 20 have impacts on genetic variation for CM. Some of the genes located on chromosome 14 (LY6K, LY6D, LYNX1, LYPD2, SLURP1, PSCA) are part of the lymphocyte-antigen-6 complex (LY6) known for its neutrophil regulation function linked to the major histocompatibility complex. Other genes on chromosome 2 were also involved in regulating immune response (IFIH1, LY75, and DPP4), or are themselves regulated in the presence of specific pathogens (ITGB6, NR4A2). Other genes annotated on chromosome 20 are involved in mammary gland metabolism (GHR, OXCT1), antibody production and phagocytosis of bacterial cells (C6, C7, C9, C1QTNF3), tumor suppression (DAB2), involution of mammary epithelium (OSMR) and cytokine regulation (PRLR). DAVID enrichment analysis revealed 5 KEGG pathways. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway (cell proliferation and apoptosis) and the Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (cytokine and interleukines response to infectious agents) are co-regulated and linked to the ABC transporters pathway also found here. Gene network analysis performed using GeneMania revealed a co-expression network where 665 interactions existed among 145 of the genes reported above. Clinical mastitis is a complex trait and the different genes regulating immune response are known to be pathogen-specific. Despite the lack of information in this study, candidate QTL for CM were identified in the US Holstein population. PMID:25658712

  5. Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance and milk somatic cell score in French Lacaune dairy sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Barillet, Francis; Rupp, Rachel; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Astruc, Jean-Michel; JACQUIN, Michèle

    2001-01-01

    Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance was studied from two data sets. Firstly, risk factors for different mastitis traits, i.e. culling due to clinical or chronic mastitis and subclinical mastitis predicted from somatic cell count (SCC), were explored using data from 957 first lactation Lacaune ewes of an experimental INRA flock composed of two divergent lines for milk yield. Secondly, genetic parameters for SCC were estimated from 5 272 first lactation Lacaune ewes recorded among 38 flock...

  6. Changing trends in mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zadoks RN; Fitzpatrick JL

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of ...

  7. Changing trends in mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadoks RN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control.

  8. Incidence of Subclinical Mastitis and Prevalence of Major Mastitis Pathogens in Organized Farms and Unorganized Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Raveendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Prabhu, K. Nithin; Shome, B. R.; Rathnamma, D.; V.V.S. Suryanarayana; Yatiraj, S.; Prasad, C. Renuka; N. Krishnaveni; Sundareshan, S; Akhila, D. S.; A. R. Gomes; Hegde, Nagendra R.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SCM) represents a major proportion of the burden of mastitis. Determining somatic cell count (SCC) and electrical conductivity (EC) of milk are useful approaches to detect SCM. In order to correlate grades of SCM with the load of five major mastitis pathogens, 246 milk samples from a handful of organized and unorganized sectors were screened. SCC (>5נ105/mL) and EC (>6.5 mS/cm) identified 110 (45%) and 153 (62%) samples, respectively, to be from SCM cases. Randomly s...

  9. Genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus newbould 305, a strain associated with mild bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Damien; Peton, Vincent; Almeida, Sintia; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Berkova, Nadia; Rault, Lucie; Francois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Even, Sergine; Hernandez, David; Le Loir, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiological agent of mastitis in ruminants. We report here the genome sequence of bovine strain Newbould 305, isolated in the 1950s in a case of bovine mastitis and now used as a model strain able to reproducibly induce chronic mastitis in cows.

  10. Mastitis impact on technological properties of milk and quality of milk products--a review

    OpenAIRE

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Thiéry, Richard; Vautor, Eric; Le Loir, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of mastitis on the technological properties of milk and on the quality of milk products are widely reported in the literature. Besides, recent advances have shed light on the mechanisms involved in the udder response and subsequent milk changes in mastitis cases. This review gives an update on the literature regarding the impact of mastitis on milk composition and processing properties and collates recent data regarding the mechanisms involved in mastitis effects. It is an at...

  11. Isolation and identification of main mastitis pathogens in Mexico Isolação e identificação dos micróbios patogênicos principais da mastite em México

    OpenAIRE

    H. Castañeda Vázquez; Jäger, S.; W. Wolter; M. Zschöck; M.A. Castañeda Vazquez; El-Sayed, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic animals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) to differentiate clinical cases...

  12. Granulomatous mastitis a diagnostic dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Mote, Dajiram G.; Gungi, Raghavendra P.; Satyanarayana, V.; Premsunder, T.

    2008-01-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare benign breast disease. It is characterized by chronic, non-caseating granulomatous lobulitis. It may be misdiagnosed as a carcinoma of the breast and may lead to mastectomy. Diagnostic criteria include-A) Granulomatous infl ammation with multinucleated giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes. B) It is centered on lobules with minor ductal and periductal infl ammation. C) It nearly always follows the pregnancy. A case of GLM, which was treated with local e...

  13. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Osterás, O.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a framework for economic analysis. As a second step calculations of the costs of mastitis and the costs in relation to the benefits of mastitis management published since 1990 in peer-reviewed journals are...

  14. Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Azmi D. Hawari; Fawzi Al-Dabbas

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7%) had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pa...

  15. The role of diagnostic microbiology in mastitis control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Allan M

    2012-07-01

    There are a number of important issues for the dairy practitioner to consider in designing the most appropriate mastitis microbiological service for his or her clients. These include the decision to use enhancement tools or selective agars to optimize sensitivity and specificity. The service should include a monthly BTC service that monitors for the important contagious mastitis organisms: S aureus, S agalactia, and Mycoplasma. At the cow level, a zero tolerance program to protect healthy cows from exposure to contagious mastitis will require a routine culture service to monitor for these pathogens in new herd additions, clinical cases, and all fresh cows and heifers. A wide variety of additional benefits for maintaining good udder health and the production of quality milk can come from a more comprehensive diagnostic service that looks at both individual cow and bulk tank milk. Finally, more practitioners can help their clients economically by implementation of an on-farm TNT culture service and significantly reducing the use of intramammary therapy. PMID:22664202

  16. Clinical case of toxocariasis chorioretinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Pikhovskaia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of a toxocariasis chorioretinitis which is of interest for ophthalmologists is described. Insufficient knowledge ofclinic and diagnostics of a lesion of eyes by Toxocara canis, their infrequent occurrence, similarity of the ophthalmologic picture withinflammatory diseases and eye neoplasms can be at the bottom of gross diagnostic mistake and wrong choice of treatment tactics.

  17. Lumbar stenosis: clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar stenosis is an increasingly common pathological condition that is becoming more frequent with increasing mean life expectancy, with high costs for society. It has many causes, among which degenerative, neoplastic and traumatic causes stand out. Most of the patients respond well to conservative therapy. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who present symptoms after implementation of conservative measures. Here, a case of severe stenosis of the lumbar spine at several levels, in a female patient with pathological and surgical antecedents in the lumbar spine, is presented. The patient underwent two different decompression techniques within the same operation.

  18. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis cases and close human contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Kock, M M; Ehlers, M M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from bovine intramammary infections and humans working in close contact with the animals and to evaluate the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates to different antimicrobials. A total of 3,387 milk samples and 79 human nasal swabs were collected from 13 sampling sites in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In total, 146 Staph. aureus isolates and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were recovered from clinical and subclinical milk samples. Staphylococcusaureus was isolated from 12 (15.2%) of the human nasal swabs and 95 representative CNS were recovered for further characterization. The CNS were identified using multiplex-PCR assays, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and tuf gene sequencing. Seven Staphylococcus spp. were identified among the CNS of bovine origin, with Staph.chromogenes (78.4%) predominating. The predominant CNS species recovered from the human nasal swabs was Staph.epidermidis (80%) followed by Staph.chromogenes (6.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and was supplemented by screening for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. Ninety-eight (67.1%) Staph.aureus isolates of bovine origin were pansusceptible; 39 (26.7%) isolates were resistant to a single class, and 7 (4.8%) isolates were resistant to 2 classes of antimicrobials. Two Staph. aureus (1.4%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to penicillin was common, with 28.8% of the bovine and 75% of the human Staph. aureus isolates exhibiting resistance. A similar observation was made with the CNS, where 37.3% of the bovine and 89.5% of the human isolates were resistant to penicillin. Multidrug-resistance was common among the human CNS, with 39% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial susceptibility results suggest that resistance among staphylococci causing bovine intramammary infections in South Africa is uncommon and not a significant cause for concern. In contrast, antimicrobial resistance was frequently observed in staphylococcal isolates of human origin, highlighting a possible reservoir of resistance genes. Continued monitoring of staphylococcal isolates is warranted to monitor changes in the susceptibility of isolates to different classes of antimicrobials. PMID:26188567

  19. Effectiveness of Topical Curcumin for Treatment of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Raha Afshariani; Pooya Farhadi; Fariborz Ghaffarpasand; Jamshid Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32) or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31). Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast infla...

  20. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ersu, J; Aubin, G G; Mercier, P; Nicollet, P; Bmer, P; Corvec, S

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. PMID:26511738

  1. Association between Hyperprolactinemia and Granulomatous Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Anatoly; Blake, Cassann N; Carlson, Diane L

    2016-03-01

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a relatively uncommon inflammatory breast lesion with multiple suggested etiologies. Although most GM cases show association with lactation and pregnancy, a minority of cases have been linked to hyperprolactinemia caused by either dopamine antagonist medications or with intracranial lesions, such as pituitary adenoma. The goal of this study is to review the GM cases reported in the literature with a specific emphasis on those cases associated with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas and to identify cases of GM seen at the Cleveland Clinic Florida which demonstrate co-occurrences of GM and intracranial lesions. CoPath and Epic data bases at Cleveland Clinic Florida were searched for cases describing inflammatory breast lesions in patients with pituitary pathology. Chart reviews were conducted and pertinent medical history was extracted for case reports. H&E-stained paraffin-embedded sections retrieved from Cleveland Clinic Florida pathology storage were evaluated by light microscopy. Four cases showing a co-occurrence of GM and hyperprolactinemia were consequently identified. A prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma was present in two of the three GM cases. The third case demonstrated a concomitant craniopharyngioma, which was also associated with a rise in serum prolactin. This phenomenon was presumably attributable to compression, resulting in compromised transport of dopamine to the adenohypophysis and subsequent disinhibition of prolactin secretion by lactotrophs. The fourth patient with GM had a similar history of elevated prolactin. Classical histopathological features of GM were found in all four cases, including noncaseating granulomas, multinucleated giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes, and chronic inflammation. Intriguingly, complete resolution of inflammatory breast lesions along with normalization of prolactin levels occurred following the surgical excision of the craniopharyngioma, suggesting that intracranial lesion-induced hyperprolactinemia might be directly causal in GM. Therefore, the authors would suggest screening for pituitary tumors and evaluate prolactin levels in the workup of GM patients without a recent history of lactation and pregnancy and no other identified etiology. PMID:26705962

  2. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis in two Uruguayan dairy farms / Caracterizacin de Staphylococcus aureus aislados a partir de casos de mastitis subclnicas en dos tambos de Uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, de los Santos; M, Fernndez; S, Carro; P, Zunino.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la prevalencia y evolucin de mastitis bovina subclnica (MBS) a lo largo de un ao en dos tambos comerciales localizados en un rea de produccin lechera (Sur) de Uruguay e identificar y caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus aisladas de la leche de vaca [...] s con resultados de trazas, 1, 2 o 3 correspondientes a la escala del California Mastitis Test (CMT). Produccin de coagulasa, presencia de cpsula, produccin de limo, formacin de biofilms, autoagregacin, hemaglutinacin y sensibilidad a diferentes antibiticos fueron evaluadas en el caso de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas. La incidencia de MBS a lo largo del estudio fue baja y no se correlacion con variables climticas. El nmero de aislamientos de S. aureus de las muestras de leche fue bajo en comparacin con estudios previos y la mayora de ellos se obtuvo de muestras que presentaban un resultado de CMT de 1. La formacin de cpsula, limo y biofilms as como la ocurrencia de autoagregacin en todas las cepas confluyen en la habilidad bacteriana para adherirse y persistir en la glndula contribuyendo a la cronicidad de la infeccin y a la adhesin a superficies inertes. La resistencia bacteriana frente a distintos antibiticos fue baja. La evaluacin de la expresin de factores de virulencia de S. aureus en el contexto de mastitis subclnica en tambos puede ser de utilidad para desarrollar acciones precisas y tratamientos para el control de mastitis y la promocin de la salud animal y la produccin de leche. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to identify and to characterise Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with subclinical mastitis obtained from milk of lactating cows showing a California Mastitis Test (CMT) score result of traces, 1, 2, or 3. Coagulase, hemolysis, presence of capsule, slime formation, b [...] iofilm production, autoaggregation, hemagglutination and antibiotic susceptibility were assessed to evaluate S. aureus virulence factors expression potentially associated to bovine subclinical mastitis isolates. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis along the study was low and did not correlate with months or climatic variables. Most of S. aureus (20) were isolated from milk samples showing a CMT score result of 1. Formation of capsule, slime, biofilms and the occurrence of bacteria aggregation in all the tested isolates converged in the bacterial ability of adherence and persistence in the mammary gland and probably contribute to the further chronicity of the infection and even the colonization of dairy installations. Resistance against a set of commonly used antibiotics was low. The evaluation of virulence factors of S. aureus isolates in the context of subclinical mastitis in dairy farms may be useful to develop precise actions and treatments to control mastitis and to improve animal health and milk production in dairy bovine herds.

  3. Milk transfer of phenoxymethylpenicillin during puerperal mastitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, I; Samseth, M; Lberg, R; Faegri, A; Prentice, A.

    1988-01-01

    1 The milk excretion of phenoxymethylpenicillin (PMP) was studied from both breasts in patients with mastitis (n = 12) and healthy volunteers (controls, n = 4) to investigate the hypothesis that milk transfer of PMP is higher in mastitic than in non-mastitic breasts. 2 Patients were included according to clinical symptoms of mastitis. Milk (and serum from controls) were sampled 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h after a single oral dose of 1320 mg PMP. Penicillin concentrations in milk and serum were m...

  4. Mandalarda Mastitis Olgusu

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Şahin; Arda Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis manda yetiştiriciliğinde ekonomik kayıplara neden olan önemli bir hastalıktır. Hastalığın şiddeti, süresi ve birincil nedenine göre mastitis, genel olarak klinik ve subklinik olmak üzere ikiye ayrılmaktadır. Subklinik mastitis, sürüdeki diğer hayvanlardan bulaşması nedeni ile önemli bir sürü problemidir. Ancak, klinik mastitis ise memede deformasyonlar ve süt veriminin azalması ile şekillenen klinik bir olgudur. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactia ve Stre...

  5. Mandalarda Mastitis Olgusu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Şahin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis manda yetiştiriciliğinde ekonomik kayıplara neden olan önemli bir hastalıktır. Hastalığın şiddeti, süresi ve birincil nedenine göre mastitis, genel olarak klinik ve subklinik olmak üzere ikiye ayrılmaktadır. Subklinik mastitis, sürüdeki diğer hayvanlardan bulaşması nedeni ile önemli bir sürü problemidir. Ancak, klinik mastitis ise memede deformasyonlar ve süt veriminin azalması ile şekillenen klinik bir olgudur. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactia ve Streptococcus dysgalactia klinik, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus agalactia ve Streptococcus dysgalactia ise subklinik mastitis olaylarında en yaygın olarak izole edilen mikroorganizmalardır. Mandalarda bu mikroorganizmaların neden olduğu mastitis olguları sonucu, sütün yapısında anormallik gözlenmekte ve sütün miktarında meydana getirdiği düşüşle üreticileri ekonomik kayba uğramaktadır. Bu nedenle mastitis üzerine etkili faktörlerin tespit edilmesi ve gerekli önlemlerin alınması büyük önem taşmaktadır. Bu derlemede, mandalarda mastitis olgusu ve etkileri üzerinde durulmuştur.

  6. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    OpenAIRE

    sters O; Slverd L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd leve...

  7. Prevalence and major bacterial causes of bovine mastitis in Asella, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Matios; Tolosa, Tadele; Tigre, Worku

    2009-10-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in and around Asella town from November 2007 to April 2008 on dairy cows to determine the prevalence of mastitis, impact of risk factors and isolate the dominant mastitis causing bacteria on total of 223 lactating cows, of which 92 were indigenous Arsi, and 131 Holstein Zebu cross by using clinical examination and California mastitis test (CMT). Of these 144 (65.6 %) were positive by clinical examination and CMT for clinical and sub clinical mastitis, with prevalence of 26.5 % and 38 %, respectively. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) on the prevalence of mastitis between cows kept under different hygiene of milking process. Similarly a significant difference on the prevalence of mastitis between the two breeds (P < 0.05) was also observed. From 144 CMT and clinically positive milk samples analyzed microbiologically, 133 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and while 11 were negative. The dominant bacterial isolates in the study animals were Staphylococcus species (41.4 %), Streptococcus species (24.8 %), and other gram positive rods and gram negative enteric bacteria (33.8 %). Good hygiene in milking process, milking clinically infected cows at last, culling chronic mastitis carriers, treating clinically infected cows and dry period therapy could reduce the prevalence of contagious mastitis in the study area. PMID:19333772

  8. Effect of mastitis on macro-minerals of bovine milk and blood serum in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    G. E. Mohamed; O.A.O. ElOwni; I.E.M. El Zubeir

    2012-01-01

    Milk and blood serum from clinically mastitis infected, subclinically mastitis infected and healthy Friesian cows (15 samples from each of 3 groups) were evaluated for macrominerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus). The milk from cows infected with subclinical mastitis revealed a significant decrease in potassium (P < 0.001) and a significant increase in sodium and phosphorus content (P < 0.01). Similarly, the milk from cows with the clinical form of the di...

  9. Aspectos clnicos e laboratoriais da mastite induzida por inoculao intramamria de Staphylococcus aureus em vacas e bfalas / Clinical and laboratory aspects of mastitis induced by intramammary inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in cows and buffaloes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.M., Lazzari; M.V.S., Oliveira; B., Moreti; G., Guimares; F., Krug; G., Noleto; A.J., Mesquita; J.P., Neves.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vrios aspectos relacionados mastite bubalina precisam ser esclarecidos. Muitas condutas so adaptadas a essa espcie pelo conhecimento adquirido com a espcie bovina. Com este experimento, objetivou-se evidenciar particularidades da mastite em bfalas e vacas que tiveram uma glndula inoculada co [...] m 1,0 x 103 UFC de S. aureus. Os animais foram monitorados por cultura bacteriana do leite, California Mastitis Test (CMT), e escores para avaliao da severidade da mastite. Foram utilizados os seguintes critrios: temperatura retal, apetite, produo de leite (resposta sistmica inflamao), contagem de clulas somticas (CCS), aparncia/consistncia da glndula e aparncia da secreo lctea (resposta localizada inflamao). Todos os animais desenvolveram mastite clnica superaguda. A bactria foi recuperada de todas as glndulas desafiadas, sem diferena significativa no percentual de isolamento entre as espcies at o 11 dia ps-inoculao, porm com diferena (P Abstract in english Several aspects related to bubaline mastits need to be clarified. Many conducts are adapted to this species by the knowledge adquired with the bovine species. This experiment aimed to evidence particularities of mastits in buffaloes and cows submitted to one-gland inoculation with 1.0 x 103 CFU of S [...] . aureus. The animals were monitored through bacterial culturing milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and scores to assess the severity of mastitis. The following criteria were used: rectal temperature, appetite, milk production (systemic response to inflammation), somatic cell count (SCC), appearance/consistency of the gland and appearance of the milk secretion (localized response to inflammation). All animals developed hyperacute clinical mastitis. The bacteria was recovered from all challenged glands, with no significant difference in the percentage of isolation between the species until day 11 after inoculation, but with a difference (p

  10. Isolation and identification of main mastitis pathogens in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Castañeda Vázquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic animals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT to differentiate clinical cases from subclinical ones where 1996 samples (67 % reacted positively. Of these, 1087 samples (54.5% came from cows suffering from clinical cases of mastitis. Bacteriological identification of the causative agents revealed the presence of a major group of pathogens including the Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, S.aureus, S.agalactiae, Corynebacterium spp. and Coliform bacteria which were detected in 464 (15.6%, 175 (5.9%, 200 (6.8%, 417 (14% and 123 (4.1% of the 2927 investigated quarters, 295 (15.4%, 118 (15.7%, 111 (14.8%, 227 (30.2% and 109 (14.5% of the 752 examined cows and in 33 (100%, 22 (66.7%, 19 (57.6%, 30 (90.1% and 27 (81.8% of the 33 herds involved, respectively. Other pathogens could be detected in the investigated milk samples such as S. dysgalactiae (0.4%, S.uberis (0.37%, Bacillus spp. (1%, Nocardia spp. (0.6% und Candida spp. (0.1%. Meanwhile, others were present in a negligible ratio; including the Aerococcus viridans, and Enterococcus spp., Lactococcus lactis, S. bovis.

  11. Effectiveness of Topical Curcumin for Treatment of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Afshariani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32 or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31. Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast inflammation before entering the study. The outcome of treatment was evaluated using the same index at 24, 48 and 72 hours of starting the treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics such as age (p=0.361 and duration of lactation (p=0.551. After 72-hour of therapy, patients in curcumin groups had significantly lower rate of moderate (p=0.019 and mild (p=0.002 mastitis. Patients in curcumin group had significantly lower scores for tension (p<0.001, erythema (p<0.001 and pain (p<0.001, after 72-hour of treatment. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that topical preparation of curcumin successfully decrease the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration without side effects. Thus, topical preparation of curcumin could be safely administered for those suffering from lactational mastitis after excluding infectious etiologies.

  12. Economic decisions in mastitis management

    OpenAIRE

    Huijps, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was conducted with the main objectives (i) to calculate costs of mastitis and cost-efficiency of mastitis management measures and (ii) to acquire insights in the economic decision behaviour of dairy farmers with respect to mastitis management. Animal health economics is a decision supporting science, based on a decision making function of evaluating and choosing between alternative strategies on animal diseases. The potential economic importance of diseases such as mastitis is not...

  13. Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Isabela Fonseca; Priscila Vendramini Silva; Carla Christine Lange; Guimares, Marta F. M.; Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller; Katiene Rgia Silva Sousa; Paulo Svio Lopes; Jos Domingos Guimares; Simone E.F. Guimares

    2009-01-01

    In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF-? genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 g...

  14. Postherpetic neuralgia: two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Serrano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is the most common complication of Herpes Zoster, characterized by the presence of neuropathic-type pain limited to a dermatomic area after outbreak of Herpes Zoster (commonly known as shingles, usually a month after the appearance of vesicles on the skin . The aim of this report is to present two cases of PHN and their responses to different treatments. The first case presented intolerance to amitriptyline and a good clinical response to gabapentin at a dose of 900 mg/day. The second case showed intolerance to capsaicin but responded well to the combination of pregabalin and topical lidocaine. Gabapentin, pregabalin and lidocaine are effective for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. All these recommendations are consistent with those treatments used by the family physicians in the two cases study presented.

  15. Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7% had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pathological lesions and change in udder secretion, in addition to that 276 quarters (31.4% showed subclinical mastitis. The incidence of mastitis was found to be increased in older cows. Staphylococcus aurous was considered to be the most common cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis and followed by coli forms, streptococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., proteus spp. and pseudomonas spp. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains using tertracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim.

  16. Quantifying Degree of Mastitis from Common Trends in a Panel of Indicators for Mastitis in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjsgaard, S; Friggens, N C

    2010-01-01

    This paper has 2 objectives. First, it argues that it is beneficial to regard degree of infection with respect to mastitis as a latent quantity varying continuously from 0 (truly healthy) to 1 (full-blown clinical mastitis). This quantity is denoted as degree of infection (DOI). The DOI is based on...... such data and a corresponding method for estimating the DOI from a panel of indicators. An empirical proof of concept is provided. Using DOI, there was a significant difference between the DOI of mastitic and healthy control cows beginning 5 d before the mastitic cows were treated for mastitis....

  17. Granulomatous Mastitis during Chronic Antidepressant Therapy: Is It Possible a Conservative Therapeutic Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Maurizio; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Spinelli, Gabriele; Tomasello, Giovanni; Marrazzo, Antonio; Ficarella, Silvia; Bruno, Antonio; Sammartano, Antonino; Fiorentini, Tiziana; Scio, Antonio; Maione, Carolina; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2012-09-01

    Granulomatous mastitis is a rare benign inflammatory disease of the breast with multiple etiologies such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, foreign body reaction, and mycotic and parasitic infections. In contrast, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is characterized by the presence of chronic granulomatous lobulitis in the absence of an obvious etiology. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma and so awareness of surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists is essential to avoid unnecessary mastectomies. Cases of IGM are reported during antidepressant therapy in patients also showing high levels of prolactinemia. In these cases, we believe that surgical excision must be avoided being replaced with a conservative management of the pathological condition based on a corticosteroid treatment. PMID:23091553

  18. The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis

  19. Costs of mastitis in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Camsp, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most costly and frequent diseases in the dairy industry. Costs of mastitis differ per country and farm type. Farm specific calculations are a tool to increase time and motivation input in decreasing the costs of mastitis The total costs of mastitis in Canada have never been calculated before. The aim of the study was to develop a calculation model for the costs of mastitis in Canada. In order to give dairy farmers and their advisors insight in the specific costs on mas...

  20. Tuberculous Mastitis Presenting as Breast Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Francis Tauro

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in its diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination w...

  1. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Nazira Mammadova; İsmail Keskin

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input...

  2. Potential mechanism of action of J5 vaccine in protection against severe bovine coliform mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dosogne, Hilde; Vangroenweghe, Frdric; Burvenich, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Coliform mastitis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat in the modern dairy industry. Curative therapy with antibiotics remains only moderately effective and depends on the stage at which the disease is treated. The most successful strategies for combating coliform mastitis appear to be prevention by hygienic management or prophylactic immuniz aion. The severity of clinical symptoms of coliform mastitis has been shown to be reduced by immunization with the Escherichia coli J5 vaccine...

  3. Mastitis risk indicators assessed through a germ specific epidemiological model in southern Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Theron, Lonard; Sustronck, Bart; Bertozzi, Carlo; Hanzen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most prevalent pathology in dairy production; in order to identify herd related risk indicators, our study focused on germ-specific approach to refine known risk indicators between environmental or contagious epidemiologic models. We gathered clinical mastitis during 3 months in 21 walloon dairy farms representing 1630 Holstein cows (mean: 67; SD: 18). Farmers were interrogated by a questionnaire about their main practices and basic mastitis knowledge questions. Qua...

  4. Differences in severity of mastitis and the pathogens causing various oxidative product levels

    OpenAIRE

    Witaya Suriyasathaporn; Teera Chewonarin; Usanee Vinitketkumnuen

    2012-01-01

    Differences in severity of mastitis and their causing pathogens might be associated with oxidative product levels occurring during the inflammatory process in infected udders. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship of oxidative product levels, using malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker on both mastitis severity and its causing pathogens. Quarter milk samples of all lactating cows in the selected farms were primarily tested for mastitis severity levels including clinical ...

  5. Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zaini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

  6. A model for detection of individual cow mastitis based on an indicator measured in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagunda, M G G; Friggens, N C; Rasmussen, M D; Larsen, T

    2006-08-01

    A dynamic deterministic biological model was developed that generates, for a given cow on a given day, a value for her risk of having mastitis. The model combines real-time information from a mastitis indicator measured in milk with additional factors that are other known risk factors of mastitis but that are not reflected in the indicator. l-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an enzyme whose activity is increased because of mastitis, is used as an example of a mastitis indicator. The additional factors incorporated in the model are days from calving, breed, parity, milk yield, udder characteristics, other disease records, electrical conductivity, and herd characteristics. The model is designed to run each time a new LDH value is recorded and can run in the absence of the additional factors. Electrical conductivity measurements and disease records, where available, also trigger the model to run. As an input, milk LDH activity values (micromol/min per L) are multiplied by milk yield (L) to produce the amount of LDH (micromol/min) and are then smoothed using an extended Kalman filter before being processed by the biological model. The output comprises a risk of acute mastitis and a relative degree of chronic mastitis. The model also produces a days-to-next sample value that allows sampling frequency to be either increased or reduced depending on the risk of mastitis. The days-to-next sample value was designed to make the best use of opportunities afforded by automated, inline sampling technology. The model functionality was investigated using simulated data, and real-farm data of naturally occurring mastitis were then used to validate the model. The results demonstrated that the model is robust to sampling frequency and random noise in the LDH measurements. It was able to detect mastitis reasonably well: Using a threshold mastitis risk of 0.7, sensitivity for detecting clinical mastitis was 82%. Specificity, that is, the ability to avoid misclassifying healthy observations as mastitis, was 99%. PMID:16840614

  7. Endodontic microsurgery, presentation of a clinical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review is conducted on endodontic surgery. The report of a clinical case is facilitated. The technique chosen according to the clinical and radiographic examination was endodontic microsurgery, the case has presented a positive evolution of four years

  8. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, R.M., de

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows, that need the farmer's attention, because of a possible case of oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables, where the p...

  9. Mastitis tuberculosa / Tuberculosis of the breast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia Isabel, Cuervo; Diego Andrs, Bonilla; Martha Isabel, Murcia; Johana, Hernndez; Julio Csar, Gmez.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se informa un caso de mastitis granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis en una paciente inmunocompetente con lesiones inflamatorias crnicas de la mama, diagnosticada por la deteccin de ADN de la micobacteria mediante la tcnica de reaccin en cadena de la polimerasa de la secuencia de [...] insercin IS6110 presente en el complejo M. tuberculosis , en una biopsia de mama embebida en parafina. La tuberculosis primaria de la mama es rara, incluso en pases con alta prevalencia de tuberculosis, y debe sospecharse en pacientes con mastitis granulomatosa crnica de causa no clara. El pilar del tratamiento es la quimioterapia antituberculosa y, ocasionalmente, la ciruga. Abstract in english We report a case of granulomatous mastitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an immunocompetent woman with chronic inflammatory lesions of the breast. It was diagnosed by detection of mycobacteria DNA using polymerase chain reaction technique targeting IS6110 insertion element of M. tuberculos [...] is complex in a paraffin-embedded histological specimen. The primary breast tuberculosis is rare, even in countries where the incidence and prevalence of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis are high. It should be suspected in female patients with chronic granulomatous mastitis with no apparent cause. The cornerstone of treatment is antituberculous chemotherapy, and surgery is rarely required.

  10. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on mastitis and culling on a large-scale dairy farm in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Alexander, Neal; St?rk, Katharina D C; Dulu, Thomas D; Rushton, Jonathan; Fine, Paul E M

    2015-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible viral infection of cloven hooved animals associated with severe economic losses when introduced into FMD-free countries. Information on the impact of the disease in FMDV-endemic countries is poorly characterised yet essential for the prioritisation of scarce resources for disease control programmes. A FMD (virus serotype SAT2) outbreak on a large-scale dairy farm in Nakuru County, Kenya provided an opportunity to evaluate the impact of FMD on clinical mastitis and culling rate. A cohort approach followed animals over a 12-month period after the commencement of the outbreak. For culling, all animals were included; for mastitis, those over 18months of age. FMD was recorded in 400/644 cattle over a 29-day period. During the follow-up period 76 animals were culled or died whilst in the over 18month old cohort 63 developed clinical mastitis. Hazard ratios (HR) were generated using Cox regression accounting for non-proportional hazards by inclusion of time-varying effects. Univariable analysis showed FMD cases were culled sooner but there was no effect on clinical mastitis. After adjusting for possible confounders and inclusion of time-varying effects there was weak evidence to support an effect of FMD on culling (HR?=?1.7, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.88-3.1, P?=?0.12). For mastitis, there was stronger evidence of an increased rate in the first month after the onset of the outbreak (HR?=?2.9, 95%CI 0.97-8.9, P?=?0.057). PMID:25889460

  11. Therapy of mastitis puerperalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, H.; Reich, W.; Schmeisser, G. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-01-01

    70 patients with mastitis were treated by low dose irradiation with soft X-rays and by secondary inhibition of the lactation by conservative physical measures. Breast abscesses were observed only in 6 of 70 patients. Therefore the antiinflammatory irradiation with low dose X-rays is a suitable method of treatment.

  12. Lupus mastitis: a mimicker of breast carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Warne, Richard Roger; Taylor, Donna; Segal, Amanda; Irish, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of lupus mastitis which was initially diagnosed following an incisional biopsy of a breast lump, with similar pathology found 2 years later after an ultrasound guided biopsy of the same lump. The woman had been diagnosed 7 years before with systemic lupus erythematosus. The radiological and pathological features are presented in this report with discussion of similar cases in the literature.

  13. Longitudinal Analysis of Somatic Cell Count for Joint Genetic Evaluation of Mastitis and Recovery Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; de Koning, D J

    Abstract Text: Better models of genetic evaluation for mastitis can be developed through longitudinal analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) which usually is used as a proxy for mastitis. Mastitis and recovery data with weekly observations of SCC were simulated for daughter groups of 60 and 240 per sire. Data were created to define cases: 1 if SCC was above a pre-specified boundary, else 0. A transition from below to above the boundary indicates probability to contract mastitis, and the other way indicates recovery. The MCMCglmm package was used to estimate breeding values. In the 60 daughters group, accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 for mastitis and 0.22 to 0.23 for recovery. Whereas, in the 240 daughters group accuracies ranged from 0.83 to 0.85 for mastitis and 0.57 to 0.65 for recovery. Reasonable accuracies can be achieved from SCC based estimates.

  14. Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simbarashe, Katsande; Gift, Matope; Masimba, Ndengu; Davies M, Pfukenyi.

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composi [...] te milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 10 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal-and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1% (123/584) had mastitis, 16.3% (95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%), Escherichia coli (25.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were I: associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

  15. Economic impact of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd assessed by stochastic simulation using different methods to model yield losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagnestam-Nielsen, Christel; Østergaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    losses was investigated by comparing the results obtained using the potential yield of mastitic cows, had they not developed CM, with those obtained using the yield of non-mastitic cows. The yearly maximum avoidable cost of CM at herd level was estimated at €14 504, corresponding to 6.9% of the net...... the conventional modelling strategy, with the exception of the cost per case of CM. Similarities between the results obtained using the two methods were particularly evident when the mastitic cows' own yield level, had they not developed CM, was used as the reference for production in healthy cows...

  16. SUSCEPTIBILITIES/RESISTANCE OF Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVE AND Streptococcus sp. ISOLATED FROM THE MILK OF COWS PRESENTING CLINICAL MASTITIS IN MILK BASIN OF GOINIA RESISTNCIA DE Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVA E Streptococcus sp. ISOLADOS DO LEITE DE VACAS COM MASTITE CLNICA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antnio Franco da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    It was verified the spectrum of susceptibilities/resistance of 76 samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive and 51 samples of Streptococcus sp., isolated from milk of 231 cows presenting clinical mastitis. The diffusion method was used in plate of Kirby-Bauer, being tested ten active principles used in cases of clinical mastitis. Natural penicillin, chloranphenicol, tetraciclyne, kanamicyn, gentamicyn, nitrofurantoin, trimetopryn + sulfametoxazol, enrofloxacyn, perlimicyn and ceftiofur were tested. The samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive presented a spectrum of larger resistance for the penicillin (78.9%, followed by trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (59.2% and nitrofurantoin (57.8%. The largest susceptibility frequency was found in enrofloxacyn (96%, in perlimicyn (94% and in ceftiofur (94%. For the samples of Streptococcus sp. there was a profile resistance for penicillin (92%, chloranphenicol (74.5% and trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (52%. A sensibility profile was also verified for enrofloxacyn (96%, ceftiofur (92% and perlimicyn (92%.

    KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; resistance; susceptibilities.

    Verificou-se o espectro de sensibilidade/resistncia de 76 cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e 51 cepas de Streptococcus sp., isolados do leite proveniente de 231 vacas que apresentaram mastite clnica. Utilizou-se o mtodo de difuso em placa, segundo Kirby-Bauer, testando-se 10 princpios ativos: penicilina natural, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, kanamicina, gentamicina, nitrofurantona, trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol, enrofloxacina, perlimicina e ceftiofur. As cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva apresentaram um espectro de resistncia maior para a penicilina (78,9%, vindo a seguir trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (59,2% e nitrofurantona (57,8%. A maior freqncia de sensibilidade foi encontrada frente enrofloxacina (96%, secundada pela perlimicina (94% e ceftiofur (94%. J para as cepas de Streptococcus sp. encontrou-se um perfil de resistncia para a penicilina de 92%, para o cloranfenicol de 74,5% e para o trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol de 52%, enquanto o perfil de sensibilidade para enrofloxacina foi de 96%, para ceftiofur, de 92%, e para perlimicina, de 92%.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite bovina; sensibilidade; resistncia.

  17. Treatment of mastitis during lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Pyörälä S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, bec...

  18. Longitudinal Analysis of Somatic Cell Count for Joint Genetic Evaluation of Mastitis and Recovery Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; de Koning, D J; Janss, Luc; Franzn, J.; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Text: Better models of genetic evaluation for mastitis can be developed through longitudinal analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) which usually is used as a proxy for mastitis. Mastitis and recovery data with weekly observations of SCC were simulated for daughter groups of 60 and 240 per sire. Data were created to define cases: 1 if SCC was above a pre-specified boundary, else 0. A transition from below to above the boundary indicates probability to contract mastitis, and the other way ...

  19. Enzyme activity and acute phase proteins in milk utilized as indicators of acute clinical E. coli LPS-induced mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Rntved, Christine M.; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lnne; Vels, Lotte; Bjerring, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The importance of non-visual and on-line monitoring of udder health increases as the contact between humans and animals decreases, for example, in robotic milking systems. Several indicator systems have been introduced commercially, and a number of techniques are currently in use. This study describes the kinetics of seven indigenous milk parameters for monitoring udder inflammation in an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin)-induced mastitis model. Proportional milk from LPS-infu...

  20. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this...

  1. Bovine Mastitis in Subtropical Dairy Farms, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Qin-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of Clinical Mastitis (CM and Subclinical Mastitis (SCM, isolation and identification of the major pathogens and test the antimicrobial resistance of milk bacterial isolates in subtropical dairy farms in Guangxi region (south of China between 2005 and 2009. The average percentages of blind quarter(s at cow and quarter level were 11.5 and 3.7%, respectively. The incidence of CM at cow and quarter level were 8.7 and 3.7%, respectively while that of SCM at cow and quarter level were 48.8 and 19%, respectively. A total of 105 and 56 microorganisms were isolated from the 109 CM and 67 SCM samples, respectively. The most common bacterial isolates from CM cases were S. aureus (29.5%, E. coli (25.7% and C. neoformans (16.2%, however in SCM they were S. aureus (32.1%, CNS (19.7% and St. agalactiae (17.9%. The antimicrobial sensitivity test indicated that all the antimicrobial agents (except for ampicillin showed lower proportion of resistant isolates of all the isolated bacteria (except for C. neoformans, among the employed antimicrobials, Ruyanxiao showed the lowest proportion of resistant isolates.

  2. Detection model for mastitis in cows milked in an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, R M; Ouweltjes, W

    2001-04-13

    Automated detection of diseases (such as mastitis) in dairy cows might be an alternative for detection by observation during milking - especially when using an automatic milking system (AMS). An outline of a detection model is given. This detection model includes time-series models for two variables (milk yield and electrical conductivity of milk), with interpolation on previous values. The model is flexible in the number of variables actually used. Parameter values and the residual variances are updated by linear regression after each milking. Alerts for mastitis are given when the residuals fall outside given confidence intervals. A data set with 111 cows for 16 months (on average, 58 lactating cows per day) was used to test the model. Depending on the chosen confidence interval, 42-44 out of 48 cases of clinical mastitis were detected; the remaining cases were not detected because not all data needed were available. These results were better than the results obtained with the model usually used on the farm. The number of false-positive alerts depended on the chosen confidence interval and was higher than the number found with the model usually used. PMID:11267690

  3. Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance and milk somatic cell score in French Lacaune dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astruc Jean-Michel

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance was studied from two data sets. Firstly, risk factors for different mastitis traits, i.e. culling due to clinical or chronic mastitis and subclinical mastitis predicted from somatic cell count (SCC, were explored using data from 957 first lactation Lacaune ewes of an experimental INRA flock composed of two divergent lines for milk yield. Secondly, genetic parameters for SCC were estimated from 5 272 first lactation Lacaune ewes recorded among 38 flocks, using an animal model. In the experimental flock, the frequency of culling due to clinical mastitis (5% was lower than that of subclinical mastitis (10% predicted from SCC. Predicted subclinical mastitis was unfavourably associated with the milk yield level. Such an antagonism was not detected for clinical mastitis, which could result, to some extent, from its low frequency or from the limited amount of data. In practice, however, selection for mastitis resistance could be limited in a first approach to selection against subclinical mastitis using SCC. The heritability estimate of SCC was 0.15 for the lactation mean trait and varied from 0.04 to 0.12 from the first to the fifth test-day. The genetic correlation between lactation SCC and milk yield was slightly positive (0.15 but showed a strong evolution during lactation, i.e. from favourable (-0.48 to antagonistic (0.27. On a lactation basis, our results suggest that selection for mastitis resistance based on SCC is feasible. Patterns for genetic parameters within first lactation, however, require further confirmation and investigation.

  4. Feline gangrenous mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Courtney R.

    2013-01-01

    A 3.7-kg, 3-year-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with the chief complaint of anorexia and lethargy of 3 days duration with a noticeable decrease in body condition and a large open wound on her ventral caudal abdomen. A diagnosis of acute mastitis with gland abscessation was made. The patient was successfully treated with oral antibiotics and open wound management using surgical debridement and lavage followed by wound dressings using honey.

  5. Neonatal Mastitis: A Clinico-Microbiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Talat Masoodi; Gowhar Nazir Mufti; Javeed Iqbal Bhat; Rubina Lone; Syed Arshi; Syed Khurshid Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neonatal breast hypertrophy is a common phenomenon in term infants, superadded infection can lead to mastitis and that can progress to breast abscess with short and long term detrimental effects. Our effort is to study the prevalence, risk factors, the current microbial profile and sensitivity pattern in these infections in order to suggest an optimal treatment plan for these patients. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Hospital based study conducted in Kashmir on the native population....

  6. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flix Maes Ferrer, J; Mic Muoz, P; Snchez Corts, J L; Paricio Martn, J J; Miana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures. PMID:1659859

  7. Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with breast tuberculosis: Analysis of 46 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Murat Ozgur; Sa?lam, Cemile; A?ca, Filiz D; Terzio?lu, Serdar G

    2016-01-01

    Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tubercular infection. Our aim is to highlight the nonspecific clinical presentations, diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic approaches of mammarian tuberculosis. Forty-six patients diagnosed with breast tuberculosis between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical features, all diagnostic methods, and the outcomes of treatment were analysed. All cases were female with a mean age of 36.4years. Breast mass and pain were the most common complaints. While 34.8% of the cases had a physical examination with suspicions for malignancy, 43.5% of the patients had Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 or 5 lesions suggested malignancy radiologically. Definitive diagnosis was based on histopathologic examination through core needle biopsy (n=29), excisional biopsy (n=12), and open biopsy (n=5) taken from the abscess wall during drainage. Standard antiTB therapy for 6months was given to all cases. Thirty-three patients recovered with standard 6-month therapy while extended treatment for 9-12months was needed in 13 (28.2%) cases. Surgery was carried out in 17 cases. Two patients developed recurrence. Breast tuberculosis can be easily confused with breast cancer, suppurative abscess, and other causes of granulomatous mastitis, both clinically and radiologically. A multidisciplinary approach is required to prevent diagnostic delays and unnecessary surgical interventions. Although antiTB therapy is the mainstay treatment of breast TB, surgery is usually indicated in patients refractory to medical treatment. PMID:26853172

  8. Frequncia de Staphylococcus aureus em casos de mastite bovina subclnica, na regio Sul do Rio Grande do Sul / Frequency of staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.S., Bandeira; T., Picoli; J.L., Zani; W.P. da, Silva; G., Fischer.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A mastite bovina uma doena importante na explorao leiteira, no apenas pelas perdas econmicas diretas que promove, mas tambm pelas perdas indiretas e o potencial risco sade pblica. Dentre as principais causas de infeces intramamrias, destacam-se as bactrias do gnero Staphylococcus sp [...] p., sendo que Staphylococcus aureus o agente etiolgico predominante em mastite subclnica. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar a frequncia de mastite subclnica em oito rebanhos localizados na regio Sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) e a relao da enfermidade com a presena de S. aureus. Adicionalmente, pesquisou-se a presena de S. intermedius e S. hyicus nas amostras de leite obtidas. Para identificao da doena, utilizou-se o California Mastitis Test (CMT). A identificao da espcie de Staphylococcus spp. foi feita em meio de cultura gar Baird-Parker, com posterior confirmao das colnias suspeitas em colorao de gram, prova de catalase, pesquisa de coagulase livre e pesquisa de termonuclease. A mastite subclnica foi constatada em 53,6% dos animais testados. A presena de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva foi identificada em 12,6% dos animais com mastite subclnica. Nesses mesmos animais, a bactria identificada como S. aureus foi o agente etiolgico presente em 17,6% dos casos. Adicionalmente, pode-se perceber que, dentre o grupo identificado como coagulase positiva, 85,7% corresponderam a S. aureus, enquanto 8,5% mostraram caractersticas bioqumicas compatveis com S. intermedius e 5,8% foram consideradas S. hyicus. Abstract in english Bovine mastitis is an important disease in dairy farming, not only by promoting direct economic losses, but also for indirect losses and the potential risk to public health. The main causes of intramammary infections include the bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus being [...] the predominant etiologic agent in subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of subclinical mastitis in eight herds from southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and the relationship of the disease with the presence of S. aureus. In addition, we checked for the presence of S. intermedius and S. hyicus in the milk samples obtained. For identification of the disease, we used the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Identification of Staphylococcus spp. species was made in Barid-Parker agar culture medium, with subsequent confirmation of suspected colonies by way of Gram stain and catalase test along with free-coagulase and thermonuclease research. Subclinical mastitis was identified in 53.6% of animals tested. The presence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was identified in 12.6% of animals with subclinical mastitis. In these same animals, bacteria identified as S. aureus were the etiologic agent present in 17.6% of cases. Additionally, it was revealed that among the group identified as coagulase positive, 85.7% corresponded to S. aureus, while 8.5% had biochemical characteristics consistent with S. intermedius and 5.8% were considered S. hyicus.

  9. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Krogh, K.; Larsen, H.K.D.; Jensen, Arne Bent; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess the...... internal quality control strain exhibiting a statistically significant ascending trend from 54% correct identifications in 2006 to 91% in 2011 (p-value=0.0082; n=13).Even if specifics were not recorded as regards the laboratory methods employed at the veterinary clinics for identification of mastitis...... capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled the...

  10. Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains 1303 and ECC-1470 Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E.coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E.coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection. PMID:25814601

  11. Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains 1303 and ECC-1470 Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection.

  12. Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes in two seasons in Semnan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narenji Sani, Reza; Mahdavi, Ali; Moezifar, Melika

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-one dairy ewe flocks selected by stratified random sampling were subjected to study the prevalence and etiology of subclinical intramammary infections and to assess the influence of parity on the prevalence of intramammary infections. Also, spontaneous cure rates were determined over study period. A total of 1192 milk samples were collected at 2 weeks after lambing until tenth-week postpartum. All flocks had hand milking; those which were classified by bacterial culture and California Mastitis Test (CMT) as positive were deemed to have glands with subclinical mastitis (SCM). Of 1192 halves examined, 791 samples were collected during spring and 401 samples were collected during summer. Prevalence rate of SCM in spring was 14.7 %; and spontaneous cure that occurred in this season was 88.8 %; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most common isolates (66.6 %). Samples collected in spring showed higher prevalence rate of SCM than summer samples. This rate was 8.9 % in summer. Spontaneous cure rate in this season was 69.4 %, and Staphylococcus aureus (72.2 %) was the most common isolates. SCM was seen at significantly lower rates in left half than in right one (p?clinical mastitis (defined as number of clinical cases per 100 ewe-months) was 0.21 and 0.74 in spring and summer, respectively. The isolates from clinical cases in spring were fungi and, from summer, were S. aureus. Also, S. aureus SCM cases were not significantly severe than other SCM cases. In conclusion, multiparous ewes were most at risk, and severity of infection was higher in summer. PMID:26041046

  13. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srensen, L P; Mark, T

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits and lactation average somatic cell count from 5 to 170 d after first calving (LASCC170) with another index consisting of 1 unspecific mastitis trait and LASCC170. Economic values were estimated for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from €149 to €570 per mastitis case and were highest for contagious pathogens such as Staph. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci and lowest for Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. The value for unspecific mastitis was €231 per case. Selection differentials (in €) were estimated for 4 different selection indices, including 1) unspecific mastitis, 2) unspecific mastitis and LASCC170, 3) 5 pathogen-specific mastitis traits and unspecific residual mastitis (unspecific mastitis treatments minus mastitis treatments caused by the 5 pathogens), and 4) as index 3 including LASCC170. The breeding goal was identical to selection index 3. Mastitis data from primiparous cows calving from 1998 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic parameters of the mastitis traits using linear models and AI-REML algorithm. These parameters were used for construction of the selection index equations. For the selection indices, information sources were measurements of mastitis treatments and LASCC170 from 50, 80, or 130 daughters of a bull as well as measurements of mastitis treatments from 1,000 progeny of the bull's sire and 1,000 daughters of his maternal grandsire. Differences in selection differentials were marginal among the 4 indices. Without considering LASCC170, the selection differential of an unspecific mastitis index was €0.4 (<1%) better than that of a pathogen-specific index. On the other hand, the selection differential of the pathogen-specific index was €0.3 (<1%) better than that of an unspecific index when LASCC170 was included in the indices. Reliabilities of the selection indices were 0.62 to 0.67 (80 daughters) and were proportional to the selection differential. Changing the number of daughters to 50 or 130 did not change ranking of the indices. Heritabilities of the pathogen-specific traits were very low (h2=0.005"0.021) compared with unspecific mastitis (h2=0.062), which may limit the selection differential of the pathogen-specific index

  14. Tuberculous Mastitis Presenting as Breast Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Francis Tauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in its diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination with aspiration or surgical drainage are usually associated with an excellent outcome.

  15. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and risk factors associated with bovine mastitis in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina C. Krewer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the etiology of mastitis, determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and to identify the risk factors associated with infection in dairy cows in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco, Brazil. From the 2,064 milk samples analyzed, 2.6% were associated with cases of clinical mastitis and 28.2% with subclinical mastitis. In the microbiological culture, Staphylococcus spp. (49.1% and Corynebacterium spp. (35.3% were the main agents found, followed by Prototheca spp. (4.6% and Gram negative bacilli (3.6%. In the antimicrobial susceptibility testing, all 218 Staphylococcus spp. were susceptible to rifampicin and the least effective drug was amoxicillin (32.6%. Multidrug resistance to three or more drugs was observed in 65.6% of Staphylococcus spp. The risk factors identified for mastitis were the extensive production system, not providing feed supplements, teat drying process, not disinfecting the teats before and after milking, and inadequate hygiene habits of the milking workers. The presence of multiresistant isolates in bovine milk demonstrates the importance of the choice and appropriate use of antimicrobial agents. Prophylactic and control measures, including teat antisepsis and best practices for achieving hygienic milking should be established in order to prevent new cases of the disease in herds.

  16. Incidence of subclinical mastitis and prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in organized farms and unorganized sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Raveendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Prabhu, K Nithin; Shome, B R; Rathnamma, D; Suryanarayana, V V S; Yatiraj, S; Prasad, C Renuka; Krishnaveni, N; Sundareshan, S; Akhila, D S; Gomes, A R; Hegde, Nagendra R

    2013-09-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SCM) represents a major proportion of the burden of mastitis. Determining somatic cell count (SCC) and electrical conductivity (EC) of milk are useful approaches to detect SCM. In order to correlate grades of SCM with the load of five major mastitis pathogens, 246 milk samples from a handful of organized and unorganized sectors were screened. SCC (>5 × 10(5)/mL) and EC (>6.5 mS/cm) identified 110 (45 %) and 153 (62 %) samples, respectively, to be from SCM cases. Randomly selected SCM-negative samples as well as 186 samples positive by either SCC or EC were then evaluated for isolation of five major mastitis-associated bacteria. Of the 323 isolates obtained, 95 each were S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 48 were E. coli and 85 were streptococci. There was no association between the distribution of organisms and (a) the different groups of SCC, or (b) organised farms and unorganised sectors. By contrast, there was a significant difference in the distribution of CoNS, and not other species, between organized farms and unorganized sectors. In summary, bacteria were isolated irrespective of the density of somatic cells or the type of farm setting, and the frequency of isolation of CoNS was higher with organized farms. These results suggest the requirement for fine tuning SCC and EC limits and the higher probability for CoNS to be associated with SCM in organized diary sectors, and have implications for the identification, management and control of mastitis in India. PMID:24426129

  17. Mastitis bovina por Prototheca zopfii: primer aislamiento en Chile / Bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: first isolation in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Zaror; K, Valenzuela; J, Kruze.

    Full Text Available El gnero Prototheca est formado por microalgas unicelulares sin clorofila, ampliamente distribuidas en el medio ambiente, algunas de las cuales pueden ser patgenas para el hombre y animales. Sin embargo, no existen antecedentes bibliogrficos previos sobre la existencia de estas algas patgenas p [...] ara el hombre y animales en Chile. Se examin bacteriolgicamente un total de 200 muestras de leche provenientes de 150 vacas lecheras con mastitis clnica, las cuales fueron sembradas en medio PIM modificado, selectivo para Prototheca. Se aisl Prototheca spp. en dos ocasiones consecutivas de una misma vaca muestreada con un intervalo de dos meses. El examen microscpico directo de las muestras de leche en fresco revel la presencia clulas caractersticas de Prototheca spp. Mediante asimilacin de fuentes de carbono se identific la especie como P. zopfii, constituyendo el primer aislamiento de este agente a partir de un cuadro de mastitis clnica bovina en Chile. Este hallazgo es relevante para los programas de control de mastitis bovina en los rebaos lecheros ya que es un organismo poco frecuente y desconocido que no responde a los tratamientos antibiticos convencionales. Abstract in english The genus Prototheca includes unicellular achlorophyllous microalgae widely distributed in the environment, some of which could be pathogenic for human and animals. However, there is no previous report regarding these pathogenic microalgae causing infections in man or animals in Chile. Two-hundred m [...] ilk samples collected from 150 dairy cows with clinical mastitis were inoculated onto PIM modified medium. Prototheca spp was isolated on two consecutive occasions from one cow sampled two months apart. Direct microscopic examination of wet smears made from milk samples revealed typical Prototheca cells. Biochemical tests based on carbon source assimilation identified the organism as Prototheca zopfii. This finding represents the first isolation of this environmental alga from bovine mastitis in Chile. This could be of great importance for mastitis control programs in dairy herds as Prototheca is an uncommon mastitis pathogen that does not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

  18. Enzyme activity and acute phase proteins in milk utilized as indicators of acute clinical E. coli LPS-induced mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Rntved, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of non-visual and on-line monitoring of udder health increases as the contact between humans and animals decreases, for example, in robotic milking systems. Several indicator systems have been introduced commercially, and a number of techniques are currently in use. This study describes the kinetics of seven indigenous milk parameters for monitoring udder inflammation in an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin)-induced mastitis model. Proportional milk from LPS-infused quarters was compared with milk from parallel quarters, which were placebo-treated with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. Somatic cell counts (SCCs), the acute phase proteins (APP), that is, milk amyloid A (MAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), and the enzymes N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were measured at fixed intervals during the period from -2 to +5 days after LPS and NaCl infusions. All parameters responded significantly faster and were more pronounced to the LPS infusions compared with the NaCl infusions. All parameters were elevated in the proportional milk collected at the first milking 7 h after infusion and developed a monophasic response, except Hp and MAA that developed biphasic response. SCC, LDH, NAGase and Hp peaked at 21 h followed by AP, AcP and MAA peaking at 31 h with the highest fold changes seen for MAA (23 780), LDH (126), NAGase (50) and Hp (16). In the recovery phase, AP, AcP and Hp reached base levels first, at 117 h, whereas LDH, NAGase and MAA remained elevated following the pattern of SCC. Minor increases of the milk parameters were also seen in the neighboring (healthy) quarters. Distinction between inflamed and healthy quarters was possible for all the parameters, but only for a limited time frame for AP and AcP. Hence, when tested in an LPS mastitis model, the enzymes LDH, NAGase and AP in several aspects performed equally with SCC and APP as inflammatory milk indicators of mastitis. Furthermore, these enzymes appear potent in the assessment of a valuable time sequence of inflammation, a necessary ingredient in modeling of programs in in-line surveillance systems.

  19. Métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina (Methods of detection of the bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedolla, CC

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre los métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina que se utilizan más comúnmente en el mundo. La mastitis bovina es la inflamación de la glándula mamaria causada por una infección por patógenos. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la producción que afecta a la industria lechera en todo el mundo. Puede presentarse de manera clínica y subclínica. La mastitis subclínica es de larga duración y es mucho más frecuente que la mastitis clínica. Dentro de los métodos que se usan con mayor frecuencia a nivel de campo para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas, se encuentran el método de observación y palpación de la ubre y las pruebas físicas, como la prueba de escudilla de ordeño, prueba del paño negro y taza probadora. Las pruebas químicas, como la prueba de conductividad eléctrica de la leche, papel indicador de mastitis y prueba de whiteside que sirven también para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas y subclínicas. Las pruebas biológicas, como son la prueba de California para mastitis, la prueba de Wisconsin, el diagnóstico bacteriológico por los métodos de aislamiento, cultivo, tinción, pruebas bioquímicas e identificación y el conteo de células somáticas por microscopia directa y el somaticell. Otros métodos utilizados actualmente por su rapidez y efectividad son los electrónicos como el fossomatic y el counter coulter, los cuales tienen una aplicación universal sobre todo en laboratorios de control lechero o dedicados al diagnóstico e investigación de la mastitis y el DeLaval cell counter. Los métodos de detección de mastitis son una herramienta que permite identificar el tipo de infección clínica o subclínica que puede presentarse dentro de un hato lechero, por lo que el método que se elija para determinar las pruebas será esencial para tener un diagnóstico más preciso.AbstractThis article is a bibliographical revision on the methods of detection of the bovine mastitis that is used more commonly in the world. The bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland caused by an infection by pathogens. Is one of the most frequent diseases of the production that affects the milk industry anywhere in the world. It can appear of clinical and subclinical way. The subclinical mastitis is long play and is much more frequent that the clinical mastitis. Within the methods that are used most frequently at field level to diagnose clinical mastitis, are the method of observation and palpation of udder and the physical tests, as the container of milking test, the black cloth test and cup test. The chemical tests, like the electrical conductivity of milk test, paper test of mastitis and whiteside test that they also serve to diagnose clinical and subclinical mastitis. The biological tests, as they are the California mastitis test, the Wisconsin test, the bacteriological diagnosis by the methods of isolation, culture, biochemical stain, tests and identification, the count of somatic cells by direct microscope and somaticell. Other methods used at the moment by their rapidity and effectiveness are the electronic ones like the fossomatic, the counter coulter and the, which mainly have a universal application in laboratories of control milk or dedicated to the diagnosis and investigation of the mastitis and the DeLaval cell counter. The methods of detection of mastitis are a tool that allows to identify the type of clinical infection or subclinical that can appear within a milk cattle ranch, reason why the method that is chosen to determine the tests will be essential to have a more precise diagnosis.

  20. The disruptive effects of mastitis on reproduction and fertility in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wolfenson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis (intramammary infection causes the deterioration of ovarian follicular responses in cows, resulting in low fertility. The shortterm, acute clinical form of mastitis has a time-dependent disruptive effect on conception rate. It effectively lowers conception rate if events occur mainly 10 days before to 30 days after artificial insemination. Long-term subclinical mastitis is widely spread in commercial herds. Although it is less severe than clinical mastitis, its long-term nature causes a more pronounced decrease in conception rate. Even mild elevation of somatic cell count in subclinical cows significantly lowers conception rate. Disrupted follicular responses include depression of steroid production in the preovulatory follicle associated with low and delayed preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, resulting in delayed ovulation in onethird of subclinical cows. Mastitis, clinical and subclinical, also impairs oocyte competence, reflected in low production of blastocysts. The corpus luteum seems to be insensitive to mastitis, possible due to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs when mastitis is first diagnosed.

  1. [Bladder carcinosarcoma. A clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Outeirio, J M; Len Dueas, E; Romero Gil, J R; Leal Lpez, A

    1995-03-01

    Presentation of a new case of vesical carcinosarcoma in a 49 year-old male patient. The tumour's pathoanatomical study showed an epithelial pattern of transitional and squamous cells and a sarcomatous pattern composed of rabdomiosarcoma, osteochondrosarcoma and pleomorphous indifferentiated sarcoma with giant multinuclear cells. Histogenesis, signs and symptoms, and treatment, as well as the need of performing an immunohistochemical study for its diagnosis are discussed. PMID:8659281

  2. ROLE OF NEUTROPHILS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF BOVINE COLIFORM MASTITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Around parturition dairy cows are at increased risk for intramammary coliform infections. A high proportion of these infections may develop disease characterized by inflammatory signs and sepsis during the first 60-70 days of lactation. The clinical picture is reputed as toxic mastitis. There is a r...

  3. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quali...

  4. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of ...

  5. Using Clinical Cases to Teach General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience

  6. Development of an improved Streptococcus uberis experimental mastitis challenge model using different doses and strains in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazandi, Manouchehr; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Perry, Jeanette; Hickey, Elizabeth; Page, Stephen; Garg, Sanjay; Petrovski, Kiro R

    2015-11-01

    Developing a reliable mastitis challenge infection model is required to test new intramammary antimicrobial preparations, other novel bovine mastitis treatments, and study mastitis pathogenesis. Three treatment groups of Holstein Friesian cows in active lactation were administered two doses (10(4) and 10(6) cfu/quarter) on a single occasion with one of the three Streptococcus uberis strains (BFR6019, MFF1283 and SA002) suspended in 5 ml of sterile PBS, administered via intramammary inoculation immediately after milking. All quarters that were challenged with S. uberis strains MLF1283 and BFR6019 showed clinical signs of mastitis on day 1 and 2 after the challenge. Strain SA002 had a lower rate of inducing clinical mastitis which was detected later than day 3 after the challenge. We successfully developed a rapid and reliable model for inducing experimental S. uberis mastitis with 100% success rate in cows in active lactation. On the basis of the correlation results between strains, RAPD fingerprinting results, clinical findings, and a 100% success rate of mastitis induction for low and high doses S. uberis strains MLF1283 and BFR6019, strain virulence seems to be a more important effect than challenge dose in induction of clinical mastitis following experimental challenge. PMID:26190128

  7. Spatial patterns of recorded mastitis incidence and somatic cell counts in Swedish dairy cows: implications for surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Wolff

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical mastitis (CM is the most common veterinary treated disease in Swedish dairy cattle. To investigate if the distribution of veterinary registered cases of CM in Sweden follows that of the spatial distribution of cows with high somatic cell counts (SCCs, the spatial distribution of CM odds was estimated from available records and compared with udder health measures based on measurements of SCC derived from official milk recording. The study revealed areas with significantly lower odds for CM but with a high proportion of cows with a poor udder health score, suggesting an under-reporting of CM. We also found areas of significantly higher odds for CM despite a low proportion of cows with a poor udder health score, suggestive of over-treatment of mastitis. The results should enable targeted studies of reasons for discrepancies, e.g. farmers’ and veterinarians’ attitudes to mastitis treatment and disease recording in areas with a deficit or excess of registered CM cases. High quality disease records for dairy cattle are of interest not only for the dairy management but also for disease surveillance, monitoring of use of antibiotics and food safety purposes.

  8. Status of mastitis as an emerging disease in improved and periurban dairy farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sachin; Gokhale, Suresh

    2006-10-01

    While reviewing present status of mastitis in India, results of investigations from periurban dairy farms on epidemiological, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, bacterial isolation, in vitro drug sensitivity, and treatment of subclinical mastitis have been presented. Mastitis, on account of its causing serious wastage and undesirable milk quality, is emerging as a major challenge among the others (like breeding improvement, nutrition management, control of infectious, tick-borne, blood, and internal parasitic diseases) in dairy development of tropics. Subclinical mastitis was found more important in India (varying from 10-50% in cows and 5-20% in buffaloes) than clinical mastitis (1-10%). The incidence was highest in Purebred Holsteins and Jerseys and lowest in local cattle and buffaloes. An investigation on 250 animals from periurban farms indicated that the monsoon season was more prone to subclinical mastitis than summer or winter, prevalence increased with higher lactation number and animals in 4th-5th month of lactation were found more susceptible (59.49%), hind quarters were found more affected (56.52%) than fore quarters (43.47%). The factors like herd size, agro climatic conditions of the region, variations in sociocultural practices, milk marketing, literacy level of the animal owner, system of feeding, and management were found important affecting the incidence of subclinical mastitis. Comparison of efficacy of different diagnostic techniques for subclinical mastitis, such as modified California mastitis test (MCMT), bromo thymol blue (BTB), modified whiteside test, trypsin inhibition test, milk pH, and electric conductivity indicated MCMT to be most sensitive (95.16%) and specific (98.02%) test. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that most of the bacterial strains (gram positive, gram negative, and mixed) isolated from subclinical mastitis milk samples, were highly sensitive to enrofloxacin 53.91%, least sensitive to oxytetracycline 17.39% and ampicillin 7.83%, and resistant to streptomycin. The therapy with enrofloxacin and nimesulide was found more efficacious (92.30%) in treating subclinical mastitis cows. It was concluded that consideration of socioecological factors for mastitis control in periurban area would help to reduce the cost of mastitis control in clean milk production. PMID:17135496

  9. Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A

    Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from the estimated effect: creating stop gain/loss, affecting splice site or RNA structure (RNAsnp), predicted disruptiveness (SIFT), occurring in miRNA or miRNA target site, or in UTR or ncSNP overlapping with a GERP element. Their effects on mastitis traits were estimated in new validation samples from Finnish Ayrshire (SCC, clinical mastitis, udder conformation) and Valdostana (SCC, milk bacteriological results). Furthermore, association analysis across the regions was performed with a linear mixed model using imputed sequence for 845 Danish Red sires with nine mastitis phenotypes. Associations in five regions (on BTA3, BTA6, BTA8, BTA19, and BTA27) agreed across the breeds, but no identical associated SNPs were detected. Higher power (imputation to bigger population samples) will be needed to confirm results. On BTA6 the results indicate several QTL within a 5 Mb region. The results provide a basis for functional studies of promising candidates. The information can also be used for prior weighting of genomic segments in genomic selection

  10. BACTEREMIA NOT DETECTED DURING EXPERIMENTAL COLIFORM MASTITIS INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bacteremia, caused by diverse species, was associated with about one third of acute coliform mastitis cases occurring in a field study report. However, blood is typically a very hostile environment for bacteria. Using blood from normal cows we demonstrate that when 2000 CFU of Escherichia coli o...

  11. Proteomics of mastitis causing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis remains the most prevalent disease in dairy cattle. The economic impact of mastitis on the dairy industry is estimated to be $2 billion per year. Mastitis involves a complex set of interactions between an invading pathogen and the host’s immune systems. Proteomics is a new tool used to s...

  12. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a great imitator?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiter, Annabel M; Vegting, Irene L; Nanayakkara, Prabath W. B.

    2010-01-01

    The patient in this case was seen by numerous doctors for a long time before the diagnosis was made because, right from the start, an abscess or a cancer of the breast was suspected. She was first seen by her general practitioner (GP); thereafter, she went to two consultant physicians and a surgeon in a regional hospital and eventually an idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) diagnosis was made by a specialist in internal medicine in a university hospital. When the diagnosis IGM was made, t...

  13. Randomized noninferiority study evaluating the efficacy of 2 commercial dry cow mastitis formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A P; Godden, S M; Royster, E; Zuidhof, S; Miller, B; Sorg, J

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the efficacy of 2 commercial dry cow mastitis formulations containing cloxacillin benzathine or ceftiofur hydrochloride. Quarter-level outcomes included prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) postcalving, risk for cure of preexisting infections, risk for acquiring a new IMI during the dry period, and risk for clinical mastitis between dry off and 100d in milk (DIM). Cow-level outcomes included the risk for clinical mastitis and the risk for removal from the herd between dry off and 100 DIM, as well as Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) test-day milk component and production measures between calving and 100 DIM. A total of 799 cows from 4 Wisconsin dairy herds were enrolled at dry off and randomized to 1 of the 2 commercial dry cow therapy (DCT) treatments: cloxacillin benzathine (DC; n=401) or ceftiofur hydrochloride (SM; n=398). Aseptic quarter milk samples were collected for routine bacteriological culture before DCT at dry off and again at 0 to 10 DIM. Data describing clinical mastitis cases and DHIA test-day results were retrieved from on-farm electronic records. The overall crude quarter-level prevalence of IMI at dry off was 34.7% and was not different between treatment groups. Ninety-six percent of infections at dry off were of gram-positive organisms, with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Aerococcus spp. isolated most frequently. Mixed logistic regression analysis showed no difference between treatments as to the risk for presence of IMI at 0 to 10 DIM (DC=22.4%, SM=19.9%) or on the risk for acquiring a new IMI between dry off and 0 to 10 DIM (DC=16.6%, SM=14.1%). Noninferiority analysis and mixed logistic regression analysis both showed no treatment difference in risk for a cure between dry off and 0 to 10 DIM (DC=84.8%, SM=85.7%). Cox proportional hazards regression showed no difference between treatments in quarter-level risk for clinical mastitis (DC=1.99%, SM=2.96%), cow-level risk for clinical mastitis (DC=17.0%, SM=15.3%), or on risk for removal from the herd (DC=10.7%, SM=10.3%) between dry off and 100 DIM. Finally, multivariable linear regression with repeated measures showed no overall no difference between treatments in DHIA test-day somatic cell count linear score (DC=2.19, SM=2.22), butterfat test (DC=3.84%, SM=3.86%), protein test (DC=3.02%, SM=3.02%), or 305-d mature-equivalent milk production (DC=11,817kg, SM=11,932kg) between calving and 100 DIM. In conclusion, DC was noninferior to SM in effecting a cure, and there was no difference in efficacy between these 2 DCT formulations as related to all other udder health or cow performance measures evaluated between dry off and 100 DIM. PMID:26585471

  14. Congenital pancreas malformations: a clinical case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, A.; Baptista, H; Oliveira, FJ

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review the congenital malformation known as agenesis of the dorsal pancreas (ADP) and other pancreatic birth defects, based on a rare and exemplary clinical case of pancreatic malformations. The intent was to review the latest information published in the national and international literature on pancreatic birth defects, and to investigate the diversity of clinical presentations of ADP and other congenital pancreas abnormalities. The purpose was to identify w...

  15. THE INNATE IMMUNITY IN BOVINE MASTITIS: THE ROLE OF PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nogueira de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy farmers and industry, which are mainly caused by the entry of bacteria to the teat canal. Shortly after the entry of the invading bacteria, the innate immunity recognizes the invading pathogen through pattern recognition receptors and initiates the inflammatory response necessary to eliminate the invading bacteria. This initial inflammatory response releases cytokines and chemoattractants for the rapid and massive influx of neutrophils from the blood to the site of infection which form the first line of cellular defense against bacteria This article reviewed the role of the most recent knowledge regarding the innate immunity in bovine mastitis focusing in the two major mastitis pathogens: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus the S. aureus appears to mostly circumvent the host immune response, as the Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs signaling pathways. The Intramammary Infections (IMIs by this bacteria result in a very moderate host response with minimal observable innate immune response, which are related to well-known ability to this pathogen to establish chronic IMI. Otherwise, E. coli elicits a strong and earlier response, mainly through TLR4, that is associated with the severity of the mastitis and the clinical manifestation commonly observed in dairy cows infected with this pathogen. Suboptimal and dysfunctional mammary defenses may contribute to the development of severe acute inflammation or chronic mastitis that adversely affects the milk production and quality. Thus, a better understanding of mastitis pathogen interaction to the host may be useful for future control of mastitis.

  16. [Bacteriological diagnosis with Petrifilm of mastitis pathogens in milk samples from each quarter and bulk milk samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmker, V; Hauptmann, T; Bormann, A

    2007-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate four different Petrifllm products (3M, Neuss) for detection of mastitis pathogens in quarter and bulk milk samples, comparing them to the results of standard microbiological techniques. The aim of experiment 1 was to determine the sensitivity of 3M Rapid Coliform Count Plate in identifying clinical mastitis cases caused by coliform bacteria. Within 12 h of incubation, three times more coliform bacteria could be identified with Petrifilm than with the standard technique. For a valid result, milk samples must be free of contamination. Experiment 2 focused on whether Petrifilm was able to monitor S. aureus on bulk milk level in herds being infected with this pathogen. In relation to the gold standard (combination of both procedures (standard and Petrifilm, prevalence 52%), sensitivity for the standard procedure amounted to 15.4% and to 94% for Petrifilm. In Experiment 3 the combination of several Petrifilm (RUEGG, 2004) was compared with the standard diagnostic technique (gold standard). Sensitivity of the Petrifilm method approached the assumed gold standard to 43% and specificity to 29%. The positive predictive value of 28% showed that both procedures are not directly comparable with each other. Due to the definition of a gold standard, the weaknesses of the classical technique can be interpreted as a disadvantage of the Petrifilm procedure. The strength of the available Petrifilm as mastitis diagnostic tools is the identification of S. aureus and coliform microorganisms, moreover E. coli. PMID:17970336

  17. Graves Disease And Down Sindrome : Clinical Case

    OpenAIRE

    Scrinic Olesea; Ibadula Seila; Circo E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pacients with Downs syndrome present an increase revalence of autoimune endocrine disorders. We communicate the case of 14 years and 6 months old pacient known with Down syndrome admitted in Endocrinology department with suspicion of hyperthyroidism, the diagnosis being confirmed by hormonal dosage. The particularity of the case consists in: symptomatology onset during puberty, clinical evolution with mild symptoms, without ocular involvement, morphological and functional remis...

  18. Advance modern medicine with clinical case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wng, Y-Xing J.

    2014-01-01

    Randomized clinical trial (RCT) can fail to demonstrate the richness of individual patient characteristics. Given the unpredictable nature of medicine, a patient may present in an unusual way, have a strange new pathology, or react to a medical intervention in a manner not seen before. The publication of these novelties as case reports is a fundamental way of conveying medical knowledge. Throughout history there have been famous case studies that shaped the way we view health and disease. Cas...

  19. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Blaise Iraguha; Humphrey Hamudikuwanda; Borden Mushonga

    2015-01-01

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski® Mastitis Detector was used to d...

  20. Electrical conductivity of milk: ability to predict mastitis status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, E; Hogeveen, H; Korsgaard, I R; Friggens, N C; Sloth, K H M N; Løvendahl, P

    2004-04-01

    Electrical conductivity (EC) of milk has been introduced as an indicator trait for mastitis over the last decade, and it may be considered as a potential trait in a breeding program where selection for improved udder health is included. In this study, various EC traits were investigated for their association with udder health. In total, 322 cows with 549 lactations were included in the study. Cows were classified as healthy or clinically or subclinically infected, and EC was measured repeatedly during milking on each quarter. Four EC traits were defined; the inter-quarter ratio (IQR) between the highest and lowest quarter EC values, the maximum EC level for a cow, IQR between the highest and lowest quarter EC variation, and the maximum EC variation for a cow. Values for the traits were calculated for every milking throughout the entire lactation. All EC traits increased significantly (P < 0.001) when cows were subclinically or clinically infected. A simple threshold test and discriminant function analysis was used to validate the ability of the EC traits to distinguish between cows in different health groups. Traits reflecting the level rather than variation of EC, and in particular the IQR, performed best to classify cows correctly. By using this trait, 80.6% of clinical and 45.0% of subclinical cases were classified correctly. Of the cows classified as healthy, 74.8% were classified correctly. However, some extra information about udder health status was obtained when a combination of EC traits was used. PMID:15259246

  1. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 ?g tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 ?g disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ? 256 ?g/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 ?g disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ? 256 ?g/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 ?g/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. PMID:24461550

  2. [Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis--a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgoci, G; Galbenu, P; Anastasatu, O; Nichita, E; Ene, V

    1997-01-01

    A new case of alveolar microlithiasis is reported, demanding for the diagnosis besides the radio-clinical investigations, complete respiratory function tests, also the pathologic proof. Authors recall the diagnostic approach and our present ignorance of the pathogenesis of this curious entity; no valid therapy is presently able to check the relentless course toward progressive respiratory failure. PMID:9654968

  3. Cost of Mastitis in Scottish Dairy Herds with Low and High Subclinical Mastitis Problems

    OpenAIRE

    YALIN, Cengiz

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of mastitis and the contribution of each cost component of mastitis to the total mastitis induced cost in herds with low and high levels of subclinical mastitis under Scottish field conditions. It was estimated that mastitis cost 140 per cow/year to the average Scottish dairy farmer in 1996. However, this figure was as low as 69 per cow/year in herds with lower levels of subclinical mastitis, and as high as 228 cow/year in herds with high s...

  4. Cost of Mastitis in Scottish Dairy Herds with Low and High Subclinical Mastitis Problems

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Cengiz

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of mastitis and the contribution of each cost component of mastitis to the total mastitis induced cost in herds with low and high levels of subclinical mastitis under Scottish field conditions. It was estimated that mastitis cost £140 per cow/year to the average Scottish dairy farmer in 1996. However, this figure was as low as £69 per cow/year in herds with lower levels of subclinical mastitis, and as high as £228 cow/year in herds with high s...

  5. Application of the support vector machine to predict subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadova, Nazira; Keskin, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  6. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-01-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve....... Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the...... (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single...

  7. Dentine in a capsule: Clinical case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Kenchappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodentine TM , a calcium silicate based material has been popular now and can be used as an alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA due to superior physical and biologic properties. It has been known by several terms as Biodentine, dentin substitute, and RD 94. It has varied clinical applications such as apexification, apexogenesis, pulpotomy, internal resorption, root perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping procedure, and dentin replacement. This article describes the clinical case reports using Biodentine in apexification, apexogenesis, pulpotomy, and root perforation repair.

  8. Dentine in a capsule: clinical case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenchappa, Mallikarjuna; Gupta, Shilpi; Gupta, Puneet; Sharma, Priyamvada

    2015-01-01

    Biodentine TM , a calcium silicate based material has been popular now and can be used as an alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) due to superior physical and biologic properties. It has been known by several terms as Biodentine, dentin substitute, and RD 94. It has varied clinical applications such as apexification, apexogenesis, pulpotomy, internal resorption, root perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping procedure, and dentin replacement. This article describes the clinical case reports using Biodentine in apexification, apexogenesis, pulpotomy, and root perforation repair. PMID:26156282

  9. Graves Disease And Down Sindrome : Clinical Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scrinic Olesea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pacients with Downs syndrome present an increase revalence of autoimune endocrine disorders. We communicate the case of 14 years and 6 months old pacient known with Down syndrome admitted in Endocrinology department with suspicion of hyperthyroidism, the diagnosis being confirmed by hormonal dosage. The particularity of the case consists in: symptomatology onset during puberty, clinical evolution with mild symptoms, without ocular involvement, morphological and functional remission obtained relatively soon after the initiation of antithyroid therapy, lack of posttherapy side effects, favorabile evolution under the block and replace therapy

  10. Silent pituitary adenomas: review and clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Konstantinovna Lipatenkova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Silent, or clinically nonfunctioning adenomas are morphologically heterogeneous group, characterized by positive immunoreactivity forone or more hormones classically secreted by normal pituitary cells but without clinical expression. Although in some occasions enhancedor changed secretory activity can develop over time. According to immunoreactivity they are divided into "silent" gonado-, cortico-,somato -, mammo and thyrotropinomas, oncocytomas, zero-cell tumors. All types of "silent" adenomas have different biologicalactivity, secretory capacity and outcomes in the postoperative period. This series of clinical cases shows more aggressiveness, a higherrisk of relapse for "silent" cortico- and somatotropinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis of residual tissue can be used to identify patientswith high risk of recurrence, to develop optimal treatment and follow-up.

  11. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reactions Clinical Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete GyL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tatooing has been practiced for thousands of years. It has become a common practice for people of Western countries in the last 10-20 years, where approximately 3-5% of the population has at least one tattoo. Various pigmented substances introduced into the skin may cause the occurrence of adverse irritative, immunological, infectious or other reactions of the skin. We present three clinical cases with adverse reactions after tattooing.

  12. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Entwistle Vikki A; Snowdon Claire; Garcia Jo; Knight Rosemary C; Shakur Haleema; Elbourne Diana R; Roberts Ian; Francis David; McDonald Alison M; Grant Adrian M; Campbell Marion K

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, o...

  13. A clinical case treated with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fernando Csar; Jias, Renata Pilli; Cepera, Fernanda; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Sanders, Derek

    2011-01-01

    There are a wide variety of techniques, prescriptions and materials that can be used to correct malocclusions. Esthetic and discrete appliances have gained popularity in recent years and there seems to be a continual search for new materials that can provide similar orthodontic results. This article will describe the relevant aspects of clear aligners and present clinical cases to document some of the applications of Invisalign. PMID:22031989

  14. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Chih-Hsun; Hsu Chih-Wei; Tsao Tang-Yi; Chou Jason

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228

  15. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; stergaard, Sren; Emanuelson, U; Andersson, H; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E

    2010-01-01

    The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, Sim...... predicted was assumed to affect the profitability of withdrawing milk with high SCC and this was investigated by applying high, low or no uncertainty to true SCC. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis was estimated at 8235, assuming that the initial incidence of mastitis could be reduced by 50%. This cost...... corresponded to 5% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was 55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at 278 and 60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a...

  16. Epidemiological Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy cows in Assiut Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Rady

    Full Text Available In this investigation, some epidemiological studies were run on subclinical mastitis for totally 350 dairy cows of different breeds, ages and distributed in different villages in Assiut governorate, Assiut, Egypt, along a whole year (during the period from June 2006 till July 2007 through field screening surveys by using of the California mastitis test (CMT for each quarter milk sample followed by bacteriological examination to identify the major causative agents of intramammary infection (IMI. The dairy cows were differed from the breed point of view as 230 Holstein Friesian breed and 120 native breed. Also, they were differed from the age point of view as a group of 95 cows aged from 2 to 4 years old and another group of 255 cow aged from 5 to 8 years old. All dairy cows were apparently healthy with clinically sound udder secreting apparently normal milk. All the cows lived nearly under the same conditions of breeding from the habitat, hygiene and feeding systems. The obtained results revealed that 67 cows (19.14% had 80 infected quarters (5.71%. It was found that the most frequently major causative agents isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli from the positive CMT samples with prevalence 52.5, 31.25 and 16.25%, respectively. With studying the breed factor, it was found Friesian breed was sensitive towards infection (20.43% at the cow level and 6.09% at the quarter level than of native breed (16.67% at the cow level and 5% at the quarter level. It was also noticed that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in hot weather as during summer (9.14% at the cow level and 2.64% at the quarter level and during spring (4.86% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level was higher than in cold weather as during winter (2% at the cow level and 0.64% at the quarter level and during autumn (3.14% at the cow level and 1.07% at the quarter level. In relation to age susceptibility, 5-8 years old cows (15.43% at the cow level and 4.36% at the quarter level were susceptible than those of 2-4 years (3.71% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level. The degree of quarter attack according to positive CMT was varied from 35 quarters (2.50% showed degree (+++, to 45 ones (3.22% showed degree (++, to 120 ones (8.57% showed degree (+ and the rest (85.71% showed degree (-. The obtained results threw the light on the epidemiology of subclinical mastitis in Assiut villages and provided an importance of the CMT for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis due to it is a reliable, easy, rapid and cheap tool helping in diagnosis and controlling the disease because it directs attention to individual mammary quarter that is secreting milk of high somatic cell content (SCC. Programs for control of subclinical mastitis may be planned around the routine examination of all lactating cows, and consequently early treatment can be applied towards positive cases rapidly for preventing their conversion towards clinical form among dairy cows and for protecting the herd health, milk hygiene and consequently the consumer health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 373-380

  17. Bovine mastitis: frontiers in immunogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow's natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity(+)™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID:25339959

  18. Mastitis granulomatosa idioptica: 10 aos de experiencia en el Centro de Imagenologa del Hospital Clnico de la Universidad de Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tamara, Ramrez P; Alejandra, Lpez P; Patricia, Arancibia H; Carla, Sez T; Lorena, Daz C; Teresa, Taub E; Leonor, Moyano S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis granulomatosa idioptica es una patologa inflamatoria de la mama poco frecuente, de etiologa desconocida. Dado su forma de presentacin clnica e imgenes puede simular tanto patologa infecciosa como neoplsica, por lo que es importante sospecharla con el fin de realizar un diagnstic [...] o adecuado y oportuno. La mayora de los reportes en la literatura sobre esta patologa corresponden a series de pocos casos. En este estudio se realiz un anlisis retrospectivo de los aspectos clnicos, histopatolgicos, ima-genolgicos y de manejo de 36 casos diagnosticados mediante biopsia Core bajo ecografa en el Hospital Clnico de la Universidad de Chile entre los aos 2004 y 2014. En este reporte, al igual que en la literatura, los hallazgos clnicos e imagenolgicos de la mastitis granulomatosa se superponen con los de la patologa maligna e infecciosa. Si bien no observamos hallazgos patognomnicos, existen signos que hacen sospechar esta patologa. En nuestro estudio encontramos que la presentacin clnica ms frecuente fue la masa o ndulo palpable, seguida de fstulas a la piel y engrosamiento cutneo. Imagenolgicamente el hallazgo mamogrfico ms frecuente fue la asimetra y en ecografa fue el rea irregular con extensiones tubulares hipoecognicas. Se revisan adems aspectos histolgicos, fisiopatolgicos y del manejo de esta patologa. Abstract in english Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is an infrequent inflammatory disease of the breast, with etiology still unknown. Clinical presentation and images can simulate both infectious and neoplastic disease so it's important to suspect it to make a proper and timely diagnosis. Most reports in the literatu [...] re on this topic correspond to small case series. This study is a retrospective analysis of the clinical, histopathological and imaging features and its management of 36 cases diagnosed by core biopsy under ultrasound at the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile between 2004 and 2014. In this report, as in the literature, clinical and imaging findings in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis overlap with malignant and infectious diseases. Although we observed no pathognomonic findings, there are signs that make you suspect this condition. In our study we found that the most common clinical presentation was a palpable mass or nodule, followed by cutaneous fistula. Radiologically the most common mammographic finding was lobulated or irregular area and in ultrasound the most frecuent is the distorted breast parenchyma with posterior acoustic shadowing. Histological, pathophysiological and management aspects of this pathology was also reviewed.

  19. California mastitis test in the diagnostic of subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Crislia Rodrigues Mono de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most important Brazilian agroindustrial complex. Moves large sums of money, the dairy industry employs millions of the people, having potential to provide the domestic and foreign markets. Besides surpassing year by year the index production. The quality of milk is increasingly demanded by consumers and there are bonus programs for milk with low somatic cell counts, which reveal, indirectely, the udder sanity. Mastitis, the udder inflamation, is the main factor that substantially compromises the milk quality. Several methods can diagnose the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. One these methods, the California Mastitis Test (CMT has as advantages being practical, low cost and the results are immediately available. The CMT method consists of adding the anionic neutral detergent to a milk sample in order to disrupt milk somatic cell membranes and release nucleic material. The viscousity formed by this reaction allows estimating the number of somatic cells (immunity cells presents in the milk. According to the degree of gelatinization obtained in this reaction, the interpretation of the scores varies from zero, no viscosity, to three crosses, highly viscous. This study was aimed to evaluate the CMT of eight dairy herds of different farms in Sao Paulo state, described by the letters A to H. The scores 1, 2 and 3 were considered positive for subclinical mastitis, while 0 was negative. The results were determined in relative frequency (%. It is evident that the herd D is the most affected by subclinical mastitis, because of the greater number of CMT positive (60%. This may be due to the mismanagement and poor conditions of milking. The properties C, F and G require greater attention, as the result of CMT could corroborate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and infected cows can quickly transmit the infection to the healthy ones. Note that the farms A, B and H are the ones with the largest number of CMT negative, that is, with cows with better conditions of udder sanity. Over all it is found that CMT consists of an effective test for the detection of subclinical mastitis.

  20. Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

  1. Isovaleric acidemia. Clinical presentation of 6 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokatli, A; Co?kun, T; Ozalp, I

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study is reported on the clinical outcome of six patients with isovaleric acidemia (IVA) diagnosed during the last 20 years at the Metabolic Unit of Hacettepe University Children's Hospital. IVA is only one of many inborn errors of metabolism that may have an acute or a late, intermittent presentation. Generally, the diagnosis cannot be made by clinical or routine clinical chemical investigations, although the odor of "sweaty feet" is a presenting symptom. An unusual urinary odor, which was present in all of our patients, should lead to a thorough screening for organic acidemia at any age. Here, we have reported six patients with IVA. Two pairs were siblings. All, except one patient, had positive family history of sibling deaths and all parents were related. In our series, only two patients presented during the neonatal period and both died during the acute crisis. The other four patients presented after the neonatal period and were categorized as having a chronic intermittent form of IVA. Two cases showed normal development despite repeated metabolic decompensations; one patient was diagnosed during the first attack, but he was mentally and motor retarded. The other one died during the metabolic crisis. The presented cases illustrate that IVA can be managed successfully once the diagnosis is made. But lack of early recognition may lead to severe psychomotor retardation or death. PMID:9673537

  2. Effects of environmental modification on mastitis occurrence and hormonal changes in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R.P. Arcaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of evaporative cooling in freestall on mastitis occurrence, milk production, and composition, as well as cortisol, T3 (triiodothyronine, and T4 (thyroxin levels in lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows averaging 70 ± 10 day postpartum were used in four treatments from January to March 2003. The treatments were: Day (cooling from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.; Night (cooling from 7:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.; 24-hour (cooling 24-hour; and Control (no cooling. Wired cup test was used for clinical mastitis diagnosis, and the California Mastitis Test (CMT was used to identify subclinical mastitis. Blood and milk samples were taken weekly for microbiological and hormonal analyses. The cortisol levels were higher than normal values in all treatment groups, suggesting stress conditions, but T3 and T4 levels remained normal in all groups. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis was lower in Day and Night groups than in Control and 24-hour groups. Regarding the microbiological analyses, in all groups the isolation of Corynebacterium sp. from milk samples increased while negative coagulase staphylococci (CNS declined as etiological agents of subclinical mastitis. However, in Day and 24-hour groups, coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS increased mainly Staphylococcus aureus (49.8% and 47.7% respectively. The Night group showed a decrease in subclinical mastitis occurrences. Our data indicate that all animals subjected to treatments presented high levels of cortisol, indicating a stress condition. The Night treatment presented a reduction in microbial isolation, suggesting a reduced susceptibility to mastitis.

  3. Bovine mastitis in the metropolitan area of Curitiba: antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial control of the infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jos Luis, Parada; Dicezar, Gonalves; Vanete Tomaz, Soccol; Marisa, Lima; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A study from cows with mastitis was performed and Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen in 46.4 % among 153 studied strains from 276 milk samples of infected cows. Antibiotic resistance of 71 S. aureus isolates was determined in order to search resistant strains to antibiotics of clinic [...] al interest, as well as to determine their degree of multi-resistance. It was found that 60% of the S. aureus strains presented resistance to ?-lactams, but none to oxacillin, teicoplamin or vancomycin. On the other hand, with the aim of reducing the use of current antibiotics and their associated resistance, a new formulation was introduced. The antimicrobial compounds (P22-P32), demonstrated to be effective in 55% of the 76 mastitis cases studied. The use of P22-P32 reduced the number of somatic cell to less than 300,000 SCC/mL-1 in 75.2 % of milk samples analyzed, normalizing the milk quality, fat and lactose levels and increasing the volume of production in 10.1 %.

  4. The clinical case for proton beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert L; Stafford, Scott L; Petersen, Ivy A; Pulido, Jose S; Clarke, Michelle J; Schild, Steven E; Garces, Yolanda I; Olivier, Kenneth R; Miller, Robert C; Haddock, Michael G; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia N; Arndt, Carola A S; Buskirk, Steven J; Miller, Vickie L; Brent, Christopher R; Kruse, Jon J; Ezzell, Gary A; Herman, Michael G; Gunderson, Leonard L; Erlichman, Charles; Diasio, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. SUMMARY SENTENCE: Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy. PMID:23083010

  5. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foote Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.

  6. Vacinao com Escherichia coli J5 no pr-parto e ocorrncia de mastite e produo de leite de vacas mestias leiteiras / Escherichia coli J5 vaccination during pre-calving and mastitis and milk production of crossbred cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.V., Maia; L.R., Molina; E.J., Facury Filho; R.L., Gonalves; L.P.V., Moreira; A.., Carvalho.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a utilizao da vacina Escherichia coli J5 no perodo pr-parto e a ocorrncia de mastite e de produo de leite. Foram utilizadas 93 vacas, sendo 43 vacinadas e 50 no vacinadas. Para a anlise dos dados de produo e CCS (contagem de clulas somticas), utilizou-se delineamento inteir [...] amente ao acaso em sistemas de parcelas subdivididas. Os dados de CCS e durao de casos clnicos de mastite foram transformados em Log10CCS. Para as mdias de CCS e a durao de casos clnicos, usou-se o teste t. Para comparaes de mdias de recidivas de casos clnicos, usou-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. Para frequncia de microrganismos e de mastite subclnica, usou-se o teste de qui-quadrado. A interao dessas variveis foi analisada pelo teste de McNemar. No houve reduo na prevalncia de infeces por coliformes entre a secagem e o parto nos dois grupos. A durao total dos casos clnicos de mastite em animais que apresentaram mastite clnica foi menor em vacas vacinadas. O nmero de episdios clnicos e a intensidade dos casos clnicos no diferiu entre os grupos. A prevalncia de animais com mastite subclnica no ps-parto e a (CCS) nos 100 primeiros dias de lactao foram mais baixas no grupo de animais vacinados. No foi observada diferena na produo de leite entre os grupos. A vacinao de vacas com E. coli J5 melhora a sade da glndula mamria de vacas leiteiras e, consequentemente, reduz a prevalncia de animais com mastite subclnica no ps-parto, bem como a durao dos casos clnicos de mastite e a CCS nos 100 primeiros dias de lactao. Abstract in english The effect of immunization with Escherichia coli J5 vaccine in the pre-partum on the occurrence of mastitis and milk production in crossbred dairy cows was evaluated. Ninety-three cows were used as follows: forty-three were vaccinated and fifty cows were unvaccinated. For the production analysis, da [...] ta and CCS were used in a completely randomized split-plot system. CCS data and duration of clinical cases of mastitis were transformed into Log10CCS. For the CSS averages and duration of clinical cases we used the t test. For comparisons of means of recurrences of clinical cases we used the Mann-Whitney test. For frequency of subclinical mastitis organisms and we used the chi-square test. The interaction of these variables was analyzed using the McNemar test. There was no reduction in the prevalence of infections caused by coliforms between drying-off and parturition in both groups. The total duration of clinical mastitis in animals with clinical mastitis was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. The number of clinical episodes and intensity of clinical cases did not differ between groups. The prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum and somatic cell count (SCC) in the first 100 days of lactation was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. However, there was no difference in milk production between groups. Vaccination of cows with E. coli J5 improves mammary gland health by reducing the prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum, as well as the duration of the clinical cases of mastitis and SCC in the first 100 days of lactation.

  7. Temporal profile of antimicrobial resistance exhibited by strains of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cases of bovine mastitis for 20 years (1992-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Paula Kowalski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Records of in vitro susceptibility tests performed between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed in order to evaluate the dynamic profiles of possible changes in antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from milk samples of cows with mastitis during two decades. The results of 2,430 isolates tested by disk diffusion technique for susceptibility to oxacillin, penicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, norfloxacin, tetracycline, sulfazotrim, gentamicin, and neomycin were analysed. Comparisons were performed between the percentages of resistance to antimicrobials and their classes and also between the decades studied. Additionally, the possible tendency or changes in the behaviour of these pathogens against the major drugs used in the last two decades were evaluated using regression analysis. The highest rates of resistance (P<0.0001 were observed for the beta-lactams (34.3%, with exception of cephalexin (6.9%, and for the tetracyclines (28%. Similar resistance rates (7.6% to 15.7% were observed among the other drugs. Regression analysis showed a reduction in resistance to penicillin and ampicillin throughout the period, whilst for oxacillin and neomycin a decrease in the resistance was observed during the first decade, followed by an increase. A trend towards decreased resistance was found for sulfazotrim, whereas for the other antimicrobials no decrease was observed. The results indicated no trend towards increased resistance for most antimicrobials tested. Nevertheless, it is necessary to monitor the resistance patterns of these pathogens in order to save these drugs as a therapeutic reserve

  8. Hubungan antara pH Susu dengan Jumlah Sel Somatik Sebagai Parameter Mastitis Subklinik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sudarwanto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to measure the relationship of the pH value to the somatic cell count as a parameter of sub clinical mastitis detection. Two hundreds quarter milk samples were used in this research and the test (the pH value, IPB-1 mastitis test and Breed method was done in parallel way. The results showed that 152 samples from 200 samples (76% tested with Breed method came from the herds which suffered from sub-clinical mastitis and with IPB-1 test showed that 145 (72.5% of the samples had positive reaction. Using pH meter, it showed that 44 samples (22 % had pH > 6.75, presumed suffered from sub-clinical mastitis and 2 samples (1% showed pH < 6.30 (6.25 and 6.28. At the same time, these two samples showed a negative reaction with IPB-1 test and had somatic cell count of 360,000/ml and 280,000/ml, each. It also showed that there was a close relationship between pH value and IPB-1 test. The conclusion of this research was that the measurement of pH value was not a sensitive method for detecting sub-clinical mastitis.

  9. Multiple malignant tumors a clinical case

    OpenAIRE

    Daciana N. Chiril?; C?t?lina I. Bung?rdean; Tudor R. Pop; ?tefan C. Vesa; Nicolae A. Constantea

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We present a clinical case of an old woman who suffered at different ages surgical excisions for three different primarymalignant tumors. The patient is now 86 years old. She was diagnosed at the age of 35 with a malignant tumor of the corpus uteri, and thenwhen she was 78 with a basocellular carcinoma of the nose skin and at 81 she was diagnosed with an ascendant large bowel adenocarcinoma.Despite the occurrence of three different tumors she is alive five years later and cancer-fr...

  10. Evaluation and Treatment of Surgical Management of Silicone Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Scott; Lim, Alan A.

    2012-01-01

    Injected liquid silicone continues to be employed by unscrupulous practitioners in many parts of the world for the purpose of breast augmentation. Complications vary; however, inflammation, foreign body reaction, and granuloma formation often lead to painful and disfigured breasts. Furthermore, migrations of silicone to remote tissues cause additional problems. We present a review of cases and propose an updated algorithm for the diagnosis and management silicone mastitis. We describe two rep...

  11. Evaluation and treatment of surgical management of silicone mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Liu; Lim, Alan A.

    2012-01-01

    Injected liquid silicone continues to be employed by unscrupulous practitioners in many parts of the world for the purpose of breast augmentation. Complications vary; however, inflammation, foreign body reaction, and granuloma formation often lead to painful and disfigured breasts. Furthermore, migrations of silicone to remote tissues cause additional problems. We present a review of cases and propose an updated algorithm for the diagnosis and management silicone mastitis. We describe two rep...

  12. SLAP lesions: Clinical experience of 63 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Jimnez-Martn; FJ, Santos-Yubero; M, Zurera-Carmona; FJ, Najarro-Cid; FJ, Chaqus-Asensi; S, Prez-Hidalgo.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Superior Labrum Anterior and Posterior injuries or SLAP injuries have a frequency of 3.9% to 12%, and up to 35% in contact sportsmen. Our purpose is to check this pathology in our centre and to value clinical and working final results after its treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observa [...] tional, descriptive and retrospective study of 63 patients. Medium age, sex, laterality, profession, type of SLAP, associated injuries, surgical techniques, complications, and Rowe, Constant and UCLA tests among other data, are analysed. RESULTS: 89% men, 11% women. Median age 45.3 9.8 years. Right shoulders: 68%; left 32%. Intra-operative data: predominant SLAP type was type II (59.5%). We achieved subacromial decompression in 43.5% of cases. Rowe's test: 84.5 18.3 points; Constant's test 72 20.4 points; UCLA test: 29.5 9.1 points. CONCLUSION: SLAP injuries constitute an important reason for shoulder pain in the labour world, although it is probably unsuspected. Treatment by means of shoulder arthroscopy with bioabsorbable bioknotless anchors is successful in many cases in allowing patients to show clinical improvement and return to work. Other concomitant injuries to SLAP must be investigated to optimise the results of surgical treatment.

  13. Comparison of α1-Antitrypsin, α1-Acid Glycoprotein, Fibrinogen and NOx as Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Anirban; Guha, Ruby; Gera, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis set apart as clinical and sub clinical is a disease complex of dairy cattle, with sub clinical being the most important economically. Of late, laboratories showed interest in developing biochemical markers to diagnose sub clinical mastitis (SCM) in herds. Many workers reported noteworthy alternation of acute phase proteins (APPs) and nitric oxide, (measured as nitrate+nitrite = NOx) in milk due to intra-mammary inflammation. But, the literature on validation of these parameters as in...

  14. Molecular basis of virulence in Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le Marchal, Caroline; Seyffert, Nubia; Jardin, Julien; Hernandez, David; Jan, Gwenal; Rault, Lucie; Azevedo, Vasco; Francois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; van de Guchte, Maarten; Even, Sergine; Berkova, Nadia; Thiry, Richard; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Vautor, Eric

    2011-01-01

    S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection.

  15. Using Clinical Gait Case Studies to Enhance Learning in Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Clinical case studies facilitate the development of clinical reasoning strategies through knowledge and integration of the basic sciences. Case studies have been shown to be more effective in developing problem-solving abilities than the traditional lecture format. To enhance the learning experiences of students in biomechanics, clinical case

  16. Influncia da escala de produo no impacto econmico da mastite em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros / Influence of production scale in the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiana Alves, Demeu; Marcos Aurlio, Lopes; Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhes da, Rocha; Geraldo Mrcio da, Costa; Glauber dos, Santos; Agnelo Franco, Neto.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram analisar e quantificar a influncia da escala de produo no impacto econmico da mastite em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros. A pesquisa foi realizada, por meio de simulao, no sistema computacional CU$TO MASTITE, com rebanhos leiteiros de 50, 100 e 150 vacas em lacta [...] o. Foram consideradas como de preveno as despesas com monitoramento (cultura e antibiograma, CCST e CCSI), pr e ps dipping, vacinao, tratamento de vacas secas e manuteno de ordenhadeira. Como medidas curativas, consideraram-se os tratamentos com casos clnicos, cuja percentagem foi de 7% das vacas em lactao. O impacto da mastite foi estimado como sendo o total de perdas, acrescido das despesas com preveno e tratamento de casos clnicos. O aumento da escala de produo resultou em menor impacto econmico da mastite por vaca em lactao. Quando se analisou o efeito da escala de produo, os maiores responsveis pelo impacto econmico foram, em ordem decrescente, as perdas com descarte de leite, o tratamento curativo de animais acometidos clinicamente e a reduo da produo de leite. As despesas com tratamento preventivo representaram, no mximo, 11,7% do impacto econmico, o que demonstra vantagens em investir nessa prtica, que ir contribuir significativamente para diminuio do impacto econmico da mastite Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to analyze and to quantify the influence of the production scale on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds. The study was conducted through a simulation in the computer system 'CU$TO MASTITE' ('MASTITIS CO$T'), considering dairy cattle with 50; 100 and [...] 150 lactating cows. Monitoring expenses (culture and antibiogram, CCST and CCSI), pre and post dipping, vaccination, treatment of dry cows and milking maintenance, were considered as prevention. The treatments with clinical cases, which had a 7% percentage of lactating cows were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as the total of losses plus expenses with prevention and the treatments of clinical cases. The increase of the production scale resulted in a lower economic impact of mastitis per lactating cow. When the effect of the production scale was analyzed, the losses with milk disposal, curative treatment of clinically affectedanimals and a decrease in milk production were the factors that most affected the economic impact, in a descending order. Expenses with preventive treatment accounted for, at maximum, 11.7% of the economic impact, which demonstrates advantages of investing on that practice because it will contribute significantly for the reduction of the economic impact caused by mastitis

  17. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study with Sequence Variants Identifies Candidate Genes for Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Bendixen, Christian; Thomsen, Bo; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    Six genomic regions affecting clinical mastitis were identified through a GWAS study with imputed BovineHD chip genotype data in the Nordic Holstein cattle population. The association analyses were carried out using a SNP-by-SNP analysis by fitting the regression of allele dosage and a polygenic...... Variant Effect Predictor (VEP) vers. 2.6 using ENSEMBL vers. 67 databases. Candidate polymorphisms affecting clinical mastitis were selected based on their association with the traits and functional annotations. A strong positional candidate gene for mastitis resistance on chromosome-6 is the NPFFR2 which...... Factor Receptor Alpha (LIFR) emerged as a strong candidate gene for mastitis resistance. The LIFR gene is involved in acute phase response and is expressed in saliva and mammary gland....

  19. [Automated detection of estrus and mastitis in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, R M

    2001-02-15

    The development and test of detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows is described in a PhD thesis that was defended in Wageningen on June 5, 2000. These models were based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and cow activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The models alert farmers to cows that need attention, because of possible oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables. A time series model describes the dependence between successive observations. The parameters of the time series models were fitted on-line for each cow after each milking by means of a Kalman filter, a mathematical method to estimate the state of a system on-line. The Kalman filter gives the best estimate of the current state of a system based on all preceding observations. This model was tested for 2 years on two experimental farms, and under field conditions on four farms over several years. A second detection model, for cow milked in an automatic milking system (AMS), was based on a generalization of the first model. Two data sets (one small, one large) were used for testing. The results for oestrus detection were good for both models. The results for mastitis detection were varying (in some cases good, in other cases moderate). Fuzzy logic was used to classify mastitis and oestrus alerts with both detection models, to reduce the number of false positive alerts. Fuzzy logic makes approximate reasoning possible, where statements can be partly true or false. Input for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection models and additional information. The number of false positive alerts decreased considerably, while the number of detected cases remained at the same level. These models make automated detection possible in practice. PMID:11233511

  20. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying an internal quality control strain, i.e. including the same strain of Streptococcus agalactiae in all iterations of the proficiency test, served to gauge the bias caused by the year-to-year variation in the selection of test strains. A total of 73% of all uploaded results over the years were correct, with the internal quality control strain exhibiting a statistically significant ascending trend from 54% correct identifications in 2006 to 91% in 2011 (p-value=0.0082; n=13).Even if specifics were not recorded as regards the laboratory methods employed at the veterinary clinics for identification of mastitis pathogens, the results from this study indicate that the practices application of basic biochemical analyses in this context could be optimized. In addition, dissemination of information on new methods and updated nomenclature appeared to be an area which future efforts with advantage could aim at.

  1. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsmose, S; Kunstmann, L; Rundsten, C F; Krogh, K; Larsen, H K D; Jensen, A B; Aarestrup, F M; Hendriksen, R S

    2013-05-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics. The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying an internal quality control strain, i.e. including the same strain of Streptococcus agalactiae in all iterations of the proficiency test, served to gauge the bias caused by the year-to-year variation in the selection of test strains. A total of 73% of all uploaded results over the years were correct, with the internal quality control strain exhibiting a statistically significant ascending trend from 54% correct identifications in 2006 to 91% in 2011 (p-value=0.0082; n=13). Even if specifics were not recorded as regards the laboratory methods employed at the veterinary clinics for identification of mastitis pathogens, the results from this study indicate that the practices' application of basic biochemical analyses in this context could be optimized. In addition, dissemination of information on new methods and updated nomenclature appeared to be an area which future efforts with advantage could aim at. PMID:23199580

  2. Cystic Neutrophilic Granulomatous Mastitis: Further Characterization of a Distinctive Histopathologic Entity Not Always Demonstrably Attributable to Corynebacterium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Moo, Tracy-Ann; Arleo, Elizabeth K; Cheng, Esther; Antonio, Lilian B; Hoda, Syed A

    2015-10-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is an uncommon condition that typically occurs in parous, reproductive-aged women and can simulate malignancy on the basis of clinical and imaging features. A distinctive histologic pattern termed cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis (CNGM) is seen in some cases of GLM and has been associated with Corynebacterium infection. We sought to further characterize the clinical, imaging, and histopathologic features of CNGM by studying 12 cases and attempted to establish the relationship of this disease with Corynebacterium infection. Patients were women ranging in age from 25 to 49 years (median: 34 y), and all presented with a palpable mass that was painful in half of the cases. In 2 of 9 cases, imaging was highly suspicious for malignancy (BI-RADS 5). CNGM was characterized by lobulocentric granulomas with mixed inflammation and clear vacuoles lined by neutrophils within granulomas. Gram-positive bacilli were identified in 5/12 cases. In 4 patients, the disease process worsened after the diagnostic core biopsy, with the development of a draining sinus in 2 cases. No growth of bacteria was seen in any microbial cultures. No bacterial DNA was identified by 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction for 1 case that showed gram-positive bacilli on histology. Patients were treated with variable combinations of surgery, antibiotics, and steroids. The time to significant resolution of symptoms ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Similar to other forms of GLM, CNGM can mimic malignancy clinically and on imaging. When encountered in a needle core biopsy sample, recognition of the characteristic histologic pattern and its possible association with Corynebacterium infection can help guide treatment. PMID:26200100

  3. Clinical Approach in Orbital Cellulitis Cases: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Atakan Özcan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the etiological factors, diagnosis, follow-up and treatment procedures in cases of orbital cellulitis. Ma te ri al and Met hod: A retrospective review was performed on medical records of patients with orbital cellulitis treated between 2009 and 2011 in our clinic. The patients were studied for age, ophthalmologic examination features, laboratory and radiology results, treatment modalities and the response to these treatments. Re sults: Eleven patients (7 male, 4 female having an average age of 9.7 years (6 months-25 years participated in the study. All patients had eyelid oedema, hyperemia and ocular pain; with chemosis in 3, gaze restriction in 6, relative afferent pupillary defect and proptosis in 4 cases. Orbital cellulitis was observed to occur secondary to paranasal sinusitis in 10 patients (90.9% and 1 patient had only history of superior respiratory tract infection. Sinus infection was localized in ethmoid and maxillary sinuses in all except one case. Laboratory tests showed leukocytosis in 8 patients. Surgical drainage was performed in 7 of 8 patients with abscess formation observed with radiological imaging. The remainder of the patients were followed with sole medical treatment. All patients recovered without any vision loss or life-threatening complication. Dis cus si on: Orbital cellulitis cases must be followed with radiologic imaging for any complication that may occur and patients with abscess should be evaluated for surgical drainage besides antimicrobial treatment.(Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 284-7

  4. EVALUACIN DE LA SENSIBILIDAD Y ESPECIFICIDAD DEL DIAGNSTICO MOLECULAR DEL Staphylococcus aureus EN LECHE DE VACAS AFECTADAS POR MASTITIS / EVALUATION OF SENSITIVITY AN SPECIFICITY OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS FOR Staphylococcus aureus IN MILK OF COWS AFFECTED BY MASTITIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Restrepo; Luisa, Ortiz; Ximena, Cardona; Martha, Olivera.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre los agentes contagiosos que inducen mastitis severas en la vaca, se encuentra el Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), de difcil cura bacteriolgica y alta resistencia antimicrobiana. Debido a que el cultivo microbiolgico de las muestras clnicas, solo ofrece resultado en un 50% de los casos (1 [...] ) el diagnstico por PCR es una alternativa. El objetivo de este estudio fue probar si los cebadores descritos por Cremonesi et al. (2) para el diagnstico de S. aureus, como de buena sensibilidad y especificidad, sirven para ser usados en muestras clnicas. Los resultados demostraron que las siguientes secuencias de nucletidos como cebadores: F 5' AGC TGT GGA TTG TCC TTT GG 3' y R 5' TCG CTC GCT CAC CTT AGA A 3', para obtener un amplificado de 499 pb no sirven en muestras clnicas por su baja especificidad (62,95%). Se requiere buscar nuevos cebadores que amplifiquen regiones del S. aureus que no se compartan con otras bacterias, en especial aquellas que producen mastitis en vacas productoras de leche. Abstract in english Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the infectious agents that induce severe mastitis in cows with a difficult bacteriological cure and high antimicrobial resistance. Because the microbiological culture of clinical samples only shows results in 50% of the cases (Koskinen et al., 2009), diagn [...] ostic through PCR is an alternative. The aim of this study was to prove if the primers described by Cremonesi et al. (2006) for the S. aureus diagnosis, with good sensitivity and specificity, could be used in clinical samples too. The results showed that the following nucleotide sequences can be used as primers: F 5' AGC TGT GGA TTG TCC TTT GG 3' and R 5' TCG CTC GCT CAC CTT AGA A 3' in order to obtain a 499 pb enlargemenr are not useful in clinical samples due their low specificity (62.95%). It is required to search new primers to amplify S. aureus regions not shared with other bacteria, especially those cauding mastitis in dairy cows.

  5. Multiple malignant tumors a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daciana N. Chiril?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We present a clinical case of an old woman who suffered at different ages surgical excisions for three different primarymalignant tumors. The patient is now 86 years old. She was diagnosed at the age of 35 with a malignant tumor of the corpus uteri, and thenwhen she was 78 with a basocellular carcinoma of the nose skin and at 81 she was diagnosed with an ascendant large bowel adenocarcinoma.Despite the occurrence of three different tumors she is alive five years later and cancer-free, but suffering because of other medical diseasesincluding diabetes, hypertension, myocardial ischemia and migraines. Conclusion: a patient diagnosed with a cancer and who survive from itmust be submitted to periodically medical controls because of the possibility to develop several other cancers. With an increasing survival inpatients after malignant tumors therapy, there is an increased risk to develop other cancers as the patients are getting older.

  6. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B; Jensen, Katrine Fogsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables.

  7. Osteopontin: an early innate immune marker of Escherichia coli mastitis harbors genetic polymorphisms with possible links with resistance to mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Pierre Jessika

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is the most important disease in dairy cows and it causes significant lost of profit to producers. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis. The progeny of dairy cows would benefit from receiving favourable alleles that support greater resistance to infection, thus reducing antibiotic use. This study aims to identify a key gene in the innate immune response to mastitis, led us to evaluate its genetic association with somatic cell score (SCS, which is an indicator of clinical mastitis, and to evaluate its impact on other traits related to milk production. Results The osteopontin transcript (SPP1 was identified in the somatic cells from cows experimentally infected with Escherichia coli. By selecting bulls with extreme estimated breeding values (EBVs for SCS, which is an indicator of mammary gland health, four DNA polymorphisms in the SPP1 genomic sequence were found. Statistical analysis revealed that the SNP SPP1c.-1301G>A has an impact on EBV for SCS (P SPP1c.-1251C>T, SPP1c.-430G>A, and SPP1c.*40A>C have an impact on SCS whereas SPP1c.-1301G>A has an effect on the EBVs for milk yield (second and third lactations, fat and protein percentages (all three lactations. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences between haplotype groups at a comparison-wise level with sire EBVS for SCS for the first (P = 0.012, second (P P Conclusion This study reports the link between DNA polymorphisms of SPP1, the number of milk immune cells and, potentially, the susceptibility to mastitis. These SNPs were identified by in silico search to be located in transcription factor recognition sites which factors are presumably involved in the Th1 immune response and in the Th2 regulation pathway. Indeed, one SNP abolished the SP1 recognition site, whereas another SNP affected the transcription binding factor IKAROS. All together, these findings support the genetic potential of these variants in terms of selection for the improvement of mastitis resistance in dairy cows.

  8. Evaluation and treatment of surgical management of silicone mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injected liquid silicone continues to be employed by unscrupulous practitioners in many parts of the world for the purpose of breast augmentation. Complications vary; however, inflammation, foreign body reaction, and granuloma formation often lead to painful and disfigured breasts. Furthermore, migrations of silicone to remote tissues cause additional problems. We present a review of cases and propose an updated algorithm for the diagnosis and management silicone mastitis. We describe two representative cases of mastitis cause by injected liquid silicone. Patients uniformly developed inflammation and granuloma formation causing painful and disfigured breasts. Each patient required bilateral mastectomy and breast reconstruction. Although injection of liquid silicone has been condemned by the legitimate medical community for the purpose of breast augmentation, it continues to be illicitly performed and there exists a sizable patient population suffering from the complications of this procedure. Accurate identification requires a high index of suspicion in patients presenting with firm and painful breasts. An aggressive management strategy is recommended in the setting of silicone mastitis due to the risk of obscuring malignancy.

  9. EFECTO DE LA MASTITIS SUBCLNICA SOBRE EL RENDIMIENTO EN LA FABRICACIN DEL QUESO COSTEO / THE EFFECT OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS ON COASTAL CHEESE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso, Caldern; Margarita Rosa, Arteaga; Virginia Consuelo, Rodrguez; Germn Javier, Arrieta; Diana Carolina, Bermudez; Viviana Patrcia, Villareal.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La inflamacin de las glndulas mamarias produce un descenso en la sntesis de los diferentes componentes de la leche, como respuesta para neutralizar agentes infecciosos, reparar el epitelio alveolar y retornar a la funcin normal. En la mastitis clnica y subclnica, hay un aumento del nmero de c [...] lulas somticas cuya funcin es fagocitar, lisar a los patgenos, remover los deshechos producidos en el foco de infeccin mediante enzimas bacterianas que se incorporan a la leche reduciendo la vida til de los diferentes derivados. El objetivo de esta investigacin fue evaluar el efecto de la mastitis subclnica sobre el rendimiento del queso costeo. Se realiz un estudio observacional transversal, en una empresa ganadera con dos grupos, seleccionando cinco cuartos con resultados grado 3 del CMT y 5 cuartos con reacciones negativas al CMT. Se minimiz la variabilidad por raza y lactancia. Los anlisis fisicoqumicos se efectuaron por triplicado y se llevaron a cabo, teniendo en cuenta los mtodos referenciados, el RCS se realiz en un contador electrnico de clulas somticas. Los resultados de la calidad fisicoqumica de la leche con y sin mastitis, se compararon por medio de la prueba t-Student y se procesaron en el software SAS 9.0. Los quesos elaborados con leches sin mastitis subclnicas mostraron un 5.8 % de mayor rendimiento sobre los quesos elaborados con leches provenientes de vacas con mastitis subclnica. El rendimiento de la leche en la elaboracin de queso costeo est directamente relacionado con el nmero de clulas somticas. Abstract in english The mammary gland inflammation diminishes the synthesis of different milk compounds as a response to neutralize pathogens, repair the alveolar epithelium and return to normal functioning. In clinical and subclinical mastitis there is a significant increase of somatic cell count whose function is to [...] phagocytose, lyse pathogens, and to remove wastes in the infection focus through bacterial enzymes that are added to milk, reducing the life span of different derivates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical mastitis on coastal cheese production efficiency. A cross sectional observational study was carried out in a cattle enterprise having two groups from which five quarters with California Mastitis Test grade 3 and five quarters with negative California Mastitis Test reaction were selected. The variability by breed and lactation was minimized. The physical and chemical milk analyses were done in triplicate and were carried put considering reference methods. The somatic cells count was measured with an electronic somatic cell counter. The results of the physicochemical quality of the milk with and without mastitis were compared using the t-Student test and were processed using the SAS software 9.0. The cheese made using milk without sub clinic mastitis showed 5.8% better output over the cheese prepared with milk coming from cows with sub clinic mastitis. The efficiency of milk in the production of coastal cheese is directly related with somatic cell counts.

  10. Prevalence of Caprine Subclinical Mastitis in Mymensingh Area, Bangladesh and Characterization of Associated Bacterial Agents and the Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandkar Muhammad Alimul Razi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of caprine subclinical mastitis in Mymensingh area was assessed by California Mastitis Test (CMT. Milk samples were also analyzed for the isolation and identification of bacterial agents that might be associated with caprine subclinical mastitis including their antibiotic sensitivity pattern against commonly used antibiotics. In addition, the influence of certain risk factors such as age of animal, parity, length of lactation period, type of farming system and type of housing floor, on the prevalence of caprine subclinical mastitis was also evaluated. Milk samples were collected from 59 goats (113 udder halves. The overall prevalence of caprine subclinical mastitis as determined by CMT was 18.64%. On an udder half basis the prevalence was 15.04%. Certain risk factors associated with caprine subclinical mastitis were identified. The prevalence was higher in older animals, with greater parity and longer lactation period. The prevalence was also higher in farms where goats were raised under traditional farming system with earthen floors. The predominant bacterial species isolated from milk that were collected from the subclinical mastitis positive cases were Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis, that showed various degrees of sensitivity to the antibiotics used in the study.

  11. Evaluation of Petrifilms(TM) as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, George K; Bundi, Royford M; Vanleeuwen, John; Mulei, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    The study purpose was to validate Petrifilms(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and Petrifilms(TM) (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count -3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and Petrifilm(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (κ) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the Petrifilms(TM) had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. Petrifilms(TM) should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected. PMID:23108587

  12. [Dizziness and syncope : clinical case examples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, A; Sechtem, U

    2014-06-01

    Syncope is defined as a transient, self-limiting loss of consciousness and postural tone due to transient global cerebral hypoperfusion. After syncope the following questions have to be answered: was it a syncopal episode, has the etiological diagnosis been determined, are there data suggestive of a high risk of cardiovascular events or death and what are the therapeutic options? Therefore, a standardized diagnostic work-up is necessary. This diagnostic work-up with differential diagnostic considerations is given for three clinical cases: a 52-year-old man experienced syncope while driving a car and on the morning of the same day syncope had previously occurred while in a standing position. The initial cardiological and neurological evaluation revealed no pathological findings but after implantation of a loop recorder a further syncope with a sinus arrest of 17s occurred 1 year later. The patient received a single chamber pacemaker. The second case is a 79-year-old female with Parkinson's disease for many years and a primary autonomic dysfunction leading to dizziness and syncope due to pronounced blood pressure fluctuations with hypertensive and hypotensive phases. The last patient is a 22-year-old female with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and recurrent syncope. The diagnostic evaluation and treatment proved to be difficult. PMID:24898287

  13. Mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum en una paciente HIV negativa / Mastitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Domingo J., Palmero; Marta G., Ambroggi; Susana E., Poggi.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente HIV negativa de 39 aos con una mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum, sin antecedentes patognicos previos. Fue tratada en base a las pruebas de susceptibilidad a antibiticos y quimioterpicos y a la evidencia emprica citada por la bibliografa, con kanamicina, [...] doxiciclina, ciprofloxacina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se obtuvo la remisin completa de sus lesiones luego de 15 meses de tratamiento. Se comenta la capacidad de producir lesiones de esta micobacteria de crecimiento rpido, su diagnstico y tratamiento. Abstract in english A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sul [...] fametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented.

  14. Mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum en una paciente HIV negativa Mastitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo J. Palmero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente HIV negativa de 39 aos con una mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum, sin antecedentes patognicos previos. Fue tratada en base a las pruebas de susceptibilidad a antibiticos y quimioterpicos y a la evidencia emprica citada por la bibliografa, con kanamicina, doxiciclina, ciprofloxacina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se obtuvo la remisin completa de sus lesiones luego de 15 meses de tratamiento. Se comenta la capacidad de producir lesiones de esta micobacteria de crecimiento rpido, su diagnstico y tratamiento.A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented.

  15. Utilization of zinc methionine supplementation in Friesian cows: somatic cell count in milk and mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two hundreds and forty lactating Friesian cows on the 1st to 8th of lactation and different stages of lactation were used to study some factors affecting on somatic cell count and its effects on milk yield and composition. Also, 12 normal cows, 15 subclinical and 15 clinical mastitis cows were used to study the effect of zinc methionine supplementation on somatic cell count and mastitis. Cows were divided into three similar groups, the first groups was unsupplemented, while the second and third groups were supplemented with 5 and 10 gm zinc methionine / head / day, respectively. Subclinical and clinical mastitis cows were intramammary injected by antibiotic Gentamast (Gentamicin 100 mg) till complete recovery. The obtained results showed that winter season showed significantly (P < 0.05) the highest somatic cell count followed by summer season, while the lowest value was in autumn season. Somatic cell count tended to decrease with the progress of lactation up to the peak period and increased significantly (P < 0.05) thereafter and also with the progress number of lactation. The percentages of normal, subclinical and clinical mastitis cows were 77.71, 15.82 and 6.46%, respectively. Milk yield and composition and its output decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing somatic cell count. Zinc methionine supplementation resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decrease in somatic cell count in milk. Zinc methionine supplementation for subclinical and clinical mastitis cows led to significant decrease (P < 0.05) on somatic cell count, electrical conductivity, recovery time and the cost of therapy compared with unsupplemented group. It could be concluded that increasing somatic cell count decreased milk yield and composition. Zinc methionine supplementation at the level of 5 g per head daily to lactating Friesian cows reduced somatic cell count in milk, recovery time and therapy cost of mastitis. (author)

  16. An outbreak of acute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coliform mastitis is described in a dairy herd from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During a four-month period 14 fatal cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae-related mastitis were observed in a herd of 104 lactating cows. The symptoms included peracute enterotoxemia in which the cows died 6 to 12 h after the detection of mastitis by CMT. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae were also isolated although could not be associated with cases of acute fatal mastitis. Milking practices were also evaluated. The milking machine was being used correctly and adequate precautions for hygiene and pre-milking and post-milking teat dipping were used. The organism was sensitive to gentamicin. Therapy for acute toxic mastitis required early action for the treatment of infections, involving corticosteroids and fluid therapy. The use of a Klebsiella vaccine produced from the microorganisms isolated from the herd, associated with hygiene measures, resulted in the control of the outbreak.

  17. Mammographic and sonographic features of tuberculous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakr, Ayman A. E-mail: fahmi.sakr@link.netaymansakr12345@hotmail.com; Fawzy, Rawya K.; Fadaly, Gylan; Baky, Moustafa Abdel

    2004-07-01

    From December 1999 to April 2001, 10 cases of tuberculous mastitis were presented to the Radiology Unit at the Medical Research Institute of Alexandria University for mammographic and sonographic evaluation. Sixty percent presented with masses, 50% mastalgia, 40% discharge, and 10% complained of skin sinus. In 30% of the patients the complaint was bilateral. All cases underwent full mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) studies, and US-guided fine needle aspiration. Also pathological, bacteriological analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done to all patients to prove the tuberculous nature of their lesions. Thirty percent of the cases had surgical excision on their masses. On mammography 30% were found to have mass lesion mimicking malignant tumors, 40% smooth bordered masses, 40% axillary or intramammary adenopathy, 30% asymmetric density, 30% duct ectasia, 20% with skin thickening and nipple retraction, 20% with macrocalcification, and 10% with skin sinus. On US 60% had hypoechoic masses, 40% focal or sectorial duct ectasia, and 50% axillary adenopathy. History of tuberculosis was found in 30% of the cases. Chest X-ray was positive in 20% and breast magnetic resonance imaging was done to one patient who had skin sinus.

  18. Mammographic and sonographic features of tuberculous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From December 1999 to April 2001, 10 cases of tuberculous mastitis were presented to the Radiology Unit at the Medical Research Institute of Alexandria University for mammographic and sonographic evaluation. Sixty percent presented with masses, 50% mastalgia, 40% discharge, and 10% complained of skin sinus. In 30% of the patients the complaint was bilateral. All cases underwent full mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) studies, and US-guided fine needle aspiration. Also pathological, bacteriological analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done to all patients to prove the tuberculous nature of their lesions. Thirty percent of the cases had surgical excision on their masses. On mammography 30% were found to have mass lesion mimicking malignant tumors, 40% smooth bordered masses, 40% axillary or intramammary adenopathy, 30% asymmetric density, 30% duct ectasia, 20% with skin thickening and nipple retraction, 20% with macrocalcification, and 10% with skin sinus. On US 60% had hypoechoic masses, 40% focal or sectorial duct ectasia, and 50% axillary adenopathy. History of tuberculosis was found in 30% of the cases. Chest X-ray was positive in 20% and breast magnetic resonance imaging was done to one patient who had skin sinus

  19. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lnne; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Rntved, Christine Maria

    2013-01-01

    identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow...... characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a...

  20. Preliminary study of homeopathic treatment of subclinical mastitis evaluated through somatic cells count (SCC) and California mastitis test (CMT) Estudio preliminar del tratamiento homeopático de la mastitis sublínica evaluado mediante recuento de células somáticas (SCC) y California Mastitis Test (CMT) Estudo preliminar do tratamento homeopático da mastite subclínica avaliado por contagem de células somáticas (SCC) e California Mastitis Test (CMT)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Dias Barzon; Franciele de Medeiros; Roberson Eduardo Moraes; Luiz Cláudio Monteiro da Silva; Carlos Massambani; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Zilda Cristiani Gazim

    2008-01-01

    The present paper presents the results of homeopathic treatment of 25 Holstein breed cows aged 3 to 8 years old diagnosed with subclinical mastitis through California Mastitis Test (CMT). Animals were divided into 3 groups according with infection level. A homeopathic complex was developed on the grounds of clinical aspects, including Phosphorus 30x, Phytolacca 30x, Silicea 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x and biotherapic of Staphylococcus aure...

  1. [Neonatal Dengue. Presentation of clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Santacruz, Edith; Lira-Canul, Janeth Jaqueline; Pacheco-Tugores, Fredy; Palma-Chan, Adolfo Gonzalo

    2015-05-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by a flavivirus, with four serotypes, transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In Mexico it is a public health problem, especially in the region of central and southeast of the country. The disease can be asymptomatic or present serious forms and even death. It is confirmed by detection of the NS1 Antigen; IgM antibodies, polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation. The vertical transmission to de newborn has been little studied. 7 cases in neonates from November to December 2011 are reported. All patients were male, obtained by caesarean section between 34 and 40 weeks of gestation, whose mothers were enrolled with fever and symptoms associated with dengue disease and serology positive for dengue. Six with positive AgNS1 and one positive IgM; one mother died. All the newborns had positive serology for dengue, 4 with positive AgNS1 and 3 positive IgM. The clinical features of the newborn ranged from asymptomatic to one serious dengue fever, shock and hemorrhage. The symptomatic 6 attended with thrombocytopenia, changes in temperature and unspecific disturbance. The severity of mothers conditioned disrepair product at birth, but not with subsequent gravity of the new born. Vertical trasmission of dengue should be suspected in risk areas, to maintain vigilance and to give early treatment. Also is neccesary promote the realization of specific diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines to the neonatal period. PMID:26233977

  2. Efeito da suplementao de vitamina A sobre a incidncia de mastite em vacas da raa Holandesa / Effect of vitamin A on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.J., Paschoal; M.A., Zanetti.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This experiment was designed to evaluate the influence of prepartum vitamin A supplementation on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Forty two cows were randomly distributed into blocks according to the parity and divided in two treatments: control and supplemented with 180,000IU vit.A/day. The [...] supplementation started 30 days before probable parturition date up to parturition. The Tamis test was performed weekly for clinical mastitis detection, and milk samples were collected for somatic cell counts. Vitamin A treatment decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis (P

  3. Tonsillolith: A report of three clinical cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariela Dura Gontijo de, Moura; Davidson Fris, Madureira; Luiz Cludio, Noman-Ferreira; Evandro Neves, Abdo; Evandro Guimares de, Aguiar; Freire, Addah Regina da Silva.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El tonsilolito es una calcificacin distrfica rara que surge como consecuencia de la inflamacin crnica de las amgdalas. Se relatan tres casos asintomticos de tonsilolitos, descubiertos durante el examen radiogrfico de rutina por medio de radiografas panormicas, que mostraron distintos tamao [...] s de imgenes radiopacas, que variaron entre 2 y 5 mm. Los casos I y III presentaron imgenes que no se sobrepusieron a la lnea de la mandbula, lo que condujo a un diagnstico probable de calcificacin de tejido suave. El caso II tena una imagen radiopaca unilateral, con densidad sea, sobreponindose a la lnea de la mandbula, conduciendo a una lesin benigna intra-sea, que fue considerada como el diagnstico diferencial. No se encontraron sntomas en ningn caso. Slo el caso I tena caractersticas clnicas, mostrando unas placas blancas, visibles a travs de la mucosa. Fueron solicitadas tomografas computarizadas de la regin maxilo-facial para averiguar la ubicacin exacta de estas imgenes, ya que la mayor parte de la superposicin de las imgenes radiopacas en la lnea mandibular era muy similar a anormalidades intra-seas. Las tomografas computarizadas mostraron imgenes hiperdensas en las amgdalas palatinas, confirmando el diagnstico de tonsilolitos. Los pacientes estn actualmente en seguimiento. No se requiere tratamiento si no existen sntomas. Concluyendo que los tonsilolitos pueden mostrar imgenes en las radiografas panormicas similares a alteraciones intra-seas. El diagnostico es relativamente fcil cuando la tomografa computarizada es solicitada, a pesar de que las imgenes no son patognomnicas. Abstract in english Tonsillolith is a rare dystrophic calcification as a result of chronic inflammation of the tonsils. Three asymptomatic cases of tonsillolith are reported, incidentally discovered through panoramic radiographs, which showed different sizes of radiopaque images, varying from 2 to 5mm; cases I and III [...] images did not overlap the mandible ramus, which led to a probable diagnosis of soft tissue calcification. Case II had radiopaque unilateral images, with osseous tissue density, overlapping the mandibular ramus, leading to a benign intra-osseous lesion, which was considered as differential diagnosis. No symptoms were reported in any case. Only case I had clinical characteristics, showing highly consistent white plaques partially visible through the mucosa. Computed tomography of the maxillofacial region/head and neck were requested to find out the exact location of these images, since most of the overlapping radiopaque images in the mandibular ramus were very similar to intra-osseous abnormalities. The computed tomography showed hyperdense images in the palatine tonsils, confirming the diagnosis of tonsillolith. The patients are currently under follow-up. No treatment is required if there is no symptom. In conclusion, tonsillolith might show images on panoramic radiographs similar to intra osseous abnormalities. The diagnosis is relatively easy when computed tomography is requested, although the images are not pathognomonic. Therefore, clinicians should consider other pathologies as differential diagnosis.

  4. Outbreak of endemic form of protothecal mastitis on a dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanov Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an outbreak of mastitis in cows resistant to antibiotic treatment on a Holstein-Friesian cattle farm in Vojvodina (Serbia and Montenegro was described. Microbiological examination of 73 milk samples from lactating cows revealed the presence of Prototheca zopfii in 22 samples (30.13%. Identification of the isolates was performed on the basis of growth features, microscopic appearance, assimilation patterns and antimicrobial susceptibility. Protothecal infection of the mammary gland resulted in clinical symptoms of chronic mastitis in 19 animals. Histopathological findings revealed distinct granulomatous inflammations of the mammary gland interstitium.

  5. RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL IN CHIKUNGUNYA ARTHRITIS CASES

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    Mansoor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus is no stranger to the Indian sub- continent. Since its first isolation in Calcutta [1] in 1963, there have been several reports of chikung unya virus infection in different parts of India [2], [3], [4]. The last outbreak of chikungunya virus infection o ccurred in India in 1971. Subsequently there has been no activ e or passive surveillance carried out in the country and therefore, it seemed that the virus h ad disappeared from the subcontinent [5] However, recent reports of large scale outbreaks of fever caused by chikungunya virus infection in several parts of Southern India have confirmed th e re-emergence of this virus. It has been estimated that over 1,80,000 cases have occurred in India since December 2005 [6] Andhra Pradesh (AP was the first state to report this dise ase in December 2005, and one of the worst affected (over 80,000 suspected cases . Over 12% of patients who contract chikungunya virus infection develop chronic joint symptoms [7] . OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of chloroquine in reducing the pain of chikungunya induced arthritis a s compared to paracetamol. METHODOLOGY: A Randomized Clinical Trial was carried out in a c ommunity attached to urban health centre of PESIMSR, Kuppam during August 2006. Among the 132 cases of arthritis, 86 persons were selected based on their availability and consent to participate. They were divided into two randomly assigned groups namely Cat egory1(Chloroquine group and Category2 ( Paracetamol group. Chloroquine tablet -155 mg and Paracetamol tablet - 500 mg were administered as a single dose to the two groups respectively. The groups were followed up for 8 days and the results were analyzed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Analysis was carried out by using S.P.S.S. package. Asymptoic test statistic an d X 2 MH (Chi square test were used to evaluate the effect of the drugs. RESULTS OF THE STUDY: The decrease of pain in chikungunya arthritis cases was significant in the mild and mod erate pain categories with p values of 0.0117 and 0.0129 respectively. Asymptoic test statistic was 1.70 for chloroquine gr oup and ?MH was 2.76 (P value between 0.05 to 0.1.OR= 48.59.Incidence Risk Ratio for chloroquine was 1.52 with CI ; 1.14 1.90.The efficacy of chloroquine in reducing pain i n arthritis was 51.83% ( effect size.The logistic equivalents of odds for chloroquine and par acetamol group were 0.41 and 0.02 respectively in logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Choloroquine is more efficient in reducing the pain of chikungunya arthritis as compar ed to paracetamol in both sexes and in all age groups.

  6. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Radhwane, Saidi; Djamel, Khelef; Rachid, Kaidi.

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the [...] positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%).

  7. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhwane Saidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed ??Mam Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40% was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%, Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%, Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%, S.aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%, and S.aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E.coli (5%.

  8. Infrared thermography of the udder after experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Moritz; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Seemueller, Andrea; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm

    2015-06-01

    The study aimed to use infrared thermography (IRT) to evaluate the changes in udder surface temperature after induction of Escherichia coli mastitis in the right hind quarter. Over a time period of 24?h before to 24?h post-inoculation, thermograms of both hind quarters were taken every 2?h to determine maximum (Tmax) and average (Tavg) temperatures. Differences in both maximum and average temperatures (DTmax and DTavg) were calculated, as well as temperature differences between both hind quarters. All cows developed signs of clinical mastitis with a significant increase in DTmax and DTavg with Tmax at 13?h post-inoculation for the (non-infected) left hind quarters. The results demonstrate that detection of mastitis using IRT is possible if the interval between examinations does not exceed 2?h. PMID:25957921

  9. Mastitis in One Humped She-Camels (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish data on mastitis in she-camels in Jordan. Milk samples were collected from 90 dromedary camels in south province of Jordan. California Mastitis Test (CMT gave results with 70 milk samples; 42 samples (60% showed positive CMT. Infection with some bacterial species was associated with positive CMT. About 21% of the camels revealed clinical signs of mastitis. The highest percentage of bacterial count, which range from 3.0x102 to <3.0x103 cfu mL-1, was founded in the milk samples. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Gentamycin, Ampicillin and Tetracycline were the most effective antimicrobial agents against the bacterial isolates.

  10. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Plant-Derived Diterpenes against Bovine Mastitis Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL−1 against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect, but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis.

  11. Prdidas econmicas ocasionadas por la mastitis bovina en la industria lechera - Economic causalties inflicted by the bovine mastitis in the milk industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedolla, CC;

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo fue hacer una revisin bibliogrfica sobre las prdidas econmicas que ocasiona la mastitis bovina en la industria lechera en el Mundo, en Mxico y Michoacn. La mastitis es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa ms costosa de las vacas lecheras debido a que induce a una disminucin en la produccin del 4 al 30% de leche y baja su calidad, adems de incrementar los costos del cuidado de la salud del hato y un desecho prematuro de animales genticamente mejorados. En el documento, se hace una descripcin de los conceptos concernientes a la mastitis bovina, su clasificacin, caractersticas de la enfermedad tanto en su forma de presentacin clnica y subclnica en el ganado bovino lechero, as mismo se hace referencia a las prdidas econmicas que sta ocasiona tanto en la industria lechera a nivel mundial, como en Mxico y en el Estado deMichoacn; finalmente, se aborda lo relacionado a los costos de prevencin, tratamiento y control de la enfermedad. Se concluye que las prdidas econmicas que ocasiona la mastitis bovina a la industria lechera son considerables, esto en base a diversos estudios reportados por diferentes autores.summaryThe objective of the present paper was to make a revision of literature on the economic causalties that the bovine mastitis in the milk industry in the World inflicts, in Mexico and Michoacan. The mastitis is considered infectious the disease more expensive of the milk cows because it induces to a diminution in the production from the 4 to 30% of low milk and his quality, besides to increase the costs of the care of the health of the cattle ranch and a premature animal remainder genetically improved. In the document, a description of the concepts concerning the bovine mastitis, its classification,characteristics of the disease as much in its form of clinical and subclinical presentation in the milk bovine cattle becomes, also reference to the economic losses that this one causes so much in the milk industry at worldwide level, like in Mexico and the State of Michoacan; finally, the related thing to the costs of prevention, treatment and control of the disease is approached. On the basis of diverse studies reported by different authors concludes that the economic casualties that the bovine mastitis to the milk industry inflicts are considerable.

  12. Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandrasekaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119, Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104 and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA (n=12. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay microdilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64% followed by S. aureus (44.25% and MRSA (5.11%. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23s rRNA (E. coli , 16s-23s rRNA (S. aureus and MRSA (mecA and blaZ could be amplified from 119, 104 and 12 isolates with a percentage positivity of 50.64 (119/235, 89.64 (104/116 and 10.34 (12/116 respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in bovine mastitis pathogens was high. Most MRSA pathogens were multidrug resistant. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were resistant to few antimicrobials.

  13. IgG4-related mastitis, a rare disease, can radiologically and histologically mimic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Rin; Horiguchi, Shin-Ichiro; Yamashita, Toshinari; Kamisawa, Terumi

    2016-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterised by high serum concentrations of IgG4, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, storiform fibrosis and increased IgG4-positive plasma cells in tissues. This systemic disease occurs in various organs metachronously, but IgG4-related mastitis appears extremely rare. We report a case of IgG4-related mastitis, radiologically considered to represent breast cancer mainly composed of intraductal component and requiring histological differentiation from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The breast mass disappeared with steroid therapy. When patients have a breast mass, regardless of the presence or absence of IgG4-RD, IgG4-related mastitis should be considered in addition to breast cancer. If histological findings show dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, IgG4-related mastitis should be suspected in addition to malignant lymphoma, and lack of monoclonality should be confirmed. To avoid unnecessary surgery or chemotherapy, knowledge and accurate diagnosis of the entity of IgG4-related mastitis is necessary. PMID:27009197

  14. Case Finding in the Clinic: Refractive Errors

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    Kovin Naidoo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of refractive errors includes effective screening programmes in the school or community. However, the lack of human and other resources often prevent such programmes from occurring. Therefore, patients with many conditions, both refractive and non-refractive, present at clinics. The separation of these patients into refractive and non-refractive conditions is important in the good organisation of eye care clinics, as members of the eye clinic team can then carry out their different duties more effectively.

  15. Case Finding in the Clinic: Refractive Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Kovin Naidoo; Pirindhavelli Govender

    2002-01-01

    The detection of refractive errors includes effective screening programmes in the school or community. However, the lack of human and other resources often prevent such programmes from occurring. Therefore, patients with many conditions, both refractive and non-refractive, present at clinics. The separation of these patients into refractive and non-refractive conditions is important in the good organisation of eye care clinics, as members of the eye clinic team can then carry out their differ...

  16. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for mastitis resistance on bovine chromosome 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, N F; Sahana, G; Iso-Touru, T; Lund, M S; Andersson-Eklund, L; Viitala, S M; Vrv, S; Viinalass, H; Vilkki, J H

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell score (SCS) were mapped on bovine chromosome 11. The mapping population consisted of 14 grandsire families belonging to three Nordic red cattle breeds: Finnish Ayrshire (FA), Swedish Red and White (SRB) and Danish Red...

  17. Fine Mapping QTL for mastitis resistance on BTA9 in three Nordic red cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, G; Lund, M S; Andersson-Eklund, L; Hastings, N; Fernandez, A; Iso-Touru, T; Thomsen, B; Viitala, S; Srensen, P; Williams, J L; Vilkki, J

    2008-01-01

    A QTL affecting clinical mastitis and/or somatic cell score (SCS) has been reported previously on chromosome 9 from studies in 16 families from the Swedish Red and White (SRB), Finnish Ayrshire (FA) and Danish Red (DR) breeds. In order to refine the QTL location, 67 markers were genotyped over the...

  18. Genome Sequences of Klebsiella variicola Isolates from Dairy Animals with Bovine Mastitis from Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Fraser W; Whitney, Hugh G; Tahlan, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella variicola was recently reported as an emerging and/or previously misidentified species associated with opportunistic infections in humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of K.variicola isolates from two animals with clinical mastitis from a dairy farm in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:26358587

  19. Antimicrobials for mastitis causing pathogens that are refractory to resistance development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococci and streptococci are both human and agricultural pathogens responsible for >50% of clinical mastitis incidents (resulting in losses to the dairy industry greater than $2 billion annually). The rise in bacterial resistance to antibiotics world-wide has precipitated the search for alter...

  20. EFFECT OF MASTITIS AND POSTPARTUM METABOLIC DISEASES ON LACTATION PERSISTENCY OF HOLSTEIN AND JERSEY COWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) and post-partum metabolic disease (PPMD) on persistency of milk yield (P) in Holstein (H) and Jersey (J) cows. Data consisted of daily milk yields and health events for 59 H and 27 J calving between July, 2004 and ...

  1. Prevalence of some mastitis causes in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Al-Juboori1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis, the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67% in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%, Enterobacter spp. (15.00%, C. pyogenes (10.00%, Micrococcus spp. (5.00%, Pasteurells spp. (5.00% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%. Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.

  2. Genome Sequences of Klebsiella variicola Isolates from Dairy Animals with Bovine Mastitis from Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Fraser W.; Whitney, Hugh G.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella variicola was recently reported as an emerging and/or previously misidentified species associated with opportunistic infections in humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of K.variicola isolates from two animals with clinical mastitis from a dairy farm in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:26358587

  3. Genome Sequences of Klebsiella variicola Isolates from Dairy Animals with Bovine Mastitis from Newfoundland, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Fraser W.; Whitney, Hugh G.; Tahlan, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella variicola was recently reported as an emerging and/or previously misidentified species associated with opportunistic infections in humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of K. variicola isolates from two animals with clinical mastitis from a dairy farm in Newfoundland, Canada.

  4. Lupus mastitis - peculiar radiological and pathological features

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Fatani, Mohamed I; Shakour, Bothaina Abdul

    2009-01-01

    Lupus mastitis is a form of lupus profundus that is seen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. It usually presents as a swelling (or swellings) in the breasts, with or without pain. The condition is recurrent and progresses along with the underlying disease, with fat necrosis, calcification, fibrosis, scarring, and breast atrophy. Lupus mastitis is often confused with malignancy and lymphoma and, in our part of the world, with tuberculosis. Confusion is especially likely when it occu...

  5. Experiment on radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis in 78 women are presented. It is shown that the radiotherapy is the method of choice. Application of radiotherapy at different stages of disease promotes either complete resolution of infiltration (1-2 irradiations) or stipulates the decrease in temperature, abatement of pains and improvement of general state (at the presence of purulent fusion of mammary tissue). X-ray therapy of postnatal mastitis has does not affect the lactational function of mammary gland

  6. Cytotoxic Activity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Songlin; Maddox, Carol W.

    2000-01-01

    Secreted toxins play important roles in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. In this study, we examined the presence of secreted cytotoxic factors of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from bovine clinical and subclinical mastitis. A 34- to 36-kDa protein with cell-rounding cytotoxic activity was found in many CoNS strains, especially in Staphylococcus chromogenes strains. The protein caused cell detachment and cell rounding in several cell lines, including HEp-2, Int 407, CHO-K1, a...

  7. Phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of selected resistance genes in gram-positive mastitis pathogens isolated from Wisconsin dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, P L; Oliveira, L; Jin, W; Okwumabua, O

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, few intramammary antimicrobials exist that are approved for treatment of bovine mastitis; thus, ensuring judicious use of these products is a priority. The objectives of this study were to determine phenotypic susceptibility and presence of selected antimicrobial resistance genes from staphylococci, streptococci, and streptococcal-like organisms recovered from cases of clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large Wisconsin farms. Staphylococcus aureus (n=35 from 19 herds), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=51 from 30 herds), Streptococcus spp. (n=78 from 36 herds), and streptococcal-like organisms (n=31 from 19 herds) were used in this study. All Staphylococcus spp. were susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalothin, and the combination of penicillin and novobiocin. Of all staphylococci, only a single Staphylococcus epidermidis exhibited phenotypic resistance to oxacillin. Phenotypic susceptibility to erythromycin was observed in only 8.6 and 15.7% of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, respectively. Approximately 20% of staphylococci and 13 to 22% of streptococci and streptococcal-like organisms exhibited phenotypic resistance to pirlimycin. All Streptococcus spp. exhibited phenotypic susceptibility to ceftiofur, cephalothin, and oxacillin. The proportion of isolates exhibiting phenotypic susceptibility to pirlimycin and sulfadimethoxine differed among Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. All streptococcal-like organisms exhibited phenotypic susceptibility to ceftiofur, cephalothin, oxacillin, penicillin, and the combination of penicillin and novobiocin. Of all organisms tested, 36.9% did not carry any of the resistance genes (ermC, blaZ, tetK, or tetM), 35.4% carried 1 gene, and 27.7% carried multiple genes (usually blaZ in combination with a tet gene). Eighteen (51.4%) Staph. aureus and 12 (48.0%) Staphylococcus chromogenes carried multiple resistance genes. Six (12.2%) Strep. dysgalactiae and no Strep. uberis carried multiple resistance genes. Results indicate that most gram-positive mastitis organisms were susceptible to most antimicrobials used for intramammary administration, but some resistance to drugs used for systemic treatment of mastitis was noted. The presence of selected resistance genes was not proportional to the occurrence of phenotypic resistance. PMID:25912858

  8. Prototheca sp. outbreak of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E O; Carciofi, A C; Melville, P A; Prada, M S; Schalch, U

    1996-08-01

    Prototheca sp., a colourless algae, is quite common in dairy environments, particularly in wet areas contaminated with manure. The main purpose of this paper is to describe an outbreak of clinical bovine mastitis in an 86-cow dairy herd in the State of So Paulo, Brazil. Prototheca sp., an achlorophyllous algae, were isolated on blood agar (incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C) from 11 quarters of seven lactating Holstein cows, and from one quarter of a cow at the end of the dry period. Treatments were applied, but there was only a microbiological cure, not a functional one. Diagnosis of Prototheca sp. in any of the cows in the herd indicates a herd problem. Infected animals usually have markedly reduced milk production and granulomatous changes often occur in the mammary gland. All sources of contact between the teat ends and drainage water or damp areas should be corrected. An all-out effort for strict sanitation, including during milking, should be made so that the teat ends will not become contaminated. PMID:8794693

  9. Lingual Tuberculosis Clinically Resembling as a Neoplasm - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S. Shete

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lingual tuberculosis is a very rare case in theareas where tuberculosis is endemic. There arediagnostic difficulties in patients presentingwith non healing ulcer over the tongue due tovariety of clinical appearances, most of whichmay clinically resemble malignant lingual neo-plasm. Here we report a case of lingual nonhealing ulcer in a 40 years male which was clini-cally diagnosed as malignant ulcer but histopa-thology and ZN staining confirmed the diagno-sis of lingual tuberculosis.

  10. The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Sa Rah; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [CHA University, Bundang CHA Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis.

  11. Occurrence of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Balqees A. Ali

    2012-01-01

    California mastitis tests (CMT) and white side test (WST) were used to determine the occurrence rate of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok province of Iraq. The rate of subclinical mastitis was 40.5% and 37.5% by CMT and WST respectively. The Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolate with 72.38% followed by Klebsiella spp. (29.79%) and Escherichia coli (27.65%). This is the first report on subclinical mastitis repor...

  12. An overview on single nucleotide polymorphism studies in mastitis research

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Muhasin Asaf; Amod Kumar,; Abdul Rahim; Renjith Sebastian; Vysakh Mohan; Prashant Dewangan; Manjit Panigrahi

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland caused by microorganisms as diverse as bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma, yeasts and algae. Mastitis is an economically devastating disease mainly affecting the crossbred cattle in India. Control strategies against mastitis includes antibiotic therapy, vaccination, improvements in dairy cattle husbandry, farm and feeding management etc. but has met with little success.. Mastitis tolerance/susceptibility is difficult to measure directly an...

  13. Mycoplasma bovis infections in Swiss dairy cattle: a clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart H P; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michle

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case-control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One control herd with no history of clinical mycoplasmosis, matched for herd size, was randomly selected within a 10 km range for each case herd. Animal health data, production data, information on milking and feeding-management, housing and presence of potential stress- factors were collected. Composite quarter milk samples were aseptically collected from all lactating cows and 5% of all animals within each herd were sampled by nasal swabs. Organ samples of culled diseased cows were collected when logistically possible. All samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In case herds, incidence risk of pneumonia, arthritis and clinical mastitis prior to the first visit and incidence rates of clinical mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two visits was estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis infection. In case herds, incidence risk of M. bovis mastitis prior to the first visit ranged from 2 to 15%, whereas 2 to 35% of the cows suffered from clinical pneumonia within the 12 months prior to the first herd visit. The incidence rates of mycoplasmal mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two herd visits were low in case herds (0-0.1 per animal year at risk and 0.1-0.6 per animal year at risk, respectively). In the retrospective-case-control study high mean milk production, appropriate stimulation until milk-let-down, fore-stripping, animal movements (cattle shows and trade), presence of stress-factors, and use of a specific brand of milking equipment, were identified as potential herd-level risk factors. The prospective cohort study revealed a decreased incidence of clinical disease within three months and prolonged colonization of the nasal cavity by M. bovis in young stock. PMID:25884203

  14. Proteomic analysis reveals protein expression differences in Escherichia coli strains associated with persistent versus transient mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature, causing an infection that lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli has been shown to cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that allow for...

  15. Brote de mastitis clnica por Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococcus dysgalactiae en cabras en Salta, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.F, Micheloud; V, Neder; F, Nuovo; V.H, Suarez; L, Calvinho.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones mamarias son un problema grave para la produccin lechera en cabras a nivel mundial. Staphylococcus spp. es el patgeno ms prevalente en las infecciones intramamarias de los pequeos rumiantes, sin embargo, es escasa la informacin acerca de mastitis caprinas en LA Argentina. El obj [...] etivo de esta comunicacin es describir un brote de mastitis clnica que afect a 12 de 24 cabras lecheras. Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococus dysgalactiae fueron aislados en forma pura de las muestras de leche. Todos los aislamientos fueron identificados bioqumicamente y sometidos a prueba de sensibilidad antibitica. Abstract in english ntramammary infections are a serious problem for goats milk production worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the most prevalent pathogens responsible for intramammary infection in small ruminants; however, there is only little information about goat mastitis in Argentina. The objective of this communi [...] cation was to describe an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 12 of 24 lactating goats. Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates were identified by biochemical tests and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests.

  16. Clinical Pathologic Conference Case 3: Nodular Fasciitis

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Aparna; Lerman, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Intraoral nodular nodular fasciitis is a rare entity that is important to recognize because it may simulate a malignancy clinically and histologically. The rapid growth and high mitotic index seen in nodular fasciitis may suggest a malignant neoplastic process, but it is generally considered to be a benign reactive proliferation. Recognizing the unique histologic features of nodular fasciitis is important to avoid a possible misdiagnosis as a malignancy, leading to unnecessary further treatment.

  17. Vesical Leiomyoma: Presentation of a clinical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vesical leiomyoma is a tumor of mesenchymal origin, and extremely rare. Most of them are diagnosed casually after the pathologic study of samples collected after surgery. Few cases were found in the reviewed literature, leading us to think of the scarce incidence of this kind of tumors. We present a case treated in our service, of an 18-years-old female patient, assisting to our consultation presenting a polaquiuria, ardor and mictional effort. The complementary exams led to the surgical treatment and follow up of the patient

  18. Mandible osteoradionecrosis: a clinical case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a case report of the mandible osteoradionecrosis with its evolution and treatment, until the patient's cure. It's briefly discussed the treatment used, stressing the dentistry conscientiousness about the careless upon the manipulation of the patients submitted to radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Five Clinical Cases of Necropsobacter rosorum Bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Thean Yen; Ng, Lily Siew Yong; Eng, Li Ching

    2013-01-01

    Five cases of bacteremia with Necropsobacter rosorum are described, originating from intra-abdominal infections or localized soft tissue infections in the pelvic region. N. rosorum is consistently misidentified by commercial identification systems, which may delay recognition of this organism as a human pathogen.

  20. Refractory secondary glaucoma-clinical case

    OpenAIRE

    Barac, IR; Pop, MD; Balt?, F

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and objective:The major objective of treatment in glaucomatous disease is the decrease of intraocular pressure while maintaining the patient's vision and quality of life. Despite therapeutic possibilities, some cases of glaucoma remain refractory to treatment with the maintenance of elevated intraocular pressure and further progression of the disease.

  1. Comparing the effectiveness of a clinical registry and a clinical data warehouse for supporting clinical trial recruitment: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chunhua; Bigger, J Thomas; Busacca, Linda; Wilcox, Adam; Getaneh, Asqual

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a case study comparing the relative efficiency of using a Diabetes Registry or a Clinical Data Warehouse to recruit participants for a diabetes clinical trial, TECOS. The Clinical Data Warehouse generated higher positive predictive accuracy (31% vs. 6.6%) and higher participant recruitment than the Registry (30 vs. 14 participants) in a shorter time period (59 vs. 74 working days). We identify important factors that increase clinical trial recruitment efficiency and lower cost. PMID:21347102

  2. Comparing the Effectiveness of a Clinical Registry and a Clinical Data Warehouse for Supporting Clinical Trial Recruitment: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Chunhua; Bigger, J Thomas; Busacca, Linda; Wilcox, Adam; Getaneh, Asqual

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a case study comparing the relative efficiency of using a Diabetes Registry or a Clinical Data Warehouse to recruit participants for a diabetes clinical trial, TECOS. The Clinical Data Warehouse generated higher positive predictive accuracy (31% vs. 6.6%) and higher participant recruitment than the Registry (30 vs. 14 participants) in a shorter time period (59 vs. 74 working days). We identify important factors that increase clinical trial recruitment efficiency and lower c...

  3. A Case of Sanfillippo's Disease Correlating Clinical and Biochemical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Priyanka; Prasad, Anushre; Shenoy, Vijetha; Hebbar, Shrikiran; Mundkur, Suneel C; Rao, Pragna

    2014-10-01

    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a heterogeneous group of rare inherited disorders caused by deficiency of lysosomal enzyme necessary to break down mucopolysaccharides or glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). We had combined clinical findings and ophthalmological features. Biochemical test for urine glycosaminoglycans was done for confirmation of diagnosis in the patient. The case of Sanfillippo's disease was characterized by delayed development, hyperactivity with aggressive behaviour. Coarse facial feature, hirsutism and sleep disorder. Urine GAG tests for MPS was positive in the case. Based on clinical findings and biochemical tests for MPS, this case was diagnosed as a type III mucopolysaccharidoses. Urinary GAG's electrophoresis is an important screening test for MPS suspected cases. PMID:25298638

  4. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study.

  5. [Paraffinomas: history, clinical features and treatment. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounios-Perchenet, A S; Le Fourn, B; Hepner-Lavergne, D; Pannier, M

    1997-02-01

    One case of paraffinoma is reported on a 60 years old man following injections of paraffin fourty years ago. The authors recalled with this observation history of paraffin, clinical aspect and surgical treatment of the paraffinoma. PMID:9768132

  6. Arch therapy clinical case of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1998 to 2006, the Ministry of Public Health of the Republic of Cuba maintained a balanced collaboration with the Social Security Fund (CCSS) of the Republic of Costa Rica with the objective of providing professional services in radiotherapy. As part of the Cuban mission in the 2003-2005 period was conducted clinic design and implementation of a dynamic rotational technique with electron beams for treatment of a neoplastic lesion from the neuro ectoderm early in the first linear accelerator belonging to the CCSS and installed in Hospital Mexico, San Jose. The objective was to achieve locoregional control of the lesion by treatment Radiant surgical bed in the chest wall. We discuss different options settings for the treatment values arch therapy the best choice taking into account the cylindrical geometry of the treatment area and the superficiality of its location. For the determination of the absolute dose used Khan's recommendations. Treatment planning was done following the methodology suggested by Podgorsak et al. We performed a quality control of patient-specific planning and dosimetry in anthropomorphic dummy radiographic, resulting in isodose distribution of very good uniformity in the area of clinical interest. The electron arch therapy technique proved to be superior to alternative proposals for the treatment of superficial lesions with cylindrical symmetry frankly, with regard to dose homogeneity in the target volume and lower dose in critical organs. (author)

  7. Clinical analysis of 22 cases with Hashimoto's encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan GE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical presentations of Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE, so as to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical features, laboratory findings, imaging profiles, treatment and outcomes of 22 patients with HE who were admitted to our hospital between June 2010 and September 2013. Results Clinical symptoms were mainly acute or subacute cognitive impairment (9 cases, psychiatric symptoms (6 cases, seizures (5 cases, ataxia (5 cases, stroke-like episodes (6 cases, tremor (1 case, myoclonus (2 cases and disturbance of consciousness (3 cases. Marked increase was found in serum anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibody level (19 cases and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG antibody level (20 cases. Twenty-one cases were treated with glucocorticoids, and one patient was treated only with general neurotrophic therapy, such as ganglioside. Except for 4 cases showed bad response to steroids, the rest patients had an obvious improvement. Conclusions Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an encephalopathy with the presence of elevated antithyroid antibodies, and most patients showed good response to steroids. So early diagnosis and treatment is particularly important for improving prognosis. This disease should be considered as an important differential diagnosis for encephalopathy of unknown etiology, and screening for serum antithyroid antibodies should be performed as initial screening test.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.07.008

  8. Disseminated Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infection in a Foal and Associated Mastitis in a Mare

    OpenAIRE

    KOCABIYIK, A. Levent; BYKCANGAZ, Esra; AKKO, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    A systemic infection with Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is described in a 22-day-old female foal for the first time in Turkey. Clinically the foal was in poor condition and had severe pneumonia. Painful swellings of the carpal and tarsal joints were evident. Examination of the dam revealed clinical mastitis. Postmortem histopathological and microbiological examinations of samples from the foal revealed a disseminated infection with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. The causative agent w...

  9. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis; Diagnostic strategy and therapeutic implications in Omani patients

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Al-Jabri; Ritu Lakhtakia; Varna Taranikanti; Adil Al-Jarrah; Sukhpal Sawhney

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign disorder of the breast whose aetiology is controversial, and is often misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as mammary malignancy; as a result, it may be incorrectly treated. Although no standard treatment is available for this chronic disease, surgery with or without corticosteroids has been tried with controversial results. This study discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, recurrence, and follow-u...

  10. Infectious bovine mastitis caused by environmental organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E O; Ribeiro, A R; Watanabe, E T; Melville, P A

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of environmental mastitis in dairy herds and identify the main environmental pathogens, and to evaluate the influence of season, housing and management. A total of 20,310 quarters of 5216 animals from 52 dairy herds in 32 counties was examined. Milk samples were aseptically collected for laboratory examination from mammary glands testing positive to any of the field tests. From these, 736 environmental infections were identified. The most frequently isolated environmental pathogens were algae of the genus Prototheca sp. (41.2%), Streptococcus uberis (21.1%), fungi (19.5%), enterobacteriacea (8.3%) and Nocardia sp. (6.6%). The occurrence of mastitis was not influenced by the herd size, use of dry cow therapy, or post milking teat dipping. A tendency for increased occurrence of environmental mastitis during the months of September to February (hot and wet weather) was observed, suggesting a seasonal influence. PMID:9557128

  11. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections. PMID:26687332

  12. Value of magnetic resonance mammographic at 1.5 T in the differential diagnosis of mastitis versus inflammatory carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The distinction between mastitis and inflammatory breast carcinoma is an important one. Current methods of evaluation including mammography, ultrasound and clinical examination do not enable this distinction. Dynamic magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) is a study with potential in this regard. Material and methods: 12 patients, in whom clinical examination, mammography and ultrasound could not distinguish between both diseases, were reviewed retrospectively by means of MRM using a 1.5 T Siemens Magnetom SP and a circular mamma coil. We used dynamic 3-D gradient echo sequences with a duration of one minute. Results: At present MRM cannot definitely distinguish between mastitis and inflammatory carcinoma, 80% of the inflammatory carcinomas were found to enhance more than 100% in the first minute, compared to 43% for mastitis. No other differences were seen. Conclusion: MRM proved useful in the follow-up of treated mastitis to demonstrate the success of antibiotic treatment of mastitis and to diagnose a histologically unconfirmed inflammatory carcinoma by means of a different follow-up. (orig.)

  13. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study.......Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  14. Clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hartady, Tyagita; Saad, Mohd Zamri; Bejo, Siti Khairani; Salisi, Mohd Shahrom

    2014-01-01

    Clinical human brucellosis is quite rare in Malaysia although seroconverters are relatively more. This report describes a case of clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia. This case involved a 29-year-old research assistant in a veterinary microbiology laboratory. She complained of intermittent fever, anorexia, profuse sweating, malaise, headache, normotensive (110/60 mm Hg), muscle pain, and arthralgia for 3 d. Blood tests against dengue and malaria were negative thus she was prescribed vitami...

  15. Avaliação da efetividade de um programa de controle de mastite bovina em fazendas produtoras de leite B do estado de São Paulo Evaluation of the effectiveness of a mastitis control program in grad B milk farms of the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Laranja

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi correlacionar a adoção ou não de seis práticas de manejo, higiene e terapia que compõem um Programa de Controle de Mastite com os coeficientes indicadores da prevalência e dinâmica de incidência da doença. O estudo foi desenvolvido em 7 fazendas produtoras de leite B no Estado de São Paulo durante um período de 11 meses (Março/91 a Fevereiro/92 envolvendo 1683 vacas. As medidas de controle analisadas foram as seguintes: 1 Tratamento de vacas secas, 2 Tratamento das mastites clínicas, 3 Bom manejo da ordenha, 4 Bom funcionamento do equipamento de ordenha, 5 Descarte/segregação de vacas com mastite crônica, 6 Bom conforto e higiene na área de permanência dos animais. Para fins de avaliação da prevalência e dinâmica da incidência de mastite foram analisados os coeficientes: % DE VACAS CMT ++/+ + + ,% DE NOVAS INFECÇÕES E % DE INFECÇÕES CRÔNICAS. Os resultados demonstraram que o Programa de Controle de Mastite que envolvia as 6 práticas analisadas, conhecido como Programa dos 6 pontos, mostrou-se bastante efetivo no controle da doença.The present work aimed to establish relationships between management practices, hygiene and therapy, that are components of a Mastitis Control Program with indication coefficients of prevalence and incidence of mastitis. Data were collected from seven grade "B" milk producing dairy farms, during eleven months (March/91 to February/92, comprising 1,683 lactating cows. Management, hygiene therapy practices evaluated, that are included in a Mastitis Control Program were: 1 Intramammary antibiotic treatment of all dry cows, 2 Instant treatment of clinical mastitis cases, 3 Proper milking management, with special emphasis on teat dipping after milking, 4 Good working condition of milking equipment, 5 Culling/segregation of cows with chronic mastitis, 6 Good hygiene conditions and confort for the cows in the management area. The coefficient used for mastitis prevalence and incidence evaluation were % of cows scored CMT ++/+ + + ,% of new infections and % of chronic infections. Results clearly suggest that all mastitis control practices were effective. Hence, those farms that adopted control practices, most of them showed lowest infection prevalence coefficient.

  16. Clinical Competence: General Ability or Case-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Paul F.; Splinter, Ted A. W.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Before the 1970s, research into the development of clinical competence was mainly focused on general problem-solving abilities. The scope of research changed when Elstein and colleagues discovered that individual ability to solve clinical problems varies considerably across cases. It was concluded that problem solving abilities are

  17. Barry: A Case Study of Teacher Reflection in Clinical Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, Peter P.; Crehan, E. Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Despite a profusion of recent "Journal of Curriculum and Supervision" articles discussing clinical supervision and reflective practice, no article has grounded these subjects in the observable events--classroom action and conference interaction--common to the clinical supervision approach. This paper presents a case study showing a

  18. Unusual Multiorgan Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Inflammation: Autoimmune Pancreatitis, Mikulicz Syndrome, and IgG4 Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trna, Jan; Kinkor, Zden?k; Novotn, Ivo; Lata, Jan; Kiani?ka, Bohuslav; Hermanov, Markta

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) type 1 is commonly associated with simultaneous involvement of extrapancreatic organs. Sclerosing cholangitis, sialadenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, Sjgren syndrome, and other extrapancreatic lesions are often observed concurrently with AIP. High levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) in the blood serum and affected tissues are typical of this diagnostic entity. We describe a case report of a 58-year-old female with findings of AIP (according to Asian criteria), IgG4-positive mastitis, and histologically verified Mikulicz syndrome. The effect of corticoid therapy supported the diagnosis of AIP and simultaneously led to the eradication of recurrent mastitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concurrent findings of AIP and IgG4 mastitis. Our case report supports the concept of systemic IgG4 syndrome with multisystem involvement. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy can be effective in a high percentage of patients. PMID:24073323

  19. VESTIBULAR NASAL STENOSIS. A clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernndez Rodrguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic vestibular stenosis is a blockage of the nasal vestibule caused by adisruption of the vestibular lining with secondary proliferation of fibrous tissue scar and granulation. It is more common as a result of foreign body reaction or nasal trauma. The lesions usually include the lobby and the anterior inferior turbinate. We report the case of a girl of eleven, with a complete and recurrent stenosis of the right nasal vestibule, and whose history was spent in the incubator at birth and feeding tube during this period with repeated aspirations traumatic nostril.

  20. Economic aspects of mastitis: New developments

    OpenAIRE

    Hogeveen, H.; Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large part of this advice is given around the planning of management to maintain or improve the udder health status of a farm. Mastitis is a costly disease, due to losses (a reduction of output due to masti...