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1

Clinical mastitis in Macedonian dairy herds  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the determination of the occurrence and prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk on three dairy farms. A one year study on a total of 1031 black-white breed cows with a total of 1267 lactations was performed. Each dairy farm implemented a different technology of rearing and was of different herd size (farm A - tie-stalls, 162 cows; farm B - loose-housing system with open shed and deep bedding, 357 dairy cows; and farm C - loosehousing system with enclosed shed, 512 cows. Clinical mastitis in cows was detected by clinical examination of the udder and determination of abnormalities in the milk. To distinguish two consecutive cases of clinical mastitis within the same lactation a time period of nine days was used. Annual prevalence rate of clinical mastitis for the entire population of cows was 34.13% on cow level, and 30.07% on lactation level. There was a high prevalence rate of clinical mastitis in primiparous cows, 21.43%, 40.77% and 12.55%, on farms A, B and C, respectively. Lactation incident risk for cows on farm A was 25.00%, farm B 95.58% and farm C 21.49%. The prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk tended to increase with increasing parity. The annual lactation risk for the entire population of cows was 45.86%. All indicators for the determination of the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy farms, which were observed during the research, showed the greatest values on farm B. Most of the cows manifested one (68.24% or two (18.63% cases of clinical mastitis during lactation. There was a long period in lactation until the appearance of the first case of clinical mastitis (112.21 ± 92.04 days. Generally, clinical mastitis was registered during the whole period of the survey, with some fluctuations between different seasons. The method of GLM (General Linear Model, univariate procedure, was used to analyze associations between the incidence of clinical mastitis and farm management, parity of cows and season of the year. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was performed for analysis of interdependence on variables in the model. There was statistical significance (p<0,001 between the season and incidence of clinical mastitis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31086

Traj?ev M.

2013-01-01

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Granulomatous mastitis. A review of 5 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of 67 cases diagnosed as granulomatous, tuberculous or fungal mastitis revealed 5 cases which were similar, clinically and histopathologically, to the new entity of granulomatous mastitis described by Kessler and Wolloch. The 5 patients were young women of childbearing age, 4 with breast lesions clinically simulating carcinoma of the breast. Histopathological examination showed granulomata and abscess formation confined to the breast lobules. No acid-fast bacilli or fungi were demonstrated. Granulomatous mastitis may be caused by a chemical reaction associated with contraceptive pill therapy, or may have an auto-immune or infective aetiology. PMID:560723

Cohen, C

1977-07-01

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Tuberculous mastitis. A review of 34 cases.  

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During a review of 67 cases of mastitis, 34 were diagnosed as cases of tuberculous mastitis. The majority of the patients with tuberculous mastitis were Black women. The mean age of the patients was 34 years. One patient was lactating and several were of postmenopausal age. All presented with unilateral breast masses, thought to be inflammatory in 10 and neoplastic in 10. In none was tuberculosis suspected clinically. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on the histopathological demonstration of tubercles, caseation and a granulomatous inflammation, with acid-fast bacilli in 5 instances. The differential diagnoses included duct ectasia, a foreign-body giant-cell reaction with fat necrosis, foreign material or an abscess, granulomatous mastitis, fungal mastitis, sarcoidosis and a syphilitic gumma. PMID:888037

Cohen, C

1977-07-01

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Isolation and antibiogram of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli isolates from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis  

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Aim: The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the continuous change in the pattern of drug resistance showed by different mastitogenic organisms, isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using 150 milk samples received from various clinical and subclinical cases, from which the causative organisms were isolated and subjected to in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test.Results: The bacteriological analysis of the samples i...

2013-01-01

5

Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy cows: incidence and costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.

Perez-Cabal, M. A.; Yaici, S.; Alenda, R.

2008-07-01

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Granulomatous mastitis: a report of seven cases  

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The clinical history and histological features of seven cases of granulomatous mastitis are presented. The lesion occurs in young parous women as a tender extra-areolar breast lump. Histologically, non-caseating discrete granulomas are present, confined to breast lobules with, in three cases, coalescence of the granulomas and microabscess formation. Pathogenesis of the changes is discussed. It is thought that granulomatous mastitis is an entity morphologically distinct from duct ectasia/plasm...

Fletcher, A.; Magrath, Im; Riddell, Rh; Talbot, Ic

1982-01-01

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[Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis. PMID:21308207

Takano, Juan; Prialé, Percy

2010-01-01

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Patterns of clinical mastitis manifestations in Danish organic dairy herds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Danish organic dairy production is characterized by a low input of antibiotics for udder treatment and a high input of other mastitis control procedures. A study was conducted in 14 organic dairy herds with the objectives of obtaining a comprehensive description of clinical mastitis cases and identifying characteristic patterns in these results. Clinical signs, inflammatory reactions and microbiological identifications were obtained from 367 cases of clinical mastitis occurring over 18 months. Cow characteristics and preincident values such as milk yield and somatic cell count were obtained for each cow. Signs of previous udder inflammation were present in two-thirds of the clinical mastitis cases. Severe local inflammatory reactions were found in 21% of the cases and some indication of generalized signs such as fever and reduced appetite were found in 35% of the cases. Logistic regression analyses were performed based on the results of an initial (exploratory) multiple correspondence analysis. Coliform mastitis (6% of the cases) was rarely preceded by pathogen isolation or inflammatory reactions in the same quarter. Coliform mastitis cases usually occurred in one quarter only. Escherichia coli infections were typically (truly) acute cases. Bacteriologically negative mastitis (20% of the cases) showed strong similarities with clinical coliform mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus cases (18% of the cases) occurred most frequently in late lactation or around drying-off. Prior isolation of Staph. aureus and slight decreases in milk yield were two factors that interacted but both were strongly and positively related to clinical Staph. aureus. Staph. aureus mastitis typically had a subclinical debut, and increasing degrees and duration of inflammation decreased shedding of this pathogen. Streptococcus dysgalactiae (9% of the cases) mastitis was typically persistent, virulent and manifest in periods of lower cow resistance. More patterns of subclinical and clinical Str. uberis mastitis (23% of the cases) seemed to be present.

Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, Carsten

1997-01-01

9

[Recurrent clinical mastitis in dairy cattle - importance and causes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical mastitis as a frequently recurrent event can cause substantive economic loss on dairy farms. The reason for recurrent mastitis can be either a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland by a mastitis pathogen or a reinfection of a quarter or udder after bacteriological cure. The virulence properties of a mastitis pathogen and the cure odds of an individual cow determine the development of persistent infections. Clinical episodes may alternate with periods without symptoms in the course of persistent infections. Strategies to reduce cases of recurrent mastitis have to include improved treatment concepts and measures to decrease new infection rates. The present literature review summarises the knowledge of definitions, frequencies, causes and effects of recurrent mastitis. PMID:24920089

Grieger, A-S; Zoche-Golob, V; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

2014-06-12

10

Prevalence and antibiogram profile of bacterial Isolates from clinical bovine mastitis  

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This study investigated the current status of clinical mastitis among dairy cattle in and around Bangalore. The prevalence of mastitis was assessed by the results of bacteriological evaluation of milk samples collected from clinical mastitis cases. A total of seventy five bacterial isolates were recovered from sixty clinical cases of mastitis affected cows. The prevalence of major pathogens isolated was twenty four per cent for Staphylococcus aureus twenty per cent for Escherichia coli follow...

Sumathi B.R; Gomes, Veeregowda B. M. And Amitha R.

2008-01-01

11

Fungal mastitis. Case report.  

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Fungal (cryptococcal) mastitis in a young woman seemed to be a systemic manifestation of the infection, since it recurred contralaterally within 4 months. Diagnostic problems are discussed. Only two previous reports of deep mammary mycosis were found. In addition to excision, ketoconazole is recommended to prevent recurrence or serious complications. PMID:3618066

Walia, H S; Abraham, T K; Shaikh, H

1987-02-01

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Isolation and antibiogram of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli isolates from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the continuous change in the pattern of drug resistance showed by different mastitogenic organisms, isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using 150 milk samples received from various clinical and subclinical cases, from which the causative organisms were isolated and subjected to in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test.Results: The bacteriological analysis of the samples indicated the presence of both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms followed by isolation of isolates like Staphylococcus, E. coli, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Klebsiella. The in vitro sensitivity of Staphylococcus, E. coli and Streptococcus isolates revealed that they were more sensitive towards newer antimicrobials like Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin.Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus was found to be maximum followed by Streptococcus and E. coli among the isolated organisms. Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin were found to be most effective against the targeted isolates.

Nihar Nalini Mohanty,

2013-08-01

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Clinical mastitis in ewes; bacteriology, epidemiology and clinical features  

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Abstract Background Clinical mastitis is an important disease in sheep. The objective of this work was to identify causal bacteria and study certain epidemiological and clinical features of clinical mastitis in ewes kept for meat and wool production. Methods The study included 509 ewes with clinical mastitis from 353 flocks located in 14 of the 19 counties in Norway. Clinical examination and collection of udder secretions were carried out by veterinarians. Pulse...

Mørk Tormod; Waage Steinar; Tollersrud Tore; Kvitle Bjørg; Sviland Ståle

2007-01-01

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Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Report  

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Problem statement: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis (GLM) or autoimmune mastitis is a rare and benign disease which, except one case reported in an old man, is usually seen during pregnancy or lactation period. This disease was described for the first time by Kessler. Approach: Our case is a 34 year-old woman who has a child with a history of using OCP that primary complaint was swelling, heat and erythema in the right breast. She was diagnosed with mastitis an...

Mojtaba Varshochi; Mehdi Haghdoost; Omid Mashrabi

2010-01-01

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Mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática: reporte de un caso Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report  

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Full Text Available La mastitis cónica granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en mujeres, preferentemente en edad reproductiva, con características clínicas, mamográficas, ecográficas y citológicas sugestivas de cáncer mamario. Se informa un caso de patología mamaria en paciente mujer de 35 años de edad, portadora de tumoración eritematosa, sensible, localizada en mama izquierda. La lesión fue tratada como "mastitis" con antibióticos y corticoides durante dos semanas. La persistencia de tumoración y sensibilidad, así como los controles mamográficos y ecográficos sugestivos de neoplasia, decidieron la extirpación quirúrgica. El diagnóstico histopatológico fue de mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática.Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis.

Juan Takano

2010-12-01

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Mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática: reporte de un caso / Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La mastitis cónica granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en mujeres, preferentemente en edad reproductiva, con características clínicas, mamográficas, ecográficas y citológicas sugestivas de cáncer mamario. Se informa un caso de patología mamaria en paciente mujer de 35 año [...] s de edad, portadora de tumoración eritematosa, sensible, localizada en mama izquierda. La lesión fue tratada como "mastitis" con antibióticos y corticoides durante dos semanas. La persistencia de tumoración y sensibilidad, así como los controles mamográficos y ecográficos sugestivos de neoplasia, decidieron la extirpación quirúrgica. El diagnóstico histopatológico fue de mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática. Abstract in english Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor [...] localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis.

Takano, Juan; Prialé, Percy.

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Mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática: reporte de un caso / Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La mastitis cónica granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en mujeres, preferentemente en edad reproductiva, con características clínicas, mamográficas, ecográficas y citológicas sugestivas de cáncer mamario. Se informa un caso de patología mamaria en paciente mujer de 35 año [...] s de edad, portadora de tumoración eritematosa, sensible, localizada en mama izquierda. La lesión fue tratada como "mastitis" con antibióticos y corticoides durante dos semanas. La persistencia de tumoración y sensibilidad, así como los controles mamográficos y ecográficos sugestivos de neoplasia, decidieron la extirpación quirúrgica. El diagnóstico histopatológico fue de mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática. Abstract in english Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor [...] localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis.

Takano, Juan; Prialé, Percy.

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Udder quarter risk factors associated with prevalence of bovine clinical mastitis  

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Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out to estimate prevalence of clinical mastitis on udder quarters level and to determinate the quarter risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis during lactation.The individual risk factors included assessments of parity, season of year when case of clinical mastitis was occurred, conformation characteristics of udder quarters and teats and distance from front and rear teat end to the floor. Cows with clinical mastitis were detected by clinical examination of the udder quarters and determination of abnormalities in milk.The quarter level prevalence of clinical mastitis was 15.06% per lactation, out of which 3.32% were front left, 3.10% front right, 4.28% rear left and 4.28% were rear right quarters. The prevalence of udder quarters affected with clinical mastitis tended to increased with increasing the parity, from cows in first to the third parity, and then begins to decline slightly. The rear quarters frequently manifested form of clinical mastitis (49.39% in relation to the front one (33.04%, and in 17.55% of the cases there were affected either, front and rear quarters. In the most cases of clinical mastitis there was affected only one quarter of the mammary gland (74.35%, two quarters in 20.13%, three quarters to 3.61% and four quarters were affected in 1.89% of the cases of clinical mastitis.The method of General Linear Model, unvaried procedure, revealed that prevalence of clinical mastitis on quarter level significantly (p<0.01 differed with the season of year when case of clinical mastitis was occurred and scoring categories for position of rear udder quarters.

Nakov Dimitar

2012-01-01

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Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis  

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Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy contr...

Ricky Jhambh; Umesh Dimri; Vinod Kumar Gupta; Rajesh Rathore

2013-01-01

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Granulomatous mastitis: clinical, pathological features, and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

This clinical study was conducted to present clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of Granulomatous Mastitis (GM) and evaluate the result of surgical and steroid treatment. Sixteen cases diagnosed histologically as GM were reviewed. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation, radiologic imaging, microbiologic, histopathologic assessment, treatment modalities, recurrence, morbidity, and follow-up data were analyzed. Majority of the patients were child bearing age and all of the patients had a history of breast feeding. Radiologic findings were nonspecific. Histopathology showed the characteristic distribution of granulomatous inflammation in all cases. In 12 cases, surgical excision of the lesion with negative margins was performed. Four cases required quadranectomy because of wideness of the disease. Three patients who had local reoccurrence and three resistant patients were treated by oral prednisone after surgical attempt. Complete remission was obtained and no further recurrence was observed in this patients. GM predominantly occurs in premenopausal women and the clinical symptoms might be misjudged as breast cancer. Histopathologic examination remains the gold standard for the diagnosis. Wide excision of the lesions is the recommended therapy and we suggest steroid therapy in resistant or recurrent disease following the idea that the disease has an autoimmune component. PMID:20030652

Ocal, Koray; Dag, Ahmet; Turkmenoglu, Ozgur; Kara, Tuba; Seyit, Hakan; Konca, Kamuran

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Sensor measurements revealed: Predicting the Gram-status of clinical mastitis causal pathogens  

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Automatic milking systems produce mastitis alert lists that report cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). A farmer has to check these listed cows to confirm a CM case and to start an antimicrobial treatment if necessary. In order to make a more informed decision, it would be beneficial to have information about the CM causal pathogen at the same time a cow is listed on the mastitis alert list. Therefore, this study explored whether decision-tree induction was able to predict ...

Kamphuis, C.; Mollenhorst, E.; Hogeveen, H.

2011-01-01

22

Erythema nodosum associated with granulomatous mastitis: report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granulomatous mastitis is a rare breast disease characterized by chronic inflammation. Clinical presentation of granulomatous mastitis usually mimics malignancy or infection. Coincidence of granulomatous mastitis and erythema nodosum is a quite rare feature. In this paper, we aimed to present two young women with granulomatous mastitis accompanied by erythema nodosum and successfully treated with corticosteroids. Granulomatous mastitis should be kept in the mind for differential diagnosis of erythema nodosum. PMID:19701754

Bes, Cemal; Soy, Mehmet; Vardi, Seref; Sengul, Neriman; Yilmaz, Fahri

2010-09-01

23

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis mimicking breast cancer: report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease of unknown aetiology that is frequently mistaken for breast carcinoma both clinically and mammographically. In this paper, the authors report two cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis that occurred in two parous women aged 38 and 45 years. Clinically, both patients presented with a tender palpable lump in the left breast. Mammography showed an poorly-defined mass in both patients with microcalcification in the first case and skin retraction in the second case. Breast lumpectomy was performed in both patients. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed non-caseating granulomas confined to breast lobules. Special staining for fungi and tuberculosis were all negative. Correct diagnosis ofidiopathic granulomatous mastitis requires the exclusion of malignancy, other granulomatous disease and infectious aetiologies. Histopathologic examination remains the gold standard for diagnosis. This disease is rare, and therefore the optimum treatment protocol is still being established. PMID:22931042

Limaiem, F; Korbi, S; Tlili, T; Haddad, I; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S; Gara, F; Mzabi, S

2012-06-01

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis; Clinical presentation, radiological features and treatmant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the clinical characteristic, clinical presentations and radiological features of diopathic granulomatous mastitis, and the best treatment approaches of this clinical entity. Between 1996 and 2003 the files and histopathology reports of 25 patients with granulomatous mastitis at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital Jeddah, Kindom of Saudi Arabia were reviewed. The data were analyzed and a Medline search was carried out from 1970 to 2003 to review relevant cases. The age of patients ranged from 24-66 years and the mean age was 36.6+-9.43 years. All patients were females. The most common clinical presentation was palpable tender mass. The most common mammographic finding was ill-defined mass. However, mixed hypo- and hyper-echogenic lesions with tubular connections were the common ultrasonic findings. Treatment approaches were conservative or surgical excision or steroid. Conservative treatment associated with the higher rate of complications, while treatment with steroid showed complete remission of disease. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, benign breast disease that is usually underestimated or misdiagnosed. The clinical and radiological features resemble those of infectious mastitis or breast carcinoma. Early recognition and initiation of steroid treatment will result in complete remission of the disease and prevent complications. (author)

2004-01-01

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An Unusual Case of Bilateral Granulomatous Mastitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate the exact extension of the disease and to plan the correct treatment. Final diagnosis is histological. We described an unusual case of IGM with bilateral involvement in a patient with history of pacemaker implantation and IGM typical clinical symptoms. Mammography, ultrasound, and MRI examinations were performed to identify the inflammatory disorder and to plan the correct therapy. Imaging features were correlated with final histological diagnosis of IGM.

Pistolese, C. A.; Di Trapano, R.; Girardi, V.; Costanzo, E.; Di Poce, I.; Simonetti, G.

2013-01-01

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An unusual case of bilateral granulomatous mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate the exact extension of the disease and to plan the correct treatment. Final diagnosis is histological. We described an unusual case of IGM with bilateral involvement in a patient with history of pacemaker implantation and IGM typical clinical symptoms. Mammography, ultrasound, and MRI examinations were performed to identify the inflammatory disorder and to plan the correct therapy. Imaging features were correlated with final histological diagnosis of IGM. PMID:23781373

Pistolese, C A; Di Trapano, R; Girardi, V; Costanzo, E; Di Poce, I; Simonetti, G

2013-01-01

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Mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii: relato de um caso / Clinical bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: a case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um caso de mastite clínica causada por Prototheca zopfii em uma vaca de um rebanho leiteiro localizado na Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais foi estudado. O animal apresentou sinais clínicos nos quartos mamárias anteriores e queda acentuada na produção de leite. Após o diagnóstico inicial, o ani [...] mal foi observado durante onze meses, do início da manifestação da doença até 12 dias após o parto. Exames microbiológicos do leite foram realizadas aos 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 e 331 dias após o isolamento inicial, sendo os dois últimos exames realizados 7 e 12 dias após o parto. As amostras de P. zopfii isoladas apresentaram resistência in vitro a: ampicilina, canamicina, cefatoridina, enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, neomicina, oxacilina, penicilina, sulfonamidas e trimetoprim x sulfametoxazol. Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade in vitro das amostras de P. zopfii a um produto natural constituído de extrato de sementes de frutas cítricas, obtido comercialmente. A menor concentração que inibiu totalmente a alga foi 1:500. Recomendou-se um tratamento com a diluição a 1:200 do extrato em solução fisiológica estéril contendo timerosal a 1:30.000 como conservante, em doses diárias de 20ml, por via intramamária. O tratamento foi realizado inicialmente durante sete dias. Após este período houve redução, mas não a completa eliminação dos organismos do leite. Foi, então, recomendado mais um período de 15 dias de tratamento, de modo semelhante ao primeiro. Trinta e nove dias após o diagnóstico inicial não foi mais isolado P. zopfii do leite dos quartos afetados e a produção retornou a níveis semelhantes de antes da infecção. Amostras de leite naturalmente infectadas foram congelados a -20°C. Células viáveis de P. zopfii foram recuperadas de amostras mantidas até 38 dias nestas condições. Abstract in english A clinical case of mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in a cow from a dairy herd located in the region of Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, was studied. The cow showed clinical signs of mastitis in both front mammary quarters and marked reduction on milk production. Following the diagnosis the ani [...] mal was accompanied for 11 months. Milk samples collected at days l, 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 and 331 were cultured. The last two exams were conducted at 7 and 12 days after calving. The P. zopfii strains were resistant in vitro to: ampicillin, kanamycin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, streptomycin, gentamycin, neomycin, oxacillin, penicillin G, sulfonamides and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The strains showed sensitivity in vitro to a natural extract made of citrous seed, commercially available. The smallest concentration that completely inhibited the growth of the organisms was 1:500. The infected glands were treated intrammamary, with an extract preparation of a 1:200 dilution in 0.85%(p/v) NaCl containing 1:30,000 thimerosal as preservative. Doses of 20ml were applied daily, during seven days. After this period, P. zopfii was still isolated from milk samples, although in smaller numbers. The treatment was resumed for a period of 15 days. At day 39 after diagnosis the infected quarters were cultured negative and microbiological exams carried out from day 39 onward resulted negative. The milk production returned to levels as before infection. Naturally infected milk samples were kept frozen (-20°C) and viable P. zopfii were recovered until 38 days under this condition.

Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Veiga, Vânia Maria Oliveira.

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Mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii: relato de um caso Clinical bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: a case study  

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Full Text Available Um caso de mastite clínica causada por Prototheca zopfii em uma vaca de um rebanho leiteiro localizado na Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais foi estudado. O animal apresentou sinais clínicos nos quartos mamárias anteriores e queda acentuada na produção de leite. Após o diagnóstico inicial, o animal foi observado durante onze meses, do início da manifestação da doença até 12 dias após o parto. Exames microbiológicos do leite foram realizadas aos 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 e 331 dias após o isolamento inicial, sendo os dois últimos exames realizados 7 e 12 dias após o parto. As amostras de P. zopfii isoladas apresentaram resistência in vitro a: ampicilina, canamicina, cefatoridina, enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, neomicina, oxacilina, penicilina, sulfonamidas e trimetoprim x sulfametoxazol. Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade in vitro das amostras de P. zopfii a um produto natural constituído de extrato de sementes de frutas cítricas, obtido comercialmente. A menor concentração que inibiu totalmente a alga foi 1:500. Recomendou-se um tratamento com a diluição a 1:200 do extrato em solução fisiológica estéril contendo timerosal a 1:30.000 como conservante, em doses diárias de 20ml, por via intramamária. O tratamento foi realizado inicialmente durante sete dias. Após este período houve redução, mas não a completa eliminação dos organismos do leite. Foi, então, recomendado mais um período de 15 dias de tratamento, de modo semelhante ao primeiro. Trinta e nove dias após o diagnóstico inicial não foi mais isolado P. zopfii do leite dos quartos afetados e a produção retornou a níveis semelhantes de antes da infecção. Amostras de leite naturalmente infectadas foram congelados a -20°C. Células viáveis de P. zopfii foram recuperadas de amostras mantidas até 38 dias nestas condições.A clinical case of mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in a cow from a dairy herd located in the region of Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, was studied. The cow showed clinical signs of mastitis in both front mammary quarters and marked reduction on milk production. Following the diagnosis the animal was accompanied for 11 months. Milk samples collected at days l, 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 and 331 were cultured. The last two exams were conducted at 7 and 12 days after calving. The P. zopfii strains were resistant in vitro to: ampicillin, kanamycin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, streptomycin, gentamycin, neomycin, oxacillin, penicillin G, sulfonamides and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The strains showed sensitivity in vitro to a natural extract made of citrous seed, commercially available. The smallest concentration that completely inhibited the growth of the organisms was 1:500. The infected glands were treated intrammamary, with an extract preparation of a 1:200 dilution in 0.85%(p/v NaCl containing 1:30,000 thimerosal as preservative. Doses of 20ml were applied daily, during seven days. After this period, P. zopfii was still isolated from milk samples, although in smaller numbers. The treatment was resumed for a period of 15 days. At day 39 after diagnosis the infected quarters were cultured negative and microbiological exams carried out from day 39 onward resulted negative. The milk production returned to levels as before infection. Naturally infected milk samples were kept frozen (-20°C and viable P. zopfii were recovered until 38 days under this condition.

Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito

1997-12-01

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Clinical Mastitis and Combined Defensin Polymorphism in Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defensins are particularly active against gram-positive bacteria and fungi but at higher concentrations they are also, capable of destroying gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, enveloped viruses and some protozoons. The aim of this study was to search for associations between the occurrence of clinical mastitis and Combined Defensin Genotypes (CDG and to investigate the possibility of using defensin gene polymorphisms in marker-assisted selection for immunity towards mastitis in dairy cows. This study included such indicators as the number of clinical cases of mastitis acuta and chronica, number of affected udder quarters and duration of the condition in 1,025 cows (Polish Holstein-Friesian breed kept on a farm located in the North-Western region of Poland. The cows were of different ages and in different lactations parities (from 1st to 6th. An analysis of associations between selected CDGs and susceptibility/immunity towards mastitis has showed statistically significant relations with regard to all the indicators under study and CDGs. Moreover, some genotypes have been found to have different effects on chronic and acute infections.

Joanna Szyda

2012-01-01

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The clinical and mammographic features of plasma cell mastitis  

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Objective: To investigate the clinical and mammographic features of plasma cell mastitis. Methods: Twenty-five patients (28 lesions) with histologically confirmed plasma cell mastitis, aged from 26 to 70 years (mean age 41 years), were examined with X-ray mammography. The clinical manifestations and imaging features were retrospectively reviewed. Results: No case was in lactation. The painful irregular masses, ranged from 1.3 to 8cm in size, were found in 22 patients, while 3 patients with acute episode. Recurrent episodes of breast masses were noted in 4 patients. Based on the mammographic appearances, the plasma cell mastitis were classified as the following four types: inflammation-like type (2/28), ductal ectasia type (3/28), focal infiltration type (10/28) and nodular type (13/28). The valuable radiographic signs: (1) An asymmetrically increased density along the lactiferous duct with a flame-like appearance, inhomogeneous low density tubular structures and scattered stick-shape calcifications. (2) Architectural distortion and oil cysts formation in adjacent area, (3) Subareolar ductal ectasia. Conclusions: The clinical and mammographic characteristics of plasma cell mastitis are critical to avoiding unnecessary surgery. Histopathological result is needed for the diagnosis in patients highly suspected of malignancy. (authors)

2007-03-01

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Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay  

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Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No ...

Gianneechini R; Concha C; Rivero R; Delucci I; Moreno, Lo?pez J.

2002-01-01

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Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.  

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The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to ma...

Sargeant, J. M.; Scott, H. M.; Leslie, K. E.; Ireland, M. J.; Bashiri, A.

1998-01-01

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Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis (GLM or autoimmune mastitis is a rare and benign disease which, except one case reported in an old man, is usually seen during pregnancy or lactation period. This disease was described for the first time by Kessler. Approach: Our case is a 34 year-old woman who has a child with a history of using OCP that primary complaint was swelling, heat and erythema in the right breast. She was diagnosed with mastitis and treated with antibiotics for one month, later on she had experienced stiffness in the breast and a mass was also palpable. The patient was performed surgical drainage and treated with wide spectrum antibiotics being diagnosed with abscess. After one month, a solid mass was palpable so, mammography was performed and the mass was surgically resected with a suspicion of tumor. Results: The pathology report revealed granulomatous mastitis with non caseified granuloma. For Anti-TB treatment was started as medication regime and after 40 days fistula with frequent secretions appeared. Antituberculosis medications stopped and other conditions resulting in none caseified granuloma. In microscopic view granulomatous mastitis along with abscess was reported. Corticosteroids were started and the mass became smaller gradually, the fistula also closed and secretions dried out. Conclusion: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis is a benign inflammatory breast disease. Cause of disease is still unknown, but some factors have been suggested such as local autoimmune, reaction to the delivery, previous use of contraceptives and infectious causes. The best treatment proposed is corticosteroid therapy in which the mass dwindle and the fistula is closed and secretions dried. The case is now under treatment with corticosteroids and all her symptoms have improved.

Mojtaba Varshochi

2010-01-01

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Fibrinogen and Ceruloplasmin in Plasma and Milk from Dairy Cows with Subclinical and Clinical Mastitis  

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Full Text Available The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb and Ceruloplasmin (Cp in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0 and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s. The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p<0.01. There was no significant difference in plasma concentration of Cp between healthy and subclinical groups (p>0.05, but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (p<0.05. The concentrations of Fb and Cp in the milk of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (p<0.01. The results indicated that measurement of Fb in plasma and milk and Cp only in milk might be suitable for early diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows.

A. Davasaz Tabrizi

2008-01-01

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An Unusual Case of Bilateral Granulomatous Mastitis  

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate ...

Pistolese, C. A.; Di Trapano, R.; Girardi, V.; Costanzo, E.; Di Poce, I.; Simonetti, G.

2013-01-01

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Prevalence and antibiogram profile of bacterial Isolates from clinical bovine mastitis  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the current status of clinical mastitis among dairy cattle in and around Bangalore. The prevalence of mastitis was assessed by the results of bacteriological evaluation of milk samples collected from clinical mastitis cases. A total of seventy five bacterial isolates were recovered from sixty clinical cases of mastitis affected cows. The prevalence of major pathogens isolated was twenty four per cent for Staphylococcus aureus twenty per cent for Escherichia coli followed by sixteen per cent for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus spp and ten per cent for Klebsiella spp. Antibiogram studies were also performed for these isolates and Gentamicin was found to be the most effective drug. It was concluded that microbiological and antibiogram studies are necessary for treatment and control of the disease. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 237-238

Sumathi B.R

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Granulomatous lobular mastitis.  

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The clinical and pathological features of nine cases of granulomatous mastitis were compared with those of 10 cases of duct ectasia/periductal mastitis (DE/PM), all of which were associated with active granulomatous inflammation. Granulomatous mastitis affects a younger age group, and although there is some overlap with DE/PM, it has distinctive pathological features, particularly a lobule centred distribution, for which the term "granulomatous lobular mastitis" is recommended. There is a str...

Going, J. J.; Anderson, T. J.; Wilkinson, S.; Chetty, U.

1987-01-01

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Effect of clinical mastitis on the lactation curve: a mixed model estimation using daily milk weights.  

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The objective of this study was to estimate the milk production losses associated with clinical mastitis using mixed linear models and correlation structures that have not been available previously. Data used included computer-recorded daily milk yields and detailed and accurate recordings of clinical mastitis cases. Two commercial Holstein dairy farms in New York State participated in the study, one with 650 lactating cows and another that began the study with 830 lactating cows and increased to 1120 cows by the end of the study. Cows on both farms were housed in free stall barns and milked 3 times daily in milking parlors. Electrical conductivity was used as a diagnostic aid for clinical mastitis on both farms. Date of clinical onset was recorded for every episode of clinical mastitis as well as for 8 other diseases defined using standardized case definitions (dystocia, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, and cystic ovarian disease) during the study period of October 1, 1999 to July 31, 2001. The mixed linear model for explaining variation in the outcome variable daily milk yield relative to non-mastitic herdmates found the terms for all 9 diseases studied, including clinical mastitis, significant. The model with an autoregressive correlation structure was preferred based on -2 * log likelihood, Akaike's information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion as well as savings in degrees of freedom. Separate analyses were run for first lactation cows and for second-plus lactation cows because their lactation curves were shaped differently. Adjusting for the effects of the other 8 diseases, milk production loss from clinical mastitis during the whole lactation was estimated as approximately 598 kg for second-plus lactation cows. However, cows that contracted mastitis had a daily production advantage of 2.6 kg over their herdmates until they contracted the disease. When compared with this potentially higher milk production, the total loss from clinical mastitis was estimated as 1181 kg. PMID:15328219

Wilson, D J; González, R N; Hertl, J; Schulte, H F; Bennett, G J; Schukken, Y H; Gröhn, Y T

2004-07-01

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Decision-tree induction to detect clinical mastitis with automatic milking  

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a b s t r a c t This study explored the potential of using decision-tree induction to develop models for the detection of clinical mastitis with automatic milking. Sensor data (including electrical conductivity and colour) of over 711,000 quarter milkings were collected from December 2006 till August 2007 at six Dutch dairy herds milking automatically. Farmer recordings of quarter milkings with visible signs of mastitis were considered as gold standard positive cases (n = 97), quarter milking...

Kamphuis, C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Feelders, A.; Pietersma, D.; Hogeveen, H.

2010-01-01

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis masquerading as carcinoma of the breast: a case report and review of the literature  

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Background Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is an uncommon, benign entity with a diagnosis of exclusion. The typical clinical presentation of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis often mimics infection or malignancy. As a result, histopathological confirmation of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis combined with exclusion of infection, malignancy and other causes of granulomatous disease is absolutely necessary. Case Presentation We present a case of a young woman with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, initially mistaken for mastitis as well as breast carcinoma, and successfully treated with a course of corticosteroids. Conclusion There is no clear clinical consensus regarding the ideal therapeutic management of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Treatment options include expectant management with spontaneous remission, corticosteroid therapy, immunosuppressive agents and extensive surgery for refractory cases.

Tuli, Richard; O'Hara, Brian J; Hines, Janet; Rosenberg, Anne L

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Withdrawal periods and tissue tolerance after intramammary antibiotic treatment of dairy goats with clinical mastitis.  

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The aim of this study was to determine withdrawal periods (WP) and tissue irritation after administration of three intramammary antibiotics [Curaclox LC (Norbrook (ARK AH)], Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough AH) and Rilexine 200 LC [Logos Agvet (Virbac)] in goats with clinical mastitis. Withdrawal periods in goats with clinical mastitis treated with Curaclox LC, were not significantly different from those recommended for use in cows (72 h) with (67 h) or without (48 h) the 24 h mandatory safety margin while Spectrazol caused a significantly longer withdrawal period (122 h) than that recommended for use in cattle with (60 h) and without (36 h) the 24h safety margin. The withdrawal period of clinical mastitis cases treated with Rilexine 200 LC was 48 h compared to the 96 h recommended for use in cows. A linear model of regression with factors influencing the WP in goats with clinical mastitis was as follows: WP = 30.21 + 4.692 (sampling time) + 22.11 (udder pathology) - 13.6 (floccules) - 0.00649 (milk yield). Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) of milk from udder halves with clinical mastitis ranged from 7,053 x 10(3) to 7,948 x 10(3) cells per ml without isolations of bacteria and between 6,476 x 10(3) and 8,479 x 10(3) cells per ml with isolations of bacteria. Most of the variation in SCC could not be explained and the California Milk Cell Test (CMCT) and SCC on their own were not reliable methods for mastitis diagnosis. However, CMCT and SCC were indicators of udder irritation. In goats without clinical mastitis, Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the least tissue irritation followed by Rilexine 200 LC and Curaclox LC. For goats with clinical mastitis, Rilexine 200 LC caused the least irritation, followed by Curaclox LC while Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the most irritation. PMID:18453237

Karzis, J; Donkin, E F; Petzer, I M

2007-12-01

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[Herd-specific estimation of milk yield reduction due to recurrent clinical mastitis].  

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To decide about investments in preventive measures improving udder health it is important that the farmer knows the monetary loss due to mastitis on his specific farm. The Saxon dairy herd improvement association (Sächsischer LandeskontrolIverband e.V., LKV) is developing a computer program called "Daten- und Informationsplattform Tier (DIT)"which determines - among other analyses - the milk loss caused by mastitis for a specific herd based on individual cow's mastitis and daily milk yield data. The present article introduces the linear mixed model which is taken as a basis for calculating the reduction in performance through clinical mastitis. The short and long term decrease in daily milk yield is described by expanding the lactation curve model of Ali and Schaeffer (1987). For falculating the short term drop, the model includes the laps of time in days since the mastitis incident as secon-ddegree polynomial. The coefficients are estimaged specifically for the first respectively every following case of mastitis (class of episode). Classes of episode are also considered calculating the long term decrease by estimating lactation curves without mastitis as well as corresponding to the classes of episode. By integrating the statistic software R (R Development Core Team, 2012) into the processes of the DIT the estimation of the farm specific model parameters is largely automated on the servers of the LKV.Thereby, milk yield can be estimated for every day in milk according to episode number and laps of time since the incident or with no mastitis incident respectively for a particular period of time in a specific dairy herd. The loss resulting from reduced performance due to clinical mastitis is specified by adding up the differences and can serve as a valuable basis for management decisions. PMID:23901581

Zoche-Golob, Veit; Spilke, Joachim

2013-01-01

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Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis  

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Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Somatic Cell Count (SCC and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy control. Antioxidant parameters measured in blood were superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration. Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation (LPO was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA production. Results: Significant (P<0.05 decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentration and an increase in erythrocytic lipid peroxides was observed in cows with clinical mastitis. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a compromise in antioxidant defense of the body in dairy cows with clinical mastitis resulting in oxidative damage, therefore, necessitate the use of antioxidants and other protective compounds along with conventional therapy for mastitis control. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 271-273

Rajesh Rathore

2013-10-01

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Somatic cell count distributions during lactation predict clinical mastitis  

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This research investigated somatic cell count (SCC) records during lactation, with the purpose of identifying distribution characteristics (mean and measures of variation) that were most closely associated with clinical mastitis. Three separate data sets were used, one containing quarter SCC (n = 1444) and two containing cow SCC (n = 933 and 11,825). Clinical mastitis was defined as a binary outcome, present or absent, for each lactation, and SCC were log (base 10) transformed. A generalized ...

Green, M. J.; Green, L. E.; Schukken, Y. H.; Bradley, A. J.; Peeler, E. J.; Barkema, H. W.; Haas, Y.; Collis, V. J.; Medley, G. F.

2004-01-01

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Comparative Efficacy of Different Mastitis Markers for Diagnosis of Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Cows  

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Full Text Available Seven hundred ninety six milk samples from 266 quarters of 69 lactating cows were subjected to microbiological investigations for identification of pathogens. One hundred ninety bacterial isolates were recovered from 89 infected quarters, among these monomicrobial infection was found in 50 (56.2% quarters, whereas, mixed infection was observed in 39 (43.8% quarters. Bacterial isolates identified were Staph. chromogenes (49.47%, Staph. hyicus (21.1%, Staph. epidermidis (11.05%, Str. agalactiae (5.8%, Staph. aureus (4.2%, Staph. intermedius (3.1%, Enterobacter sp. (1.5%, Klebsiella sp., E. coli (1.05%, Micrococcus sp. (1.05% and Serratia marcescens (0.52%. Milk samples from every quarter of each cow were also subjected to 6 mastitis marker tests named Somatic cell count (SCC, California mastitis test (CMT, electrical conductivity (EC by EC-meter as well as by Hand-held mastitis detector, pH detection by impregnated paper strip and also by pH meter. Efficacy of mastitis markers for diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis was determined by comparing results of mastitis marker tests with microbiological findings. Mean value of SSC in milk from healthy quarters was significantly lower (p than that in milk from infected quarters. Significantly higher (p value of SSC was observed in milk samples having coagulase positive staphylococci as compared to that in milk from quarter with coagulase negative pathogens. The mean electrical conductivity (EC in milk samples from infected quarters was significantly higher (P<0.05 than that from healthy quarters. Numbers and percentages of samples showing true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative results with SSC, CMT, EC by EC-meter, EC by hand-held meter, pH by impregnated strips, pH by digital pH-meter tests were evaluated and compared. The sensitivity and specificity of impregnated pH paper strip, CMT, pH-meter test, SCC, electrical conductivity by EC-meter and the same by Hand-held mastitis detector were evaluated The compatibility between the results of SCC, impregnated pH paper strip, CMT, EC-meter, pH-meter, Hand-held mastitis detector and bacteriological culture examination (reference test was found to be 64.4, 63.4, 61.5, 59, 59 and 53 respectively.

Anil Langer

2014-06-01

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A Cross Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Sub Clinical Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in and Aronund Gondar, Northern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on 322 local (n = 57 and crossbred (n = 265 lactating hand milked small holder cows in and around Gondar. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis and the associated risk factors by clinical examination and using california mastitis test. Bacterial culture was also conducted to determine the casual agents of mastitis. The prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis in the study area was 0.93 and 31.67%, respectively with an overall prevalence of 32.6%. Out of 1288 quarters examined 164 were infected while 39 were blind. The number of clinically and sub clinically infected quarters were 7 and 157, respectively. Several pyogenic bacteria have been isolated from cases of sub clinical mastitis during the study period. The major bacteria isolated in this study were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae with a prevalence of 16.5, 15.9 and 14.0%, respectively. Among the risk factors considered, breed, age, parity and stage of lactation have been shown statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in the prevalence of mastitis. Sub clinical mastitis in both breeds has been reported to be higher than clinical mastitis. The odds of occurrence of mastitis were two times more likely in crossbreds compared to local zebu. The present study disclosed that high prevalence of sub clinical mastitis and the occurrence Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp. as dominant bacterial species from mastitic milk of the study area. All the risk factors considered were significant effect on the prevalence of mastitis. Appropriate control and prevention methods should be applied to reduce the prevalence and effect of mastitis in dairy cows.

Nibret Moges

2011-12-01

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a case report of breast abscess.  

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon breast disease often mistaken for breast infection or abscess. We present a case of IGM diagnosed after prolonged ineffective treatment of presumed infectious mastitis with abscess. Once the diagnosis was made with biopsy and further evaluation to exclude other causes of granulomatous disease, sinus tract debridement and closure by secondary intent resulted in resolution of symptoms in our patient. Many cases of IGM require immunosuppression with steroids, methotrexate or extensive surgery. To prevent morbidity, IGM should be considered in the differential diagnosis when presumed infectious mastitis with breast abscess does not respond to usual treatment. PMID:22687677

Olsen, Molly L; Dilaveri, Christina A

2011-01-01

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A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design was used. Women with mastitis (cases, n = 100 were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (emergency departments, breastfeeding clinics and postnatal wards. Breastfeeding women without mastitis (controls, n = 99 were recruited from maternal and child health (community centres and the rooms of a private obstetrician. Women completed a questionnaire and nasal specimens were collected from mother and baby and placed in charcoal transport medium. Women also collected a small sample of milk in a sterile jar. Results There was no difference between nasal carriage of S. aureus in breastfeeding women with mastitis (42/98, 43% and control women (45/98, 46%. However, significantly more infants of mothers with mastitis were nasal carriers of S. aureus (72/88, 82% than controls (52/93, 56%. The association was strong (adjusted OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.30, 8.27 after adjustment for the following confounding factors: income, private health insurance, difficulty with breastfeeding, nipple damage and tight bra. There was also a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis (adjusted OR 9.34, 95%CI 2.99, 29.20. Conclusion We found no association between maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus and mastitis, but nasal carriage in the infant was associated with breast infections. As in other studies of mastitis, we found a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis. Prevention of nipple damage is likely to reduce the incidence of infectious mastitis. Mothers need good advice about optimal attachment of the baby to the breast and access to skilled help in the early postpartum days and weeks.

Garland Suzanne M

2006-10-01

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Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania  

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A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was deter...

2012-01-01

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Implementation of strategies for mastitis control in dairy herds in Macedonia: A case report  

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Full Text Available Mastitis is probably the most common and costly disease in modern dairy cow husbandry. The aim of the present paper was to report the results concerning udder health after implementation of a specific strategy using both field and laboratory methods. During the period June 2010-December 2011 a total of 674 dairy cows from four dairy farms were included in the investigation. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed by detection of signs of inflammation in the udder, while subclinical mastitis was diagnosed at the animal level by an increased Somatic Cell Count (SCC using laboratory tests, and subsequently confirmed at quarter level by California Mastitis Test (CMT.Microbiological analysis of the milk samples was carried out by standard procedures using Gram staining, biochemical tests and automated identification system.The distribution of somatic cell counts on cow level (n=674 was:305 (45.3% with SCC less than 100,000SCC/mL, 236 (35.0% 100,001 - 350,000 SCC/mL, and 133 (18.7% with more than 350,000SCC/mL. From a total of 1684 quarters tested by CMT, 644 quarters (38.2% were positive and 1040 quarters (61.8% were negative. In 60 out of 101 quarters that had a positive CMT result and no current treatment and that were sampled for bacteriology, bacteria could be isolated. Main bacteria identified, were coagulase - negative staphylococci (40.0%, Streptococcus agalactiae was present in 25.0%, Escherichia coli in 16.6%, Proteus spp. in 11.7% and Staphylococcus aureus in 6.7% of the bacteriological positive samples. After introducing specific mastitis-control measures, focusing on milking hygiene, dry-off treatment, and antibiotic treatment of both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis cases, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was reduced from 38.2to 10.8%, while the incidence of clinical mastitis decreased from 21.0% to 4.9%.In conclusion, the implementation of a standard mastitis control plan based on a regular assessment of the somatic cell count can reduce the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in dairy herds.

Atanasov Branko

2012-01-01

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Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dense SNP panel was used to predict the genetic merit of an individual for selection in livestock. The accuracy of genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular the number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip. A total of 648,219 SNPs passed the quality control criteria for genotypes from the high density SNP panel. All the 4,200 individualsâ?? genotypes were imputed to the high density SNP panel using the software Beagle. The associations between the phenotypes and SNPs were estimated by a linear mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis

Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2012-01-01

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The effect of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on the lactation curve for somatic cell count.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from 274 Dutch herds recording clinical mastitis (CM) over an 18-mo period were used to investigate the effect of pathogen-specific CM on the lactation curve for somatic cell count (SCC). Analyzed pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, other streptococci, and the culture-negative samples. The dataset contained 178,754 test-day records on SCC, recorded in 26,411 lactations of 21,525 cows of different parities. In lactations without both clinical and subclinical mastitis, SCC was high shortly after parturition, decreased to a minimum at 50 days in milk (DIM), and increased slowly toward the end of the lactation. Effects of CM on lactation curves for SCC differed among the pathogens isolated. Before a case of clinical E. coli mastitis occurred, SCC was close to the SCC of lactations without both clinical and subclinical mastitis, and after the case of CM had occurred, SCC returned rather quickly to a low level again. Similar curves were found for lactations with cases of CM associated with culture-negative samples. Before a case of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis occurred, average SCC was already high, and it remained high after the occurrence. Effects of CM associated with Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and other streptococci on the lactation curve for SCC were comparable. They showed a continuous increase in SCC until the case of pathogen-specific CM occurred, and afterwards SCC stayed at a higher level. Using SCC test-day records, these typical characteristics of each pathogen may be used to find more effective indicators of CM. PMID:12086069

de Haas, Y; Barkema, H W; Veerkamp, R F

2002-05-01

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Withdrawal periods and tissue tolerance after intramammary antibiotic treatment of dairy goats with clinical mastitis  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine withdrawal periods (WP and tissue irritation after administration of three intramammary antibiotics [Curaclox LC (Norbrook (ARK AH], Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough AH and Rilexine 200 LC [Logos Agvet (Virbac] in goats with clinical mastitis.
Withdrawal periods in goats with clinical mastitis treated with Curaclox LC, were not significantly different from those recommended for use in cows (72 h with (67 h or without (48 h the 24 h mandatory safety margin while Spectrazol caused a significantly longer withdrawal period (122 h than that recommended for use in cattle with (60 h and without (36 h the 24h safety margin. The withdrawal period of clinical mastitis cases treated with Rilexine 200 LC was 48 h compared to the 96 h recommended for use in cows.
A linear model of regression with factors influencing the WP in goats with clinical mastitis was as follows : WP = 30.21 + 4.692 (sampling time + 22.11 (udder pathology - 13.6 (floccules - 0.00649 (milk yield.
Somatic Cell Counts (SCC of milk from udder halves with clinical mastitis ranged from 7 053 x 103 to 7 948 x 103 cells per m? without isolations of bacteria and between 6 476 x 103 and 8 479 x 103 cells per m? with isolations of bacteria. Most of the variation in SCC could not be explained and the California Milk Cell Test (CMCT and SCC on their own were not reliable methods for mastitis diagnosis. However, CMCT and SCC were indicators of udder irritation. In goats without clinical mastitis, Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the least tissue irritation followed by Rilexine 200 LC and Curaclox LC. For goats with clinical mastitis, Rilexine 200 LC caused the least irritation, followed by Curaclox LC while Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the most irritation.

I.M. Petzer

2010-09-01

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Increasing Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci in Bovine Clinical Mastitis  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS and other bacteria for their resistance to antimicrobial agents approved for the control of pathogens involved in clinical bovine mastitis. This descriptive study was done on 106 milk samples obtained from clinical mastitis in dairy cattle husbandry from April 2006 through August 2006 in Kashan, Iran. From the total of 106 milk samples collected from clinical mastitis, 96 (90.6% lead to positive culture. Coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated in 51 out of 96 samples (53.1%, Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 21 out of 96 (21.9%, gram negative bacilli isolated in 14 out of 96 (14.6% and Enterococci isolated in 4 (4.2%. The highest rate of resistant CNS observed to penicillin (56.6% and the highest rate of sensitivity to enrofloxacin 100%, followed by kanamycin, streptomycin and neomycin, 92.2, 82.3 and 82.3%, respectively. The highest rate of resistance S. aureus exhibited to penicillin (66.6%; while the highest rate of sensitivity showed to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxasole (81%, followed by kanamycin and enrofloxacin both at 76.2%. The highest rate of resistance gram negative bacilli exhibited to ampicillin and erythromycin at 71.4%. Their highest rate of sensitivity observed to enrofloxacin (78.6%, followed by kanamycin, (71.4%. In recent years, CNS is emerging as important minor mastitis pathogens and can be the cause of substantial economic losses. The high resistance rate to penicillin and other antibiotics found in this study emphasize the importance of identification of CNS when a bovine clinical mastitis is present.

R. Moniri

2007-01-01

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Clinical and subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania: risk, intervention and knowledge transfer.  

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In a cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI)=11.6-17.3) of cows had developed clinical mastitis during the previous year. The point prevalence of subclinical mastitis, defined as a quarter positive by the California Mastitis Test (CMT) or by bacteriological culture, was 46.2% (95% CI=43.6-48.8) and 24.3% (95% CI=22.2-26.6), respectively. In a longitudinal disease study in Iringa, the incidence of clinical mastitis was 31.7 cases per 100 cow-years. A randomised intervention trial indicated that intramammary antibiotics significantly reduced the proportion of bacteriologically positive quarters in the short-term (14 days post-infusion) but teat dipping had no detectable effect on bacteriological infection and CMT positive quarters. Other risk and protective factors were identified from both the cross-sectional and longitudinal included animals with Boran breeding (odds ratio (OR)=3.40, 95% CI=1.00-11.57, P<0.05 for clinical mastitis, and OR=3.51, 95% CI=1.29-9.55, P<0.01 for a CMT positive quarter), while the practice of residual calf suckling was protective for a bacteriologically positive quarter (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.48-0.81, Pmastitis training course for farmers and extension officers was held, and the knowledge gained and use of different methods of dissemination were assessed over time. In a subsequent randomised controlled trial, there were strong associations between knowledge gained and both the individual question asked and the combination of dissemination methods (village meeting, video and handout) used. This study demonstrated that both clinical and subclinical mastitis is common in smallholder dairying in Tanzania, and that some of the risk and protective factors for mastitis can be addressed by practical management of dairy cows following effective knowledge transfer. PMID:16488030

Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Bell, C E; Swai, E S; Kambarage, D M; Ogden, N H; Bryant, M J; French, N P

2006-04-17

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Mastitis granulomatosa idiopática: Diagnóstico y tratamiento en 14 casos / Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: Report of 14 cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad inflamatoria benigna, infrecuente, de etiología desconocida. Puede simular carcinoma mamario, por lo cual su diagnóstico definitivo es histopatológico. No existe consenso respecto a su tratamiento. Realizamos una caracterización cl [...] ínica de esta patología considerando su forma de presentación, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento con especial énfasis en la efectividad de la corticoterapia. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo realizado mediante protocolo tipo. Se revisaron los registros y fichas clínicas de los pacientes manejados con diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa idiopática en el Hospital Regional Valdivia entre los años 1995-2006. Resultados: La serie corresponde a 14 pacientes de sexo femenino. El promedio de edad fue de 31,6 años. La presentación clínica más frecuente fue absceso mamario en 9/14. Se realizó estudio imagenológico en 11/ 14 casos mediante mamografía en 7/14 y ecotomografía en 10/14. Las muestras para estudio histopatológico fueron obtenidas por biopsia percutánea en 8/14 y quirúrgica en 6/14. Se realizó tratamiento corticoidal con prednisona en 12/14 pacientes logrando buena respuesta en todos los casos. Se presentaron 2 recidivas durante el seguimiento que comprende un promedio de 28 meses. Conclusiones: La presentación clínica de las mastitis fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. La respuesta al tratamiento corticoesteroidal logró el control de la enfermedad en todos los casos. Las reacciones adversas al tratamiento fueron menores y las 2 recidivas fueron de menor magnitud y duración respecto al cuadro inicial Abstract in english Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a benign and uncommon inflammatory disease of the breast, of unknown etiology. It can resemble a carcinoma, therefore the diagnosis is pathological. Aim: To perform a clinical characterization of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and methods [...] : Retrospective review of medical records of 14 female patients aged 21 to 47 years with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, treated in a regional hospital between 1995 and 2006. Results: The most common clinical presentation was a breast abscess in nine patients. A mammography was done in seven patients an breast ultrasound in 10. Samples for pathological studies were obtained percutaneously in eight and surgically in six. Twelve patients were treated with prednisone, with good results in all. In a mean follow up of 28 months, two patients had a relapse. Conclusions: Steroid treatment was effective for the treatment of granulomatous mastitis. The two relapses observed in this series were mild

PÉREZ P, JUAN ANTONIO; BOHLE O, JOHN; SÁNCHEZ C, GONZALO; CARRASCO L, CRISTIAN; MARIÁNGEL P, PABLO.

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Mastitis granulomatosa idiopática: Diagnóstico y tratamiento en 14 casos Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: Report of 14 cases  

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Full Text Available Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad inflamatoria benigna, infrecuente, de etiología desconocida. Puede simular carcinoma mamario, por lo cual su diagnóstico definitivo es histopatológico. No existe consenso respecto a su tratamiento. Realizamos una caracterización clínica de esta patología considerando su forma de presentación, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento con especial énfasis en la efectividad de la corticoterapia. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo realizado mediante protocolo tipo. Se revisaron los registros y fichas clínicas de los pacientes manejados con diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa idiopática en el Hospital Regional Valdivia entre los años 1995-2006. Resultados: La serie corresponde a 14 pacientes de sexo femenino. El promedio de edad fue de 31,6 años. La presentación clínica más frecuente fue absceso mamario en 9/14. Se realizó estudio imagenológico en 11/ 14 casos mediante mamografía en 7/14 y ecotomografía en 10/14. Las muestras para estudio histopatológico fueron obtenidas por biopsia percutánea en 8/14 y quirúrgica en 6/14. Se realizó tratamiento corticoidal con prednisona en 12/14 pacientes logrando buena respuesta en todos los casos. Se presentaron 2 recidivas durante el seguimiento que comprende un promedio de 28 meses. Conclusiones: La presentación clínica de las mastitis fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. La respuesta al tratamiento corticoesteroidal logró el control de la enfermedad en todos los casos. Las reacciones adversas al tratamiento fueron menores y las 2 recidivas fueron de menor magnitud y duración respecto al cuadro inicialBackground: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a benign and uncommon inflammatory disease of the breast, of unknown etiology. It can resemble a carcinoma, therefore the diagnosis is pathological. Aim: To perform a clinical characterization of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of 14 female patients aged 21 to 47 years with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, treated in a regional hospital between 1995 and 2006. Results: The most common clinical presentation was a breast abscess in nine patients. A mammography was done in seven patients an breast ultrasound in 10. Samples for pathological studies were obtained percutaneously in eight and surgically in six. Twelve patients were treated with prednisone, with good results in all. In a mean follow up of 28 months, two patients had a relapse. Conclusions: Steroid treatment was effective for the treatment of granulomatous mastitis. The two relapses observed in this series were mild

JUAN ANTONIO PÉREZ P

2007-08-01

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Efficacy of extended intramammary ceftiofur therapy against mild to moderate clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cows: a randomized clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have investigated the efficacy of extended ceftiofur therapy and none have focused on extended therapy for naturally occurring clinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of extended intramammary ceftiofur therapy of 8 d duration with a standard 2-day regimen for the treatment of naturally occurring mild to moderate clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. Holstein cows from 22 dairy herds (n = 241) were randomly allocated to the 2 treatment groups. For each case of mastitis, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered intramammary once a day for 2 or 8 d. Clinical cure, 21 d after the last treatment, was 89% (98/110) in each group. Bacteriological cure 21 d after the last treatment for the 2- and 8-day regimens were 32% (15/47) and 61% (25/41), respectively, for all bacteria (P = 0.007), 64% (9/14) and 82% (9/11), respectively, for streptococci (P = 0.50), and 0% (0/20) and 47% (9/19), respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus (P = 0.0004). There were no statistical differences between groups for new intramammary infections. Overall, ceftiofur extended therapy increased cure when compared to a 2-day regimen for the treatment of naturally occurring mild to moderate clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. PMID:24396178

Truchetti, Geoffrey; Bouchard, Emile; Descôteaux, Luc; Scholl, Daniel; Roy, Jean-Philippe

2014-01-01

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Increasing Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci in Bovine Clinical Mastitis  

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The aim of this study was to determine Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and other bacteria for their resistance to antimicrobial agents approved for the control of pathogens involved in clinical bovine mastitis. This descriptive study was done on 106 milk samples obtained from clinical mastitis in dairy cattle husbandry from April 2006 through August 2006 in Kashan, Iran. From the total of 106 milk samples collected from clinical mastitis, 96 (90.6%) lead to positive culture. Coa...

2007-01-01

60

Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions  

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Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without...

Kalmus Piret; Viltrop Arvo; Aasmäe Birgit; Kask Kalle

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Mannheimia Species Associated with Ovine Mastitis?  

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Mannheimia glucosida, M. haemolytica, and M. ruminalis were isolated from cases of acute mastitis in ewes. M. glucosida was found to be a common cause of clinical mastitis in sheep. Selected phenotypic tests in addition to genotyping were needed to definitively identify Mannheimia species causing ovine mastitis.

Omaleki, Lida; Barber, Stuart R.; Allen, Joanne L.; Browning, Glenn F.

2010-01-01

62

Immunoprophylaxis of bovine mastitis  

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Full Text Available Mastitis poses a major economic and health problem in herds of dairy cows. The many years of taking different approaches to treating mastitis have not resulted in an adequate solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. The treatment of mastitis using antibiotics yields satisfactory results, but it implies substantial costs for treatment and losses in rejecting milk. Due to the above reasons, a new area of scientific research offers possibilities for finding new solutions to the ever present problem of mastitis - immunoprophylaxis. Vaccines against mastitis available at this time are still not sufficiently effective in general practice, and they are at the level of experimental vaccines. All barn vaccines which have been worked on so far have been significantly experimentally successful. The success is in a significant increase in the antibody titer in serum (but not in milk, as well as in reducing the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases among experimental and control animals. Nevertheless, it is still believed that immunoprophylaxis, as a method for preventing inflammation of the udder and the occurrence of mastitis, is still an insufficiently investigated field of scientific research. Many scientists are engaged on the problem of finding a vaccine against mastitis, but the coplexity of the mammary gland and the specific permeability of the blood-milk barrier do not permit these efforts to be as successful as they might be if this were not the case.

Pavlovi? Vojislav

2003-01-01

63

Efficacy of extended cefquinome treatment of clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis.  

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Clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is difficult to cure. Extended antimicrobial treatment is often advocated as a practical approach to improve cure rates; however, scientific evidence of this hypothesis is lacking. A multi-centered, nonblinded, randomized, positive-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 5 European countries-France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom-to study the efficacy of an extended intramammary cefquinome treatment (5 d) compared with a standard intramammary cefquinome treatment (1.5 d) of Staph. aureus clinical mastitis. Least squares means estimates of bacteriological cure during lactation were 34% [standard error (SE)=9.9%] for the standard treatment group and 27% (SE=8.4%) for the extended treatment group. In the final model, extended therapy was not significantly better. The only factor predicting bacteriological cure was pretreatment cow somatic cell count (SCC). Cows with >250,000 cells/mL in milk before treatment were less likely to cure. Least squares means of clinical cure during lactation was 60% (SE=19%) for the standard treatment group and 82% (SE=12%) for the extended treatment group. In the final model, clinical cure after extended treatment was significantly better. Pretreatment cow udder firmness predicted clinical cure. Firm udders were less likely to cure clinically. Irrespective of treatment regimen, new infection rates with pathogens other than Staph. aureus were higher (42%) after bacteriological cure than after nonbacteriological cure (22%) and cured cows had a significantly lower SCC. In conclusion, independent of the treatment protocol, cows with an SCC cefquinome is associated with an increased number of new infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Extended treatment improved clinical, but not bacteriological, cure rates compared with the standard treatment. These results indicate that extending treatment of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis with cefquinome should not be recommended. PMID:23706485

Swinkels, J M; Cox, P; Schukken, Y H; Lam, T J G M

2013-08-01

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Associations between pathogen-specific clinical mastitis and somatic cell count patterns  

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Associations were estimated between pathogen-specific cases of clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell count (SCC) patterns based on deviations from the typical curve for SCC during lactation and compared with associations between pathogen-specific CM and lactation average SCC. Data from 274 Dutch herds recording CM over an 18-mo period were used. Pathogens found were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, s...

Haas, Y.; Veerkamp, R. F.; Barkema, H. W.; Gro?hn, Y. T.; Schukken, Y. H.

2004-01-01

65

Genetic associations for pathogen-specific clinical mastitis and patterns of peaks in somatic cell count  

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Genetic associations were estimated between pathogen-specific cases of clinical mastitis (CM), lactational average somatic cell score (LACSCS), and patterns of peaks in somatic cell count (SCC) which were based on deviations from the typical lactation curve for SCC. The dataset contained test-day records on SCC in 94 781 lactations of 25416 cows of different parities. Out of these 94 781 lactations, 41 828 lactations had recordings on occurrence of pathogen-specific CM and on SCC, and 52 953 ...

Haas, Y.; Barkema, H. W.; Schukken, Y. H.; Veerkamp, R. F.

2003-01-01

66

Tuberculosis infection of the breast mistaken for granulomatous mastitis: a case report  

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Background Tuberculosis of the breast is an uncommon disease with non-specific clinical, radiological and histological findings. Misdiagnosis is common as biopsy specimens are pauci-bacillary and investigations such as microscopy and culture are frequently negative. Case presentation We report a case of a breast abscess in a 34-year old Bangladeshi woman attributed to tuberculosis infection. Equivocal histology, negative Ziehl-Neelsen stain and culture for acid-fast bacilli resulted in the abscess initially being diagnosed as granulomatous mastitis and treated accordingly. However failure to respond to therapy raised suspicion of culture negative breast tuberculosis. Treatment with standard antituberculosis drugs was associated with complete resolution of the breast abscess. Conclusion This case highlights the difficulty in differentiating culture negative tuberculosis from granulomatous mastitis and the importance of a high index of clinical suspicion.

Sriram, KB; Moffatt, D; Stapledon, R

2008-01-01

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Managerial and environmental determinants of clinical mastitis in Danish dairy herds  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.

Houe Hans

2008-02-01

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Occurrence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffaloes in the State of Haryana (India  

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Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to determine the occurrence and etiology of mastitis in traditionally managed buffaloes. A total of 5707 quarter milk samples from 2057 buffaloes were examined. Of these, 2948 (51.65% samples were found culturally positive. Among these, 1070 cases were from clinical mastitis and rest 1878 cases were positive for subclinical mastitis. As many as 3447 isolates were obtained from infected quarters. Out of these, 38.81% were Staphylococcus spp., 32.4% Streptococcus spp., 11.80% E. coli, 5.2% Corynebacterium spp., 1.36% Bacillus spp., 2.03% Klebsiella spp., 0.78% Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 0.14% Proteus , 0.14% yeast. Staphylococcus spp. was predominant mastitogenic organisms followed by Streptococcus spp. Of the staphylococcal organisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most prevalent being present in the 63.15% of the isolates. Among streptococci, Streptococcus agalactiae were the predominant organisms followed by Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. The mixed infections were detected in 7.33% quarters in different combinations. Most common combination was of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. followed by Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Results of Antibiotic sensitivity were variable.

N. Sindhu

2010-02-01

69

Assessment and management of pain in dairy cows with clinical mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is clear that clinical mastitis has severe detrimental effects on the animal and negative economic impacts for dairy producers. However, pain associated with clinical mastitis, generally, is not measured and not treated. Attention to behavioral and physiologic indicators should be used to monitor animal health. New technologies may allow dairy producers to identify clinical mastitis in its very early stages, or even before clinical changes occur. Furthermore, automated measures of activity, such as step counts and lying time, show promise as predictors of clinical problems. These new technologies, in addition to other automated measures, have the potential for improving the screening methods for preclinical mastitis and accurately predicting the onset of a clinical mastitis event. With this opportunity for very early detection of infection, there is a potential for early intervention with NSAID therapy, which may allow for maximum efficacy from its use. Despite which specific NSAID is used, it is clear that the benefits on temperature, rumen function, SCC, milk production, behavior, and pain sensitivity in animals during mastitis indicate that this therapy has a role throughout the dairy industry. As the health and well-being of dairy cattle continue to be scrutinized by consumer groups, it is essential that the alleviation of any perceived pain or discomfort associated with clinical mastitis should be addressed. PMID:22664209

Leslie, Kenneth E; Petersson-Wolfe, Christina S

2012-07-01

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Isolation and Characterization of Mycoplasma mycoides Subspecies capri from Milk of Natural Goat Mastitis Cases  

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Association of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc) with natural goat mastitis has been studied earlier largely by detecting the Mmc DNA using molecular methods. However, report on detection of cultivable Mmc isolates from natural goat-mastitis milk is still very rare. In this study, Mmc was isolated from milk samples (n = 171) of goats with or without clinical signs of mastitis. Mmc isolates were further characterized by biochemical and species-specific PCR methods. Intra species strai...

Kumar, Vijay; Rana, Rajneesh; Mehra, Somya; Rout, Pramod Kumar

2013-01-01

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Relationship between teat-end callosity and occurrence of clinical mastitis  

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A longitudinal study in 15 herds, with a total of 2157 cows, was conducted to examine the relationship between teat-end callosity (TEC) and the incidence of clinical mastitis. During the 1.5-yr study period, clinical mastitis was diagnosed by the farmers based on clinical signs. Teat-end callosity was scored every month according to a teat-end callosity classification system, which discriminates between teat-end callosity thickness (TECT) and roughness (TECR). Differences in TECT between heal...

Neijenhuis, F.; Barkema, H. W.; Hogeveen, H.

2001-01-01

72

Radiologic and Clinical Features of Idiopathic Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis Mimicking Advanced Breast Cancer  

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Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM), also known as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to describe the radiological imaging and clinical features of IGLM in order to better differentiate this disorder from breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical and radiographic features of 11 women with a total of 12 IGLM lesio...

Lee, Jei Hee; Oh, Ki Keun; Kim, Eun-kyung; Kwack, Kyu Sung; Jung, Woo Hee; Lee, Han Kyung

2006-01-01

73

Incidence and transmission of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in Holstein dairy cows in a hospital pen: A case study.  

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The objective was to determine the incidence and transmission of mycoplasma mastitis in the hospital pen in a dairy herd of 650 lactating cows after a hospital pen was established following an outbreak of this disease. Mycoplasma mastitis status was monitored for 3 months through repeated collection of milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis (CM) and from bulk tank milk. During the outbreak 13 cows were diagnosed with Mycoplasma bovis CM, 1 cow with Mycoplasma sp. mastitis and 8 cows showed signs of arthritis, 3 of which were confirmed as having M. bovis arthritis. M. bovis isolates from cows with CM, arthritis and bulk tank milk had indistinguishable chromosomal digest pattern fingerprints. Incidence rates of M. bovis CM cases in the milking and hospital pens were 0.01 and 1.7 cases per 100 cow-days at risk. Approximately 70% of cows with M. bovis CM became infected within 12 days of entering the hospital pen. Transmission of M. bovis in the hospital pen occurred as 3 episodes. Each episode corresponded to the introduction of a cow with M. bovis CM from a milking pen. Evidence indicates that cows with M. bovis CM from milking pens were the source of transmission of the disease in the hospital pen and thus their presence in the hospital pen appeared to be a risk factor for transmission of M. bovis mastitis in this single case study herd. PMID:21111499

Punyapornwithaya, V; Fox, L K; Hancock, D D; Gay, J M; Wenz, J R; Alldredge, J R

2011-01-01

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Epidemiological studies of clinical and subclinical ovine mastitis in Awassi sheep in northern Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-six Awassi sheep flocks selected by stratified random sampling were subjected to a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of intramammary infections, to assess the influence of flock size and parity on the prevalence of somatic cell count (SCC) and to identify major udder pathogens. Of the 3472 udder halves examined, 29.8% had over 10(6) SCC/ml and 0.03% had dry teats due to chronic mastitis. Flocks with 30-49 milking ewes (small flock size) were much younger (P or = 100 ewes (large). Pairwise analysis of the InSCC of both halves of the udders revealed significant mean differences for small and large flock size (P < 0.05), and for medium and large flock size (P < 0.001). Mean InSCC was lower (P < 0.05) in samples obtained from the left half compared with samples of the right half of the udder. Multiparous ewes had higher (P < 0.001) mean InSCC than primiparous ewes. Also, ewes with twin lambs had higher (P < 0.001) mean InSCC in the right half of the udder compared with single-lamb ewes. Samples collected in January (winter) had lower (P < 0.05) mean InSCC compared with samples collected in June. The most common organisms isolated from subclinical mastitis cases were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (17.8%), E. coli (13.6%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus (6.8%). Of the 46 flocks, 20 were monitored monthly for 9 consecutive months to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis diagnosed by shepherds or/and sheep farmers with major pathogens. The incidence of clinical mastitis (expressed as the number of clinical cases per 100 ewe-months) were 2.1 +/- 1.9 (SD), 1.9 +/- 1.1, and 1.2 +/- 2.1 for small, medium and large flocks size strata, respectively. The overall population estimate was 1.7 +/- 0.02 cases per 100 ewe-months. The most-common clinical isolates were S. aureus (22% of all clinical isolates) and E. coli (14.2%). PMID:9500172

Lafi, S Q; al-Majali, A M; Rousan, M D; Alawneh, J M

1998-01-01

75

Effect of extended cefquinome treatment on clinical persistence or recurrence of environmental clinical mastitis  

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The effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis (CM) is classically evaluated using bacteriological cure, which provides a concise and objective way of assessing efficacy but does not reflect the situation in the field where persistence or recurrence of clinical signs lead to perceived treatment failure. If clinical signs persist or recur, intramammary (IMM) treatment is often extended or supplemented with parenteral therapy in the expectation of a more efficient el...

Swinkels, J. M.; Lam, T. J. G. M.; Green, M. J.; Bradley, A. J.

2013-01-01

76

Mastite clinica caprina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes / Clinical mastitis in goat due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in english This paper reports the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State - Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. Amastectomywasperformedasclinical treatment. [...

Garino Jr, F.; Matos, R.A.T.; Miranda Neto, E.G.; Bernardino, J.N.N.; Santos, E.D.; Aguiar, G.M.N..

77

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: case reports and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast that can mimic two frequent breast disorders, breast carcinoma and breast abscess. In this report, we present two patients seen in a community teaching hospital over a period of one year, diagnosed with IGM after histological evaluation. One patient responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, but the second patient required bilateral mastectomy due to the severe and recurrent nature of the disease. IGM is a disorder that should be considered in the evaluation of women who present with painful breast disease. We discuss the diagnosis, clinical presentation and management of IGM. PMID:20013067

Patel, Rakshitkumar A; Strickland, Pamela; Sankara, Ishwara R; Pinkston, Glen; Many, Wickliffe; Rodriguez, Martin

2010-03-01

78

Conservative management for idiopathic granulomatous mastitis mimicking carcinoma: case reports and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a relatively rare condition and may commonly mimic carcinoma. Clinically and radiologically, these lesions could be misdiagnosed as carcinoma and histopathology is the most definitive method of diagnosis and to differentiate it from other granulomatous conditions such as sarcoidosis and Wegener's granulomatosis. We report two cases of IGM presenting with ill-defined indurated mass, peau d'orange and ulcerative lesions clinically mimicking carcinoma. They were successfully treated with corticosteroids. Even abscesses can be aspirated and avoid surgery. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose this condition to prevent unnecessary mastectomy. PMID:21109722

Naraynsingh, Vijay; Hariharan, Seetharaman; Dan, Dilip; Harnarayan, Patrick; Teelucksingh, Surujpaul

2010-01-01

79

Mammographic and sonographic findings of periductal mastitis : a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Periductal mastitis arises from major ducts. Radiographic reports describing the phases of duct ectasia and secretory calcifications, have been published, but descriptions of the phases of periductal mastitis are rare. We report the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of periductal mastitis in a 30-year-old woman who presented with a breast lump.

Chung, Sun Yang [Pochon CHA Univ. College of Medicine, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-03-01

80

Mammographic and sonographic findings of periductal mastitis : a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Periductal mastitis arises from major ducts. Radiographic reports describing the phases of duct ectasia and secretory calcifications, have been published, but descriptions of the phases of periductal mastitis are rare. We report the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of periductal mastitis in a 30-year-old woman who presented with a breast lump

2001-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Fator necrosante citotóxico em Escherichia coli isolada de mastite clínica bovina / Cytotoxic necrotizing factor in Escherichia coli strain isolated from clinical bovine mastitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This report describes the production of cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF) by an Escherichia coli strain isolated from clinical bovine mastitis with clinical signs of toxemia The animal had hemorrhages and necrosis of the mammary glands, and died within 24 hours after the onset of clinical signs. In [...] addition to CNF identification, alpha-haemolysin and siderophores production were also characterized in this strain. This report reinforce the association of CNF and alpha-haemolysin production in E. coli virulence associated with clinical cases of severe bovine mastitis.

M.G., Ribeiro; E.O., Costa; D.S., Leite; A.J.P., Ferreira; A.S., Silva; H.H.M., Della Colleta.

82

Foot and Mouth Disease-Mastitis Cascade in Dairy Cattle: A Field Study  

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A field study was conducted in 6 cross bred dairy cows suffering from acute clinical mastitis preceded by FMD in all animals. After thorough clinical and laboratory examination of the affected animals were confirmed as the cases of clinical mastitis. Cows were diagnosed for mastitis by clinical examination and Modified California mastitis test, somatic cell count and cultural examination of milk. After confirmation of disease and antibiotic sensitivity test all cows were subjected to p...

Neelesh Sharma

2008-01-01

83

Prevention of clinical mastitis with barium selenate in dairy goats from a selenium-deficient area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis is one of the most negative factors involved in the economy of dairy goat farms. The effect of selenium on mammary gland resistance to infectious diseases has been demonstrated. This work evaluates the efficacy of a slow-release Se salt (barium selenate) to reduce the incidence of clinical mastitis in goats reared on Se-deficient areas. Six hundred milking goats of the Malagueña breed, from 4 commercial dairy farms located in a Se-deficient area, were randomly allotted to 2 groups: treated group (given a subcutaneous injection of barium selenate at a dose of 1 mg of Se/kg of body weight 15 d before mating) and control group (no supplement). During the lactation the does were monitored to assess the occurrence of clinical mastitis by physical examination, California Mastitis Test performance, and microbiological study. The Se content of the ration consumed previously by the animals did not meet the requirements for dairy goats. The Se injection significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the treated group and had evident beneficial effects in the subsequent lactation. The somatic cell count and the incidence of clinical mastitis were significantly lower in the treated group than in the control group. However, no significant differences were found for milk composition. Thus, in Se-deficient areas, the supplementation with Se of any source in programs for prevention of clinical mastitis and improvement of milk quality is strongly recommended. PMID:17430938

Sánchez, J; Montes, P; Jiménez, A; Andrés, S

2007-05-01

84

Simplify the interpretation of alert lists for clinical mastitis in automatic milking systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on sensor measurements, an automatic milking system (AMS) generates mastitis alert lists indicating cows which are likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Because of the general assumption of equal probabilities of developing CM for all cows, all alerts on the list have the same success rate. As a consequence, it is not possible to rank-order the alerts in terms of their likelihood of CM. In practice, the performance of a CMdetection system is not only based on the sensitivit...

Steeneveld, W.; Gaag, L. C.; Barkema, H. W.; Hogeveen, H.

2010-01-01

85

Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis in Zimbabwe  

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This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %), followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 %) and th...

Kudinha, T.; Simango, C.

2012-01-01

86

Mastite granulomatosa idiopática: aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e ultra-sonográficos / Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as características clínicas, mamográficas e ultra-sonográficas de três casos de mastite granulomatosa idiopática. Esta afecção pode simular câncer de mama nos exames clínico e mamográfico, porém os achados ultra-sonográficos de múltiplas imagens tubulares hipoecói [...] cas, contíguas e confluentes em mulheres jovens com história de lactação recente sugerem o diagnóstico de mastite granulomatosa idiopática. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings of three cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. This disease can mimic breast carcinoma on clinical and mammographic examinations. However, ultrasound examinations showing multiple clustered and often contigu [...] ous tubular hypoechoic lesions in young women with history of recent lactation suggest the diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

Stefanon, Cristina Caetano; Gonçalves, Adriana F.; Lima, Roberto; Rossi, Karin.

87

Mastite granulomatosa idiopática: aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e ultra-sonográficos Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as características clínicas, mamográficas e ultra-sonográficas de três casos de mastite granulomatosa idiopática. Esta afecção pode simular câncer de mama nos exames clínico e mamográfico, porém os achados ultra-sonográficos de múltiplas imagens tubulares hipoecóicas, contíguas e confluentes em mulheres jovens com história de lactação recente sugerem o diagnóstico de mastite granulomatosa idiopática.The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings of three cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. This disease can mimic breast carcinoma on clinical and mammographic examinations. However, ultrasound examinations showing multiple clustered and often contiguous tubular hypoechoic lesions in young women with history of recent lactation suggest the diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

Cristina Caetano Stefanon

2005-06-01

88

Investigations of efficacy of intramammary applied antimicrobials and glucocorticosteroides in the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis in cows  

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Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis in cows, presents one of the most acute problems in intensive dairy production, inflicting huge economic losses. In the course of one year, 80 samples were taken at investigated farms from udder quarters of cows with clinical mastitis and 160 samples from udder quarters of cows with subclinical mastitis. The efficacy of three preparations, A, B, and C, was examined in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows. The investigations indicate that antibiotic preparation A (neomycin, polimixine B, oleandomycin and prednisolone exhibited a greater efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus sp., but a smaller efficacy in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation B (amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone exhibited a higher efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus, but a weaker effect in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation C (procaine penicillin G, streptomycin, neomycin sulfate and prednisolone acetate exihibited efficacy in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichie coli. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molekularno-geneti?ka i ekofiziološka istraživanja u zaštiti autohtonih animalnih geneti?kih resursa, o?uvanju dobrobiti, zdravlja i reprodukcije gajenih životinja i proizvodnji bezbedne hrane

Vakanjac Slobodanka

2013-01-01

89

Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: I. Quarter-level outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study objective was to compare the efficacy of 3 commercial dry cow mastitis formulations regarding quarter-level prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) postcalving, cure of preexisting infections over the dry period, prevention of new infections during the dry period, and risk for a clinical mastitis case between calving and 100d in milk (DIM). A total of 1,091 cows (4,364 quarters) from 6 commercial dairy herds in 4 different states (California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) were enrolled and randomized to 1 of the 3 treatments at dry-off: Quartermaster (QT; 1,000,000 IU of procaine penicillin G and 1 g of dihydrostreptomycin; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY), Spectramast DC (SP; 500 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride; Pfizer Animal Health), or ToMorrow Dry Cow (TM; 300mg of cephapirin benzathine; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO). Quarter milk samples were collected for routine bacteriological culture before dry cow therapy treatment at dry-off, 0 to 6 DIM, and 7 to 13 DIM and an on-farm record-keeping system was used to retrieve data on clinical mastitis cases. Noninferiority analysis was used to evaluate the effect of treatment on the primary outcome, risk for a bacteriological cure during the dry period. Multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to describe the effect of treatment on risk for presence of IMI postcalving and risk of a new IMI during the dry period. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to describe the effect of treatment on the risk and time for quarters to experience an episode of clinical mastitis between calving and 100 DIM. The overall crude quarter-level prevalence of infection at dry-off was 19.2%. The most common pathogen isolated from milk samples at dry-off was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, followed by Aerococcus spp. and other Streptococcus spp. Noninferiority analysis showed no effect of treatment on risk for a cure between dry-off and calving [least squares means (LSM): QT=93.3%, SP=92.6%, and TM=94.0%] and secondary analysis showed no effect of treatment on risk for presence of an IMI at 0 to 6 DIM (LSM: QT=16.5%, SP=14.1%, and TM=16.0%), risk for development of a new IMI between dry-off and 0 to 6 DIM (LSM: QT=14.8%, SP=12.3%, and TM=14.2%), or risk of experiencing a clinical mastitis event between calving and 100 DIM (LSM: QT=5.3%, SP=3.8%, and TM=4.1%). In conclusion, no difference was observed in efficacy among the 3 products evaluated when assessing the aforementioned quarter-level outcomes. PMID:23628244

Arruda, A G; Godden, S; Rapnicki, P; Gorden, P; Timms, L; Aly, S S; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J

2013-07-01

90

Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Pathogens from Sub-Clinical and Clinical Mastitis in Eastern China  

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Full Text Available Prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical coliform mastitis with antimicrobial sensitivity profile of various mastitis-causing organisms was investigated. Milk samples collected from 299 cows infected with clinical mastitis to evaluate the prevalence of coliform mastitis and 1660 quarters milk samples randomly collected from 415 lactating cows for detection of subclinical mastitis (SCM by Hangzhou Mastitis Test (HMT. SCM at quarters and cow level was recorded to be 20.2 and 52.3%, respectively. Occurrence of SCM in left rear quarter was high (26.7%. Statistical analysis of risk factors showed, cows with 6-9 years of age (P=0.046; Odds ratio (OR, +1.414; 95% confidence interval (CI=1.006-1.988 and 60.7%, cows with 4-7 calves (P=0.028; OR, +1.502; 95% CI=1.044-2.160 and 62.2%, and cows in late stage of lactation (P=0.039; OR, +1.947; 95% CI=1.023-3.702 and 68%, were more susceptible to SCM. All the 115 organisms from SCM milk samples and 103 Escherichia coli from CM samples were confirmed by PCR techniques. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC results revealed that E. coli isolates were resistant to penicillin group (93-99%, fluoroquinolones (40-74%, cephalosporins (54-66%, oxytetracycline (91%, gentamycin (82%, SUL-TRM (88% and were sensitive to florfenicol. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to ampicillin (91%, oxytetracycline (59% and methicillin (29%. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were 8 to 15% resistant to used antimicrobials. In conclusion, cows with SCM were reservoir of various bacterial pathogens and high prevalence of E. coli in clinical mastitis milk could be major complications for mastitis treatment due to their multidrug resistance profile.

Javed Memon, Jam Kashif, Muhammad Yaqoob, Wang Liping, Yongchun Yang and Fan Hongjie*

2013-04-01

91

Some properties of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cases of ovine mastitis.  

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Of 41 coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates from cases of ovine mastitis, 80% were speciated by the 'API-Staph SYSTEM' and 90% by a combination of biochemical tests. Staphylococcus simulans and Staph. xylosus were the two most prevalent species.

Fthenakis, G. C.; Marples, R. R.; Richardson, J. F.; Jones, J. E.

1994-01-01

92

Diagnostics, incidence and course of nonpuerperal mastitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The clinic of radiology at the University of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made.

Goelles, M.; Kopp, W.; Beaufort, F.

1985-02-01

93

Diagnostics, incidence and course of nonpuerperal mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinic of radiology at the university of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made. (orig.)

1985-02-01

94

Management of Patients with Granulomatous Mastitis: Analysis of 31 Cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Granulomatous mastitis is a benign recurrent disease. Accurate diagnosis is only by histopathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 31 cases with histological diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 42.4 months for recurrent and 27.8 months for non-recurrent cases. Etiology was tuberculosis in 1 case. 5 cases (16%) relapsed. 6 patients (19.3%) treated with abscess drainage healed completely, but 50% relapsed. Relapses were treated with excision or steroids. Steroid therapy was the initial treatment in 12 cases (38.7%), with 1 relapse (8.3%) which was treated in the same manner. 2 patients had incomplete response necessitating excision, and another 2 developed abscesses which were treated with steroids or excision after drainage. Surgical excision was preferred in 12 cases (38.7%) due to suspicion for carcinoma in 8 patients (25.8%) and/or low probability of poor cosmetic outcome. All healed without complication, and recurrence was observed in 1 case (8.3%) which was treated with re-excision. CONCLUSION: Both excision and steroid therapy had low and similar relapse rates, but excision was superior to steroid therapy in providing strict diagnosis with much faster healing and fewer complications. In refractory cases, and when deformity is inevitable, steroid therapy should be preferred. PMID:22872797

Kayahan, Munire; Kadioglu, Huseyin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

2012-06-01

95

Comparative analysis of agr groups and virulence genes among subclinical and clinical mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates from sheep flocks of the Northeast of Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent mastitis causative agents in small ruminants. The expression of most virulence genes of S. aureus is controlled by an accessory gene regulator (agr) locus. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups and to evaluate the occurrence of encoding genes for cytotoxin, adhesins and toxins with superantigen activity in S. aureus isolates from milk of ewes with clinical and subclinical mastitis in sheep flocks raised for meat production The agr groups I and II were identified in both cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Neither the arg groups III and IV nor negative agr were found. The presence of cflA gene was identified in 100% of the isolates. The frequency of hla and lukE-D genes was high - 77.3 and 82.8%, respectively and all isolates from clinical mastitis presented these genes. The sec gene, either associated to tst gene or not, was identified only in isolates from subclinical mastitis. None of the following genes were identified: bbp, ebpS, cna, fnbB, icaA, icaD, bap, hlg, lukM-lukF-PV and se-a-b-d-e. PMID:24294245

de Almeida, Lara M; de Almeida, Mayra Zilta P R B; de Mendonça, Carla L; Mamizuka, Elsa M

2013-01-01

96

Comparative analysis of agr groups and virulence genes among subclinical and clinical mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates from sheep flocks of the Northeast of Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent mastitis causative agents in small ruminants. The expression of most virulence genes of S. aureus is controlled by an accessory gene regulator (agr) locus. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups and to evaluate the occurrence of encoding genes for cytotoxin, adhesins and toxins with superantigen activity in S. aureus isolates from milk of ewes with clinical and subclinical mastitis in sheep flocks raised for meat production The agr groups I and II were identified in both cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Neither the arg groups III and IV nor negative agr were found. The presence of cflA gene was identified in 100% of the isolates. The frequency of hla and lukE-D genes was high - 77.3 and 82.8%, respectively and all isolates from clinical mastitis presented these genes. The sec gene, either associated to tst gene or not, was identified only in isolates from subclinical mastitis. None of the following genes were identified: bbp, ebpS, cna, fnbB, icaA, icaD, bap, hlg, lukM-lukF-PV and se-a-b-d-e.

de Almeida, Lara M.; de Almeida, Mayra Zilta P.R.B.; de Mendonca, Carla L.; Mamizuka, Elsa M.

2013-01-01

97

Comparative analysis of agr groups and virulence genes among subclinical and clinical mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates from sheep flocks of the Northeast of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent mastitis causative agents in small ruminants. The expression of most virulence genes of S. aureus is controlled by an accessory gene regulator (agr)locus. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups and to evaluate the oc [...] currence of encoding genes for cytotoxin, adhesins and toxins with superantigen activity in S. aureus isolates from milk of ewes with clinical and subclinical mastitis in sheep flocks raised for meat production The agr groups I and II were identified in both cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Neither the arg groups III and IV nor negative agr were found. The presence of cflA gene was identified in 100% of the isolates. The frequency of hla and lukE-D genes was high -77.3 and 82.8%, respectively and all isolates from clinical mastitis presented these genes. The sec gene, either associated to tst gene or not, was identified only in isolates from subclinical mastitis. None of the following genes were identified: bbp, ebpS, cna, fnbB, icaA, icaD, bap, hlg, lukM-lukF-PV and se-a-b-d-e.

Almeida, Lara M. de; Almeida, Mayra Zilta P.R.B. de; Mendonça, Carla L. de; Mamizuka, Elsa M..

98

A case of granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and arthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is an inflammatory mass in the breast. Patients typically present with a firm breast mass, often associated with inflammation of the overlying skin. Nipple retraction, peau d'orange-like changes, and axillary adenopathy may be present. We describe a 23-year-old pregnant woman with arthritis, erythema nodosum, and mastitis. PMID:20012050

Salesi, Mansour; Karimifar, Mansoor; Salimi, Fereshteh; Mahzouni, Parvin

2011-08-01

99

Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis:Report of 3 Cases And A Review of the literature  

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, inflammatory, and benign breast disease characterized by non-caseating granulomata and microabscesses limited to breast lobules. This condition presents as a firm breast mass that is clinically and radiologically indistinguishable from breast cancer, or as multiple or recurrent abscesses, or mastitis in a young non-lactating woman. Almost always,the diagnosis is made after surgical interventions to rule out other pathologies as differential diagno...

Farzaneh Ebrahimi-Fard; Arash Najaf beygi; Ali Kavyani; AmirHosein Jalali

2010-01-01

100

Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood samples were collected after confirmation of clinical and subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count and bacterial identification. Serum haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, total sialic acid (TSA, lipid bound sialic acid (LBSA and protein bound sialic acid (PBSA were measured by validated standard methods. Haptoglobin and SAA increased significantly in both types of mastitis compared with control group (P<0.001. However, the ratio of HP/SAA was significantly different from the control group only in clinical mastitis. The results showed that TSA and LBSA were significantly different in control group compared with clinical and subclinical mastitis (P<0.001. Protein bound sialic acid did not change in subclinical mastitis in comparison with control group (P=0.86. There was positive correlation between LBSA and PBSA in clinical mastitis (r=0.72, P=0.02 whereas significant negative correlation was observed between LBSA and PBSA in subclinical mastitis (r=-0.62, P<0.001. Results also showed no correlation between Hp and SAA with each other or with any other parameters in study groups.

S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Assessment of sub-clinical mastitis and its associated risk factors in dairy livestock of Lamjung, Nepal  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mastitis is one among the top three threats faced by dairy farmers. The study was carried out to assess sub-clinical mastitis, management practices and associated risk factors for mastitis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Chandreshwor and Archalbot VDCs of Lamjung district taking 63 dairy livestock randomly each from a herd along with questionnaire survey to respective owner. Tem ml of milk sample from each quarter was taken in a sterilized syringe for further laboratory investigation. California Mastitis Test (CMT was performed at farmer’s shed. Organisms were identified based on colony characteristics, Gram's staining and various biochemical tests. RESULTS: On CMT, subclinical mastitis was 46.1% (n=29 and 30.15% (n=76 on animal and quarter basis respectively, however, culture showed, 28.6% and 24.2%. Streptococcal mastitis was the commonest (11.1% followed by coliform (9.5% and staphylococcal (7.9%. Mastitis was highest in left fore quarter (34.92% followed by left hind (31.76%, right hind (28.57% and right fore (25.39%. Coliform & Staphylococcal mastitis was highest in left fore and right hind quarter respectively. Most of dairy animals (86% were on zero grazing, 30% (n=19 of the farmers had forage trees and only 29% (n=18 had known about subclinical mastitis. The average milk production was 3.5 ±1.47 liters. Subclinical mastitis was associated significantly (p<0.01 with livestock yielding more than 3 lt per lactation.CONCLUSIONS: There was high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy livestock at Lamjung due to poor management, unhygienic shed, and little knowledge on subclinical mastitis.

Khanal T

2013-06-01

102

Topical Steroids to Treat Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Report  

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare and chronic benign disease of the breast. Histologically, the disease presents as an intense inflammatory reaction with non-caseated granulomas that are the characteristic symptom of the disease. No consensus exists on the best treatment modality for this disease. In this report, we present a patient with granulomatous mastitis who was treated successfully with low-dose oral and topical steroids. Our aim here is to discuss various approaches f...

Altintoprak, Fatih

2011-01-01

103

Characterization of Staphylococcus simulans strains isolated from cases of bovine mastitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study was conducted to characterize Staphylococcus simulans isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. A total of 134 isolates of S. simulans selected from 80 quarters from 61 cows or heifers in 37 different herds were characterized by EcoRI ribotyping. From 22 quarters two to seven consecutive isolates taken at weekly intervals were selected. Furthermore, three isolates from clinical infections in humans and two reference strains were included. A total of 16 different ribotypes were found, however, two types predominated. In most herds more than one type was found. From the 22 different quarters, where 76 paired or multiple isolates were at disposal, the same ribotype was constantly found in the same quarter. This study showed that S. simulans causing bovine mastitis could be divided into relatively large number of different types, but that two types predominated. More than one type could be found in the same herd and within different quarters of the same cow, but ribotyping confirmed that S. simulans could be the cause of persistent and stable infections.

Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Larsen, H. D.

1999-01-01

104

Study on some characteristics of Staphylococci isolated from sheep sub clinical mastitis milk in Shahrekord, Iran  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococci release a large number of enzymes. Some of these, such as coagulase, beta lactamase, hemolysins and biofilms are considered indices of pathogenicity. The aim of the current study was based on the isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS strains from sheep sub clinical mastitis and examining their biofilm, beta lactamase, hemolysins production and antibiotic resistance pattern. Materials and methods: 55 Staphylococci strains were isolated from seventy cases of sheep subclinical mastitis. Thirty three were determined as Staphylococcus aureus (60% and 22 (40% as CNS. The hemolytic activity was evaluated by plating Staphylococci strains on 5% bovine blood agar. The biofilm assay was performed by using micro titer plates. Beta Lactamase production was detected by test tube iodometric technique and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined for isolated strains by the disk diffusion method. Results: Twenty six (78.8% S. aureus strains were biofilm producers. For CNS (59.9% strains were positive in biofilm production. Two isolates (6.06%, of S. aureus were ?, the same number ? and 6 (18.2% isolates were ? hemolysin producers. Six isolates of CNS (27.27% were ? and ten (45.45% ? hemolysin producers. Sixteen S. aureus (48.5% and five CNS (22.72% isolates were positive in beta lactamase production. The isolated Staphylococci show a low sensitivity pattern to methicillin and streptomycin. Discussion and conclusion: A high percentage of strains make ? toxin that play a role in S. aureus biofilm formation. Twenty one out of 33 (63.63% isolated Staphylococci were biofilm producers that can have deleterious effects because biofilm formation is thought to play an important role in the survival of virulent strains of Staphylococci. Sixteen out of 33 (48.5% isolated S. aureus were positive in beta lactamase test, Excluding resistant to methicillin, all of these isolates show a marked sensitivities to other examined beta lactam drugs. High percentage of hemolysins, biofilm and beta lactamase production by isolated Staphylococci, suggest an important role of these virulence factors in the pathogenesis of isolated Staphylococci from mastitis sheep milk samples.

Azizollah Ebrahimi

2014-01-01

105

Factors affecting cure when treating bovine clinical mastitis with cephalosporin-based intramammary preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data were collated for an independent scientific analysis from 2 international, multicenter studies that had compared the efficacy of 3 different cephalosporin-containing intramammary preparations in the treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle [cefalexin (first generation) in combination with kanamycin; cefquinome (fourth generation); and cefoperazone (third generation)]. Quarters were assessed using standard bacteriological techniques before treatment and at 16 and 25 d posttreatment. Additional data were also available on individual cows and study farms, including parity, breed, and cow somatic cell count histories, herd bulk milk somatic cell counts, and farm management regimens. Sufficient data for analysis were available from a total of 491 cases on 192 farms in 3 countries (United Kingdom, France, and Germany) with up to 16 cases being recruited from any one farm. Clinical cases were of diverse etiology, representing both contagious and environmental pathogens. Univariable analysis demonstrated that quarters in the cefalexin + kanamycin and cefquinome treatment groups were not significantly different from each other, but were both significantly more likely to be pathogen free posttreatment than quarters in the cefoperazone group. Multivariable analysis was undertaken using conventional random effects models. Two models were built, with the first incorporating only information available to the practitioner at the time of treatment and the second including all information collected during the study. These models indicated that country, pretreatment rectal temperature (above-normal temperature associated with an increased chance of being pathogen free posttreatment), individual cow somatic cell count (increased somatic cell count associated with a decreased chance of being pathogen free posttreatment), and pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus isolation associated with a decreased chance of being pathogen free posttreatment) were useful predictors of pathogen free status; parity, yield, bulk milk somatic cell counts, and other farm management factors were not. The importance of country in the analysis demonstrates the need to generate local data when assessing treatment regimens. In addition, these results suggest that the factors important in predicting the outcome of treatment of clinical mastitis cases may be dissimilar to those reported to affect the likelihood of cure when treating subclinical intramammary infections. PMID:19389951

Bradley, A J; Green, M J

2009-05-01

106

Effect of extended cefquinome treatment on clinical persistence or recurrence of environmental clinical mastitis.  

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The effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis (CM) is classically evaluated using bacteriological cure, which provides a concise and objective way of assessing efficacy but does not reflect the situation in the field where persistence or recurrence of clinical signs lead to perceived treatment failure. If clinical signs persist or recur, intramammary (IMM) treatment is often extended or supplemented with parenteral therapy in the expectation of a more efficient elimination of clinical signs or a lower probability of recurrence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy against clinical persistence or recurrence of three cefquinome treatment regimes, standard 1.5-day intramammary (SIMM), 5-day extended intramammary (EIMM) and combination of EIMM plus 5-day extended parenteral (ECOMBO) treatment. The study was conducted on three dairy farms with a high recurrence rate of environmental mastitis. Efficacy was evaluated using a multi-level model at the quarter and at the cow level, based on the persistence or recurrence of clinical signs at any time during a 105-day period following the end of the initial treatment, independent of pathogen. The most prevalent pathogens were E. coli (16.9%) and S. uberis (11.97%). EIMM and ECOMBO significantly decreased the persistence or recurrence of CM by 8% and 6% at the quarter level and by 9% and 8% at the cow level, respectively. ECOMBO may not reduce the persistence or recurrence of CM beyond EIMM. Whilst extended treatment regimens offered an improved outcome in this study, the producer and practitioner need to carefully consider such regimens from the perspective of prudent antibiotic use. PMID:23702283

Swinkels, J M; Lam, T J G M; Green, M J; Bradley, A J

2013-09-01

107

Escherichia coli from clinical mastitis: serotypes and virulence factors.  

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In the current study, the virulence factors in Escherichia coli isolates from bovine mastitis were investigated, and the connection between these factors and infection was evaluated using phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Twenty-seven E. coli isolates were analyzed, and 2 were shown to produce verotoxin. All isolates had the ability to produce biofilms, although at different levels. One isolate was found to be sensitive to the bactericidal activity of bovine serum, 11 were intermediate, and 15 were resistant. Some isolates showed resistance to trimethoprim sulfa (9) and ampicillin (4), intermediate resistance to neomycin (1) and trimethoprim sulfa (5), and simultaneous resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfa (4). The fimH gene was found in all isolates and was associated with other virulence markers: pap (1), stb (8), cs31a (3), stb and vt2 (2), cs31a and stb (3), east1 and kps (1), stb and east1 (1), cs31a and east1 (1), and cs31a, stb, pap, and iucD (1). Serogroups were determined for 3 isolates: O93:H4, O83:H19, and O15:H11. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 23 isolates belonged to group A and 4 belonged to B1. The findings revealed that these E. coli isolates are opportunistic pathogens with different virulence factors. The results indicate that the pathogenicity route of E. coli in bovine mastitis is not a consequence of 1 specific virulence factor. PMID:22362795

Fernandes, José Benedito C; Zanardo, Larissa G; Galvão, Newton N; Carvalho, Isabel A; Nero, Luis Augusto; Moreira, Maria Aparecida S

2011-11-01

108

Investigation of risk factors for clinical mastitis in British dairy herds with bulk milk somatic cell counts less than 150,000 cells/ml.  

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A sample of dairy farms in Great Britain with a monthly bulk milk somatic cell count of less than 150,000 cells/ml was enrolled into a 12-month prospective study. At the end of the study, a questionnaire on milking practice and other farm management practices was sent to the 482 farmers who had collected data on the occurrence of mastitis throughout the 12 months. The response rate was 93 per cent. The reported mean incidence of clinical mastitis was 36.9 cases per 100 cow-years. Factors associated with an increase in the incidence of clinical mastitis were cleaning out the straw yard less frequently than every six weeks, more than 5 per cent of cows leaking milk outside the parlour, checking the foremilk, wearing gloves during milking, an average annual milk yield of more than 7000 litres per cow, dipping or spraying teats before milking and keeping milk with a high somatic cell count out of the bulk tank. Factors associated with a decrease in the incidence of clinical mastitis were using a cloth to dry the teats after washing them as part of premilking preparation, using calving boxes for less than 40 per cent of calvings, and using both cubicles and straw yards to house dry cows, as opposed to other housing. PMID:16699133

O'Reilly, K M; Green, M J; Peeler, E J; Fitzpatrick, J L; Green, L E

2006-05-13

109

Topical steroids to treat granulomatous mastitis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare and chronic benign disease of the breast. Histologically, the disease presents as an intense inflammatory reaction with non-caseated granulomas that are the characteristic symptom of the disease. No consensus exists on the best treatment modality for this disease. In this report, we present a patient with granulomatous mastitis who was treated successfully with low-dose oral and topical steroids. Our aim here is to discuss various approaches for IGM in view of the literature and present treatment with topical steroids, which has not been reported. PMID:22016598

Altintoprak, Fatih

2011-09-01

110

The effect of tilmicosin administered to ewes prior to lambing on incidence of clinical mastitis and subsequent lamb performance.  

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The effect of tilmicosin on the incidence of clinical mastitis and subsequent lamb performance was studied in 9 sheep flocks in Ontario. Ewes were treated randomly with either tilmicosin or placebo approximately one month prior to lambing. Outcome was assessed by comparing rates of clinical mastitis, palpable udder abnormalities, and preweaning (50-day) lamb weights between the 2 treatment groups, while controlling for other important variables. Lambs raised by multiparous ewes treated with t...

Croft, A.; Duffield, T.; Menzies, P.; Leslie, K.; Bagg, R.; Dick, P.

2000-01-01

111

Investigations on Prevalence and Oxidative Stress Aspects of Mastitis in Buffaloes  

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The 424 quarter milk samples collected from 106 apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were screened for mastitis using bacterial cultural examination and somatic cell count. The prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM), latent mastitis and non-specific mastitis were found to be 9.90% (42/424), 4.24% (18/424), and 15.80% ( 67/424), respectively. There was significant (P?0.05) elevation of blood malondialdehyde (MDA) level in SCM and clinical mastitis cases. Besides, milk malondialdehyde l...

Kumar, M.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, A.; Jain, V. K.

2010-01-01

112

Investigations on Prevalence and Oxidative Stress Aspects of Mastitis in Buffaloes  

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Full Text Available The 424 quarter milk samples collected from 106 apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were screened for mastitis using bacterial cultural examination and somatic cell count. The prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM, latent mastitis and non-specific mastitis were found to be 9.90% (42/424, 4.24% (18/424, and 15.80% ( 67/424, respectively. There was significant (P?0.05 elevation of blood malondialdehyde (MDA level in SCM and clinical mastitis cases. Besides, milk malondialdehyde levels were also found to be appreciably elevated in both SCM and clinical mastitis in buffaloes. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation as revealed by elevated blood and milk MDA levels, in present study, indicated the involvement of oxidative stress and the possible oxidative damage in SCM and clinical mastitis in buffaloes

V.K. Jain

2010-02-01

113

Costs of mastitis: facts and perception  

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A model to calculate the economic losses of mastitis on an average Dutch dairy farm was developed and used as base for a tool for farmers and advisors to calculate farm-specific economic losses of mastitis. The economic losses of a clinical case in a default situation were calculated as ¿210, varying from ¿164 to ¿235 depending on the month of lactation. The total economic losses of mastitis (subclinical and clinical) per cow present in a default situation varied between ¿65 and ¿182/cow...

Huijps, K.; Lam, T. J. G. M.; Hogeveen, H.

2008-01-01

114

[Individual animal risk factors for Prototheca mastitis in cattle].  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk factors for mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii were determined in a retrospective case control study. 248 cows culled for protothecal mastitis in a large dairy herd were included in the study. The diseased cows were compared to their non affected herdmates in respect to age, stage of lactation, production and milk composition. The effect of previous cases of mastitis during the same lactation or in previous lactations and the effect of antibiotic pretreatment were determined in a split udder analysis comparing left quarters to right quarters. Age and mastitis history especially antimicrobial pretreatment were important risks factors for developing protothecal mastitis. Risk of protothecal mastitis increased with parity. Quarters with a history of clinical mastitis during the same or during previous lactations were at higher risk than other quarters (OR 1.98, p < 0.01 and 1.44, p = 0.06, respectively). Pretreatment with antibiotics increased the risk of protothecal mastitis (OR 3.19, p < 0.001). Milk yield was lower in cows that developed protothecal mastitis. Somatic cell counts were higher than in control cows. Incidence of protothecal mastitis peaked in the second month of lactation. PMID:10547928

Tenhagen, B A; Kalbe, P; Klünder, G; Heuwieser, W; Baumgärtner, B

1999-09-01

115

Factors affecting cure when treating bovine clinical mastitis with cephalosporin-based intramammary preparations  

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Data were collated for an independent scientific analysis from 2 international, multicenter studies that had compared the efficacy of 3 different cephalosporin-containing intramammary preparations in the treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle [cefalexin (first generation) in combination with kanamycin; cefquinome (fourth generation); and cefoperazone (third generation)]. Quarters were assessed using standard bacteriological techniques before treatment and at 16 and 25 d posttreatment....

Bradley, A. J.; Green, M. J.

2009-01-01

116

Discriminating between true-positive and false-positive clinical mastitis alerts from automatic milking systems  

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lists reporting cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Dutch farmers indicated that they use non-AMS cow information or the detailed alert information from the AMS to decide whether to check an alerted cow for CM. However, it is not yet known to what extent such information can be used to discriminate between true-positive and false-positive alerts. The overall objective was to investigate whether selection of the alerted cows that need further investigation for C...

Steeneveld, W.; Gaag, L. C.; Ouweltjes, W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.

2010-01-01

117

Sensors and Clinical Mastitis—The Quest for the Perfect Alert  

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When cows on dairy farms are milked with an automatic milking system or in high capacity milking parlors, clinical mastitis (CM) cannot be adequately detected without sensors. The objective of this paper is to describe the performance demands of sensor systems to detect CM and evaluats the current performance of these sensor systems. Several detection models based on different sensors were studied in the past. When evaluating these models, three factors are important: performan...

Hogeveen, H.; Kamphuis, C.; Steeneveld, W.; Mollenhorst, H.

2010-01-01

118

Isolation of nuc mutant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine clinical mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with a mutation in the nuclease (nuc) gene were recovered from cases of bovine mastitis in Poland. Three S. aureus isolates from cows in one herd had a 42 base pair duplication in the nuc gene. These isolates belonged to sequence type 97 (ST97) and clonal complex 97 (CC97). They had a different spa type and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) subtype than a S. aureus isolate without the nuc mutation from the same herd. Isolation of nuc mutant S. aureus strains from cases of bovine mastitis may confound diagnostic PCRs based on detection of the nuc gene. PMID:24792206

Zastempowska, E; Orczykowska-Kotyna, M; Lassa, H

2014-06-01

119

Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: Case Reports and Review of Literature  

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast that can mimic two frequent breast disorders, breast carcinoma and breast abscess. In this report, we present two patients seen in a community teaching hospital over a period of one year, diagnosed with IGM after histological evaluation. One patient responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, but the second patient required bilateral mastectomy due to the severe and recurrent nature of the disease. IGM is a ...

Patel, Rakshitkumar A.; Strickland, Pamela; Sankara, Ishwara R.; Pinkston, Glen; Many, Wickliffe; Rodriguez, Martin

2010-01-01

120

Clinical characteristics and persistence of bovine mastitis caused by different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci identified with API or AFLP  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP-typing of CNS was compared with the phenotypic identification. A total of 133 clinical or subclinical quarter cases of intramammary infection caused by CNS from the practice area of the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Helsinki were studied. Bacteriological diagnosis was based on biochemical (API) testing. Staphylococcus simulans (43.6%) followed by S. chromogenes (23.3%) were the most common CNS species isolated from the milk samples. Ninety-nine isolates were genotyped using AFLP-analysis. Only 75.0% of S. chromogenes and S. simulans isolates identified with API test were clustered with the type strains of these species. Approximately half of the mastitis cases were clinical, and in the majority clinical signs were mild. The severity and persistence of intramammary infection were unaffected by CNS species. Fifty-nine percent of the quarter cases were treated with antimicrobials, and the rest were left without treatment. Mastitis due to P-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were P-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as opposed to only 45.5% for untreated quarters. Bacterial cure rates for the most common CNS species or AFLP clusters were not statistically different. Further studies on identification of CNS species are needed.

Taponen, S.; Simojoki, H.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Community-acquired mastitis due to Mycobacterium abscessus: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium usually causing skin and soft tissue infections in immunocompetent patients following contaminated traumatic or surgical wounds or contaminated injected medications. Disseminated infections and pulmonary infections are usually reported in immunocompromised hosts. Case presentation We describe a 54-year-old Caucasian woman with mastitis due to M. abscessus. A few da...

Pasticci Maria; Lapalorcia Luigi; Antonini Giacomo; Mencacci Antonella; Mazzolla Rosanna; Baldelli Franco

2009-01-01

122

Bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii: clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects in a Brazilian dairy herd.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of protothecal mastitis in a Brazilian dairy herd are described. Prototheca zopfii infection was diagnosed in 11 of 121 milking cows. Clinical mastitis refractory to usual therapy was observed in 7 cows. Several environmental conditions conducive to the growth of Prototheca spp., such as wetness, muddiness and the presence of organic material, were present in the dairy. Improper milking practices and insanitary infusion of the intramammary antibiotics were also observed. Six cows with protothecal mastitis were slaughtered and the affected quarters of each cow were examined by histology and immunohistochemical staining for bovine keratin and P. zopfii. The histological lesions were characterized by interstitial infiltrates of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes; algae were seen in the alveolar lumen and interstitium. The lack of a positive reaction with an antiserum against bovine keratin in the mammary alveolar epithelial layer in some affected areas suggests destruction of milk-producing tissues, which may be related to the low milk production observed. The algal organisms stained positively with a polyclonal antibody against P. zopfii. PMID:11770201

Corbellini, L G; Driemeier, D; Cruz, C; Dias, M M; Ferreiro, L

2001-12-01

123

Efficacy of Targeted 5-day Combined Parenteral and Intramammary Treatment of Clinical Mastitis Caused by Penicillin-Susceptible or Penicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

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Full Text Available Combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was compared to parenteral treatment only. Cows with clinical mastitis (166 mastitic quarters caused by S. aureus treated by veterinarians of the Ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine during routine farm calls were included. Treatment was based on in vitro susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolate. Procaine penicillin G (86 cases due to ?-lactamase negative strains or amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (24 cases due to ?-lactamase positive strains was administered parenterally and intramammarily for 5 days. Efficacy of treatments was assessed 2 and 4 weeks later by physical examination, bacteriological culture, determination of CMT, somatic cell count and NAGase activity in milk. Quarters with growth of S. aureus in at least one post-treatment sample were classified as non-cured. As controls we used 41 clinical mastitis cases caused by penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates treated with procaine penicillin G parenterally for 5 days and 15 cases due to penicillin-resistant isolates treated with spiramycin parenterally for 5 days from the same practice area. Bacteriological cure rate after the combination treatment was 75.6% for quarters infected with penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, and 29.2% for quarters infected with penicillin-resistant isolates. Cure rate for quarters treated only parenterally with procaine penicillin G was 56.1% and that for quarters treated with spiramycin 33.3%. The difference in cure rates between mastitis due to penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. aureus was highly significant. Combined treatment was superior over systemic treatment only in the ?-lactamase negative group.

Pyörälä S

2003-03-01

124

QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

2005-01-01

125

Clinical cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation is about clinical cases and the contribution of the PET - CT Fag application in the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer. The cases presented were: neck diseases, epidermoid carcinoma, liver damage and metastasize, lymphoma, thrombosis, colonic cancer and lung disease

2012-08-01

126

Characterization of Prototheca zopfii associated with outbreak of bovine clinical mastitis in herd of Beijing, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prototheca zopfii (P. zopfii) has become an important cause of bovine mastitis in many countries. In the present study, to better understand the occurrence of one clinical mastitis (CM) outbreak due to P. zopfii, the molecular characterization and resistance patterns of the microalga were described. P. zopfii strains were isolated from 17 of 23 quarters, which suffered CM in the outbreak, and 7 of 46 CM recovered quarters before the outbreak, as well as 2 of 75 environmental samples in the dairy farm. All strains were identified as genotype 2 by genotype-specific PCR analysis. Results of in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that these strains were resistant to majority of tested drugs, with the only exception of amphotericin B, nystatin, streptomycin, gentamicin, and amikacin. This is the first report about CM outbreak caused by P. zopfii in China. These data suggest that P. zopfii may represent a serious risk in the studied herd, and this microalga could be an important potential pathogen causing mastitis in dairy herds of Beijing. PMID:22160589

Gao, Jian; Zhang, Han-qi; He, Jian-zhong; He, Yang-hua; Li, Shu-mei; Hou, Rong-guang; Wu, Qiao-xing; Gao, Yang; Han, Bo

2012-04-01

127

Efecto de la mastitis clínica y subclínica sobre la concentración plasmática de metabolitos, proteínas totales y albúmina en hembras bovinas / Effect of clinic and subclinic mastitis on the plasmatic concentration of metabolites, total protein, and albumen in bovine females  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la actualidad la mastitis es considerada, en el ámbito agropecuario, como una de las enfermedades más costosas debido a las pérdidas económicas que desde el punto de vista productivo genera. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la mastitis clínica y subclínica en hembras bovinas l [...] echeras, sobre algunos parámetros metabólicos plasmáticos. Se utilizaron 30 vacas mestizas Holstein de una finca lechera comercial, ubicada en Quibor, Lara, Venezuela, sometidas a las mismas condiciones de manejo, distribuidas en tres grupos de 10 animales cada uno: vacas sanas, con mastitis subclínica y con mastitis clínica. La concentración de glucosa, colesterol total y sus fracciones Col-HDL y Col-LDL, triglicéridos, proteínas totales y albúmina se cuantificaron por kits comerciales. En ambos tipos de mastitis hubo un aumento altamente significativo (P Abstract in english At present time, mastitis is considered, in the farming scope, one of the most expensive diseases due to the economic losses from the productive point of view. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the clinical and subclinical mastitis in milk bovine females on some plasmatic met [...] abolic parameters. Thirty racially mixed cows Holstein were used from a commercial milk farm which is located in Quibor, Lara, Venezuela, managed under the same conditions and distributed in three groups of 10 animals each: healthy cows, with subclinical mastitis, and clinical mastitis. The concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and its fractions Col- HDL and Col-LDL, triglycerides, proteins, and albumen were quantified by commercial kits. In both types of mastitis there was a highly significant increase (P

Aranguren Parra, Aleidy J; López Ortega, Aura A; Mendoza, Carmen A; Delgado, Norka.

128

The use of successive milking as a procedure for the elimination of infection on due to Prototheca spp in cases of bovine clinical mastitis. (A case report / Utilização de ordenhas sucessivas como procedimento para eliminação de infecção por prototheca spp de casos de mastite clínica bovina (relato de caso  

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Full Text Available This work relates the case of two animals (Black and White Holstein from a bovine milking herd, from north of Paraná State, in which mastitis due Prototheca spp was diagnosed. As a procedure for the infection elimination, it was opted for the use of successive milking performed six times daily, during eight days. The animals were followed up through mycological cultures from milk Samples after 15, 30 and 60 days from the beginning of the procedure. The clinical signs regressed after three days and the mycologicai cultures were negative after the 15th day.O presente trabalho relata um caso de dois animais HPB de um rebanho bovino leiteiro, da região norte do Estado do Paraná, dos quais diagnosticou-se mastite clínica por Prototheca spp. Como procedimento para eliminação da infecção optou-se peta utilização de ordenhas sucessivas praticadas seis vezes diariamente durante oito dias. Os animais foram acompanhados através de culturas micológicas das amostras de leite após 15, 30 e 60 dias do inicio do procedimento. Os sinais clínicos regrediram após três dias, e a partir do 15° dia as culturas foram negativas.

Márcia Kiyoe Shimada

2000-01-01

129

Relationship Between Some Teat and Body Measurements of Holstein Cows and Sub-Clinical Mastitis and Milk Yield  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between some teat and body measurements of lactating cows and sub-clinical mastitis and milk yield. The material was consisted of 125 Holstein cows. The teat diameter, length and height from floor surface, wither height, hip height and chest girth of cows were measured. The cows were grouped according to Californian Mastitis Test (CMT score as positive (CMT Score: 2-4 and negative (CMT Score: 0 and 1 and also according to the 305 days corrected milk yield as low (=5000 kg and high (>5000 kg milk production. The significant differences were found between sub-clinical mastitis groups in terms of teat height, left and right hind teat diameter and right hind teat length (p<0.05. About 305 days corrected milk yield means of positive and negative sub-clinical mastitis groups were 5185.91180.81 and 4994.94210.80 kg, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to milk yield and body measurement between sub-clinical mastitis groups. There were no significant differences between milk yield groups with regard to teat measurements except for right front and hind diameter means (p<0.05. The means of wither height, hip height and chest girth according to low and high milk yield groups were found significant (p<0.001.

S. Sekkin

2011-01-01

130

A descriptive epidemiological study of mastitis in 12 Irish dairy herds  

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Factors relating to the occurrence of mastitis were studied on 12 Irish dairy herds with histories of elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and/or increased incidence of clinical mastitis cases. Milk recording data were analysed, housing conditions and calving areas were examined; dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis records, milking technique and aspects of milking machine function were assessed. Herds with a ratio of less than 110 cubicles per 100 cows were more likely to experienc...

Barrett Damien J; Doherty Michael L; Healy Anne M

2005-01-01

131

SUSCEPTIBILITIES/RESISTANCE OF Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVE AND Streptococcus sp. ISOLATED FROM THE MILK OF COWS PRESENTING CLINICAL MASTITIS IN MILK BASIN OF GOIÂNIA RESISTÊNCIA DE Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVA E Streptococcus sp. ISOLADOS DO LEITE DE VACAS COM MASTITE CLÍNICA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA  

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It was verified the spectrum of susceptibilities/resistance of 76 samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive and 51 samples of Streptococcus sp., isolated from milk of 231 cows presenting clinical mastitis. The diffusion method was used in plate of Kirby-Bauer, being tested ten active principles used in cases of clinical mastitis. Natural penicillin, chloranphenicol, tetracicl...

2007-01-01

132

Sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Savannah Region of Nigeria  

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Abstract Background Sub-clinical mastitis limits milk production and represents an important barrier to profitable livestock economics worldwide. Milk production from cows in Nigeria is not at optimum levels in view of many factors including sub-clinical mastitis. Results The overall herd-level prevalence rate for SCM was 85.33% (256/300 heads of cows) while the quarter-level prevalence rate of SCM was 43.25% (519/1,200 quarters). The prevalence of SCM was 50.67...

Shittu Aminu; Abdullahi Jamilu; Jibril Aliyu; Mohammed Aminu A; Fasina Folorunso O

2012-01-01

133

Methotrexate in the management of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: review of 108 published cases and report of four cases.  

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This study aimed to discuss the role of agents, such as steroids and methotrexate (MTX), in the treatment of patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM). Using Pubmed and Google Scholar data bases, a retrospective study was carried out on IGM cases treated with steroids and/or MTX between 1972 and 2010. Four IGM cases treated with MTX at our clinic were also summarized in this study. A total of 541 IGM cases since 1972, including ours, were retrospectively analyzed. Steroid treatment 5-85 mg was administered over 5 days-22 months to 112 patients aged 21-48 years. Recurrence occurred in 22 patients, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus in 5 patients, no response to treatment was observed in 4 patients, in 2 patients, the mass decreased in size, and static disease was observed in one. The steroid treatment was changed to MTX treatment in 4 patients who had recurrence, 5 with steroid-induced DM and in 4 who were nonrespondents. Three patients were started on steroid together with MTX as a primary treatment. Of the patients treated with MTX, a satisfactory result was obtained in 14 cases and in 2, mastectomy was performed because of recurrence despite the treatment with MTX. IGM is a troublesome condition that presents management problems due to the side effects of steroids. Our study demonstrates that the use of MTX in IGM cases has been effective in preventing complications, in resolving the inflammatory process, and in limiting side effects of corticosteroids. PMID:21951547

Akbulut, Sami; Yilmaz, Davut; Bakir, Sule

2011-01-01

134

Genetic parameters of pathogen-specific incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows  

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The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Also groups of pathogens were investigated, Gram-negative v. Gram-positive and contagio...

Haas, Y.; Barkema, H. W.; Veerkamp, R. F.

2002-01-01

135

Clinical inquiry: what's the best way to relieve mastitis in breastfeeding mothers?  

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Frequent breast emptying helps both infectious and noninfectious mastitis. Antibiotics may be useful for women with positive milk cultures, but their utility for treating undifferentiated mastitis is unknown. Consider prescribing antibiotics for women whose mastitis symptoms don' t improve after 12 to 24 hours of frequent breast emptying. PMID:21901184

Cabou, Aurelie; Babineau, Sarah; St Anna, Leilani

2011-09-01

136

Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Successfully Treated with a Minimum Dose of a Steroid  

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Full Text Available Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is a benign, chronic non-caseating breast disease,often mistaken for breast cancer. It usually affects women of child-bearing age. Thetreatment for IGM is inconclusive. In the past, surgical intervention was suggested due tothe possibility of malignancy. However, in recent reports, corticosteroid therapy has beenused with a good response. We present a case of a female with IGM who was treated successfullywith 0.8 mg/kg/day prednisolone.

Fu-Hsiung Su

2005-06-01

137

Methods for Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Cases of Bovine Mastitis  

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A total of 272 staphylococcal isolates from cases of bovine mastitis (159 Staphylococcus aureus) belonging to 12 different species were identified with ID32 STAPH galleries, and 51 of them were confirmed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequencing. The same isolates were examined for their hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar, DNase activity, and coagulase activity and with two rapid identification kits (Slidex Staph Plus kit and RAPIDEC Staph from Bio-Merieux). The results of this study confirm thos...

Boerlin, Patrick; Kuhnert, Peter; Hu?ssy, Daniela; Schaellibaum, Melchior

2003-01-01

138

Haemorrhagic Mastitis in a Gir Cow Due to Leptospira - A Case Report  

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Full Text Available A Gircowaged 5 years was referred for the treatment with a history of anorexia. On investigation, it was reported that the animal was not taking feed since 10 days of its last calving. The animal was reported to be treated with various antibiotics and fluids without positive response. On clinical examination, the temperature was slightly elevated; tachycardia was noticed and sluggish in respiration. On examination of the udder, the left hind quarter was swollen and the milk was reddish in colour and blood mixed creamy in nature. All the other quarters were apparently normal and the milk was normal in colour and consistency. Samples such as blood smear, blood serum, milk were collected and sent to Central University Laboratory for bacteriological and parasitological examination. Among the samples screened the serum was found positive for Leptospira serovar: Tarassovi. Accordingly, the animal was treated with Amoxycillin for 5 days and the animal has recovered uneventfully. The incidence of rare case of Leptospira species affected mastitis was discussed in detail.

Sivaraman. S

2013-01-01

139

Optimal insemination and replacement decisions to minimize the cost of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

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Mastitis is a serious production-limiting disease, with effects on milk yield, milk quality, and conception rate, and an increase in the risk of mortality and culling. The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) to develop an economic optimization model that incorporates all the different types of pathogens that cause clinical mastitis (CM) categorized into 8 classes of culture results, and account for whether the CM was a first, second, or third case in the current lactation and whether the cow had a previous case or cases of CM in the preceding lactation; and (2) to develop this decision model to be versatile enough to add additional pathogens, diseases, or other cow characteristics as more information becomes available without significant alterations to the basic structure of the model. The model provides economically optimal decisions depending on the individual characteristics of the cow and the specific pathogen causing CM. The net returns for the basic herd scenario (with all CM included) were $507/cow per year, where the incidence of CM (cases per 100 cow-years) was 35.6, of which 91.8% of cases were recommended for treatment under an optimal replacement policy. The cost per case of CM was $216.11. The CM cases comprised (incidences, %) Staphylococcus spp. (1.6), Staphylococcus aureus (1.8), Streptococcus spp. (6.9), Escherichia coli (8.1), Klebsiella spp. (2.2), other treated cases (e.g., Pseudomonas; 1.1), other not treated cases (e.g., Trueperella pyogenes; 1.2), and negative culture cases (12.7). The average cost per case, even under optimal decisions, was greatest for Klebsiella spp. ($477), followed by E. coli ($361), other treated cases ($297), and other not treated cases ($280). This was followed by the gram-positive pathogens; among these, the greatest cost per case was due to Staph. aureus ($266), followed by Streptococcus spp. ($174) and Staphylococcus spp. ($135); negative culture had the lowest cost ($115). The model recommended treatment for most CM cases (>85%); the range was 86.2% (Klebsiella spp.) to 98.5% (Staphylococcus spp.). In general, the optimal recommended time for replacement was up to 5 mo earlier for cows with CM compared with cows without CM. Furthermore, although the parameter estimates implemented in this model are applicable to the dairy farms in this study, the parameters may be altered to be specific to other dairy farms. Cow rankings and values based on disease status, pregnancy status, and milk production can be extracted; these provide guidance when determining which cows to keep or cull. PMID:24534495

Cha, E; Kristensen, A R; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

2014-04-01

140

ABM Clinical Protocol #4: Mastitis, Revised March 2014.  

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A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient. PMID:24911394

Amir, Lisa H

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Noninferiority trial comparing a first-generation cephalosporin with a third-generation cephalosporin in the treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the noninferiority of 2 intramammary treatments for nonsevere clinical mastitis. The 2 treatments were a first-generation cephalosporin (cephapirin sodium, 2 treatments 12h apart) and a third-generation cephalosporin (ceftiofur hydrochloride, treatments once a day for 5d). A total of 296 cases on 7 farms met the enrollment criteria for the study. Streptococcus dysgalactiae was the most common bacterial species identified in milk samples from cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis, followed by Escherichia coli, other esculin-positive cocci, Streptococcus uberis, and Klebsiella spp. Treatment was randomly allocated as either cephapirin sodium or ceftiofur hydrochloride via intramammary infusion according to label standards. Bacteriological cure was defined based on 2 posttreatment milk samples taken at 10 and 17d after enrollment. Noninferiority of cephapirin relative to ceftiofur was shown for bacteriological cure of gram-positive cases and for clinical cure of all cases. Ceftiofur showed a significantly higher bacteriological cure in gram-negative cases. Treatments showed no significant difference in bacteriological cure of all cases and in time to exit from the study, where the absence of a difference does not imply noninferiority. Based on the findings from this study, farm-specific treatment protocols that differ for gram-positive and gram-negative cased may be developed. PMID:23958017

Schukken, Y H; Zurakowski, M J; Rauch, B J; Gross, B; Tikofsky, L L; Welcome, F L

2013-10-01

142

Review of the microbiological, pathological, and clinical aspects of bovine mastitis caused by the alga Prototheca zopfii.  

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The mastitis caused by P. zopfii alga is a disease of high-producing, machine-milked dairy cows. It occurs worldwide in tropical and temperate climatic areas, and mostly appears sporadically in a therapy-resistant form. However, in poorly managed dairy herds it may be endemic, causing serious economic losses as a result of decreased milk quality and quantity and culling of infected animals. The biological properties of this pathogenic alga, the laboratory methods available for its isolation and identification, the pathological and clinical features of this form of mastitis, and the principles of its control are reviewed in this paper. PMID:11361099

Jánosi, S; Rátz, F; Szigeti, G; Kulcsár, M; Kerényi, J; Laukó, T; Katona, F; Huszenicza, G

2001-04-01

143

Relationship Between Some Teat and Body Measurements of Holstein Cows and Sub-Clinical Mastitis and Milk Yield  

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The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between some teat and body measurements of lactating cows and sub-clinical mastitis and milk yield. The material was consisted of 125 Holstein cows. The teat diameter, length and height from floor surface, wither height, hip height and chest girth of cows were measured. The cows were grouped according to Californian Mastitis Test (CMT) score as positive (CMT Score: 2-4) and negative (CMT Score: 0 and 1) and also according to the 30...

2011-01-01

144

Characterization of two proteins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis with homology to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.  

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Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative agent of bovine mastitis and vaccines developed to control this disease showed limited protection due in part to the lack of common antigens among the mastitis isolates. We isolated and identified two genes encoding proteins with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity from a S. aureus strain isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. The GapB and GapC proteins share considerable homology to the GapB and GapC products of human strains of S. aureus. These two proteins could be distinguished by their different GAPDH activities and binding to bovine transferrin properties. Both gapB and gapC genes were conserved in 11 strains tested, and the GapC protein was present on the surface of all S. aureus strains. PMID:15066729

Goji, Noriko; Potter, Andrew A; Perez-Casal, Jose

2004-04-19

145

ETIOLOGY OF THE BOVINE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN GOIÂNIA ETIOLOGIA DA MASTITE CLÍNICA BOVINA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA  

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There is an estimate that the mastitis in dairy herds causes production losses between 5 and 35%, equivalent from 85 to 500 million dollars per year. 231 milk samples from 231 cows on different stages of lactation, with clinic mastitis, from 35 farms of Goiânia, were analyzed in order to map the pathogens implicated in these process and to discover the microorganisms with major prevalence. All the samples had positive growth. The principal agents were Staphylococcus coagulase positive (32.90%, Streptococcus sp. (22.07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12.12%, Enterobacter sp. (10.38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8.65%, Escherichia coli (8.22%, Bacillus sp. (8.22%, Proteus sp. (6.49%, Klebsiella sp. (4.32% and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (3.46%. The Nocardia genus was isolated in 0.86% of the cases.

KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; etiology; isolated microorganisms.

Estima-se que a presença de mastite bovina em rebanhos produtores provoque perdas de produção entre 5 e 35%, o que equivale de 85 a 500 milhões de dólares ao ano. Com o objetivo de mapear os patógenos envolvidos nesse processo e evidenciar os microrganismos com maior freqüência foram examinadas amostras de leite de 231 vacas, em diferentes estágios de lactação, que apresentaram sinais de mastite clínica e eram pertencentes a 35 propriedades rurais da bacia leiteira de Goiânia. Todas as amostras tiveram crescimento bacteriano positivo. Os principais agentes isolados foram o Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (32,90%, Streptococcus sp. (22,07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12,12%, Enterobacter sp. (10,38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8,65%, Escherichia coli (8,22%, Bacillus sp. (8,22%, Proteus sp. (6,49%, Klebsiella sp. (4,32% e Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (3,46%. O gênero Nocardia foi isolado em 0,86 % dos casos.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite bovina; etiologia; microrganismos isolados.

Paulo César Moreira

2007-09-01

146

Radiologic and Clinical Features of Idiopathic Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis Mimicking Advanced Breast Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM), also known as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to describe the radiological imaging and clinical features of IGLM in order to better differentiate this disorder from breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical and radiographic features of 11 women with a total of 12 IGLM lesions. The ages of these women ranged between 29 and 42 years, with a mean age of 34.8 years. Ten patients were examined by both mammography and sonography and one by sonography alone. The sites that were the most frequently involved were the peripheral (6/12), diffuse, (3/12), and subareolar (3/12) regions of the breast. The patient mammograms showed irregular ill-defined masses (7/11), diffuse increased densities (3/11), and one oval obscured mass. In addition, patient sonograms showed irregular tubular lesions (7/12) or lobulated masses with minimal parenchymal distortion (2/12), parenchymal distortion without definite mass lesions (2/12), and one oval mass. Subcutaneous fat obliteration (12/12) and skin thickening (11/12) were also observed in these patients. Contrary to previous reports, skin changes and subareolar involvement were not rare occurrences in IGLM. In conclusion, the sonographic features of IGLM show irregular or tubular hypoechoic masses with minimal parenchymal distortion. Both clinical information and the description of radiographic features of IGLM may aid in the differentiation between IGLM and breast cancer, however histological confirmation is still required for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.

Lee, Jei Hee; Kim, Eun-kyung; Kwack, Kyu Sung; Jung, Woo Hee; Lee, Han Kyung

2006-01-01

147

First report of granulomatous mastitis associated with Sjögren's syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granulomatous mastitis is a rare and often considered as idiopathic disease. However, clinical examination and thorough diagnostic investigations have to be carried out in order to identify cases that are secondary to infections or systemic diseases since these forms may be cured with appropriate etiologic treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the association of granulomatous mastitis with Sjögren's syndrome. We discuss the clinical, pathological and therapeutic implications of this association. PMID:24112140

Letourneux, Christel; Diemunsch, Pierre; Korganow, Anne-Sophie; Akladios, Cherif Youssef; Bellocq, Jean-Pierre; Mathelin, Carole

2013-01-01

148

In vitro activity of 10 antimicrobial agents against bacteria isolated from cows with clinical mastitis.  

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The susceptibility of 495 strains of bacteria, recently isolated in France from cows with clinical mastitis, to 10 antimicrobial agents--penicillin G, cloxacillin, oxacillin, cephalexin, cefazolin, cephapirin, cefquinome, neomycin, ampicillin and colistin--was determined by measuring their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICS). Overall, the levels of resistance were very low except for staphylococci and penicillin G. The 167 streptococcal strains were susceptible to all of the beta-lactams tested, but six (3-6 per cent) were highly resistant to neomycin. Of the 171 staphylococcal isolates, 36.2 per cent were resistant to penicillin G, one strain of Staphylococcus sciuri was classified as methicillin-resistant, but they were all susceptible to neomycin. None of the 122 strains of Escherichia coli was resistant to colistin, but 12 had high MIC values for one or more of the cephalosporins. PMID:12723630

Guérin-Faublée, V; Carret, G; Houffschmitt, P

2003-04-12

149

Emerging mastitis pathogens  

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Full Text Available Mastitis means inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. Many infective agents have been implicated as causes of mastitis. Worldwide, farmers have achieved tremendous success in reducing the incidence of contagious mastitis by adopting the traditional methods of mastitis control. The greatest impact of these control measures has been on infections caused by the contagious bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactia. But this success has not been demonstrated for clinical mastitis caused by other agents. Organisms such as coagulase negative Staphylococci, environmental Streptococci, Mycoplasma spp and Serratia spp have increasingly been isolated from dairy herds that had low somatic cell counts. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 38-39

Janus. A

2009-02-01

150

Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions  

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The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum ab...

2004-01-01

151

Molecular analysis of virulent genes (coa and spa) of staphylococcus aureus involved in natural cases of bovine mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to determine the distribution and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from naturally occurring mastitis in cattle and buffaloes. For this purpose a total of 1445 lactating cattle (653) and buffaloes (792) present at two experimental livestock farms Okara (Bahadarnagar) and Sahiwal (Qadiarabad), in and around district Faisalabad and slaughtered at an abattoir due to low milk yield and were screened for mastitis. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to detect sub clinical mastitis. The positive quarter milk samples were collected for culturing of S. aureus isolates. taphylococcus aureus isolates were identified on the basis of growth features, biochemical characteristics, coagulase test and as well as amplification of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes specific to its virulence. S. aureus isolates (n=265) were characterized by Polymerase chain reaction to determine the frequency of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes. From these isolates the amplification of the coagulase (coa) gene yielded three different PCR products approximately 204bp to 490bp while spa (spa-X) gene produced five different products ranging in size from 190bp to 320bp. PCR revealed that from all the coagulase positive S. aureus isolates 261(98.5%) had spa (spa-X) gene. The results of the present study indicated that S. aureus isolates recovered from bovine mastitis were genetically different within and among the various herds which may provide essential and valuable strategies to control staphylococcal infections in future. (author)

2013-12-01

152

Mycotic mastitis in three dogs due to Blastomyces dermatitidis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine blastomycosis is a common systemic fungal infection within the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys and typically presents as pneumonia, lymphadenitis, or endophthalmitis. This report describes three cases in which mammary tissue samples were submitted to the Department of Pathobiology, University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine with clinical suspicion of neoplasia or postpartum bacterial mastitis. Pyogranulomatous to granulomatous mastitis and dermatitis with intralesional yeast consistent with Blastomyces dermatitidis were diagnosed. Two of the three dogs also had lymph node and pulmonary involvement. Mycotic mastitis due to Blastomyces dermatitidis is rarely reported and blastomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with mammary lesions from endemic areas. PMID:21852517

Ditmyer, Heidi; Craig, Linden

2011-01-01

153

Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of mastitis in buffalo in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent buffalo mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. gives rise to economic losses and may be resistant to antimicrobial therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine resistance patterns and the presence of mecA, blaZ, and efflux pump in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cases of mastitis in Brazilian buffalo herds. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was determined by the disk diffusion test and detection of the mecA and blaZ genes by polymerase chain reaction. The efflux pump screening test was performed by growing samples in Muller-Hinton agar containing ethidium bromide. The percentages for resistance to the drugs tested were: 71.8% to penicillin, 49.2% to amoxicillin, 65.8% to oxacillin, 62.3% to cefquinome, 44.7% to cephalonium, 45.2% to ciprofloxacin, 32.6% to enrofloxacin, 58.7% to erythromycin, 42.7% to florfenicol, 34.6% to gentamicin, 35.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 8.5% to tetracycline + neomycin + bacitracin, 43.2% to cephalothin, 38.1% to streptomycin, 58.7% to tetracycline, 31.6% to norfloxacin, 45.2% to ceftriaxone, 43.2% to nitrofurantoin, 57.7% to doxycycline, and 53.7% to cephalexin. Simultaneous resistance to 4 or more antimicrobial drug groups was observed in 112 isolates, using the mecA (11) and blaZ (79) genes, and efflux pump (47). It is concluded that Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of mastitis in Brazilian buffalo show varying levels of resistance to antibiotics, and caution should be exercised in choosing therapeutics in order to minimize the risk to public health. PMID:21908326

de Medeiros, Elizabeth S; França, Chirles A; Krewer, Carina da C; Peixoto, Renata de M; de Souza, Aldo F; Cavalcante, Marielly B; da Costa, Mateus M; Mota, Rinaldo A

2011-07-01

154

[Bilateral tuberculous mastitis nulliparous patient, initially treated as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The breast infection by M tuberculosis is rare, when it occurs, clinical and histologically confused with other forms of granulomatous inflammation, making it essential to use other diagnostic methods also may be negative. We report a patient with fimica mastitis that originally was treated as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with apparent satisfactory clinical response. However, frequent relapses forced to look for other etiologies. Fortunately, the PCR showed the cause and was managed with specific treatment with disappearance of the disease. Clinical suspicion should be in mind when faced with a case like ours. PMID:22812180

Ruiz-Moreno, José Luis; Peña-Santos, Genaro

2012-03-01

155

Supplementation to prevent subclinical mastitis  

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Effect of supplementation of Zinc, Copper and Levamisole on incidence of subclinical mastitis was studied. The level of zinc increases significantly after supplementation and 75% animals was recovered. However in copper supplemented animals (12) only two animals showed complete recovery. None of the animals in Zinc and Copper supplemented group developed clinical mastitis. In levamisole supplemented group, 50% cows remained in subclinical state while 50% converted in clinical mastitis. So, th...

Upadhayay, A. K.; Pritee Gangwar and Mahesh Kumar

2008-01-01

156

Diagnostic Accuracy Assessment of Sensititre and Agar Disk Diffusion for Determining Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bovine Clinical Mastitis Pathogens?  

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Determining the accuracy and precision of a measuring instrument is pertinent in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This study was conducted to predict the diagnostic accuracy of the Sensititre MIC mastitis panel (Sensititre) and agar disk diffusion (ADD) method with reference to the manual broth microdilution test method for antimicrobial resistance profiling of Escherichia coli (n = 156), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 154), streptococcal (n = 116), and enterococcal (n = 31) bovine clinical ...

2011-01-01

157

Bovine mastitis due to algae of the genus Prototheca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protothecosis was described in many animals, with bovine mastitis being the main form. The increasing number of isolations of Prototheca spp. from bovine mastitis cases indicates the need of a detailed evaluation of this problem. Besides this, these algae do not respond to treatment with the antimicrobians most frequently applied, leading to elimination of the affected animals, as the best method to control the disease. In two dairy farms in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, a total of 155 lactating cows and 52 dry cows were examined. Milk samples were aseptically collected from lactating cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis. From dry cows, secretion samples from all quarters were collected. All samples were then taken to microbiological exams. At dairy farm 1, Prototheca spp. was isolated from 14.95% milk samples from lactating cows, (all of them cases of subclinical mastitis), and from 8.06% samples from dry cows. At dairy farm 2, Prototheca spp. was isolated from 5.1% milk samples and there were ten cases of clinical mastitis due to this agent. Although clinical mastitis has been considered the main form of occurrence of this pathology until now, it is important to consider Prototheca spp. as subclinical mastitis pathogen. Prototheca zopfii was the main specie isolated. In this study a high rate of intramammarian infections, as clinical or subclinical mastitis during lactation as well as in dry period, was observed, high lighting the importance of suitable diagnosis, so that control and preventive measures can be implemented to avoid dissemination of the agent. PMID:8751827

Costa, E O; Ribeiro, A R; Melville, P A; Prada, M S; Carciofi, A C; Watanabe, E T

1996-01-01

158

Primary tubercular mastitis masquerading as malignancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of primary tubercular mastitis is due to rare occurrence and often overlooked and misdiagnosed as pyogenic breast abscess or malignancy. Despite the high incidence of tuberculosis in India, reports of breast tuberculosis among the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.64% and 3.59%. We report a case of a 35-year-old lady with breast lump of 3 months duration, which simulated malignancy on clinical examination but fine needle aspiration cytology revealed granulomatous mastitis secondary to tuberculosis. High level of suspicion and simple fine needle aspiration procedure with micro-biological tests will clinch the final diagnosis. PMID:24678224

Prathima, S; Kalyani, R; Parimala, S

2014-01-01

159

Screening of bovine milk samples for sub-clinical mastitis and antibiogram of bacterial isolates  

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The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus ...

Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.

2011-01-01

160

Revisiting QTL Affecting Clinical Mastitis by High-Density GWAS and Resequencing in the Finnish Ayrshire Dairy Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cattle, causing high economic losses each year. Studies to locate QTL affecting clinical mastitis and milk somatic cell counts have been carried out to increase our understanding of the disease. As part of the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we have used most recent genomic tools to characterize QTL affecting mastitis incidence in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Clinical mastitis diagnoses from -15 to 50 days and 51 to 300 days of first lactation and SCC (geometric mean of SCS observations between 5 to 170 days of first lactation) were included. In total, 1920 progeny tested bulls were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 chip. After quality control, 38473 SNPs were analyzed using a mixed linear model (software package DMU). Associations (5% Bonferroni threshold) were detected in 9 peaks on 5 chromosomes. A set of 238 of the bulls were re-genotyped with the BovineHD chip, and the remaining bulls imputed to high density genotypes using Beagle software. GWAS was repeated with the imputed HD-data with GRAMMAS (GenABEL in R). Thereby 17 peaks on 12 chromosomes were identified. Eight high priority peaks were defined based on both 50K and imputed HD results, and overlap with previous QTL findings. Eighteen ancestral Finnish Ayrshire bulls were sequenced to over 20X coverage, and this data was used to identify sequence variations in regions flanking 2.5 Mb each side of the high priority peaks. The variations were ranked according to estimated effect by a pipeline developed within the Quantomics project

Vilkki, Johanna; Iso-Touru, Terhi

 
 
 
 
161

A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus  

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Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversu...

Amir Lisa H; Garland Suzanne M; Lumley Judith

2006-01-01

162

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF VARIETY PLANTS AGAINST THE RESISTANT STREPTOCOCCUS WHICH CAUSE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus is considered to be one of the most dangerous causes of Clinical mastitis in cows. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of extracts prepared from different parts of the flowing plants: Oleaeuropea Linn(Oleaceae, Myrtuscommunis Linn (Liliaceae ,thymus vulgaris Linn (Laminaceae, Rosemery Linn(Laminaceae, Ficuscarica Linn (Moraceae, and Achilleafalcata Linn(Asteraceae against resistant Streptococcus in 1371 Samples of milk. This work was achieved in four stages: First of all, the presence of Streptococcus in 1371 Samples of milk, by using blood agar, Bile Esculin agar, and some bio-chemical tests were investigated .Secondly, the antibacterial activity of many antibiotics on these bacteria by using disc diffusion method were determined.Thirdly, the plants were extracted with water, absolute alcohol, and petroleum Ether by using soxhlet apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Fourthly, the antibacterial activity of the extractions on resistant Streptococcus was determined by using disc diffusion method. This study has shown the presence of different antibacterial effectiveness of the extracts prepared from different parts of those plants. The extract of thymus vulgaris is more effective when compared to the extract of Oleaeur opaea against resistant Streptococcus. 

SHAZA ANWAR AL LAHAM

2013-09-01

163

Mastitis de Verano en terneras (Summer Mastitis in veals).  

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ResumenEn el presente trabajo se brindan algunas consideraciones clínicas, anatomopatológicas y epizootiológicas sobre un brote de Mastitis de Verano Arcanobacterium pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes) sensible a la Penicilina, Cloranfenicol, Kanamicina y Propóleo en solución oleosa.Abstract The present paper gives some clinical, anatomopathological and epizootiological considerations on an outbreak of Summer Mastitis Arcanobectarium pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes) sensitive to Penic...

2012-01-01

164

Milk haptoglobin, milk amyloid A, and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase activity in bovines with naturally occurring clinical mastitis diagnosed with a quantitative PCR test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The associations between quantitative bacteriological results from a real-time PCR test and concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APP) and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity in milk in naturally occurring clinical mastitis were investigated. Milk APP concentrations and NAGase activity in clinical mastitis caused by different udder pathogens were studied. The associations between the severity of the clinical signs and concentrations of APP and NAGase activity were estimated. Milk samples from 281 cases of clinical mastitis were collected from 3 Estonian dairy farms and analyzed by PCR to identify pathogens. Twenty-seven samples out of 281 (9.6%) were PCR negative. Milk samples containing 4 or more bacterial species (n=28) were considered possibly contaminated and excluded from all further analyses. In total, 443 bacterial identifications were made from the remaining 226 milk samples. A single bacterial species was detected in 68 samples (30.1%), 2 species were detected in 99 samples (43.8%), and 3 species were detected in 59 (26.1%) samples. To determine the inflammatory response in the udder, the concentrations of milk amyloid A (MAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) and NAGase activity in the milk were analyzed. A significant positive association was found between the severity of the clinical signs and inflammatory markers in the milk. Milk amyloid A and Hp concentrations and NAGase activity were significantly higher in samples with large quantities of bacterial DNA from Escherichia coli or Streptococcus dysgalactiae compared with milk samples not containing those species. Large quantities of bacterial DNA from Trueperella pyogenes or Streptococcus uberis in the milk were associated with elevated concentrations of Hp and high NAGase activity, but not with increased MAA concentrations. Milk samples containing Corynebacterium bovis and coagulase-negative staphylococci had significantly lower concentrations of MAA and Hp and lower NAGase activity compared with samples where these species were not detected. It can be concluded that concentrations of APP and NAGase activity in the milk were associated with the quantity of bacterial DNA in the milk samples. PMID:23548292

Kalmus, P; Simojoki, H; Pyörälä, S; Taponen, S; Holopainen, J; Orro, T

2013-06-01

165

STRATEGIES FOR DIAGNOSIS, CONTROL, AND PREVENTION OF MASTITIS ESTRATEGIAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO, CONTROL Y PREVENCIÓN DE MASTITIS  

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Full Text Available In Colombia, the great diversity in management, methods of milking and breeds for milk production, makes very difficult to unify the rules for mastitis control; therefore the veterinarian’s job, according to the available resources in each herd is to advise the best procedures for both, milking routines and mastitis control. Influenced by the differences in management, the prevalence of each of the microorganisms that may cause mastitis varies from region to region and even from herd to herd within the same area. As a rule of thumb, the more basic the system, the less practices for mastitis control are present; this situation consequently leads to a high presentation of contagious mastitis by Streptococcus agalactiae. As the management improves, and dry cow therapy practices are implemented particularly in systems with milking machines, the mayor pathogen isolated is Staphylococcus aureus which is a regular resident in the skin. The number of cases caused by environmental microorganisms is very low, but maintains the clinical level of serious acute mastitis reported in dairy herds in other countries. Due to the indiscriminate and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics used for mastitis treatment, a high level of resistance to antibiotics has resulted to most of the antibiotics already in the market. It is imperative a close cooperation between the organizations for drug regulation and control, the pharmaceutical industry and the Veterinary medical profession to established rules and standards to safeguard this non-renewable resource.La diversidad en los sistemas de manejo, métodos de ordeño y aun de razas que se tienen en la producción de leche en Colombia, no permiten unificar las normas para el control de mastitis y será el veterinario quien, de acuerdo con los recursos disponibles en cada finca, establezca los procedimientos para el manejo del ordeño y el control de la mastitis. Influenciados por las diferencias de manejo, la prevalencia de cada uno de los microorganismos causantes de mastitis varía de región a región y aun de finca a finca en la misma zona. Como criterio general, entre más elemental sea el sistema de manejo o menos prácticas en el control de mastitis, predominan las mastitis contagiosas por Streptococcus agalactiae que van cediendo espacio a las producidas por Staphylococcus aureus cuando se implementan las prácticas de terapia de vaca seca, y en los hatos con ordeños mecánicos aumentan los casos por microorganismos localizados en la piel de los pezones. El número de casos por microorganismos ambientales es muy bajo, pero mantiene el comportamiento clínico de mastitis aguda grave que se reporta en los hatos estabulados en otros países. Por el uso indiscriminado y a veces inadecuado que caracteriza el manejo de los antibióticos para el tratamiento de mastitis se tiene un alto nivel de resistencia a la mayoría de los antibióticos existentes en el mercado para el tratamiento de la mastitis. Es urgente que en forma concertada entre el ente de control, la industria farmacéutica y el cuerpo médico veterinario se establezcan normas y criterios para salvaguardar este recurso no renovable.

Cotrino Badillo Victor

2009-05-01

166

Imaging features of tuberculous mastitis : Comparison with non-tuberculous mastitis  

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The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included

1996-12-01

167

Imaging features of tuberculous mastitis : Comparison with non-tuberculous mastitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included.

Won, Mi Sook; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Kim, Young Mook; Lee, Myung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-01

168

Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign disorder of the breast whose aetiology is controversial, and is often misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as mammary malignancy; as a result, it may be incorrectly treated. Although no standard treatment is available for this chronic disease, surgery with or without corticosteroids has been tried with controversial results. This study discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, recurrence, and follow-up data of IGM with a review of relevant literature. Methods: From 2009–2012, the Breast Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, conducted a clinical study on 20 patients with breast lumps. Their clinical and radiological examinations were indeterminate, and a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis was established only by histopathology. Results: The majority of the patients were cases of unknown aetiology, who presented with a unilateral breast mass. A few patients had a mass with an abscess, along with axillary lymphadenopathy. A total of 4 patients were suspected of malignancy using radiology. In all patients, sterilised pus was sent for culture and sensitivity. Microscopy showed the characteristic pattern of granulomatous inflammation. All patients were treated with antibiotics for 6 weeks, and the mean follow-up period was 15 months (11–33 months). All patients had complete remission with no further recurrence. Conclusion: This single largest study of cases of IGM in Oman highlights the pitfalls in diagnosing this non-neoplastic disease of unknown aetiology and uncertain pathogenesis. It emphasises IGM’s excellent response to antibiotics, which is crucial, as IGM is a disease which is notoriously difficult and controversial to treat.

Al-Jarrah, Adil; Taranikanti, Varna; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Al-Jabri, Asma; Sawhney, Sukhpal

2013-01-01

169

Sensors and Clinical Mastitis—The Quest for the Perfect Alert  

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Full Text Available When cows on dairy farms are milked with an automatic milking system or in high capacity milking parlors, clinical mastitis (CM cannot be adequately detected without sensors. The objective of this paper is to describe the performance demands of sensor systems to detect CM and evaluats the current performance of these sensor systems. Several detection models based on different sensors were studied in the past. When evaluating these models, three factors are important: performance (in terms of sensitivity and specificity, the time window and the similarity of the study data with real farm data. A CM detection system should offer at least a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 99%. The time window should not be longer than 48 hours and study circumstances should be as similar to practical farm circumstances as possible. The study design should comprise more than one farm for data collection. Since 1992, 16 peer-reviewed papers have been published with a description and evaluation of CM detection models. There is a large variation in the use of sensors and algorithms. All this makes these results not very comparable. There is a also large difference in performance between the detection models and also a large variation in time windows used and little similarity between study data. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the overall performance of the different CM detection models. The sensitivity and specificity found in the different studies could, for a large part, be explained in differences in the used time window. None of the described studies satisfied the demands for CM detection models.

Henk Hogeveen

2010-08-01

170

Radiologic features of granulomatous mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a recognized, but an uncommon cause of breast mass. Awareness of this condition is important, because it can clinically as well as radiologically mimic breast carcinoma. In this study, we present the imaging features of a series of 10 cases with proved diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis with emphasis on magnetic resonance (MR) findings. All those patients who were histologically proven to have GM of the breast were analyzed. Their files were reviewed and data recorded for demographic, clinical presentation and imaging appearances. The imaging features of the lesions by mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed. Of the 305 patients who were surgically treated, 10 (3%) cases proved to have GM. All the patients were females with age ranging from 27 to 53 years (average 38 years and median age 36 years). Guided core biopsy was performed in all cases for confirmation of diagnosis followed by either excision biopsy (in five cases) or lumpectomy (in five cases). The final histopathologic results were chronic granulomatous inflammation consistent with tuberculosis in four cases and GM with acute inflammation, but unknown etiology in four cases and GM due to duct ectasia in two cases. GM, a rare breast condition, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a breast mass associated with inflammatory change. Routine breast imaging with US, MG, or MRI, the condition from malignant lesions and biopsy, still remains the only method of definite diagnosis. PMID:21929558

Al-Khawari, Hanaa A T; Al-Manfouhi, Huda A; Madda, John P; Kovacs, Agnes; Sheikh, Mehraj; Roberts, Omolara

2011-01-01

171

First report of granulomatous mastitis associated with Sj?gren's syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Granulomatous mastitis is a rare and often considered as idiopathic disease. However, clinical examination and thorough diagnostic investigations have to be carried out in order to identify cases that are secondary to infections or systemic diseases since these forms may be cured with appropriate etiologic treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the association of granulomatous mastitis with Sjögren’s syndrome. We discuss the clinical, pathological and therapeutic implications of this association.

2013-01-01

172

PCR-based detection of genes encoding virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases  

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The present study was carried out to genotypically characterize Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from bovine mastitis cases. A total of 37 strains of S. aureus were isolated during processing of 552 milk samples from 140 cows. The S. aureus strains were characterized phenotypically, and were further characterized genotypically by polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers that amplified genes encoding coagulase (coa), clumping factor (clfA), thermonuclease (nuc), entero...

Kalorey, Dewanand Rajaram; Shanmugam, Yuvaraj; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao; Chousalkar, Kapil Kamalakarrao; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo Baliram

2007-01-01

173

EFFECT OF SEVERITY OF SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS ON SOMATIC CELL COUNT AND LACTOSE CONTENTS OF BUFFALO MILK  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of severity of sub-clinical mastitis on somatic cell count (SCC and lactose contents of milk in 100 apparently healthy dairy buffaloes. Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT was used to determine the severity of sub-clinical mastitis which was graded as Negative (N, Traces (T, mild clumping (P1, moderate clumping (P2 and heavy clumping (P3. Mean milk SCC (x 105 at SFMT scores N, T, P1, P2 and P3 were 2.06 + 1.09, 3.73 + 0.96, 9.69 + 4.05, 31.97 + 10.26 and 121.01 + 23.71 per ml, respectively. Using the same scoring, mean values of milk lactose were 5.10 + 0.09, 4.81 + 0.10, 4.66 + 0.08, 3.92 + 0.05 and 2.66 + 0.37 percent, respectively. Percent increases of mean SCC in T, P1, P2 and P3 groups with respect to N (control were 81.47, 370.51, 1451.71 and 5773.41, respectively. Percent decreases of mean lactose in T, P1, P2 and P3 groups with respect to N (control were 5.54, 8.52, 22.98 and 47.81, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated non-significant difference of mean SCC in N and T groups, while there was highly significant (P<0.01 difference in mean SCC among P1, P2 and P3 groups and also with respect to N. Similarly, there was a significant (P<0.05 difference of mean lactose among T, P1, P2 and P3 groups and also with respect to control/ negative group.

A. SHARIF, T. AHMAD, M. Q. BILAL1, A. YOUSAF AND G. MUHAMMAD

2007-07-01

174

Detection of multiple virulence-associated genes in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from bovine mastitis cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical samples (n=725) were collected from bovines (n=243) which were positive for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC). The clinical samples comprising blood (n=239), milk (n=243), and faecal swabs (n=243) were examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp. Isolation of the pathogen was done using selective enrichment in University of Vermont Medium and plating onto Dominguez-Rodriguez isolation agar. Confirmation of the isolates was based on biochemical tests and Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen (CAMP) test followed by pathogenicity testing. Pathogenicity of the isolates was tested by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) assay as well as in vivo tests namely, chick embryo and mice inoculation tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for five virulence-associated genes, plcA, prfA, hlyA, actA and iap. Listeria spp. were isolated from 12 (1.66%) samples. Of these 4 (0.55%) and 1 (0.14%) were confirmed as Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii, respectively. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii were recovered from milk samples (2) and faecal (3) of mastitic cattle (3) and buffaloes (2). L. monocytogenes recovered from the milk of mastitic cattle and L. ivanovii from the faecal swab of buffalo turned out to be pathogenic. However, the remaining three hemolytic isolates exhibiting positive CAMP test turned out to be negative in PI-PLC assay, chick embryo and mice inoculation. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii isolates characterized as pathogenic by PI-PLC assay and in vivo pathogenicity tests were found to possess all the five virulence-associated genes and three genes, plcA, prfA and actA respectively. The remaining three hemolytic but non-pathogenic L. monocytogenes isolates were negative for plcA by PCR. It seems that the plcA gene and its expression (in the PI-PLC assay) have an important role as virulence determinants in pathogenic Listeria spp. In conclusion, the PI-PLC assay and virulence genes targeted PCR (plcA, prfA and hlyA genes for L. monocytogenes and plcA, prfA and actA genes for L. ivanovii) hold a good promise as rapid and reliable in vitro alternatives to in vivo pathogenicity tests. PMID:16979771

Rawool, D B; Malik, S V S; Shakuntala, I; Sahare, A M; Barbuddhe, S B

2007-01-25

175

[Microbiologic characteristics of postpartum lactation mastitis].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the bacteriological survey of 410 patients with purulent mastitis Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the main etiological factor of the disease. In most cases the strains of phage group I, phage type 80 were isolated. In unilateral mastitis during the acute period staphylococci were isolated from the the milk samples taken from the affected mammary gland in 77.4% of cases, and from the milk samples from the healthy mammary gland in 62.3% of cases. The strains isolated from the milk of both mammary glands and the surgical wound were identical. By the time of clinical convalescence staphylococci could be isolated from the milk of the affected and healthy mammary gland in 21.8% and 10.1% of cases, respectively, and from the surgical wound in 31.5% of cases. PMID:7415667

Cherkasskaia, R S; Dodonov, V N; Darbeeva, O S; Severov, A M; Khodoc, V G

1980-03-01

176

Identification and Antibiotic Sensitivity of the Causative Organisms of Sub-clinical Mastitis in Sheep and Goats  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to isolate and identify organisms responsible for sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in goats and sheep for the determination of point prevalence of SCM and antibiotic sensitivity of the identified organisms. For this purpose 50 each of lactating sheep and goats were examined with the commercially available Leucocytest® SCM detection kit. It was found that 4 and 36% sheep and goats suffered from SCM, respective. The prevalence of clinical mastitis (CM was 4 and 6% in sheep and goats, respectively. Milk samples were collected individually from sheep and goats with SCM and were cultured in different media including nutrient agar, blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar. The bacteria were further characterized by biochemical tests. In both goats and sheep, the organisms responsible for SCM were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The organisms were found most sensitive to gentamicin (Gn. After Gn treatment to goats and sheep with SCM, total bacterial counts decreased and milk production significantly increased compared to levels prior to treatment. It is suggested from the study that early detection of SCM and treatment with proper antibiotics can control SCM in goats and sheep.

Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1,5, Md. Sabbir Ahamed2, Md. Shahin Alam1, Md. Masudur Rahman3, Tazminaz Sultana4, Yoon-Seok Roh5 and Bumseok Kim

2012-05-01

177

Incidence of Enterotoxin-Producing MRSA in Bovine Mastitis Cases, Bulk Milk Tanks and Processing Plants in Thailand  

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Full Text Available Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA are virulent strains of S. aureus which have become resistant to most antibiotics. The emergence of MRSA is a serious public health concern worldwide. The present study sought to determine the distribution of enterotoxin-producing MRSA in Thailand using multiplex PCR. A total of 375 S. aureus isolates obtained from 598 mastitis cases, 376 bulk tank milk samples and 46 pasteurized milk samples were investigated for phenotypic methicillin resistance. Of these 375 isolates, 74 were found to be methicillin resistant. Variation in the SE encoding genes was detected. A total of 61 isolates harbored at least one classical SE gene, 30 isolates possessed only one type of enterotoxin gene and the remaining 31 were found to be positive for more than one toxin gene. The genes most frequently detected were seb and sed. Isolates obtained from mastitis cases had the highest incidence of enterotoxin genes followed by bulk milk isolates. On comparing the data relative to the different dairy locations, the isolates from Khon Kaen province harbored most detected enterotoxin genes. This was the only location where MRSA isolates from both mastitis milk and bulk milk were found harboring enterotoxin genes. Among the 5 S. aureus strains isolated from pasteurized milk only one isolate was MRSA. The strain which was isolated in Mahasarakham was positive for the sed gene. The current study has detected enterotoxigenic MRSA in mastitis milk, bulk milk and also pasteurized milk from Thailand. Further detailed analysis of functional genomics is now warranted to gain a better understanding of enterotoxin activity and virulence.

Komkrich Pimpukdee

2012-01-01

178

The effect of repeated episodes of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis on mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a first and repeated cases of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis (CM) on the risk of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. The pathogens studied were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Trueperella pyogenes, others, and no growth on aerobic culture. A total of 50,166 lactations were analyzed from 5 large, high-milk-producing dairy herds in New York State from 2003/2004 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of parity, month of lactation, CM, calving diseases, pregnancy status, current season, and economic values on the risk of mortality and culling. Among first-lactation cows, the presence of a first CM case generally exposed cows to a greater risk of mortality in the current month (compared with the absence of a first case). This was especially acute with a first case of Klebsiella spp., where cows were 4.5 times more at risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-7.6] of mortality, and with a first case of E. coli were 3.3 times more at risk (95% CI: 2.5-4.5). In first-parity cows, the risk of culling generally increased with a case of bacteria-specific CM. This was observed among cows with a first case of T. pyogenes [relative risk=10.4 (95% CI: 8.4-12.8)], a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=6.7 (95% CI: 5.5-8.1)], a first case of Staph. aureus [relative risk=4.8 (95% CI: 2.7-8.4)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.6)], and a third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=5.0 (95% CI: 3.1-8.0)]. In general, the presence of a first or second/third case resulted in cows in parity ?2 with a greater risk of mortality. This was greatest for cows with a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.3)], followed by a second/third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.2 (95% CI: 2.5-4.0)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.0 (95% CI: 2.7-3.3)], and a first case of other CM [relative risk=1.8 (95% CI: 1.6-2.0)]. Among cows of parity ?2, the risk of culling was greater for cows as they progressed through lactations [i.e., cows in parity 4+ were 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0-2.2) times more likely to be culled compared with cows in lactation 2 (the baseline)]. The risk of culling dependent on the cow's characteristics can be easily calculated from the parameter estimates in the provided tables. PMID:23769361

Cha, E; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

2013-08-01

179

Norwegian mastitis control programme  

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Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

Østerås O

2009-04-01

180

Mammographic features of isolated tuberculous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To present the mammography findings in 8 patients with tuberculosis (TB) of the breast, with a review of the literature. This study is a retrospective data collection. Each chart with confirmed breast TB based on bacteriology or pathologic findings was analyzed for clinical presentation, gender, nationality, demographic data, prior history of TB, investigation, management, mammographic findings and ultrasound, when available. Mammograms were reviewed by 2 consultant radiologists without knowing the previous diagnosis or the nature of the study. The study was carried out at The State Tuberculosis Registry and Radiology Department, Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar, from 1990 to 2002. Out of 13 females with TB mastitis, only 8 cases had mammograms preoperatively. The incidence of breast TB in Qatar is rare (1/1000 mammograms per year). Three types of TB mastitis were identified in our study; the nodular (50%), the diffuse (37.5%) of which 77% were limited to one sector of the breast and the sclerosing (12.5%) mastitis. Three patients (43%) were reported as carcinoma. Although mammography identified 3 types of TB, it was not helpful in differentiating TB from carcinoma of the breast. However, the careful evaluation of the degree of density and trabecular thickening of the mass in relation to it size might reduce the number of false positive cases of carcinoma diagnosed with mammograms. Biopsy specimen remains the best diagnostic tool in TB mastitis. (author)

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Screening of bovine milk samples for sub-clinical mastitis and antibiogram of bacterial isolates  

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Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (58% and Escherichia coli (23.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8%, Streptococcus sp. (5.5%, Klebsiella sp. (3% and Bacillus sp. (2%. The in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity for ciprofloxacin (89%, ofloxacin (85%, enrofloxacin (82%, gentamicin (80% and chloramphenicol (75%, resistant to colistin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 358-359

Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.

182

Diagnosis of clinical bovine mastitis by fine needle aspiration followed by staining and scanning electron microscopy in a Prototheca zopfii outbreak.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biopsy by fine needle aspiration together with microbiological examination and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated in diagnosis of clinical bovine mastitis in a Prototheca zopfii outbreak. Fine needle aspiration was performed in 21 mammary quarters from ten Holstein cows presenting clinical mastitis caused by P. zopfii. The algae were previously identified in the microbiological examination of milk collected from these cows. Material aspirated from these 21 mammary glands was submitted to cytological staining (Gram, Giemsa and/or Shor staining). Fine needle aspiration enabled cytological identification of the algae in these 21 mammary glands, from which P. zopfii was isolated in the milk. Simultaneously, five mammary fragments collected by fine needle aspiration from these 21 mammary glands presenting clinical mastitis were also submitted to microbiological examination. P. zopfii was also isolated from these five fragments. Scanning electron microscopy technique also identified three of these five P zopfii strains isolated from mammary fragments collected by cytological aspiration. These results suggest that fine needle aspiration may be an alternative method for the diagnosis of clinical mastitis. PMID:15487325

da Costa, Elizabeth Oliveira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Ribeiro, Andréa Rentz; Rocha, Noeme Sousa; de Nardi Júnior, Geraldo

2004-07-01

183

Supplementation to prevent subclinical mastitis  

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Full Text Available Effect of supplementation of Zinc, Copper and Levamisole on incidence of subclinical mastitis was studied. The level of zinc increases significantly after supplementation and 75% animals was recovered. However in copper supplemented animals (12 only two animals showed complete recovery. None of the animals in Zinc and Copper supplemented group developed clinical mastitis. In levamisole supplemented group, 50% cows remained in subclinical state while 50% converted in clinical mastitis. So, the zinc supplementation is better over other two supplementation [Veterinary World 2008; 1(2.000: 40-41

A.K.Upadhayay

2008-04-01

184

The surgical management of granulomatous mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granulomatous mastitis is an inflammatory breast condition of unknown etiology. Management remains controversial and treatment algorithms are lacking from the literature. Few resources exist that discuss breast reconstruction following extirpation. This descriptive case series reviews the clinicopathologic features of granulomatous mastitis.We describe the surgical management undertaken at our institution including General and Plastic Surgery procedures. Eleven clinical charts and histologic slides of biopsy specimens were reviewed in our health region between 1992 and 2007. Demographic data, clinical presentation, and radiologic findings were tabulated. Treatment consisted of empirical antibiotics and surgical excision. Procedures performed included incision and drainage (n = 8), excisional biopsy (n = 15), partial mastectomy (n = 5), partial mastectomy with reduction mammaplasty (n = 2), and mastectomy with TRAM flap reconstruction (n = 1).Treatment was successful in all but one case. Multiple surgeries for recurrent lesions were often required to achieve final remission. Following extirpation, we recommend delayed breast reconstruction to monitor for recurrence. PMID:20023450

Yau, Farrah M; Macadam, Sheina A; Kuusk, Urve; Nimmo, Michael; Van Laeken, Nancy

2010-01-01

185

Bilateral tubercular mastitis  

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Full Text Available Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis. Moreover the disease is often overlooked and misdiagnosed as carcinoma or pyogenic abscess. Reports on breast tuberculosis from India have been few; reported incidence of breast tuberculosis amongst the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.64 and 3.59 per cent. Bilateral involvement is still more uncommon (3%. Most accepted view for spread of infection is centripetal lymphatic spread as axillary node involvement was shown to occur in 50 to 75 per cent of cases of tubercular mastitis. Here we re-port a case of a young female who presented with draining sinuses in the breast and no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of breast lump showed evidence of granulomatous mastitis. She was given therapeutic trial of four drug antitubercular treatment. Both the lump disappeared and sinus healed after six months of antitubercular treatment. Thus a retrospective diagnosis of tu-bercular mastitis was made.

Kant Surya

2007-01-01

186

Enfermidades digitais em vacas de aptidão leiteira: associação com mastite clínica, metrites e aspectos epidemiológicos Foot diseases in dairy cows: association with clinical mastitis, metrites and predisposed factors  

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Full Text Available Utilizaram-se nesse estudo 5300 vacas de aptidão leiteira, provenientes de 80 propriedades rurais, que adotavam manejo intensivo ou semi-extensivo, com o objetivo de averiguar a existência de possível associação entre enfermidades digitais, mastite clínica e/ou metrite e identificar possíveis fatores de risco das enfermidades digitais. Em 325 (6,13% vacas foram diagnosticados apenas enfermidades digitais, em 35 (0,66% enfermidades digitais e mastite clínica, em 52 (0,98% enfermidades digitais e metrite, em 28 (0,53% enfermidades digitais, mastite clínica e metrite, em 128 (2,42% apenas metrite, em 165 (3,11% somente mastite clínica, e em 89 (1,68% vacas metrite e mastite clínica. As mudanças bruscas na alimentação, o excesso de sujidades nas instalações, os pisos irregulares e abrasivos, a não utilização ou uso incorreto de pedilúvio, a falta de casqueamento preventivo, a ausência de quarentena, e a aquisição de animais sem a preocupação com o aspecto sanitário foram considerados os fatores de risco de maior ocorrência. Foi constatada diferença significativa entre a ocorrência de enfermidades digitais, mastite clínica e metrite, além de associação fraca entre tais enfermidades, concluindo-se que não houve relação expressiva entre enfermidades podais, mastite clínica e metrite em vacas lactantes.With the objective to investigate a possible association between foot diseases, clinical mastitis and/or metritis and predisposing factors for foot diseases, 5300 dairy cows from 80 intensive and semi-intensive farms were used. In 325 (6.13% cows only foot disease was diagnosed, in 35 (0.66% foot disease and clinical mastitis, in 52 (0.98% foot disease and metritis, in 28 (0.53% foot disease, clinical mastitis and metritis, in 128 (2.42% only metritis, in 165 (3.11% only clinical mastitis, and in 89 (1.68% cows metritis and clinical mastitis. Rapid changes in the diet, high exposure time of hoof horn to slurry and wet conditions, concrete floors, use of footbaths, low frequency of claw trimming, irregular quarantine, and no attention to health aspects during acquisition of the animals were considered as major risk factors for the occurrence of those diseases. The McNemar test for dependent samples showed significant statistical differences between the occurrence of foot disease, clinical mastitis and metritis, in spite of the poor association between those diseases. It was concluded that there was no expressive relationship between foot diseases, clinical mastitis and metritis in lactent cows.

Luiz Antônio Franco da Silva

2004-12-01

187

Recurrent granulomatous mastitis mimicking inflammatory breast cancer  

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Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon benign breast lesion. Diagnosis is a matter of exclusion from other inflammatory, infectious and granulomatous aetiologies. Here, we presented an atypical GM case, which had clinical and radiologic features overlapping with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The disease had multiple recurrences. The patient is a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with a sudden onset of left breast swelling accompanied by diffuse skin redness, especially of the subareolar reg...

Ergin, Ahmet Bahadir; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Daw, Hamed; Tahan, Gulgun; Gong, Yun

2011-01-01

188

Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae?  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates were genetically characterized. The algae are part of Prototheca isolates that were collected during a 6-year period, isolated from the milk of 41 dairy cows in a total of 22 herds with a history of increasing somatic cell counts, mild clinical signs of udder infection, and unsuccessful response to the usual therapy. PCR amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), amplified rDNA restriction analysis, and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rDNA sequences were performed. Thirty-seven isolates were identified as P. zopfii var. hydrocarbonea and four as Prototheca blaschkeae. These data suggest a high incidence of P. zopfii var. hydrocarbonea mastitis in the region and demonstrate for the first time the involvement of P. blaschkeae with bovine mammary gland infections.

Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Julio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude

2008-01-01

189

Bovine mastitis associated with Prototheca blaschkeae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates were genetically characterized. The algae are part of Prototheca isolates that were collected during a 6-year period, isolated from the milk of 41 dairy cows in a total of 22 herds with a history of increasing somatic cell counts, mild clinical signs of udder infection, and unsuccessful response to the usual therapy. PCR amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), amplified rDNA restriction analysis, and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rDNA sequences were performed. Thirty-seven isolates were identified as P. zopfii var. hydrocarbonea and four as Prototheca blaschkeae. These data suggest a high incidence of P. zopfii var. hydrocarbonea mastitis in the region and demonstrate for the first time the involvement of P. blaschkeae with bovine mammary gland infections. PMID:18434557

Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Júlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A R; Thompson, Gertrude

2008-06-01

190

Fatores de risco, etiologia e aspectos clínicos da mastite em ovelhas de corte no Paraná / Risk factors, etiology and clinical aspects of mastitis in meat ewes of Parana, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mastite em ovelhas da raça Santa Inês apresenta-se como um problema de grande proporção e gravidade e é dificilmente tratada com sucesso. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e etiológicos da mastite clínica em ovelhas de corte criadas no norte do Paraná. O p [...] resente estudo foi realizado entre os meses de outubro de 2009 a setembro de 2010 envolvendo 54 rebanhos de ovinos de corte de diferentes raças. Durante as visitas às propriedades, um questionário foi preenchido com a finalidade de caracterizar o problema. Setenta ovelhas com mastite clínica foram examinadas e amostras de secreção láctea foram colhidas para exame microbiológico. A mastite foi considerada um problema relevante em 39 propriedades (72,3%), com frequência média de 6,74%. Casos crônicos e agudos de mastite foram observados em 69% e 31% das ovelhas examinadas, respectivamente. Em ambos os casos, a mastite flegmonosa foi a forma mais encontrada (65,5% dos casos). O agente etiológico mais prevalente foi Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (54,5%), seguido por S. aureus e A. pyogenes (11,5% cada). Mannheimia haemolytica foi isolada em dois casos. Sistema de criação não extensivo e raça Santa Inês foram identificados como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de mastite clínica. Secagem das fêmeas após 120 dias de lactação e separação de fêmeas doentes do rebanho foram associadas com menor ocorrência da doença. Recomenda-se a limpeza adequada das instalações e a secagem mais tardia, principalmente em rebanhos Santa Inês. Abstract in english Mastits is infrequent in meat ewes. However Santa Ines ewes have a high incidence of this disease and it is severe and difficult to treat. The goal of this study was to characterize clinical, epidemiological and etiological aspects of clinical mastitis in meat ewes reared in the north of Parana, Bra [...] zil. Fifith four farms were visited from October 2009 to September 2010. The surveyed data included frequency, breeds of sheep affected, lamb mortality rates, main clinical signs, attempts and outcome of treatment, method and period of weaning and management features. Seventy ewes with clinical mastitis were fully examinated and samples of mammary secretion were asseptically taken for bacteriological culture. Mastitis was identified in 39 farms (72.3%) as a relevant problem (mean frequency was 6,74%). Chronic and acute mastitis were observed in 69% and 31% of the examinated ewes, respectively. In both cases, phlegmonous mastitis was the most prevalent form (65.5%). Coagulase negative Staphylococccus (CNS) was the main isolated microorganism (54.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (11.5%, each one). Mannheimia haemolytica was found in two cases. The risk factors for clinical mastitis were intensive management system and Santa Ines breed. Weaning after 120 days of lactation and isolation of affected ewes were associated with lower frequency of mastitis. Preventive measures recommended are daily cleaning of facilities and delayed weaning, mainly in Santa Ines flocks.

Pereira, Priscilla F. V.; Stotzer, Erika S.; Pretto-Giordano, Lucienne G.; Müller, Ernst E.; Lisbôa, Júlio A. N..

191

The magnetic resonance image findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rare disease of breast. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year old female patient with the diagnosis, concentrating on magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and its clinical application. There have been other reports on MRI findings in this entity in the radiological literature, but in our case report clinical, cytological, pathological and radiological correlations are also provided. (author)

2004-01-01

192

Identification of potential markers in blood for the development of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle at parturition and during early lactation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Our objective was to identify specific blood markers as risk factors for the development of mastitis during early lactation. We used a subset of cows from a larger experiment that consisted of a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows. Cows were of 3 breeds and ranged from parity 1 to 4. Blood samples were collected weekly from 56 d before expected calving date through 90 d in milk (DIM). Blood was analyzed for several hormones, metabolites, and enzymes, and energy intake and energy balance were calculated. Veterinary treatment records and daily composite milk somatic cell counts were analyzed and used to determine incidence and severity of mastitis in early lactation. Cows were separated into 2 groups: 1) WK0, consisting of cows that developed clinical mastitis (CM), cows that developed subclinical mastitis (SM), or cows that were healthy (H) during the first 7 DIM; and 2) EL, consisting of CM, SM, or H cows during wk 2 through 13 of lactation. Data were adjusted for numerous fixed effects (e.g., parity, breed, season, and DIM) before statistical analysis. The time of mastitis (TOM) was recorded as the DIM in which the first rise in somatic cell count was observed and was recorded as TOM = 0. The time before and after TOM was distinguished as ± n wk relative to TOM = 0. Healthy cows were paired with either a SM or CM cow and the TOM for each H cow was equal to the TOM for its paired SM or CM cow. Data from wk -1 and -2 relative to TOM were analyzed for group WK0 and EL, respectively. For all parameters, SM cows did not differ from H cows from either group. The CM cows had higher nonesterified fatty acid levels and a tendency toward higher β-hydroxybutyrate levels than H cows before mastitis for both groups. For group WK0, glucose was higher -1 wk relative to calving in CM than H cows. For group EL, aspartate aminotransferase was higher -2 wk relative to mastitis in CM than H cows during 8 to 90 DIM. All other variables were similar among CM, SM, and H cows for both groups. Our results indicate that substances in blood, especially nonesterified fatty acids and aspartate aminotransferase, may be potential markers for the risk of mastitis in early lactation.

Moyes, Kasey; Larsen, Torben

2009-01-01

193

The association between farmers’ participation in herd health programmes and their behaviour concerning treatment of mild clinical mastitis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Denmark, it has recently become mandatory for all dairy farmers with more than 100 cows to sign up for a herd health programme. Three herd health programmes are available. These differ in a number of aspects, including the frequency of veterinary visits and the farmer’s access to prescription drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy farmers’ behavioural intentions, i.e. to call a veterinarian or start medical treatment on the day that they detect a cow with mild clinical mastitis (MCM, are different depending on the type of herd health programme. Methods A questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was conducted. TPB proposes that a person’s behavioural intention is strongly correlated with his or her actual behaviour. Three behavioural factors determine the behavioural intention: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Each of these factors is decided by a set of beliefs, each of which in turn is weighted by an evaluation: 1 the expected outcomes of performing the behaviour, 2 what a person believes that others think of the behaviour, and 3 the person’s perceived power to influence the behaviour. A set of statements about the treatment of MCM based on interviews with 38 dairy farmers were identified initially. The statements were rephrased as questions and the resulting questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly selected Danish dairy farmers who use the two most restrictive herd health programmes, either Core or Module1, and to all 669 farmers with the least restrictive herd health programme, Module2. The association between intention and the herd health programme was modelled using logistic regression. Results The farmers with the Module2 herd health programme had a significantly higher behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, when compared to farmers with a more restrictive herd health programme (OR = 2.1, p Conclusion Danish dairy farmers who participate in Module2 herd health programme had a higher intention to treat cases of MCM, compared to farmers who participate in a more restrictive herd health programme in which the veterinarian initiates treatments.

Lind Ann-Kristina

2012-11-01

194

ETIO-PREVALENCE OF SUB CLINICAL MASTITIS IN HOLSTEIN X HARYANA CROSSBRED CATTLE  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of Somatic cell count (SCC, California mastitis test (CMT and Chloride test in detecting SCM and study its etioprevalence in Holstein X Haryana cattle. SCC prevalence for SCM, latent infected quarters and non-specific infected quarters were found to be 28.63%, 8.63% and 6.67%, respectively, when divided on the basis of International Dairy Federation criteria. Staphylococcus sp. (47.37% and Streptococcus sp. (33.68% was most prevalent bacterial agent. The present study revealed that CMT in conjunction with SCC is better to diagnose SCM than alone.

Anirban Guha

2011-07-01

195

Immunoprophylaxis of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in diary cows  

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Full Text Available Mastitis in cows represents one of the most actual problems in intensive dairy production. The prevention of pathogen penetration in the udder, its colonization and reproduction impose the constant need for regular milk check-ups, and preventive and therapeutic measures. Staphylococcus aureus causes subclinical and clinical mastitis, which when in the acute form can originate difficult and malignant udder infections with granulomatous and necrotic changes. Chronic forms of Staphylococcal mastitis most often pass as subclinical cases. An efficient commercial vaccine has not been introduced yet, though the application of autochthonous vaccines in the prevention of mastitis can give satisfactory results. In this study we have developed and applied an autochthonous vaccine prepared from S. aureus isolated from milk samples taken from an experimental farm, as well as from the referent capsular strain S. aureus. The vaccine was applied to experimental dairy cattle twice before calving in a dose of 5 mL. It consisted of inactivated bacterial S. aureus JR3 cells in a quantity of 1x1010 cfu/mL and 5 mg SM capsule of the strain S. aureus 2286. This vaccination of dairy cows has resulted in a significant decrease of subclinical and clinical manifested mastitis in the treated group, when compared to the vaccinated group of experimental animals. .

Vakanjac Slobodanka

2008-01-01

196

Mastitis de Verano en terneras (Summer Mastitis in veals.  

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Full Text Available ResumenEn el presente trabajo se brindan algunas consideraciones clínicas, anatomopatológicas y epizootiológicas sobre un brote de Mastitis de Verano Arcanobacterium pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes sensible a la Penicilina, Cloranfenicol, Kanamicina y Propóleo en solución oleosa.Abstract The present paper gives some clinical, anatomopathological and epizootiological considerations on an outbreak of Summer Mastitis Arcanobectarium pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes sensitive to Penicillin, Chloramphenicol, Kanamycin and Propolis in oily solution.

García Lara. Tomás José

2012-06-01

197

Mastitis of dairy small ruminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococci are the main aetiological agents of small ruminants intramammary infections (IMI), the more frequent isolates being S. aureus in clinical cases and coagulase negative species in subclinical IMI. The clinical IMI, whose annual incidence is usually lower than 5%, mainly occur at the beginning of machine milking and during the first third of lactation. These features constitute small ruminant peculiarities compared to dairy cattle. Small ruminant mastitis is generally a chronic and contagious infection: the primary sources are mammary and cutaneous carriages, and spreading mainly occurs during milking. Somatic cell counts (SCC) represent a valuable tool for prevalence assessment and screening, but predictive values are better in ewes than in goats. Prevention is most often based on milking machine management, sanitation and annual control, and milking technique optimisation. Elimination mainly relies on culling animals exhibiting clinical, chronic and recurrent IMI, and on drying-off intramammary antibiotherapy; this treatment allows a good efficacy and may be used selectively by targeting infected udders only. Heritability values for lactation mean SCC scores are between 0.11 and 0.15. Effective inclusion of ewe's mastitis resistance in the breeding goal has recently been implemented in France following experimental and large scale estimations of genetic parameters for SCC scores. PMID:14556701

Bergonier, Dominique; de Crémoux, Renée; Rupp, Rachel; Lagriffoul, Gilles; Berthelot, Xavier

2003-01-01

198

The environmental impact of mastitis: a case study of dairy herds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector

2005-05-01

199

Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates ...

Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Ju?lio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude

2008-01-01

200

Periductal mastitis in a male breast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Periductal mastitis in a male breast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination.

Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Jung Im; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Woo Chan; Hahn, Seong Tai [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2006-09-15

202

Radiodiagnostic aspects of non-puerperal mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients. (orig.)

1988-01-01

203

Radiodiagnostic aspects of non-puerperal mastitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients.

Overhagen, H. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Lameris, J.S.

1988-09-01

204

Characteristics of an unusual mycoplasma isolated from a case of caprine mastitis and arthritis with possible systemic manifestations.  

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A mycoplasma designated strain GM790A was isolated from milk and internal organs of 2 lactating goats showing mastitis and arthritis. The isolate was not related serologically to any of the currently known ovine-caprine mycoplasmas, except an isolate designated Mycoplasma sp. G, first recorded from the external ear canal of clinically normal goats in Australia. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and restriction enzyme DNA studies of strain GM790A and Mycoplasma sp. G revealed similar but not identical patterns. The inoculation of strain GM790A into the teat canal of 2 lactating goats resulted in an abrupt diminution of lactation leading to mastitis and agalactia in about 3 days. A maximum of 1 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) of the mycoplasma were shed per ml of mammary secretion. Milk production partially resumed at a low level 3 weeks postinoculation, the longest period tested, but the milk still contained 1 x 10(2) CFU of the agent. The results of this study indicate that strain GM790A possesses pathogenic potential for the goat and most probably represents a new species of the genus Mycoplasma. PMID:2039789

DaMassa, A J; Nascimento, E R; Khan, M I; Yamamoto, R; Brooks, D L

1991-01-01

205

Bovine mastitis therapy and why it fails : continuing education  

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Treatment of bovine mastitis depends on the cause, the clinical manifestation and the antibiotic susceptibility of the agent. Mastitis therapy is commonly unsuccessful owing to pathological changes that occur in the udder parenchyma as a result of the inflammatory reaction to mastitogenic bacteria, pharmacokinetic properties of antimicrobial mastitis drugs, mastitogenic bacterial and related factors, and poor animal husbandry and veterinary interventions.

Du Preez, J. H.

2012-01-01

206

Bovine mastitis therapy and why it fails : continuing education  

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Full Text Available Treatment of bovine mastitis depends on the cause, the clinical manifestation and the antibiotic susceptibility of the agent. Mastitis therapy is commonly unsuccessful owing to pathological changes that occur in the udder parenchyma as a result of the inflammatory reaction to mastitogenic bacteria, pharmacokinetic properties of antimicrobial mastitis drugs, mastitogenic bacterial and related factors, and poor animal husbandry and veterinary interventions.

J.H. Du Preez

2012-07-01

207

Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment  

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This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was estimated in a one-year observational study. It was concluded that herds in the Netherlands varied substantially in their mastitis occurrence, indicating room for improvement of udder health. The relation...

Borne, B. H. P. Den

2010-01-01

208

STUDIES ON MASTITIS AMONG DAIRY BUFFALOES  

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Full Text Available A total of 2340 mammary glands of 585 primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffaloes in different stages of lactation were examined with California Mastitis Test ( CMT and laboratory examination was carried out to identify the most prevalent micro-organisms in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. The physical examination revealed 2.61 per cent blind teats and CMT revealed 6.71 per cent positive quarters for mastitis. Microbiological examination of 157 sub-clinical mastitis milk samples and 46 clinical mastitis milk samples was carried out. There was high occurrence of streptococci (35.46% followed by staphylococci (33.99%, E. coli (27.09%, pseudomonas spp. ( 1.97% and Corynaebacterium pyogenes (1.48%. The in vitro sensitivity revealed kanamyciin (82.6%, highly effective against various isolates followed by gentamycin (53.0%.

Rashid Ahmad

2001-09-01

209

Arcanobacterium pluranimalium leading to a bovine mastitis: species identification by a newly developed pla gene based PCR.  

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We are describing a clinical case of bovine mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pluranimalium in a Holstein-Friesian heifer, delivering bloody milk on the left hindquarter. Moreover, we report on the development and evaluation of PCR primers based on the pluranimaliumlysin (pla) gene for the identification of this species. With the primer pair PlaF/PlaR the A. pluranimalium type strain as well as the mastitis isolate 704 revealed a correctly sized amplification product (458 bp), whereas no amplification product was obtained for all non-target strains. The established PCR provides a new and convenient tool for the mastitis diagnostic to differentiate between A. pluranimalium and Trueperella pyogenes. PMID:23732384

Moser, A; Stephan, R; Sager, J; Corti, S; Lehner, A

2013-06-01

210

Risk factors associated with bacteriological cure, new infection, and incidence of clinical mastitis after dry cow therapy with three different antibiotics  

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Factors affecting bacteriological cure rates (BCR) and new intramammary infections (IMI) during the dry period as well as clinical mastitis (CM) during early lactation were investigated in 414 German Holstein dairy cows receiving dry cow therapy. Cows were treated with either benethamine benzylpenicillin (300,000 IU), penethamate hydriodide (100,000 IU), and framycetin sulphate (100 mg, n = 136), or cefquinome (150 mg, n = 135), or benzathine cloxacillin (1,280 mg, n = 143). Overall BCR, IMI,...

Gundelach, Yasmin; Kalscheuer, Elke; Hamann, Henning; Hoedemaker, Martina

2011-01-01

211

Effect of Infusions of Non-Antibiotic Antibacterials Alone and in Combination with Cephradine on Milk Yield of Buffaloes Affected with Clinical Mastitis  

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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four non-antibiotic antibacterials alone or in combination with cephradine in buffaloes on milk yield of mastitis affected quarters. For this purpose, 270 clinically mastitic quarters were grouped in randomized pattern. Non-antibiotic antibacterials viz., 2.5% chlorpromazine (2 ml), 4% lidocaine (10 ml), 10% povidone-iodine (10 ml) and 99.5% dimethylsulphoxide (20 ml) alone and in combination with first generation cephalosporin ...

2010-01-01

212

Isolation and identification of main mastitis pathogens in Mexico Isolação e identificação dos micróbios patogênicos principais da mastite em México  

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The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic animals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) to differentiate clinical cases...

Castan?eda Va?zquez, H.; Ja?ger, S.; Wolter, W.; Zscho?ck, M.; Castan?eda Vazquez, M. A.; El-sayed, A.

2013-01-01

213

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: rare but important.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 61-year-old woman attended the breast clinic with unresolving mastitis and an associated mass, following failed treatment with antibiotics. Triple assessment confirmed idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Unresponsive to further conservative management and steroid therapy, she underwent surgical excision and made uneventful recovery. No evidence of recurrence was detected at 18 months follow-up. PMID:22778243

Hwang, M J; Rogers, A; Vidya, R

2010-01-01

214

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: rare but important  

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A 61-year-old woman attended the breast clinic with unresolving mastitis and an associated mass, following failed treatment with antibiotics. Triple assessment confirmed idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Unresponsive to further conservative management and steroid therapy, she underwent surgical excision and made uneventful recovery. No evidence of recurrence was detected at 18 months follow-up.

Hwang, M. J.; Rogers, A.; Vidya, R.

2010-01-01

215

Diagnostic challenges of septic arthritis in the daily clinical practice. Three case reports  

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During the early course of septic arthritis in uncommon localizations may be clinically difficult to diagnose due to the unspecific symptoms and the fact that a causative organism can not always be identified.Authors report three cases of septic arthritis.A 34 year old female patient presented a case of mastitis a week after childbirth, which reoccurred half a year later accompanied by fever and great physical weakness. With the help of imaging examinations unilateral sacroiliitis and an infe...

Gomez Izabella, Nagy Dorottya; Gomez Izabella Ilona (1981-) (orvos)

2012-01-01

216

Sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Savannah Region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical mastitis limits milk production and represents an important barrier to profitable livestock economics worldwide. Milk production from cows in Nigeria is not at optimum levels in view of many factors including sub-clinical mastitis. Results The overall herd-level prevalence rate for SCM was 85.33% (256/300 heads of cows while the quarter-level prevalence rate of SCM was 43.25% (519/1,200 quarters. The prevalence of SCM was 50.67%, 43.67%, 39.67% and 39.13% for the left fore-quarter, right hind-quarter, left hind-quarter and right fore-quarter, respectively. The Rahaji breed had the highest prevalence of SCM with 65.91% (29/44, while the White Fulani breed had the least with 32.39% (57/176. A total of 32.33% (97/300 had only one mammary quarter affected, 30.33% (91/300 had two quarters affected, 16.00% (48/300 had three quarters affected while 6.67% (20/300 had all the four quarters affected. A total of 53.00% had SCM in multiple quarters (159/300. The risk of SCM decreased significantly among young lactating cows compared to older animals (OR?=?0.283; P?P?=?0.013; 95% CI?=?1.557; 43.226. Improved sanitation (washing hands before milking will decrease the risk of SCM (OR?=?0.173; P?=?0.003; 95% CI?=?0.054; 0.554. Conclusion SCM is prevalent among lactating cows in the Nigerian Savannah; and this is associated with both animal characteristics (age, breed and individual milk quarters and milking practices (hand washing.Good knowledge of the environment and careful management of the identified risk factors with improved sanitation should assist farm managers and veterinarians in implementing preventative programmes to reduce the incidence of SCM.

Shittu Aminu

2012-08-01

217

Tubercular Mastitis - A Great Masquerader  

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Full Text Available Tubercular mastitis is a rare clinical entity as mammary gland tissue, like spleen and skeletal muscle, offers resistance to the survival and multiplication of the tubercle bacillus. Tuberculosis of the breast can mimic carcinoma, whereas in young patients it can be mistaken for a pyogenic breast abscess, thus labeled a “great masquerader” in recognition of its multifaceted presentation. Breast tuberculosis commonly affects women in the reproductive age group, between 21 and 30 years, and is rare in prepubescent females and elderly women. Fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful and it is a promising technique in expert hands. In tuberculosis-endemic countries, the finding of granuloma on fine needle aspiration cytology warrants empirical treatment for tuberculosis even in the absence of positive acid-fast bacilli and without culture results. We hereby report a case of tubercular mastitis in a post-menopausal seronegative female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology with a positive acid-fast bacilli and a review of the recent literature.

Sonia GON

2013-01-01

218

Coagulase gene polymorphism of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical and sub-clinical bovine mastitis in Isfahan and Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari provinces of Iran  

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Mastitis is a common disease in dairy cattle and is an inflammatory response of the breast tissue to bacterial attack to this tissue. Mastitis causes considerable loss to the dairy industry, among the several bacterial pathogens that can cause mastitis; Staphylococcus aureus is probably the most lethal agent because it causes chronic and deep infection in the mammary glands that is extremely difficult to cure. Several virulence factors including coagulase gene are produced by S. aureus and ma...

Momtaz, Hassan; Tajbakhsh, Elahe; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momeni, Manochehr

2011-01-01

219

Systemic therapy as a first choice treatment for idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis clinically and histologically mimics an inflammatory carcinoma. A correct approach including ultrasound, clinical and histological analysis can safely identify a patient with this pathology, orienting to adequate therapy with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs and leaving the surgical approach only for case unresponsive to medical therapy. PMID:19222698

Maffini, Fausto; Baldini, Federica; Bassi, Fabio; Luini, Alberto; Viale, Giuseppe

2009-06-01

220

Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %, followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 % and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1 %, whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2 % and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2 % the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 % of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95 % of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9 %, S. epidermidis (7.4 % and S. hominis (5.9 %. They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90 %of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6 %, followed by lincomycin (13.7 %. About 8 % of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.

T. Kudinha

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis  

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Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11) or subclinical (strain O46) mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mic...

Le Mare?chal, Caroline; Jardin, Julien; Jan, Gwenae?l; Even, Sergine; Pulido, Coralie; Guibert, Jean-michel; Hernandez, David; Franc?ois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Demon, Dieter; Meyer, Evelyne; Berkova, Nadia; Thie?ry, Richard; Vautor, Eric; Le Loir, Yves

2011-01-01

222

Foot and Mouth Disease-Mastitis Cascade in Dairy Cattle: A Field Study  

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Full Text Available A field study was conducted in 6 cross bred dairy cows suffering from acute clinical mastitis preceded by FMD in all animals. After thorough clinical and laboratory examination of the affected animals were confirmed as the cases of clinical mastitis. Cows were diagnosed for mastitis by clinical examination and Modified California mastitis test, somatic cell count and cultural examination of milk. After confirmation of disease and antibiotic sensitivity test all cows were subjected to precise and supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 2 quarters were positive to + and one quarter to trace reaction by MCMT after the completion of treatment (on 5th day with enrofloxacin and melonex along with supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 3 quarters showed 2.5x105 cells mL-1 to 3.25x105 somatic cells mL-1 of milk and remaining quarters showed 5 somatic cells mL-1 of milk. It is concluded that the result of enrofloxacin and mammitel are considerable in the treatment of clinical mastitis.

Neelesh Sharma

2008-01-01

223

Genotypic characterization and evaluation of an antibiotic resistance of Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes) isolated from milk of dairy cows with clinical mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trueperella pyogenes, recently reclassified from the genus Arcanobacterium, is considered the causative agent of acute suppurative mastitis called summer mastitis. T. pyogenes produces a variety of known and putative virulence factors that include pyolysin and factors promoting adhesion to host cells. The objective of this study was to report the presence of virulence genes in T. pyogenes isolates that were identified as etiological agents of clinical mastitis in cows, as well as to determine antimicrobial resistance and distribution of selected determinants that can be associated with phenotypic resistance among these isolates. The presence of genes (plo, nanH, nanP, cbpA, fimA, fimC, fimE, fimG, tet(W), erm(X), erm(B)) was examined by conventional PCRs. Resistance to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined by the broth microdilution method. Among T. pyogenes isolates of bovine mastitis origin the genes encoding all virulence factors occurred. Besides pyolysin gene plo, the fimA was the only gene detected in all isolates, whereas other virulence factor genes were found with different frequencies. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was observed to tetracycline (85.5% isolates) and erythromycin (9.1%). Isolates non-susceptible to erythromycin simultaneously exhibited increased MIC of pirlimycin. Beta-lactams were active against isolates. We found the correlation between the presence of tetracycline and macrolide resistance genes and corresponding resistance phenotype. Genotypic characterization of a large number of T. pyogenes isolates from different herds performed in this study may be useful in explanation, which virulence factors play a significant role in the establishment of bovine mammary gland infection. PMID:22868181

Zastempowska, Ewa; Lassa, Henryka

2012-12-28

224

Test-day somatic cell score, fat-to-protein ratio and milk yield as indicator traits for sub-clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Test-day (TD) records of milk, fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) and somatic cell score (SCS) of first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows were analysed by a three-trait finite mixture random regression model, with the purpose of revealing hidden structures in the data owing to putative, sub-clinical mastitis. Different distributions of the data were allowed in 30 intervals of days in milk (DIM), covering the lactation from 5 to 305 days. Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling was used for model inferences. Estimated proportion of TD records originated from cows infected with mastitis was 0.66 in DIM from 5 to 15 and averaged 0.2 in the remaining part of lactation. Data from healthy and mastitic cows exhibited markedly different distributions, with respect to both average value and the variance, across all parts of lactation. Heterogeneity of distributions for infected cows was also apparent in different DIM intervals. Cows with mastitis were characterized by smaller milk yield (down to -5 kg) and larger F:P (up to 0.13) and SCS (up to 1.3) compared with healthy contemporaries. Differences in averages between healthy and infected cows for F:P were the most profound at the beginning of lactation, when a dairy cow suffers the strongest energy deficit and is therefore more prone to mammary infection. Residual variances for data from infected cows were substantially larger than for the other mixture components. Fat-to-protein ratio had a significant genetic component, with estimates of heritability that were larger or comparable with milk yield, and was not strongly correlated with milk and SCS on both genetic and environmental scales. Daily milk, F:P and SCS are easily available from milk-recording data for most breeding schemes in dairy cattle. Fat-to-protein ratio can potentially be a valuable addition to SCS and milk yield as an indicator trait for selection against mastitis. PMID:22225580

Jamrozik, J; Schaeffer, L R

2012-02-01

225

Short communication: Antimicrobial resistance and virulence characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolates from bovine mastitis cases in Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) have already been reported as mastitis agents. Such bacterial species are a public health concern, and the characterization of their antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile is important to better control their dissemination. The present work evaluated the distribution of methicillin-resistance among 204 staphylococci from clinical (n=50) and subclinical (n=154) bovine mastitis. The presence ofthe mecA gene was determined by PCR. Phenotypic expression of coagulase, DNase, lipase, gelatinase, hemolytic enzymes, and biofilm production was evaluated. The presence of biofilm-related genes, icaA, icaD, and bap, was also determined. Antimicrobial resistance patterns for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, and fusidic acid were determined. Nineteen (9.3%) isolates were identified as MRS, and the presence of mecA in these isolates was confirmed by PCR. Virulence factors evaluation revealed that gelatinase was the most frequently detected (94.7%), followed by hemolysins (73.7%) and lipase (68.4%); 84.2% of the MRS isolates produced biofilm and icaA and icaD were detected in almost half of the MRS isolates (52.6%), but all were bap-negative. Resistance against other antimicrobial agents ranged from 0 (fusidic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, enrofloxacin) to 100% (nalidixic acid). Resistance to nalidixic acid and nalidixic acid-tetracycline were the most common antimicrobial resistance profiles (31.6%). This study confirms that despite the low prevalence of MRS, isolates frequently express other virulence traits, especially biofilm, that may represent a serious challenge to clinicians. PMID:24239071

Seixas, R; Santos, J P; Bexiga, R; Vilela, C L; Oliveira, M

2014-01-01

226

Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management : a prospective cohort study in Glasgow  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that if inappropriately managed, may lead women to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. The aim of this paper is to report the incidence of mastitis in the first six months postpartum in a Scottish population, its impact on breastfeeding duration and to describe the type and appropriateness of the support and management received by affected women from health professionals. METHODS: A longitudinal study of 420 breastfeeding women was undertaken in Glasgow in 2004/05. Participants were recruited and completed a baseline questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice they received from health professionals. RESULTS: In total, 74 women (18%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis. More than one half of initial episodes (53%) occurred within the first four weeks postpartum. One in ten women (6/57) were inappropriately advised to either stop breastfeeding from the affected breast or to discontinue breastfeeding altogether. CONCLUSION: Approximately one in six women is likely to experience one or more episodes of mastitis whilst breastfeeding. A small but clinically important proportion of women continue to receive inappropriate management advice from health professionals which, if followed, could lead them to unnecessarily deprive their infants prematurely of the known nutritional and immunological benefits of breast milk.

Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele

2008-01-01

227

PERINATAL LEUKODYSTROPHY CLINICAL CASE  

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Full Text Available In this study the authors want to present a case of a premature newborn who presented an extremely rare disease for medical practice. Low prevalence of the perinatal leukodystrophy, the difficulty of the clinical diagnosis and the echography resemblance with other diseases of the periventricular white matter is the subjects of this presentation.

Dana Mihut

2004-01-01

228

Clinical case Netherton syndrome  

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Full Text Available This article presents a clinical case of Netherton syndrome in a child is a severe pathology, the presence of which leads to disability. Treatment and management of patients with this dermatosis today is still relevant and not unsettled problem.

Bakulev A.L

2013-09-01

229

Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A nationwide survey on the microbial etiology of cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was carried out on dairy farms in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the microbial panorama and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were investigated. Methods In total, 583 quarter milk samples were collected from 583 dairy cows at 226 dairy farms from February 2008 to February 2009. The quarter milk samples were bacteriological investigated and scored using the California Mastitis Test. Staphylococci were tested for betalactamase production and presence of resistance was evaluated in all specific udder pathogens. Differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were statistically investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results The most common isolates of 590 bacteriological diagnoses were Staphylococcus (S aureus (19% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; 16% followed by Streptococcus (Str dysgalactiae (9%, Str. uberis (8%, Escherichia (E. coli (2.9%, and Streptococcus spp. (1.9%. Samples with no growth or contamination constituted 22% and 18% of the diagnoses, respectively. The distribution of the most commonly isolated bacteria considering only bacteriological positive samples were: S. aureus - 31%, CNS - 27%, Str. dysgalactiae - 15%, Str. uberis - 14%, E. coli - 4.8%, and Streptococcus spp. - 3.1%. There was an increased risk of finding S. aureus, Str. uberis or Str. dysgalactiae in milk samples from chronically infected cows compared to findings in milk samples from newly infected cows. Four percent of the S. aureus isolates and 35% of the CNS isolates were resistant to penicillin G. Overall, resistance to other antimicrobials than penicillin G was uncommon. Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus and CNS were the most frequently isolated pathogens and resistance to antimicrobials was rare.

Nyman Ann-Kristin J

2011-06-01

230

Differences in severity of mastitis and the pathogens causing various oxidative product levels  

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Full Text Available Differences in severity of mastitis and their causing pathogens might be associated with oxidative product levels occurring during the inflammatory process in infected udders. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship of oxidative product levels, using malondialdehyde (MDA as a marker on both mastitis severity and its causing pathogens. Quarter milk samples of all lactating cows in the selected farms were primarily tested for mastitis severity levels including clinical and subclinical mastitis. All quarter milk samples from mastitis cows were separately collected for MDA measurement and bacteriological analyses. Results showed that MDA in clinical mastitis quarters was highest in comparison to sub-clinical mastitis and healthy quarters. MDA in milk samples with Strep. uberis and coagulase negative staphylococci was higher than in milk samples without any pathogens (p < 0.05. In conclusion, differences in both severity of mastitis and mastitis pathogens were associated with differences of oxidative products in infected udders.

Witaya Suriyasathaporn

2012-08-01

231

Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted bulk tank SCC exceeded 220 000, 200 000 or 180 000 cells/ml, and on cow-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted SCC in an individual cow's milk exceeded 1 000 000, 750 000 or 500 000 cells/ml. The accuracy with which SCC was measured and predicted was assumed to affect the profitability of withdrawing milk with high SCC and this was investigated by applying high, low or no uncertainty to true SCC. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis was estimated at â?¬8235, assuming that the initial incidence of mastitis could be reduced by 50%. This cost corresponded to 5% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was â?¬55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at â?¬278 and â?¬60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk withdrawal that was not offset by a sufficient increase in the average price per delivered kg milk. It had the most negative impact on net return when high incidence of mastitis was simulated. Withdrawing milk with high SCC based on low-uncertainty information reduced the amount of withdrawn milk and thus resulted in less negative effect on net return. It was concluded that the current milk-pricing system makes it more profitable for farmers to sell a larger amount of milk with higher SCC than to withdraw milk with high SCC to obtain payment premiums, at least in herds with mastitis incidences within the simulated ranges. Udgivelsesdato: 21. May 2010

Nielsen, C; �stergaard, Søren

2010-01-01

232

Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.

Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

2007-02-15

233

Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions

2007-02-01

234

Characterization of coagulase negative staphylococci from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Kampala, Uganda  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most common pathogens leading to subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cattle in Uganda. Coagulase negative staphylococci can vary between bacterial species in how they cause disease. The aim of the study was to characterize CNS, from cows with SCM in Uganda, at the species level. Findings Quarter milk samples (n?=?166) were collected from 78 animals with SCM. Bacteriological analyses were carried out at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda and at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden. The most common pathogens found in milk samples from cows with SCM were CNS (31.7%). Two species of CNS were found, S. epidermidis (85%) and S. haemolyticus (15%). Of the CNS isolates, 16/20 (80%) were positive for ?-lactamase production (?+). Conclusions In milk samples from cows with SCM caused by CNS, S. epidermidis was most prevalent, followed by S. haemolyticus.

2014-01-01

235

Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment

2008-08-01

236

Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.

Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2008-08-15

237

Testing the efficiency of different treatments of subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in cows during the dry period  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mastitis is still the most common disorder which is present in diary cows. Changes in genetics, nutrition and milking equipment affect the incidence of subclinical and clinical forms of mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of subclinical and clinical forms of mastitis. In the acute form it can cause malignant mastitis in the form of granulomatous and necrotic changes. Chronic forms of staphylococcal mastitis often develop as subclinical changes. Halting the entrance, the col...

Vakanjac Slobodanka; Pavlovi? M.; Pavlovi? V.

2010-01-01

238

Ovine Mastitis Due to Histophilus ovis  

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The clinical, pathological and bacteriological findings related to ovine mastitis caused by Histophilus ovis are described. A high proportion of the ewes belonging to a flock were infected, but the source of the contamination could not be determined.

Beauregard, M.; Higgins, R.

1983-01-01

239

Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms were very low. Farmers had no knowledge on sub-clinical mastitis. Staphylococcus species were the most common isolates and more than 50% of the isolates were resistant to the commonly used antibiotics penicillin and tetracycline.

Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.

2008-01-01

240

Fatal mastitis of dairy cows: a retrospective study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The necropsy records of dairy cows with mastitis were reviewed from the provincial veterinary laboratory in Guelph (44 cases of mastitis in nine years) and from the Ontario Veterinary College (168 cases in 14 years). Mastitis was considered to be the primary cause of death in 167 of 212 cows (79%). Of these 167 cases of mastitis, Escherichia coli was involved in 107 (64%), Klebsiella sp. in 12 (7%) and Staphylococcus aureus in 11 (7%). Bacteriology was not reported in 22 cases. Coliform masti...

Hazlett, M. J.; Little, P. B.; Maxie, M. G.; Barnum, D. A.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject comprises detecting the presence or absence of a genetic marker that is linked to a trait indicative of mastitis resistance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) for the determination of mastitis resistance in a bovine subject. The determination of mastitis resistance involves resolution of the specific microsatellite status. Furthermore, the invention relates to a diagnostic kit for detection of genetic marker(s) associated with mastitis resistance. The method and kit of the present invention can be applied for selection of bovine subjects for breeding purposes. Thus, the invention provides a method of genetically selecting bovine subjects with mastitis resistance, thereby yielding cows less prone to mastitis

Lund, Mogens Sandø Aarhus University,

242

[Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis treated with steroids and methotrexate].  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease of unknown etiology. It manifests as breast mass of 6 cm on average (range 2-10 cm), often in upper outer quadrant of left breast, in another quadrant, right or bilateral breast. Clinical diagnosis by ultrasound or mammography and fine needle aspiration confuses with carcinoma; histopathology (gold standard) confirm the diagnosis after ruling out causes of granulomatous inflammation, mainly tuberculosis. Steroid treatment achieve complete remission, but adverse reactions and relapses after the descent and suspension. Methotrexate or azathioprine is added from the start to maintain remission. We report three cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis diagnosis and treatment based on prednisone until clinical improvement and methotrexate as maintenance therapy. Complete remission was obtained in three patients. The rheumatologist knows and handles autoimmune/inflammatory with these drugs, therefore, is suggested the multidisciplinary treatment of this disease with oncologists and gynecologists. PMID:21966829

Peña-Santos, Genaro; Ruiz-Moreno, José Luis

2011-06-01

243

Fine needle aspiration cytology of granulomatous mastitis  

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Aims: Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon breast lesion that mimics carcinoma. The fine needle aspiration cytological (FNAC) features of GM have rarely been discussed in the literature. These features are reported in eight histologically confirmed cases of GM.

Tse, G. M. K.; Poon, C. S. P.; Law, B. K. B.; Pang, L. M.; Chu, W. C. W.; Ma, T. K. F.

2003-01-01

244

Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy cows in the Moghan region of Ardabil State, Iran : short communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma bovis were diagnosed in Ardabil State, Iran. An investigation was carried out with the aim of establishing the extent of mycoplasma infections in dairy cows in Ardabil State. Milk samples obtained from 80 cows with clinical mastitis were cultured in the laboratory for the presence of mycoplasmas. Similarly, 48 bulk-tank milk samples were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. A modified Hayflick broth was used to isolate the mycoplasmas and an immunoperoxidase test used for the species identification of the isolates. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 39 (48.75 % of the clinical mastitis samples and from 48 of the bulk-tank milk samples tested. This indicated that mycoplasma udder infections were more prevalent in dairy cows in Ardabil State than previously thought.

C. Ghazaei

2012-06-01

245

Métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina (Methods of detection of the bovine mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre los métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina que se utilizan más comúnmente en el mundo. La mastitis bovina es la inflamación de la glándula mamaria causada por una infección por patógenos. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la producción que afecta a la industria lechera en todo el mundo. Puede presentarse de manera clínica y subclínica. La mastitis subclínica es de larga duración y es mucho más frecuente que la mastitis clínica. Dentro de los métodos que se usan con mayor frecuencia a nivel de campo para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas, se encuentran el método de observación y palpación de la ubre y las pruebas físicas, como la prueba de escudilla de ordeño, prueba del paño negro y taza probadora. Las pruebas químicas, como la prueba de conductividad eléctrica de la leche, papel indicador de mastitis y prueba de whiteside que sirven también para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas y subclínicas. Las pruebas biológicas, como son la prueba de California para mastitis, la prueba de Wisconsin, el diagnóstico bacteriológico por los métodos de aislamiento, cultivo, tinción, pruebas bioquímicas e identificación y el conteo de células somáticas por microscopia directa y el somaticell. Otros métodos utilizados actualmente por su rapidez y efectividad son los electrónicos como el fossomatic y el counter coulter, los cuales tienen una aplicación universal sobre todo en laboratorios de control lechero o dedicados al diagnóstico e investigación de la mastitis y el DeLaval cell counter. Los métodos de detección de mastitis son una herramienta que permite identificar el tipo de infección clínica o subclínica que puede presentarse dentro de un hato lechero, por lo que el método que se elija para determinar las pruebas será esencial para tener un diagnóstico más preciso.AbstractThis article is a bibliographical revision on the methods of detection of the bovine mastitis that is used more commonly in the world. The bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland caused by an infection by pathogens. Is one of the most frequent diseases of the production that affects the milk industry anywhere in the world. It can appear of clinical and subclinical way. The subclinical mastitis is long play and is much more frequent that the clinical mastitis. Within the methods that are used most frequently at field level to diagnose clinical mastitis, are the method of observation and palpation of udder and the physical tests, as the container of milking test, the black cloth test and cup test. The chemical tests, like the electrical conductivity of milk test, paper test of mastitis and whiteside test that they also serve to diagnose clinical and subclinical mastitis. The biological tests, as they are the California mastitis test, the Wisconsin test, the bacteriological diagnosis by the methods of isolation, culture, biochemical stain, tests and identification, the count of somatic cells by direct microscope and somaticell. Other methods used at the moment by their rapidity and effectiveness are the electronic ones like the fossomatic, the counter coulter and the, which mainly have a universal application in laboratories of control milk or dedicated to the diagnosis and investigation of the mastitis and the DeLaval cell counter. The methods of detection of mastitis are a tool that allows to identify the type of clinical infection or subclinical that can appear within a milk cattle ranch, reason why the method that is chosen to determine the tests will be essential to have a more precise diagnosis.

Bedolla, CC

2007-09-01

246

Emerging mastitis pathogens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mastitis means inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. Many infective agents have been implicated as causes of mastitis. Worldwide, farmers have achieved tremendous success in reducing the incidence of contagious mastitis by adopting the traditional methods of mastitis control. The greatest impact of these control measures has been on infections caused by the contagious bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactia. But this success has not been demonstrated ...

Janus. A

2009-01-01

247

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to discuss the clinical and radiological features and treatment approaches in 14 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (GM). We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings and treatment approaches in 14 patients with idiopathic GM in the General Surgery Department, Gulhane School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between April 2000 and June 2006. The mean age of the patients was 34.5 years (range 27-41 years). The complaints at admission were a mass in the breast in 7 (50%) patients, an abscess and a mass in 6 (42.8%) and a skin fisculain one (7.2%). Granulomatous mastitis was unilateral in all subjects (on the right in 5 patients and on the left in 9). All of the patients underwent ultrasonographic evaluation. Mammography was performed in 8 and magnetic resonance imaging in 5 patients. Seven patients (50%) were suspected to have breast carcinoma according radiological findings. We performed the large excision in 11, incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage in one, and incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage plus medical treatment (prednisolone, methotrexate) in 2 patients. Due to the development of abscess after 9 months, drainage and large excision were performed in one patient who received medical treatment. Idiopathic GM is a disease that generally affects young women of reproductive age and may be mistaken for breast carcinoma in clinical and radiological evaluations. The gold standard for the diagnosis is histopathologic evaluation. (author)

2009-01-01

248

Profilaxis, immunoprophylaxis and therapy of staphylococcal mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis, in cows presents one of the most acute problems in intensive milk production, incurring huge economic losses which reach from 20-80% even in developed countries in the past decade. On the grounds of the programme of the respective Ministry, the Veterinary Service of the Republic of Serbia is obliged to monitor, detect, curb and control infective inflammation of the mammary gland caused by staphylococcus and streptococcus. Long-term different approaches to mastitis treatment did not result in the required solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. In order to prevent the infiltration of the pathogenic cause into the mammary gland, its populating and multiplication, it is necessary to maintain constant and regular controls of milk, as well as undertake of preventive and therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the incidence of mastitis. Immunization and immunotherapy of mastitis are new and very interesting areas for scientific investigations and work. In the recent decades vaccines against staphylococcal mastitis are being successfully developed, whose success is reflected in the reduced incidence of clinical and subcilinical mastitis.

Vakanjac Slobodanka

2006-01-01

249

Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were ? hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

Azizollah Ebrahimi

2014-12-01

250

Random regression test-day model for clinical mastitis: Genetic parameters, model comparison, and correlations with indicator traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to study genetic (co)variance components for binary clinical mastitis (CM), test-day protein yield, and udder health indicator traits [test-day somatic cell score (SCS) and type traits of the udder composite] in the course of lactation with random regression models (RRM). The study used a data set from selected 15 large-scale contract herds including 26,651 Holstein cows. Test-day production and CM data were recorded from 2007 to 2012 and comprised parities 1 to 3. A longitudinal CM data structure was generated by assigning CM records to adjacent official test dates. Bivariate threshold-linear RRM were applied to estimate genetic (co)variance components between longitudinal binary CM (0=healthy; 1=diseased) and longitudinal Gaussian distributed protein yield and SCS test-day data. Heritabilities for liability to CM (heritability ~0.15 from 0 to 305 d after calving) were slightly higher than for SCS for corresponding days in milk (DIM) in the course of lactation. Daily genetic correlations between CM and SCS were moderate to high (genetic correlation ~0.70), but substantially decreased at the very end of lactation. Genetic correlations between CM at different test days were close to 1 for adjacent test days, but were close to zero for test days far apart. Daily genetic correlations between CM and protein yield were low to moderate. For identical DIM (e.g., DIM 20, 160, and 300), genetic correlations were -0.03, 0.11, and 0.18, respectively, and disproved pronounced genetic antagonisms between udder health and productivity. Correlations between estimated breeding values (EBV) for CM from the RRM and official EBV for linear type traits of the udder composite, including EBV from 74 influential sires (sires with >60 daughters), were -0.31 for front teat placement, -0.01 for rear teat placement, -0.31 for fore udder attachment, -0.32 for udder depth, and -0.08 for teat length. Estimated breeding values for CM from the RRM were compared with EBV from a multiple-trait model and with EBV from a repeatability model. For test days covering an identical time span and on a lactation level, correlations between EBV from RRM, multiple-trait model, and repeatability model were close to 1. Most relevant results suggest the routine application of threshold RRM to binary CM to (1) allow selection of genetically superior sires for distinct stages of lactation and (2) achieve higher selection response in CM compared with selection strategies based on indicator type traits or based on the indicator-trait SCS. PMID:24731633

Gernand, E; König, S

2014-06-01

251

Short communication: Fluoroquinolone susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from caprine clinical mastitis in southeast Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antibiotic susceptibility of 32 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the mastitic milk of dairy goats was evaluated. The antibiotics tested were 3 fluoroquinolones that have been developed especially for use in veterinary medicine: danofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed according to the microdilution broth method. The MIC(90) (concentration at which 90% inhibition is achieved) values obtained were 0.5, 1, and 1 mg/L for danofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin, respectively. Danofloxacin was the most active fluoroquinolone tested against Staph. aureus strains isolated from milk; however, specific testing is required before using these drugs as therapy for the control of clinical mammary infections in goats. PMID:20965339

Marín, P; Escudero, E; Fernández-Varón, E; Cárceles, C M; Corrales, J C; Gómez-Martín, A; Martínez, I

2010-11-01

252

Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin (IL) 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1) are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition. PMID:24506032

Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

2013-12-01

253

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, erythema nodosum and bilateral ankle arthritis in an Iranian woman.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we report a case of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) associated with erythema nodosum (EN) and ankle arthritis. The skin, joint and mammary symptoms improved with corticosteroid. Coincidence of granulomatous mastitis, EN and arthritis is a rare feature. PMID:23355571

Binesh, Fariba; Shiryazdi, Mostafa; Bagher Owlia, Mohammad; Azimi, Soheila

2013-01-01

254

Risk factors associated with bacteriological cure, new infection, and incidence of clinical mastitis after dry cow therapy with three different antibiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors affecting bacteriological cure rates (BCR) and new intramammary infections (IMI) during the dry period as well as clinical mastitis (CM) during early lactation were investigated in 414 German Holstein dairy cows receiving dry cow therapy. Cows were treated with either benethamine benzylpenicillin (300,000 IU), penethamate hydriodide (100,000 IU), and framycetin sulphate (100 mg, n = 136), or cefquinome (150 mg, n = 135), or benzathine cloxacillin (1,280 mg, n = 143). Overall BCR, IMI, and CM at parturition were 86.4%, 20.7%, and 4.3%, respectively. The three antibiotic treatments differed only in BCR, with cloxacillin yielding better results than the others. Udder quarters from cows with > 4 lactations had a higher risk of IMI and CM at calving. Chronic changes in udder tissues were linked to a lower BCR and were associated with a higher risk of CM during early lactation. The risk of CM at calving was higher in udder quarters with unspecific or subclinical mastitis before drying off. In conclusion, with antibiotic dry cow therapy, age and health status of the udder appear to be major determinants of IMI and CM during the dry period and early lactation, while BCR was associated with the antibiotic type and udder tissue status. PMID:21897095

Gundelach, Yasmin; Kalscheuer, Elke; Hamann, Henning; Hoedemaker, Martina

2011-09-01

255

Recurrent granulomatous mastitis mimicking inflammatory breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon benign breast lesion. Diagnosis is a matter of exclusion from other inflammatory, infectious and granulomatous aetiologies. Here, we presented an atypical GM case, which had clinical and radiologic features overlapping with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The disease had multiple recurrences. The patient is a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with a sudden onset of left breast swelling accompanied by diffuse skin redness, especially of the subareolar region and malodorous yellow nipple discharge from the left nipple. The disease progressed on antibiotic treatment and recurred after local resection. A similar lesion developed even after bilateral mastectomy. GM may show clinical/radiologic features suggestive of IBC. Multiple recurrences can be occasionally encountered. GM after recurrence could be much more alarming clinically. Pathology confirmation is the key for accurate diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach is important to rule out IBC. PMID:22715267

Ergin, Ahmet Bahadir; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Daw, Hamed; Tahan, Gulgun; Gong, Yun

2011-01-01

256

Effect of Infusions of Non-Antibiotic Antibacterials Alone and in Combination with Cephradine on Milk Yield of Buffaloes Affected with Clinical Mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four non-antibiotic antibacterials alone or in combination with cephradine in buffaloes on milk yield of mastitis affected quarters. For this purpose, 270 clinically mastitic quarters were grouped in randomized pattern. Non-antibiotic antibacterials viz., 2.5% chlorpromazine (2 ml, 4% lidocaine (10 ml, 10% povidone-iodine (10 ml and 99.5% dimethylsulphoxide (20 ml alone and in combination with first generation cephalosporin (cephradine 500 mg were instilled into clinically mastitic quarters daily for five days. The group administered cephradine alone served as control. Mean milk yield (L/quarter per day was recorded before administration of treatment and over a period of 4 weeks post initiation of treatment. Among the 4 non-antibiotic antibacterials tested alone, chlorpromazine (CPZ showed significantly higher (P<0.05 recuperative effect on the milk yield of clinically mastitic quarters of dairy buffaloes. However, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO when infused alone, further aggravated (P<0.05 the milk yield loss, indicating negative effect on milk yield improvement. Adjuncting cephradine with each of the non-antibiotic antibacterials, the lidocaine-cephradine group showed the highest effect (p<0.05 on net recovery of milk yield on day 28 post initiation of treatment. It was concluded that that CPZ can be used in clinical mastitis in buffaloes as a low cost alternative to expensive branded antibiotics. Further, the use of lidocaine with cepheradnie was superior to all other combination regimens in milk yield recovery.

M. Yousaf*, G. Muhammad1, M. Z. Khan2 and S. U. Rahman3

2010-01-01

257

Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective antimicrobial treatment in mastitis cases caused by gram-negative bacteria.

Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

2013-01-01

258

Standardized care plan of postpartum mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Puerperal mastitis or mastitis Breastfeeding is a postpartum condition that represents one of the main reasons for abandoning breastfeeding. Mainly usually occurs between weeks 2 and 3 ª postpartum. The scientific evidence confirms that the stop breastfeeding before an attack of mastitis is not conducive to recovery and that of exclusive breastfeeding and no restrictions are effective measures to prevent milk stasis and the spread of infection.Objective: The main objective is to unify criteria for the care and integrated health care levels of care through continuity of care to promote breast-specific care to prevent the emergence of this disease.Methodology: Development of a standardized care plan to enable effective communication between professionals and implementation of quality care.Conclusions: The midwife and the nurse plays an important role in identifying those women with early-onset symptoms of postpartum mastitis in the middle, both in the maternity ward and in the primary care clinic.

Maria Ángeles Carrasco García

2012-07-01

259

Breast Carcinoma Occurring from Chronic Granulomatous Mastitis  

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Chronic granulomatous mastitis is known as a benign and relatively rare disorder that is often difficult to differentiate from breast carcinoma. We highlight the case of a 34-year-old woman who had recurrent episodes of right breast swelling and abscess for 8 years. These were proven to be chronic granulomatous mastitis by tissue biopsies on 3 different occasions. Her condition improved on similar courses of antibiotics and high-dose prednisolone. However, she subsequently developed progressi...

Luqman, Mazlan; Shahrun Niza, Abdullah Suhaimi; Saladina Jaszle, Jasmin; Nani Harlina, Md Latar; Sellymiah, Adzman; Rohaizak, Muhammad

2012-01-01

260

Tuberculous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To find out the different clinical presentations of breast tuberculosis and its treatment outcome. Subjects and Methods: Fifty consecutive female patients above 13 years presenting with breast lump, multiple sinuses, axillary lymphadenopathy, and cold abscess were included in the study. Medical records of the patients presented were reviewed and analyzed. Data was collected regarding the patient's name, age and marital and lactational status. Clinical Examinations and investigations were carried out by triple assessment i.e. clinical, radiological and histological/cytological evaluation. Results: The commonest presentation was a solitary breast lump in 30 (60%) patients, breast lump with axillary lymphadenopathy in 13 (26%). Four (8%) patients presented with generalized breast swelling (edema) with ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. Two (4) presented with breast abscess and axillary lymphadenopathy and one (2%) with axillary sinus and breast lump. Upper outer quadrant was most frequently involved in 29 (58%) of patients. Thirty two (64%) cases were secondary to tuberculosis in other sites, mostly (40%) from tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis. Forty eight (96%) patients responded well to one year antituberculous treatment with complete disappearance of the lumps except 2 patients who had shrinkage of lump size only, underwent excision of lump. Conclusion: Solitary lump and enlarged lymph nodes are the commonest presentation of mammary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and treatment is necessary to prevent disfigurement of breast. Antituberculous therapy is the treatment of choice. Surgery should be reserved for unresponsive lumps. (author)

2005-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF-? genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p < 0.05. It was also higher in BW Holstein animals with clinical mastitis (p < 0.001, but it was not significant when Gyr cows with and without mastitis were compared (0.05 < p < 0.10. Among healthy cows, BW Holstein animals tended to present a higher expression of all genes studied, with a significant difference for the IL-2 and IFN-? genes (p < 0.001. For animals with mastitis no significant difference in gene expression was observed between the two breeds. These findings suggest that animals with mastitis develop a preferentially cell-mediated immune response. Further studies including larger samples are necessary to better characterize the gene expression profile in cows with mastitis.

Isabela Fonseca

2009-01-01

262

Mastite clínica em vacas leiteiras suplementadas com selênio e vitamina E Clinical mastitis in dairy cows supplemented with selenium and vitamin E  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a prevalência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça Holandesa. Oitenta vacas foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: controle e suplementação com 2,5 mg selênio dia-1 , com 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 e com 2,5 mg selênio + 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 . A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas, quinzenalmente, para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de selênio. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, no parto, 30 e 60 dias após o parto, para determinação dos níveis de selênio. O teste de Tamis e a análise clínica do úbere foram realizados semanalmente, para detecção de mastite até a décima segunda semana de lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos superiores (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selenium and vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Eighty cows were allocated into four treatments: control, supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1, supplementation with 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 , and supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1 + 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 . The supplementation started 30 days prior to probable parturition date until parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical and selenium analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, right after parturition, 30 and 60 days after it to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test and udder analysis were weekly performed to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration compared with control group (P<0.05. Vitamin E and selenium did not decrease the prevalence of clinical mastitis up to 12th week and there was no interaction between those elements.

Juliana Jorge Paschoal

2005-10-01

263

The effect of lemongrass oil and its major components on clinical isolate mastitis pathogens and their mechanisms of action on Staphylococcus aureus DMST 4745.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to investigate the antibacterial activity of lemongrass oil (LG) and its major components which were citral, geraniol and myrcene, against four strains of clinically isolated bovine mastitis pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli by the broth microdilution method, as well as their activity on S. aureus biofilm formation. Attempts to clarify their mechanisms of action by investigation of the effects on intracellular material leakage and morphological changes of S. aureus DMST 4745 were also made. The results demonstrate that S. agalactiae and B. cereus are more susceptible to LG, citral and geraniol than S. aureus and E. coli. Moreover, they also inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation and exhibit effective killing activities on preformed biofilms. The LG appears to have multiple targets in the bacterial cell, depending on concentration used as well as the amount of its components. PMID:21316719

Aiemsaard, Jareerat; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Aromdee, Chantana; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Khunkitti, Watcharee

2011-12-01

264

Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Newbould 305, a Strain Associated with Mild Bovine Mastitis  

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Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiological agent of mastitis in ruminants. We report here the genome sequence of bovine strain Newbould 305, isolated in the 1950s in a case of bovine mastitis and now used as a model strain able to reproducibly induce chronic mastitis in cows.

Bouchard, Damien; Peton, Vincent; Almeida, Sintia; Le Mare?chal, Caroline; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Berkova, Nadia; Rault, Lucie; Franc?ois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Even, Sergine; Hernandez, David; Le Loir, Yves

2012-01-01

265

Prototheca zopfii mastitis in dairy herds under continental climatic conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last 2 years 223 cases of bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii infection were identified in 32 large-scale dairy herds. All of these farms were in Hungary, which has a continental type, temperate zone climate. Both the sporadic and epidemic forms of P. zopfii mastitis were observed. All the herds affected by the epidemic form had poor hygienic conditions and suffered from several managerial faults, but no specific predisposing factors could be identified. In almost all of the cases, the type II variant of this pathogen was isolated; however, the type III variant was isolated from three cows. The cows had a higher chance of new infection in the early weeks of lactation and in the summer. The P. zopfii infection usually resulted in a chronic subclinical, or mild clinical, inflammatory process in the udder, and was followed by a dramatic loss in milk production and a permanent increase in somatic cell count. The histopathological findings could be characterized as a progressive interstitial mastitis associated with alveolar atrophy. The self-recovery rate was very low. PMID:11361104

Jánosi, S; Szigeti, G; Rátz, F; Laukó, T; Kerényi, J; Tenk, M; Katona, F; Huszenicza, A; Kulcsár, M; Huszenicza, G

2001-04-01

266

Changing trends in mastitis  

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Abstract The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occu...

2009-01-01

267

Changing trends in mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control.

Zadoks RN

2009-04-01

268

Mastite clínica em vacas leiteiras suplementadas com selênio e vitamina E / Clinical mastitis in dairy cows supplemented with selenium and vitamin E  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a prevalência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça Holandesa. Oitenta vacas foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: controle e suplementação com 2,5 mg selênio dia-1 , com 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 e com 2,5 mg selênio [...] + 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 . A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas, quinzenalmente, para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de selênio. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, no parto, 30 e 60 dias após o parto, para determinação dos níveis de selênio. O teste de Tamis e a análise clínica do úbere foram realizados semanalmente, para detecção de mastite até a décima segunda semana de lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos superiores (p Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selenium and vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Eighty cows were allocated into four treatments: control, supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1, supplementation with 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 , and supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day- [...] 1 + 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 . The supplementation started 30 days prior to probable parturition date until parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical and selenium analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, right after parturition, 30 and 60 days after it to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test and udder analysis were weekly performed to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration compared with control group (P

Juliana Jorge, Paschoal; Marcus Antonio, Zanetti; José Aparecido, Cunha.

269

Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7%) had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pa...

Hawari, Azmi D.; Fawzi Al-Dabbas

2008-01-01

270

Granulomatous mastitis — a diagnostic dilemma  

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Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare benign breast disease. It is characterized by chronic, non-caseating granulomatous lobulitis. It may be misdiagnosed as a carcinoma of the breast and may lead to mastectomy. Diagnostic criteria include-A) Granulomatous infl ammation with multinucleated giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes. B) It is centered on lobules with minor ductal and periductal infl ammation. C) It nearly always follows the pregnancy. A case of GLM, which was treated with local e...

Mote, Dajiram G.; Gungi, Raghavendra P.; Satyanarayana, V.; Premsunder, T.

2008-01-01

271

Epidemiological and clinical aspects of the first outbreak of bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in Goiás State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this survey was to describe the occurrence of bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in Goiás State, Brazil. Samples of milk, environment and udder were taken from a herd of 120 Holstein cows. Sabourauds dextrose agar plates were incubated under aerobic conditions at 37 degrees C/96 h, for microbiological analysis. Somatic cell count and milk composition were also determined. Histological sections from two udders were stained with HE and PAS. Prototheca zopfii was identified in six cows whose milk had a watery appearance. They also showed a pronounced decrease in milk yield, fat and lactose. Pronounced infiltration of mononuclear cells, atrophy of alveoli and fibrosis were observed. The presence of this agent in other herds in the State is highly likely. PMID:16482385

Bueno, Válter Ferreira Félix; de Mesquita, Albenones José; Neves, Rodrigo Balduino Soares; de Souza, Marcos Almeida; Ribeiro, Andréa Rentz; Nicolau, Edmar Soares; de Oliveira, Antônio Nonato

2006-03-01

272

Production loss due to new subclinical mastitis in Dutch dairy cows estimated iwth a test-day model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Milk, fat, and protein loss due to a new subclinical mastitis case may be economically important, and the objective of this study was to estimate this loss. The loss was estimated based on test-day (TD) cow records collected over a 1-yr period from 400 randomly selected Dutch dairy herds. After exclusion of records from cows with clinical mastitis, the data set comprised 251,647 TD records from 43,462 lactations of 39,512 cows. The analysis was carried out using a random regression test-day m...

Halasa, T.; Nielen, M.; Roos, S.; Hoorne, R.; Jong, G.; Lam, T. J. G. M.; Werven, T.; Hogeveen, H.

2009-01-01

273

Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review.  

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Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a framework for economic analysis. As a second step calculations of the costs of mastitis and the costs in relation to the benefits of mastitis management published since 1990 in peer-reviewed journals are...

Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Ostera?s, O.; Hogeveen, H.

2007-01-01

274

Genetic Diversity of Streptococcus uberis Strains Isolated from Clinical and Subclinical Cases of Bovine Intramammary Infections in Malaysia  

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Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was employed on twenty-four Streptococcus uberis isolates from cases of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis from five smallholder dairy herds in Malaysia. Three ten-mer primers namely OPA-01, OPA-05 and OPA-07 were selected out of a 20 primers set. A high degree of genetic polymorphism was revealed among the isolates of S. uberis by RAPD-PCR. Fourteen distinct RAPD fingerprint patterns were generated with primer...

Md. Firoz Mian; Abdul Rahim Mutalib; Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila; Abdul Aziz Saharee; Nadzri Salim

2002-01-01

275

Distribution of superantigenic toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk samples of bovine subclinical mastitis cases in two major diary production regions of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the distribution of most known staphylococcal superantigen (SAg) genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis cases, a genetic analysis of 15 SAg genes and genotypes was performed in a total of 283 S. aureus isolates collected from milk samples of cows with subclinical mastitis in two major diary production regions of China. Almost 65% of the isolates possessed at least one toxin gene. The most frequently found genes were sea (36.0%) followed by sei (31.8%), seg (31.4%) and selm (26.9%). The genes see, selk, or selo were not found in any of the isolates tested. Overall, 28 SAg genotypes were observed, among which the genotypes sea-seg-sei-selm, seg-sei-selm-seln, and sea-sed-selj predominated at the rate of 8.8%, 7.4%, and 6.7%, respectively. Marked geographical variations were noticed in the distribution of individual SAg genes and genotypes among S. aureus isolates from the two different regions. The relationship between toxin genotypes and toxin genes encoding profiles of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) was analyzed, revealing that majority of SAg genes were present in certain MGEs, which were in accordance with current knowledge about MGEs carrying those genes. However, some gene combinations suggest the possibility of the existence of variants or new types of MGEs. PMID:19217725

Wang, Shao-Chen; Wu, Cong-Ming; Xia, Sheng-Chao; Qi, Yong-Hua; Xia, Li-Ning; Shen, Jian-Zhong

2009-06-12

276

[Megalourethra: a clinical case].  

Science.gov (United States)

Megalourethra is an infrequent congenital malformation that compromises the penile uretra. It is the consequence of a deficient fusion of the ventral mesenchymal elements of the penis that generates the masive urethral dilatation that characterizes this pathology. Here we present a review of the literature available on megalourethra and the case of a newborn with this illness. We present it's surgical resolution with a special emphasis on the surgical technique. PMID:16846137

Sepúlveda Cuevas, J A; Vargas Serrano, F; Taladriz Rencoret, C

2006-04-01

277

Efficacy of conventional and extended intra-mammary treatment of persistent sub-clinical mastitis with cefquinome in lactating dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of intra-mammary-administered cefquinome for the treatment of sub-clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows and to determine if extended therapy would enhance treatment efficacy. Seventy-three Holstein dairy cows from a single farm with 150 infected quarters were enrolled in the study. Infected cows were allocated randomly to one of three treatment regimens: (1) conventional (standard) regimen: 75 mg of cefquinome administered three times at 16-h intervals (25 infected cows, 52 intra-mammary infections (IMI)), (2) extended regimen: 75 mg of cefquinome administered six times at 16-h intervals (26 infected cows, 58 IMI) and (3) negative untreated control group (22 cows, 40 IMI). Most IMI were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae and coliforms. The overall bacteriological cure (BC) rates for sub-clinical IMI were 84.61%, 91.37% and 20% for the conventional, extended and the control groups, respectively, indicating a higher BC rate for the treated groups than the control group (P?cefquinome therapy was effective in reducing SCC and eliminating sub-clinical IMI in lactating dairy cows, but extended therapy did not enhance treatment efficacy. PMID:21445703

Kasravi, Reza; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Farzaneh, Nima; Seifi, Hesam A; Barin, Abbas; Hovareshti, Parviz; Gharagozlou, Faramarz

2011-08-01

278

Clinical characteristics of amblyopic cases  

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Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics of amblyopic cases Material and Methods: The records of 254 amblyopic cases followed in our orthoptic clinic were reviewed retrospectively. Age, visual acuity, type of strabismus, age at diagnosis of patients were analysed in details. Results: The mean age of the patients was 10.2±3.4 years. 149 (%58.6) of them were female, 105 (%41.4) were male. The underlying amblyogenic causes were anisometropia (%37.8), strabismus (%30.7), mixed strabismu...

Betül Tu?cu; Ceren Gürez; Erdal Yüzba??o?lu; F?rat Helvac?o?lu; Ahmet A?açhan

2008-01-01

279

Effect of mastitis on macro-minerals of bovine milk and blood serum in Sudan  

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Milk and blood serum from clinically mastitis infected, subclinically mastitis infected and healthy Friesian cows (15 samples from each of 3 groups) were evaluated for macrominerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus). The milk from cows infected with subclinical mastitis revealed a significant decrease in potassium (P < 0.001) and a significant increase in sodium and phosphorus content (P < 0.01). Similarly, the milk from cows with the clinical form of the disease sh...

2012-01-01

280

Idiopathic ganulomatous mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic benign disease of the breast. Histologically, the disease presents as an inflammatory reaction with non-caseating granulomas considered characteristic for IGM. IGM is often confused with breast cancer or mastitis with abcedations, and is treated with surgery which involves mutilation of the breast. Although no consensus exists on the best treatment modality, the use of low-dose oral and topical steroids has proven efficacy. PMID:23188836

Casteren, Christelle Van; Jacquemyn, Yves; Himpe, Ellen; Verslegers, Inge

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis

2009-12-01

282

Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7% had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pathological lesions and change in udder secretion, in addition to that 276 quarters (31.4% showed subclinical mastitis. The incidence of mastitis was found to be increased in older cows. Staphylococcus aurous was considered to be the most common cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis and followed by coli forms, streptococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., proteus spp. and pseudomonas spp. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains using tertracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim.

Azmi D. Hawari

2008-01-01

283

Neonatal Mastitis: A Clinico-Microbiological Study  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Neonatal breast hypertrophy is a common phenomenon in term infants, superadded infection can lead to mastitis and that can progress to breast abscess with short and long term detrimental effects. Our effort is to study the prevalence, risk factors, the current microbial profile and sensitivity pattern in these infections in order to suggest an optimal treatment plan for these patients. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Hospital based study conducted in Kashmir on the native population. DURATION: 2011 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 neonates with features of mastitis or abscess were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data, laboratory work-up were recorded for all these patients in a patient form. Gram stain of the purulent nipple discharge or pus obtained on drainage was done and the specimens were culture plated. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined by disk diffusion and categorized by current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Most babies were full term, the age range was 6-48 days. Peak incidence for mastitis was in the 2nd week and for abscess in the 4th week. The ratio of male: female was 1:2 in the entire group, there was greater preponderance of female involvement with increasing age. Massage for expression of secretions a common practice in the study population had been done in 15 patients, especially in male babies. The babies were generally well and associated skin pustulosis was common. Laboratory workup showed polymorphonuclear leucocytosis and CRP positivity. Gram staining showed gram positive cocci in 13 patients and gram negative rods in 1 patient. Culture revealed Staphylococcus aureus in 18, E.col in 2, klebsiella in 1 patient and was sterile in 2 patients. Most strains of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to macrolides and penicillins. Fifteen were methicillin sensitive and 3 were resistant but were sensitive to amikacin, ofloxacin and vancomycin. Gram negative rods were sensitive to, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, quinolones, piperacillin-tazobactum and cefoperazone-sulbactum, but were resistant to cephalosporins including third generation cephalosporins. Treatment with oral antibiotic was not successful. Patients responded well to open drainage via a stab incision away from the breast mound; 4 patients were managed by repeated needle aspirations. IV antibiotics were prescribed in all patients for 2-5 days, followed by oral continuation therapy of 7-14 days. CONCLUSIONS: From our study, we can conclude that parental counseling to avoid massage, and early treatment for pustulosis is important to prevent mastitis. Intravenous antibiotics should be used for this condition guided by gram stain or culture sensitivity once available. Empirically a drug with good anti-staph cover may be instituted till appropriate reports are available. Incision drainage gives uniformly good results, though; multiple sittings of needle drainage may obviate the need for incision drainage. Therapy can be shifted to oral drugs once clinical improvement is seen.

Talat Masoodi

2014-01-01

284

Veterinary field test as screening tool for mastitis and HIV-1 viral load in breastmilk from HIV-infected Zambian women.  

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Clinical and subclinical mastitis increase the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 through breastfeeding. We hypothesized that a field test for mastitis used for bovine milk, the California Mastitis Test, would detect high cell counts in milk of HIV-infected women. We also investigated whether total milk cell count would positively correlate with viral HIV-1 RNA in the milk of 128 HIV-positive Zambian women. Mean cell counts in each California Mastitis Test scoring category were significantly different (p < 0.01, n = 232). In a subset of 4-month postpartum milk samples tested for HIV-1 RNA, viral RNA levels did not significantly correlate with total cell count (r = 0.166, p = .244). The CMT may serve as a screening tool for mastitis in breastmilk, but total cell count does not correlate with HIV-1 RNA levels. Since both cell-free and cell-associated virus are associated with increased risk of MTCT, investigation of the relationship between total milk cell count and HIV-1 proviral DNA is warranted before a conclusive determination is made regarding use of the CMT as a clinical screening tool to detect cases at high risk for breastmilk transmission. PMID:17903106

Dorosko, Stephanie M; Thea, Donald M; Saperstein, George; Russell, Robert M; Paape, Max J; Hinckley, Lynn S; Decker, William D; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Kasonde, Prisca; Kankasa, Chipepo; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Hamer, Davidson H

2007-09-01

285

Economic decisions in mastitis management  

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This thesis was conducted with the main objectives (i) to calculate costs of mastitis and cost-efficiency of mastitis management measures and (ii) to acquire insights in the economic decision behaviour of dairy farmers with respect to mastitis management. Animal health economics is a decision supporting science, based on a decision making function of evaluating and choosing between alternative strategies on animal diseases. The potential economic importance of diseases such as mastitis is not...

Huijps, K.

2009-01-01

286

Granulomatous Mastitis during Chronic Antidepressant Therapy: Is It Possible a Conservative Therapeutic Approach?  

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Granulomatous mastitis is a rare benign inflammatory disease of the breast with multiple etiologies such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, foreign body reaction, and mycotic and parasitic infections. In contrast, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is characterized by the presence of chronic granulomatous lobulitis in the absence of an obvious etiology. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma and so awareness of surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists is essential to avoid unnecessary mastectomies. Cases of IGM are reported during antidepressant therapy in patients also showing high levels of prolactinemia. In these cases, we believe that surgical excision must be avoided being replaced with a conservative management of the pathological condition based on a corticosteroid treatment. PMID:23091553

Bellavia, Maurizio; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Spinelli, Gabriele; Tomasello, Giovanni; Marrazzo, Antonio; Ficarella, Silvia; Bruno, Antonio; Sammartano, Antonino; Fiorentini, Tiziana; Scio, Antonio; Maione, Carolina; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

2012-09-01

287

Treatment of mastitis during lactation  

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Abstract Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom econo...

Pyörälä S

2009-01-01

288

Immunoprophylaxis of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in diary cows  

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Mastitis in cows represents one of the most actual problems in intensive dairy production. The prevention of pathogen penetration in the udder, its colonization and reproduction impose the constant need for regular milk check-ups, and preventive and therapeutic measures. Staphylococcus aureus causes subclinical and clinical mastitis, which when in the acute form can originate difficult and malignant udder infections with granulomatous and necrotic changes. Chronic forms of Staphylococcal mast...

Vakanjac Slobodanka; Pavlovi? M.; Pavlovi? V.; Obrenovi? Sonja

2008-01-01

289

Differences in severity of mastitis and the pathogens causing various oxidative product levels  

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Differences in severity of mastitis and their causing pathogens might be associated with oxidative product levels occurring during the inflammatory process in infected udders. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship of oxidative product levels, using malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker on both mastitis severity and its causing pathogens. Quarter milk samples of all lactating cows in the selected farms were primarily tested for mastitis severity levels including clinical ...

Witaya Suriyasathaporn; Teera Chewonarin; Usanee Vinitketkumnuen

2012-01-01

290

Genetic evaluation of mastitis liability and recovery through longitudinal analysis of transition probabilities  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods for the genetic analysis of mastitis use a cross-sectional approach, which omits information on, e.g., repeated mastitis cases during lactation, somatic cell count fluctuations, and recovery process. Acknowledging the dynamic behavior of mastitis during lactation and taking into account that there is more than one binary response variable to consider, can enhance the genetic evaluation of mastitis. Methods Genetic evaluation of mastitis was carried out by modeling the dynamic nature of somatic cell count (SCC within the lactation. The SCC patterns were captured by modeling transition probabilities between assumed states of mastitis and non-mastitis. A widely dispersed SCC pattern generates high transition probabilities between states and vice versa. This method can model transitions to and from states of infection simultaneously, i.e. both the mastitis liability and the recovery process are considered. A multilevel discrete time survival model was applied to estimate breeding values on simulated data with different dataset sizes, mastitis frequencies, and genetic correlations. Results Correlations between estimated and simulated breeding values showed that the estimated accuracies for mastitis liability were similar to those from previously tested methods that used data of confirmed mastitis cases, while our results were based on SCC as an indicator of mastitis. In addition, unlike the other methods, our method also generates breeding values for the recovery process. Conclusions The developed method provides an effective tool for the genetic evaluation of mastitis when considering the whole disease course and will contribute to improving the genetic evaluation of udder health.

Franzén Jessica

2012-04-01

291

Clinical characteristics of amblyopic cases  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics of amblyopic cases Material and Methods: The records of 254 amblyopic cases followed in our orthoptic clinic were reviewed retrospectively. Age, visual acuity, type of strabismus, age at diagnosis of patients were analysed in details. Results: The mean age of the patients was 10.2±3.4 years. 149 (%58.6 of them were female, 105 (%41.4 were male. The underlying amblyogenic causes were anisometropia (%37.8, strabismus (%30.7, mixed strabismus and anisometropia (%27.1, visual deprivation (%4.4. Anisometropia was the most common cause in both unilateral and bilateral amblyopic cases. The most frequent pattern of strabismus was esotropia (%34.2, whereas hypermetropia (%45.2 was the most frequent refractive error in amblyopic eyes. The mean age at diagnosis was earlier for strabismic (6.7 years amblyopia than anisometropic (8.5 years amblyopia (p=0.245. Conclusion: Amblyopia is the most common cause of visual impairment in children. Anisometropia is the most common cause and may not be detected as early as treatment to be effective. Therefore preschool vision screening is necessary for early treatment of amblyopia.

Betül Tu?cu

2008-01-01

292

Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

F Zaini

2012-08-01

293

Identification of Prototheca zopfii from Bovine Mastitis  

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Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran. Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM) and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR. Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07%) were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp) was detected in four isolates. Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

Zaini, F; Kanani, A; Falahati, M; Fateh, R; Salimi-Asl, M; Saemi, N; Farahyar, Sh; Kheirabad, A Kargar; Nazeri, M

2012-01-01

294

Cubicle Refusal and Rearing Accommodation as Possible Mastitis Risk Factors in Cubicle-Housed Dairy Heifers  

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Fifty-nine of the 65 dairy farms with cubicle sheds in the Norwegian county of Oppland in 1990 were included in a study of rearing accommodation, cubicle refusal and mastitis incidence. The farmers recorded the favoured resting location of the individual cows and heifers throughout the final week of pregnancy as well as during calving. The observations were matched with individual records of mastitis cases during the first 30 days after calving. Mastitis incidence in the heifers was a...

Hp, Kjæstad; Simensen E

2001-01-01

295

An investigation of risk factors for nocardial mastitis in central Alberta dairy herds  

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A case-control study was undertaken during the summer of 1989 in central Alberta dairy herds to identify independent predictors of nocardial mastitis. Thirty-seven herds with nocardial mastitis were matched with control herds based on herd size, milk production, and enrolment in Alberta Dairy Herd Improvement Services. Control herds were considered free of nocardial mastitis based on negative cultures of four weekly bulk tank milk samples and one composite milk sample collected during the sam...

Ollis, Gerald W.; Schoonderwoerd, Matthew; Schipper, Casey

1991-01-01

296

Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composi [...] te milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 10³ cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal-and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1% (123/584) had mastitis, 16.3% (95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%), Escherichia coli (25.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were I: associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

Simbarashe, Katsande; Gift, Matope; Masimba, Ndengu; Davies M, Pfukenyi.

297

Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584 had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584 had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584 had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%, Escherichia coli (25.2%, Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%, Klebsiella spp. (15.5% and Streptococcus spp. (1.6% were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3 and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1 were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

Davies M. Pfukenyi

2013-03-01

298

Therapy of mastitis puerperalis  

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70 patients with mastitis were treated by low dose irradiation with soft X-rays and by secondary inhibition of the lactation by conservative physical measures. Breast abscesses were observed only in 6 of 70 patients. Therefore the antiinflammatory irradiation with low dose X-rays is a suitable method of treatment.

Behling, H.; Reich, W.; Schmeisser, G. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (German Democratic Republic))

1983-01-01

299

Detection of Mycoplasmal Mastitis and Determination of its Prevalence Rate in Dairy Cattle Herds in Ardabil State  

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Following an initial report of Mycoplasma mastitis in Ardabil state dairies, a survey of milk samples from a random group of dairy farms was conducted in Moghan area in ardabil state,Iran. Cows (n = 80) from four farms (4 cooperative farms consisting of 10550 cows/herd) with clinical mastitis and bulk milk tanks(n = 48) were monitored and sampled for clinical mastitis. A total of 80 aseptic milk samples were collected when an clinical mastitis was occurred (based on any observable si...

Ciamak Ghazaei

2006-01-01

300

Mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática: una patología vigente Chronic idiopathic lobular granulomatous mastitis: a current pathology  

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Full Text Available Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es una patología benigna del seno, de carácter inflamatorio y de etiología desconocida. Sus principales manifestaciones clínicas se semejan a las del cáncer mamario. Dado que los hallazgos clínicos y de imágenes diagnósticas no son específicas, el diagnóstico inequívoco recae en el estudio histopatológico de 0 lesión. Objetivos: Describir las principales manifestaciones clínicas, los resultados de los métodos diagnósticos y hallazgos importantes de patología en los casos de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Materiales y métodos: Desde enero del año 2004 los autores establecieron el registro personal de tumores benignos, mastitis no lactacional y enfermedad inflamatoria ductal. Hasta septiembre de 2006, este registro recolectó información clínica, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento en 77 pacientes, 20 de los cuales correspondieron al diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo por las siguientes variables: 1. Edad. 2. Cuadro clínico. 3. Enfermedades asociadas. 4. Métodos diagnósticos utilizados. 5. Hallazgos histopatológicos. 6. Curso clínico. Resultados: El diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular se hizo inicialmente en 30 pacientes. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática en 20 pacientes, dado que en 10, se identificó la causa específica de la inflamación granulomatosa del seno. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue de 36 años; la más joven tenía 22 años. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue la aparición de masa inflamatoria en el seno. El hallazgo principal del estudio fue la asociación de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática con cáncer del seno contralateral y la infección con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, asociación no descrita en la literatura mundial. Conclusión: El diagnóstico de mastitis granu-lomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es un reto clínico formidable. Debido a que sus manifestaciones clínicas son yerras y se observa resolución espontánea de la enfermedad, esta patología posiblemente es dejada sin diagnosticar en una proporción importante de casos. La identificación de la causa subyacente de la inflamación granulomatosa en más de un tercio de los pacientes, hace que el estudio histopatológico sea considerado por nosotros como el método diagnóstico de escogencia para el diagnóstico incuestionable de esta patología.Background: Chronic idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (ICGM is a benign disease of the breast, of inflammatory nature and unknown etiology. The main clinical features of this entity resemble those of mammary cancer. Given that the clinical and diagnostic imaging findings are not specific, the correct diagnosis falls in the histopathologic study. Objectives: To describe the main clinical manifestations, the results of the diagnostic studies, and the most important findings in the pathlogical study of ICGM. Materials and methods: Beginning in January 2004, the authors implemented the personal registry of benign breast tumors, nonlactational mastitis, and ductal inflammatory disease; 77 patients were registered until September 2006, with data including clinical information, diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities. In this group of 77 patients, 20 had the diagnosis of ICGM. A descriptive statistical analysis based on the following variables was carried out: 1. Age; 2. Clinical presentation; 3. Associated illnesses; 4. Diagnostic methods employed; 5. histopathologic findings; 6. Clinical course. Results: The diagnosis of ICGM was initially made in 30 patient, and the diagnosis was confirmed in 20, while in the other 10 a specific inflammatory cause was identified. The average age of this group patients was 36 years, the youngest being 22.The most frequent clinical presentation was an inflammatory mass in the breast, while the outstanding finding was the association of ICGM w

Eduardo Torregroza-Diazgranados

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática: una patología vigente / Chronic idiopathic lobular granulomatous mastitis: a current pathology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es una patología benigna del seno, de carácter inflamatorio y de etiología desconocida. Sus principales manifestaciones clínicas se semejan a las del cáncer mamario. Dado que los hallazgos clínicos y de imágenes diagnósticas no son e [...] specíficas, el diagnóstico inequívoco recae en el estudio histopatológico de 0 lesión. Objetivos: Describir las principales manifestaciones clínicas, los resultados de los métodos diagnósticos y hallazgos importantes de patología en los casos de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Materiales y métodos: Desde enero del año 2004 los autores establecieron el registro personal de tumores benignos, mastitis no lactacional y enfermedad inflamatoria ductal. Hasta septiembre de 2006, este registro recolectó información clínica, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento en 77 pacientes, 20 de los cuales correspondieron al diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo por las siguientes variables: 1. Edad. 2. Cuadro clínico. 3. Enfermedades asociadas. 4. Métodos diagnósticos utilizados. 5. Hallazgos histopatológicos. 6. Curso clínico. Resultados: El diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular se hizo inicialmente en 30 pacientes. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática en 20 pacientes, dado que en 10, se identificó la causa específica de la inflamación granulomatosa del seno. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue de 36 años; la más joven tenía 22 años. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue la aparición de masa inflamatoria en el seno. El hallazgo principal del estudio fue la asociación de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática con cáncer del seno contralateral y la infección con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, asociación no descrita en la literatura mundial. Conclusión: El diagnóstico de mastitis granu-lomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es un reto clínico formidable. Debido a que sus manifestaciones clínicas son yerras y se observa resolución espontánea de la enfermedad, esta patología posiblemente es dejada sin diagnosticar en una proporción importante de casos. La identificación de la causa subyacente de la inflamación granulomatosa en más de un tercio de los pacientes, hace que el estudio histopatológico sea considerado por nosotros como el método diagnóstico de escogencia para el diagnóstico incuestionable de esta patología. Abstract in english Background: Chronic idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (ICGM) is a benign disease of the breast, of inflammatory nature and unknown etiology. The main clinical features of this entity resemble those of mammary cancer. Given that the clinical and diagnostic imaging findings are not specific, the corre [...] ct diagnosis falls in the histopathologic study. Objectives: To describe the main clinical manifestations, the results of the diagnostic studies, and the most important findings in the pathlogical study of ICGM. Materials and methods: Beginning in January 2004, the authors implemented the personal registry of benign breast tumors, nonlactational mastitis, and ductal inflammatory disease; 77 patients were registered until September 2006, with data including clinical information, diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities. In this group of 77 patients, 20 had the diagnosis of ICGM. A descriptive statistical analysis based on the following variables was carried out: 1. Age; 2. Clinical presentation; 3. Associated illnesses; 4. Diagnostic methods employed; 5. histopathologic findings; 6. Clinical course. Results: The diagnosis of ICGM was initially made in 30 patient, and the diagnosis was confirmed in 20, while in the other 10 a specific inflammatory cause was identified. The average age of this group patients was 36 years, the youngest being 22.The most frequent clinical presentation was an

Torregroza-Diazgranados, Eduardo; Gómez Cruz, María Constanza; Viaña, Luis Fernando; Figueroa, Juan David.

302

SUSCEPTIBILITIES/RESISTANCE OF Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVE AND Streptococcus sp. ISOLATED FROM THE MILK OF COWS PRESENTING CLINICAL MASTITIS IN MILK BASIN OF GOIÂNIA RESISTÊNCIA DE Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVA E Streptococcus sp. ISOLADOS DO LEITE DE VACAS COM MASTITE CLÍNICA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA  

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Full Text Available

It was verified the spectrum of susceptibilities/resistance of 76 samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive and 51 samples of Streptococcus sp., isolated from milk of 231 cows presenting clinical mastitis. The diffusion method was used in plate of Kirby-Bauer, being tested ten active principles used in cases of clinical mastitis. Natural penicillin, chloranphenicol, tetraciclyne, kanamicyn, gentamicyn, nitrofurantoin, trimetopryn + sulfametoxazol, enrofloxacyn, perlimicyn and ceftiofur were tested. The samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive presented a spectrum of larger resistance for the penicillin (78.9%, followed by trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (59.2% and nitrofurantoin (57.8%. The largest susceptibility frequency was found in enrofloxacyn (96%, in perlimicyn (94% and in ceftiofur (94%. For the samples of Streptococcus sp. there was a profile resistance for penicillin (92%, chloranphenicol (74.5% and trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (52%. A sensibility profile was also verified for enrofloxacyn (96%, ceftiofur (92% and perlimicyn (92%.

KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; resistance; susceptibilities.

Verificou-se o espectro de sensibilidade/resistência de 76 cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e 51 cepas de Streptococcus sp., isolados do leite proveniente de 231 vacas que apresentaram mastite clínica. Utilizou-se o método de difusão em placa, segundo Kirby-Bauer, testando-se 10 princípios ativos: penicilina natural, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, kanamicina, gentamicina, nitrofurantoína, trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol, enrofloxacina, perlimicina e ceftiofur. As cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva apresentaram um espectro de resistência maior para a penicilina (78,9%, vindo a seguir trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (59,2% e nitrofurantoína (57,8%. A maior freqüência de sensibilidade foi encontrada frente à enrofloxacina (96%, secundada pela perlimicina (94% e ceftiofur (94%. Já para as cepas de Streptococcus sp. encontrou-se um perfil de resistência para a penicilina de 92%, para o cloranfenicol de 74,5% e para o trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol de 52%, enquanto o perfil de sensibilidade para enrofloxacina foi de 96%, para ceftiofur, de 92%, e para perlimicina, de 92%.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite bovina; sensibilidade; resistência.

Luiz Antônio Franco da Silva

2007-09-01

303

Lisfranc fracture dislocation. Clinical case  

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Full Text Available The Lisfranc fracture dislocation is a serious lesion occur in tarsometatarsian joint and produce importants consequence, for anatomic complexiti of this foot area. The injury mechanisms ocasionality is asociated to automovilistic accidents. Our report of a clinical case into a patient endure fall since 8 meter altitud. Quirurgical manegement was make, open reduction and osteosíntesis with Kirschner nails. Favorable evolution and adecuate reponse to rehabilitation.RESUMENLa luxofractura de Lisfranc es una lesión grave que compromete la articulacióntarsometatarsiana, generando secuelas importantes, dada la complejidad anatómica de esta zona del pie. Los mecanismos de lesión en general han sido asociados a accidentes en automotores. Se reporta un caso clínico, en el cual el paciente sufre caída de una altura de ocho metros. Realizado el manejo quirúrgico con reducción abierta más osteosíntesis con clavos de Kirschner. Evolución favorable y adecuada respuesta a la rehabilitación.

Lora-Fernández Alberto Carlos

2010-12-01

304

Avaliação do impacto econômico da mastite em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros / Influence of the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram simular, analisar e quantificar o impacto econômico da frequência média anual de mastite clínica em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros. A pesquisa foi realizada por meio de simulação no sistema computacional CU$TO MASTITE, considerando rebanhos leiteiros com 1, 7 e 15% de m [...] astite clínica. Foram consideradas como prevenção as despesas com monitoramento (cultura e antibiograma, contagem de células somáticas no tanque e contagem de células somática individual), pré e pós dipping, vacinação, tratamento de vacas secas e manutenção de ordenhadeira. Como medida curativa considerou-se apenas tratamento de casos clínicos. O impacto da mastite foi estimado como sendo o total em perdas acrescido das despesas com prevenção e tratamento de casos clínicos. O aumento da frequência média anual de mastite influenciou diretamente no impacto econômico da mastite, evidenciando a necessidade de monitoramento da mastite clínica e subclínica e adoção de medidas preventivas para diminuir os prejuízos ocasionados por essa enfermidade. As despesas com tratamento preventivo representaram, no máximo, 19,7% do impacto econômico, o que demonstra vantagens em investir nessa prática, pois ela irá contribuir significativamente para reduzir o impacto econômico da mastite. Abstract in english The objectives of this research were to analyze and quantify the economic impact of the annual average frequency of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The research was carried through data simulation in the CU$TO MASTITE computational system, considering dairy cattle with 1, 7 and 15% of clinical ma [...] stitis. The expenditures considered as prevention included those of monitoring (culture and antibiogram, bulk tank somatic cell count and individual somatic cell count) pre- and post-dipping, vaccination, treatment of dry cows and maintenance of the milking machine. The measures considered as healing consisted only of the treatment of clinical cases. The impact of the mastitis was estimated as being the total in losses in addition to the expenditures with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. The increase of the annual average frequency of mastitis directly influenced the economic impact of the mastitis. The higher economic impact evidences the need for the monitoring of clinical and subclinical mastitis and the adoption of preventative measures to diminish the damages caused by this disease. The expenditures with preventive treatment represented, at maximum, 19.7% of the economic impact, which demonstrates the advantages of investing in this practice, since it contributes significantly toward reducing the economic impact of mastitis.

Lopes, M.A.; Demeu, F.A.; Rocha, C.M.B.M. da; Costa, G.M. da; Franco Neto, A.; Santos, G. dos.

305

Bovine Mastitis in Subtropical Dairy Farms, 2005-2009  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of Clinical Mastitis (CM and Subclinical Mastitis (SCM, isolation and identification of the major pathogens and test the antimicrobial resistance of milk bacterial isolates in subtropical dairy farms in Guangxi region (south of China between 2005 and 2009. The average percentages of blind quarter(s at cow and quarter level were 11.5 and 3.7%, respectively. The incidence of CM at cow and quarter level were 8.7 and 3.7%, respectively while that of SCM at cow and quarter level were 48.8 and 19%, respectively. A total of 105 and 56 microorganisms were isolated from the 109 CM and 67 SCM samples, respectively. The most common bacterial isolates from CM cases were S. aureus (29.5%, E. coli (25.7% and C. neoformans (16.2%, however in SCM they were S. aureus (32.1%, CNS (19.7% and St. agalactiae (17.9%. The antimicrobial sensitivity test indicated that all the antimicrobial agents (except for ampicillin showed lower proportion of resistant isolates of all the isolated bacteria (except for C. neoformans, among the employed antimicrobials, Ruyanxiao showed the lowest proportion of resistant isolates.

Huang Qin-Hua

2011-01-01

306

Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance and milk somatic cell score in French Lacaune dairy sheep  

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Full Text Available Abstract Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance was studied from two data sets. Firstly, risk factors for different mastitis traits, i.e. culling due to clinical or chronic mastitis and subclinical mastitis predicted from somatic cell count (SCC, were explored using data from 957 first lactation Lacaune ewes of an experimental INRA flock composed of two divergent lines for milk yield. Secondly, genetic parameters for SCC were estimated from 5 272 first lactation Lacaune ewes recorded among 38 flocks, using an animal model. In the experimental flock, the frequency of culling due to clinical mastitis (5% was lower than that of subclinical mastitis (10% predicted from SCC. Predicted subclinical mastitis was unfavourably associated with the milk yield level. Such an antagonism was not detected for clinical mastitis, which could result, to some extent, from its low frequency or from the limited amount of data. In practice, however, selection for mastitis resistance could be limited in a first approach to selection against subclinical mastitis using SCC. The heritability estimate of SCC was 0.15 for the lactation mean trait and varied from 0.04 to 0.12 from the first to the fifth test-day. The genetic correlation between lactation SCC and milk yield was slightly positive (0.15 but showed a strong evolution during lactation, i.e. from favourable (-0.48 to antagonistic (0.27. On a lactation basis, our results suggest that selection for mastitis resistance based on SCC is feasible. Patterns for genetic parameters within first lactation, however, require further confirmation and investigation.

Astruc Jean-Michel

2001-07-01

307

Treatment of mastitis during lactation  

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Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of h...

Pyo?ra?la?, S.

2009-01-01

308

Epidemiology of Subclinical Mastitis and Their Antibacterial Susceptibility in Smallholder Dairy Farms, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis at the beginning of the rainy season to define the factors associated with subclinical mastitis caused by various pathogens and to identify antibiotic susceptibility and resistance. About 42 farms from the Mae-On Dairy Cooperative participating in the Herd Health Management Program (HHPM, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University were included in the study. The study was conducted in June, 2008. From the protocol of HHPM, all farms had to collect a milk sample from each milking cow for measurement of Somatic Cell Counts (SCC once a month. At the cut-off point of SCC = 200,000 cells mL-1 the cows were deemed to haveintramammary infection. Cows in 3 groups were checked for subclinical mastitis in quarter levels using the California mastitis test within 2 weeks after SCC measurement. A cow with CMT score ?+1 for at least one quarter was identified as a subclinical mastitis cow and was included into the study. Milk samples from subclinical mastitis quarters were collected with aseptic techniques. The fisher exact ?2-tests were used to evaluate the association of pathogens with antibiotic resistant and the associated factors. The significant levels were defined at pC. bovis (28% and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS (28% were the main bacteria isolated in this study. Stap. aureus (8% and St. agalactiae (2% as contagious pathogens were at low levels. An occurrence of subclinical mastitis from S. aureus was significantly associated with subclinical mastitis status in which most S. aureus subclinical mastitis showed chronic status of subclinical mastitis. Most subclinical cases occurred during late lactation (54%. Occurrences of subclinical mastitis from Stap. aureus and C. bovis were associated with period of lactation (pSt. uberis, S. aureus and S. dysgalactaie. Subclinical mastitis with St. uberis was resistant to most antibiotics (pStap. aureus and CNS wassusceptible for most antibiotics.

Witaya Suriyasathaporn

2011-01-01

309

Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11 or subclinical (strain O46 mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46 or severe (O11 mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4% were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland.

Le Maréchal Caroline

2011-02-01

310

Corynebacterium accolens Isolated from Breast Abscess: Possible Association with Granulomatous Mastitis?  

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Corynebacterium accolens is rarely isolated as a human pathogen. We describe here a case of C. accolens isolated from a breast abscess in a patient previously diagnosed with granulomatous mastitis. The possible association of Corynebacterium accolens and granulomatous mastitis in this patient is discussed.

Ang, Lei M. N.; Brown, Hamish

2007-01-01

311

[Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].  

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The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures. PMID:1659859

Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

1991-01-01

312

Frequência de Staphylococcus aureus em casos de mastite bovina subclínica, na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul / Frequency of staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mastite bovina é uma doença importante na exploração leiteira, não apenas pelas perdas econômicas diretas que promove, mas também pelas perdas indiretas e o potencial risco à saúde pública. Dentre as principais causas de infecções intramamárias, destacam-se as bactérias do gênero Staphylococcus sp [...] p., sendo que Staphylococcus aureus é o agente etiológico predominante em mastite subclínica. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar a frequência de mastite subclínica em oito rebanhos localizados na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) e a relação da enfermidade com a presença de S. aureus. Adicionalmente, pesquisou-se a presença de S. intermedius e S. hyicus nas amostras de leite obtidas. Para identificação da doença, utilizou-se o California Mastitis Test (CMT). A identificação da espécie de Staphylococcus spp. foi feita em meio de cultura ágar Baird-Parker, com posterior confirmação das colônias suspeitas em coloração de gram, prova de catalase, pesquisa de coagulase livre e pesquisa de termonuclease. A mastite subclínica foi constatada em 53,6% dos animais testados. A presença de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva foi identificada em 12,6% dos animais com mastite subclínica. Nesses mesmos animais, a bactéria identificada como S. aureus foi o agente etiológico presente em 17,6% dos casos. Adicionalmente, pode-se perceber que, dentre o grupo identificado como coagulase positiva, 85,7% corresponderam a S. aureus, enquanto 8,5% mostraram características bioquímicas compatíveis com S. intermedius e 5,8% foram consideradas S. hyicus. Abstract in english Bovine mastitis is an important disease in dairy farming, not only by promoting direct economic losses, but also for indirect losses and the potential risk to public health. The main causes of intramammary infections include the bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus being [...] the predominant etiologic agent in subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of subclinical mastitis in eight herds from southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and the relationship of the disease with the presence of S. aureus. In addition, we checked for the presence of S. intermedius and S. hyicus in the milk samples obtained. For identification of the disease, we used the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Identification of Staphylococcus spp. species was made in Barid-Parker agar culture medium, with subsequent confirmation of suspected colonies by way of Gram stain and catalase test along with free-coagulase and thermonuclease research. Subclinical mastitis was identified in 53.6% of animals tested. The presence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was identified in 12.6% of animals with subclinical mastitis. In these same animals, bacteria identified as S. aureus were the etiologic agent present in 17.6% of cases. Additionally, it was revealed that among the group identified as coagulase positive, 85.7% corresponded to S. aureus, while 8.5% had biochemical characteristics consistent with S. intermedius and 5.8% were considered S. hyicus.

Bandeira, F.S.; Picoli, T.; Zani, J.L.; Silva, W.P. da; Fischer, G..

313

Feline gangrenous mastitis.  

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A 3.7-kg, 3-year-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with the chief complaint of anorexia and lethargy of 3 days duration with a noticeable decrease in body condition and a large open wound on her ventral caudal abdomen. A diagnosis of acute mastitis with gland abscessation was made. The patient was successfully treated with oral antibiotics and open wound management using surgical debridement and lavage followed by wound dressings using honey. PMID:23997269

Wilson, Courtney R

2013-03-01

314

Immunotherapy of mastitis.  

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The aim of this study was to examine an alternative, immunologically based treatment for mastitis. A microbead carrying specific anti-mastitis bacteria antibodies and an enhancer of phagocytosis, termed Y-complex, was tested in two experiments. In experiment 1, 21 cows were challenged with Streptococcus dysgalactiae and treated with Y-complex, Cobactan LC(®) or saline. Y-complex cleared the bacteria by day 4 and by day 10 only one cow was positive and remained positive up to day 28. No bacteria were isolated from any of the seven cows treated with Cobactan LC after day 4; however, in two out of the seven cows, the bacteria were re-isolated on day 24. On day 28, cows treated with placebo had still not cleared the bacteria. Experiment 2 was a field study in which cows, naturally infected with Escherichia coli, S. dysgalactiae or coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), were treated with Y-complex (32 cows), sulfadiazine+trimethoprim or procaine penicillin+streptomycin (BA) (8 cows), or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (19 cows). Y-complex was as effective as antibiotics, and superior to NSAID, in eliminating bacteria. Milk quantity and quality following infection and treatment were similar for all treatments, but significantly less milk was discarded from cows treated with Y-complex as compared to antibiotics. Y-complex was proven to be safe and effective, and may serve as a new approach for the treatment of mastitis. PMID:23523288

Leitner, Gabriel; Pinchasov, Yosef; Morag, Eli; Spanier, Yossi; Jacoby, Samy; Eliau, Dorit; Pitcovski, Jacob

2013-06-15

315

IgG4-related sclerosing mastitis: description of a new member of the IgG4-related sclerosing diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunoglobulin G (IgG)4-related sclerosing disease is a recently described syndrome characterized by mass-forming lesions in various organs due to dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and stromal sclerosis, elevated serum IgG4 titer, increased tissue IgG4 plasma cells, and favorable clinical outcome. We describe 4 patients with IgG4-related sclerosing mastitis, which represents a new member of this family of diseases. All patients were female with a mean age of 47.5 years, presenting with painless masses in 1 or both breasts. One patient had concurrent IgG4-related lymphadenopathy, and another had eyelid swelling of undetermined cause. The serum IgG4 titer was elevated in 1 tested patient, and circulating autoantibodies were found in 3 tested patients. All patients were well with no recurrence after excision or biopsy of the mass. Histologically, the breast masses featured dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, prominent stromal sclerosis and loss of breast lobules. Phlebitis was present in 1 case. IgG4 cells ranged from 272 to 495 per high-power field, constituting 49% to 85% of all IgG cells. IgG4 cells were scarce in 9 of 9 cases of lymphocytic mastitis and 6 of 7 cases of granulomatous mastitis studied as controls. In summary, IgG4-related sclerosing mastitis appears to be a distinctive form of mastitis, sometimes accompanied by other components of IgG4-related sclerosing disease, and shows a favorable clinical outcome. PMID:19384187

Cheuk, Wah; Chan, Alexander C L; Lam, Wai-Lung; Chow, Sheung-Ming; Crowley, Peter; Lloydd, Richard; Campbell, Ian; Thorburn, Murray; Chan, John K C

2009-07-01

316

Preliminary study of homeopathic treatment of subclinical mastitis evaluated through somatic cells count (SCC) and California mastitis test (CMT) Estudio preliminar del tratamiento homeopático de la mastitis sublínica evaluado mediante recuento de células somáticas (SCC) y California Mastitis Test (CMT) Estudo preliminar do tratamento homeopático da mastite subclínica avaliado por contagem de células somáticas (SCC) e California Mastitis Test (CMT)  

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The present paper presents the results of homeopathic treatment of 25 Holstein breed cows aged 3 to 8 years old diagnosed with subclinical mastitis through California Mastitis Test (CMT). Animals were divided into 3 groups according with infection level. A homeopathic complex was developed on the grounds of clinical aspects, including Phosphorus 30x, Phytolacca 30x, Silicea 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alb...

Zilda Cristiani Gazim; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Luiz Cláudio Monteiro da Silva; Carlos Massambani; Roberson Eduardo Moraes; Carlos Dias Barzon; Franciele de Medeiros

2008-01-01

317

Treatment of mastitis during lactation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials.

Pyörälä S

2009-04-01

318

SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES IN ATTOCK DISTRICT OF PUNJAB (PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Mastitis is the most costly disease of dairy industry throughout the world. Sub-clinical mastitis is not observed by the farmers but results in hidden losses in terms of production. The present study was conducted to determine the quarter wise and animal wise prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis in buffaloes in Attock district of Punjab, Pakistan. Milk samples were collected from apparently mastitis free 1200 quarters of 300 buffaloes. The samples were subjected to Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. The overall quarter wise prevalence was 58.75 percent, while animal wise prevalence was 77.98 percent. The maximum quarter wise prevalence was found to be 16.66 percent in Tehsil Jand, followed by 13.33, 11.67 and 13.33 percent in the tehsils Attock, Pindighaib, and Fateh Jang, respectively. The maximum animal wise prevalence was 82.61 percent in Tehsil Pindighaib, followed by 73.33, 80.00 and 76.00 percent in the tehsils Attock, Jand and Fateh Jang, respectively.

H. A. Bachaya, Z. Iqbal1, G. Muhammad2, A. Yousaf2 and H. M. Ali3

2005-07-01

319

Breast carcinoma occurring from chronic granulomatous mastitis.  

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Chronic granulomatous mastitis is known as a benign and relatively rare disorder that is often difficult to differentiate from breast carcinoma. We highlight the case of a 34-year-old woman who had recurrent episodes of right breast swelling and abscess for 8 years. These were proven to be chronic granulomatous mastitis by tissue biopsies on 3 different occasions. Her condition improved on similar courses of antibiotics and high-dose prednisolone. However, she subsequently developed progressive loss of vision due to an orbital tumour. She then underwent a craniotomy and left orbital decompression with excision of the tumour, which proved to be a metastatic carcinoma. A trucut biopsy of the right breast was then done and showed features consistent with an infiltrating ductal carcinoma. This case illustrates the possibility that chronic granulomatous mastitis could be a precursor for malignancy and the difficulty in differentiating one from the other. The possible mechanisms of development and the implications for future management are also discussed. PMID:22973142

Mazlan, Luqman; Suhaimi, Shahrun Niza Abdullah; Jasmin, Saladina Jaszle; Latar, Nani Harlina Md; Adzman, Sellymiah; Muhammad, Rohaizak

2012-04-01

320

MÉTODOS DE ESTIMACIÓN DEL NIVEL DE MASTITIS EN VACAS LECHERAS A PARTIR DE LA DETERMINACIÓN DEL TEST DE CALIFORNIA PARA MASTITIS (CMT DE SUS CUARTOS INDIVIDUALES Estimation methods for mastitis level in dairy cows using the California Mastitis Test (CMT in each quarter  

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Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estimar el nivel de mastitis subclínica de vacas lecheras, definido en términos del recuento de células somáticas de la leche (RCS, a partir de la determinación del Test de California para Mastitis (CMT a través de correlación y regresión, y un modelo logit. Se utilizó la información existente en la base de datos generada por cinco rebaños lecheros de la zona central del país, con una masa de 1200 vacas principalmente de raza Holstein Friesian Americana. La información se sistematizó calculando la suma de los CMT de los cuartos (SCMT, transformando RCS en rangos celulares RC, y agregando, además, el CMT del recipiente graduado de ordeña (CMTM. Se calcularon correlaciones lineales entre estas variables, regresiones de CMTM y RC y el modelo logit que expresa la relación en términos probabilísticos: p = 1 / (1 + EXP(b SCMT - c k. Las correlaciones fueron significativas al 1%, con valores situados entre 0,37 y 0,78. Las regresiones lineales estimadas fueron RC = 0,74 SCMT en los dos tipos de animales. La función logit dio estimaciones del parámetro b de 0,335 y R² = 0,83 para vaquillas y de b = 0,30 y R² = 0,63 para vacas. El modelo logit se muestra como un instrumento muy certero para la estimación del RCS en casos extremos, que no exista mastitis o que la mastitis esté muy cerca de un nivel abiertamente clínicoThe objective of this study was to estimate the sub-clinical incidence of mastitis on dairy cows, defined as the count of somatic cells in milk (RCS based on the California Mastitis Test (CMT using correlation, linear regression and logit models. A database of five dairy herds from central Chile composed of 1200 mainly Holstein Friesian dairy cows was used. Information was systematized for each cow calculating the sum of CMT for individual quarters (SCMT, and transforming RCS in cellular ranges (RC, adding the average CMT value of the graduated milking recipient (CMTM. Linear correlations were calculated among these variables, linear regression CMTM and RC and the logit model that indicates the relationship in probabilistic terms: p j = 1 / (1 + EXP(b SCMT - c k. Correlations were significant (P < 0.01 with values between 0.37 and 0.78. Estimated linear regressions were RC = 0.74 SCMT for both kinds of animals. The logit function estimated a parameter b of 0.335 and R² = 0.83 for heifers and b = 0.30 and R² =0.63 for cows. The logit model proves to be a very accurate instrument for RCS estimation in extreme cases, with no mastitis presence, or mastitis close to clinical levels.

Alberto Mansilla M.

2001-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Tuberculous Mastitis Presenting as Breast Abscess  

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Full Text Available Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in its diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination with aspiration or surgical drainage are usually associated with an excellent outcome.

Leo Francis Tauro

2011-01-01

322

Diabetic Lymphocytic Mastitis: A Clinico-Imaging Mimicker of Malignancy [Clinico-Pathologic Review  

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Full Text Available The clinical and imaging appearance of diabetic lymphocytic mastitis and stromal fibrosis very much resembles a malignant lesion. These clinico-imaging findings are not specific and often create doubts about possibility of underlying malignancy ultimately leading to biopsy. Accurate diagnosis can reduce patient`s anxiety and prevent unnecessary surgery as these lesions are known to recur. Therefore, we present a classic case of this entity for the benefit of one and all. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 950-954

Smita B. Sankaye

2014-08-01

323

Mastitis bovina por Prototheca zopfii: primer aislamiento en Chile Bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: first isolation in Chile  

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Full Text Available El género Prototheca está formado por microalgas unicelulares sin clorofila, ampliamente distribuidas en el medio ambiente, algunas de las cuales pueden ser patógenas para el hombre y animales. Sin embargo, no existen antecedentes bibliográficos previos sobre la existencia de estas algas patógenas para el hombre y animales en Chile. Se examinó bacteriológicamente un total de 200 muestras de leche provenientes de 150 vacas lecheras con mastitis clínica, las cuales fueron sembradas en medio PIM modificado, selectivo para Prototheca. Se aisló Prototheca spp. en dos ocasiones consecutivas de una misma vaca muestreada con un intervalo de dos meses. El examen microscópico directo de las muestras de leche en fresco reveló la presencia células características de Prototheca spp. Mediante asimilación de fuentes de carbono se identificó la especie como P. zopfii, constituyendo el primer aislamiento de este agente a partir de un cuadro de mastitis clínica bovina en Chile. Este hallazgo es relevante para los programas de control de mastitis bovina en los rebaños lecheros ya que es un organismo poco frecuente y desconocido que no responde a los tratamientos antibióticos convencionales.The genus Prototheca includes unicellular achlorophyllous microalgae widely distributed in the environment, some of which could be pathogenic for human and animals. However, there is no previous report regarding these pathogenic microalgae causing infections in man or animals in Chile. Two-hundred milk samples collected from 150 dairy cows with clinical mastitis were inoculated onto PIM modified medium. Prototheca spp was isolated on two consecutive occasions from one cow sampled two months apart. Direct microscopic examination of wet smears made from milk samples revealed typical Prototheca cells. Biochemical tests based on carbon source assimilation identified the organism as Prototheca zopfii. This finding represents the first isolation of this environmental alga from bovine mastitis in Chile. This could be of great importance for mastitis control programs in dairy herds as Prototheca is an uncommon mastitis pathogen that does not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

L Zaror

2011-01-01

324

Granulomatous Mastitis: A Spectrum of Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Background Granulomatous disease within the breast can result from a variety of causes. Patients and Methods We present 3 cases of this condition with 3 different underlying diagnoses. Results Each case was initially labelled as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, although this was proven not to be correct on further investigation. Conclusion Clearly, identifying the correct underlying diagnosis is essential in granulomatous breast lesions as the treatment varies widely depending on the underlying aetiology. Effective communication and feedback in the context of the multidisciplinary team are vital to the diagnostic process in such challenging cases.

Vinayagam, Ragu; Cox, Julie; Webb, Lesley

2009-01-01

325

Clinical analysis of 100 medicolegal cases.  

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OBJECTIVE--To find the reasons for legal claims against hospital doctors. DESIGN--Prospective analysis of requests for medical opinion submitted by solicitors during 1984-93 on legal claims against hospital doctors. SUBJECTS--100 successive cases: 98 from the United Kingdom and two from the Republic of Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Principal underlying causes of claims. RESULTS--In 44 cases there was no serious clinical error. Of the 56 cases of clinical fault, seven were a failure of commu...

Neale, G.

1993-01-01

326

Testing the efficiency of different treatments of subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in cows during the dry period  

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Full Text Available Mastitis is still the most common disorder which is present in diary cows. Changes in genetics, nutrition and milking equipment affect the incidence of subclinical and clinical forms of mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of subclinical and clinical forms of mastitis. In the acute form it can cause malignant mastitis in the form of granulomatous and necrotic changes. Chronic forms of staphylococcal mastitis often develop as subclinical changes. Halting the entrance, the colonization and replication of the pathogen into the udder impose the constant need for regular milk controls and preventive and therapeutic measures in order to decrease the incidence of mastitis. A modern approach in the eradication and control of mastitis is immunoprophilaxis, aimed towards the innovation of new vaccines against the most common causes of mastitis. In this study we have applied the vaccine prepared with S. aureus isolated from milk taken from the experimental farm and the referent capsular strain. The vaccine was applied twice two months before calving in a dose of 5mL. The vaccine contained inactivated S. aureus JR3 bacterial cells in a quantity of 1 x 1010 cfu/mL and 5 mg SM capsule S. aureus 2286 strain. After vaccination of cows in late pregnancy, subclinical mastitis appears at a smaller frequency compared to the three experimental groups. To the first group of cows the antibiotic was applied intramammary, to the second group antibiotics were applied parenterally and intramammary and the third group served as the untreated control.

Vakanjac Slobodanka

2010-01-01

327

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. PMID:22221904

Lin, Chih-Hsun; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Tsao, Tang-Yi; Chou, Jason

2012-01-01

328

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.

Lin, Chih-hsun; Hsu, Chih-wei; Tsao, Tang-yi; Chou, Jason

2012-01-01

329

BACTERIOLOGY OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES IN TEHSIL SAMUNDRI OF DISTRICT FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Two hundred fore-milk samples collected from 200 mastitis quarters of buffaloes (clinically mastitis quarters n = 17, sub-clinically mastitis quarters n = 183 were subjected to microbiological examination. The diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis was based on the results of Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. A total of 214 isolates of 13 different microbial species were recovered. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently recovered bacterial species accounting for 49.53% of all the isolates, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23.83%, Staphylococcus hyicus (8.88%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.54%, Bacillus spp. (3.74%, Staphylococcus hominis (1.40%, Escherichia coli (1.40%, Staphylococcus xylosus (0.93%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (0.93% and Corynebacterial spp. (0.93%. Yeast and prototheca each accounted for 0.47 percent of isolates. Two (0.93% isolates were identified as coagulase negative staphylococci species. In view of preponderance of the contagious pathogens (S. aureus, Str. agalactiae, it is recommended that mastitis control in the area of study should be based on contagious mastitis control practice.

L. ALI, G. MUHAMMAD, M. ARSHAD1, M. SAQIB AND I. J. HASSAN2

2008-01-01

330

Using Disguised Clinical Case Material  

Science.gov (United States)

When, why, and how clinicians decide to write about clients are ethical concerns. There are risks and potential clinical ramifications as well as responsibilities for how these decisions are made. On the basis of 141 interviews with psychoanalysts who have published in 3 major national and international psychoanalytic journals, the author explores…

Kantrowitz, Judy L.

2010-01-01

331

Early inflammatory response in periparturient sows to experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis  

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The overall objective of the present work was to monitor the induction of some key factors involved in the early inflammatory response in the mammary gland of periparturient sows to experimentally induced Escherichia coli (E. coli) mastitis. We wanted to gain a better understanding of why some sows develop clinical signs of mastitis, while others remain clinically healthy. Concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the ...

2007-01-01

332

Enzyme activity and acute phase proteins in milk utilized as indicators of acute clinical E. coli LPS-induced mastitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of non-visual and on-line monitoring of udder health increases as the contact between humans and animals decreases, for example, in robotic milking systems. Several indicator systems have been introduced commercially, and a number of techniques are currently in use. This study describes the kinetics of seven indigenous milk parameters for monitoring udder inflammation in an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin)-induced mastitis model. Proportional milk from LPS-infused quarters was compared with milk from parallel quarters, which were placebo-treated with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. Somatic cell counts (SCCs), the acute phase proteins (APP), that is, milk amyloid A (MAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), and the enzymes N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were measured at fixed intervals during the period from -2 to +5 days after LPS and NaCl infusions. All parameters responded significantly faster and were more pronounced to the LPS infusions compared with the NaCl infusions. All parameters were elevated in the proportional milk collected at the first milking 7 h after infusion and developed a monophasic response, except Hp and MAA that developed biphasic response. SCC, LDH, NAGase and Hp peaked at 21 h followed by AP, AcP and MAA peaking at 31 h with the highest fold changes seen for MAA (23 780�), LDH (126�), NAGase (50�) and Hp (16�). In the recovery phase, AP, AcP and Hp reached base levels first, at 117 h, whereas LDH, NAGase and MAA remained elevated following the pattern of SCC. Minor increases of the milk parameters were also seen in the neighboring (healthy) quarters. Distinction between inflamed and healthy quarters was possible for all the parameters, but only for a limited time frame for AP and AcP. Hence, when tested in an LPS mastitis model, the enzymes LDH, NAGase and AP in several aspects performed equally with SCC and APP as inflammatory milk indicators of mastitis. Furthermore, these enzymes appear potent in the assessment of a valuable time sequence of inflammation, a necessary ingredient in modeling of programs in in-line surveillance systems.

Larsen, Torben; Røntved, Christine M.

2010-01-01

333

Quantifying Degree of Mastitis from Common Trends in a Panel of Indicators for Mastitis in Dairy Cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper has 2 objectives. First, it argues that it is beneficial to regard degree of infection with respect to mastitis as a latent quantity varying continuously from 0 (truly healthy) to 1 (full-blown clinical mastitis). This quantity is denoted as degree of infection (DOI). The DOI is based on extracting common characteristics from a panel of indicators measured repeatedly over time. The indicators used in this paper are electrical conductivity (EC), somatic cell count (SCC), and the immune response related enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Second, this paper presents a statistical model for such data and a corresponding method for estimating the DOI from a panel of indicators. An empirical proof of concept is provided. Using DOI, there was a significant difference between the DOI of mastitic and healthy control cows beginning 5 d before the mastitic cows were treated for mastitis. Udgivelsesdato: February

Højsgaard, S; Friggens, N C

2010-01-01

334

Integrated Case Learning: Teaching Clinical Reasoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning how to "think like doctors" can be difficult for undergraduate medical students in their early clinical years. Our model of collaborative Integrated Case Learning (ICL) and simulated clinical reasoning aims to address these issues. Taking a socio-cultural perspective, this study investigates the reflective learning interactions and…

Radomski, Natalie; Russell, John

2010-01-01

335

Mycotic and algal bovine mastitis in Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-year examination of mammary secretions (n = 2,896) from Danish cattle with clinical or subclinical mastitis revealed 45 strains of fungi and algae. The strains originated from 44 mammary secretions of 42 cows in 40 herds. The following species of fungi were identified: Candida catenulata (n = 2), Candida kefyr (n = 6), Candida krusei (n = 17), Candida rugosa (n = 6), Candida tropicalis (n = 3), Candida valida (n = 1), Geotrichum capitatum (n = 5). The algal species Prototheca zopfii was demonstrated in five samples. PMID:8068305

Aalbaek, B; Stenderup, J; Jensen, H E; Valbak, J; Nylin, B; Huda, A

1994-06-01

336

Neonatal sepsis: the clinical case  

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Full Text Available In Russia there are no unified approved criteria for diagnosing sepsis, and this fact complicating registration and statistical recording of its development and spread. Sepsis registration in neonatology is more difficult. The infection as a death-causing factor in full-terms newborns has been increasing for the last 10 years, even though there is the registration system, and its size is 0,51-0,60 per 1000 newborns. Early neonatal sepsis is characterized by intrauterine particularly intranatal ascending, contact or hematogenous infecting. We have analyzed the course of antenatal, intra-natal and neonatal periods in babies with congenital sepsis. To diagnose neonatal sepsis in clinical presentation of the disease three groups of criteria directly correlating with sepsis have been revealed.

Lyubimova ?.?.

2013-03-01

337

Mastitis in One Humped She-Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Jordan  

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This study was conducted to establish data on mastitis in she-camels in Jordan. Milk samples were collected from 90 dromedary camels in south province of Jordan. California Mastitis Test (CMT) gave results with 70 milk samples; 42 samples (60%) showed positive CMT. Infection with some bacterial species was associated with positive CMT. About 21% of the camels revealed clinical signs of mastitis. The highest percentage of bacterial count, which range from 3.0x102 to <3.0x10...

Hawari, Azmi D.; Hassawi, Dhia S.

2008-01-01

338

Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from the estimated effect: creating stop gain/loss, affecting splice site or RNA structure (RNAsnp), predicted disruptiveness (SIFT), occurring in miRNA or miRNA target site, or in UTR or ncSNP overlapping with a GERP element. Their effects on mastitis traits were estimated in new validation samples from Finnish Ayrshire (SCC, clinical mastitis, udder conformation) and Valdostana (SCC, milk bacteriological results). Furthermore, association analysis across the regions was performed with a linear mixed model using imputed sequence for 845 Danish Red sires with nine mastitis phenotypes. Associations in five regions (on BTA3, BTA6, BTA8, BTA19, and BTA27) agreed across the breeds, but no identical associated SNPs were detected. Higher power (imputation to bigger population samples) will be needed to confirm results. On BTA6 the results indicate several QTL within a 5 Mb region. The results provide a basis for functional studies of promising candidates. The information can also be used for prior weighting of genomic segments in genomic selection

Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A

339

Herd-level association between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates on Canadian dairy farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance is needed to manage antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. In this study, data were collected on antimicrobial use and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (n=562), isolated from intramammary infections and (sub)clinical mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Dairy producers were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles, and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify antimicrobial use. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate system (TREK Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH), containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level risk factors of penicillin, ampicillin, pirlimycin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine resistance in Staph. aureus isolates. Intramammary administration of the penicillin-novobiocin combination for dry cow therapy was associated with penicillin and ampicillin resistance [odds ratio (OR): 2.17 and 3.10, respectively]. Systemic administration of penicillin was associated with penicillin resistance (OR: 1.63). Intramammary administration of pirlimycin for lactating cow mastitis treatment was associated with pirlimycin resistance as well (OR: 2.07). Average herd parity was associated with ampicillin and tetracycline resistance (OR: 3.88 and 0.02, respectively). Average herd size was also associated with tetracycline resistance (OR: 1.02). Dairy herds in the Maritime region had higher odds of penicillin and lower odds of ampicillin resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 2.18 and 0.19, respectively). Alberta dairy herds had lower odds of ampicillin and sulfadimethoxine resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 0.04 and 0.08, respectively). Ontario dairy herds had lower odds of tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 0.05 and 0.33, respectively). Herd-level use of certain antimicrobials administered for mastitis treatment and control, such as intramammary penicillin and pirlimycin as well as systemically administered penicillin and florfenicol, was positively associated with antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis pathogens in the field conditions. Differences in antimicrobial resistance outcomes across 4 regions of Canada were observed. PMID:22459839

Saini, V; McClure, J T; Scholl, D T; DeVries, T J; Barkema, H W

2012-04-01

340

Identification of Prototheca from bovine mastitis in Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, algal isolates recovered during the period 1991 through 1996 from Danish cases of bovine mastitis were characterized and identified. Sixteen isolates of Prototheca were obtained, all of which were identified as Prototheca zopfii according to assimilation pattern, absence of capsules and resistance to clotrimazole. PMID:9637271

Aalbaek, B; Jensen, H E; Huda, A

1998-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

An outbreak of acute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a dairy herd Descrição de um surto de mamite aguda produzida por Klebsiella pneumoniae em bovinos leiteiros  

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An outbreak of coliform mastitis is described in a dairy herd from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During a four-month period 14 fatal cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae-related mastitis were observed in a herd of 104 lactating cows. The symptoms included peracute enterotoxemia in which the cows died 6 to 12 h after the detection of mastitis by CMT. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae were also isolated although could not be associated with cases of ac...

Silva, N.; Costa, G. M.

2001-01-01

342

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a great imitator?  

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The patient in this case was seen by numerous doctors for a long time before the diagnosis was made because, right from the start, an abscess or a cancer of the breast was suspected. She was first seen by her general practitioner (GP); thereafter, she went to two consultant physicians and a surgeon in a regional hospital and eventually an idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) diagnosis was made by a specialist in internal medicine in a university hospital. When the diagnosis IGM was made, t...

Ruiter, Annabel M.; Vegting, Irene L.; Nanayakkara, Prabath W. B.

2010-01-01

343

THE INNATE IMMUNITY IN BOVINE MASTITIS: THE ROLE OF PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTORS  

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Full Text Available Mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy farmers and industry, which are mainly caused by the entry of bacteria to the teat canal. Shortly after the entry of the invading bacteria, the innate immunity recognizes the invading pathogen through pattern recognition receptors and initiates the inflammatory response necessary to eliminate the invading bacteria. This initial inflammatory response releases cytokines and chemoattractants for the rapid and massive influx of neutrophils from the blood to the site of infection which form the first line of cellular defense against bacteria This article reviewed the role of the most recent knowledge regarding the innate immunity in bovine mastitis focusing in the two major mastitis pathogens: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus the S. aureus appears to mostly circumvent the host immune response, as the Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs signaling pathways. The Intramammary Infections (IMIs by this bacteria result in a very moderate host response with minimal observable innate immune response, which are related to well-known ability to this pathogen to establish chronic IMI. Otherwise, E. coli elicits a strong and earlier response, mainly through TLR4, that is associated with the severity of the mastitis and the clinical manifestation commonly observed in dairy cows infected with this pathogen. Suboptimal and dysfunctional mammary defenses may contribute to the development of severe acute inflammation or chronic mastitis that adversely affects the milk production and quality. Thus, a better understanding of mastitis pathogen interaction to the host may be useful for future control of mastitis.

Fernando Nogueira de Souza

2012-01-01

344

Antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin hydrolysate against mastitis pathogens and its effect on superoxide production of bovine neutrophils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin hydrolysates (LFH) on microorganisms isolated from bovine mastitis, and superoxide (O(2)(-)) production of bovine neutrophils were evaluated. Antibacterial effects of LFH were measured in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococci, Enterococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, yeast-like fungi and Prototheca zopfii isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis. To compare susceptibilities against LFH, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by a micro-plate assay method. Most organisms were sensitive to LFH. Prototheca zopfii was highly sensitive to LFH; the growth of the microorganism was inhibited completely even at 1 mug/ml. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were resistant to LFH. The production of O(2)(-) by bovine neutrophils was used to evaluate the effect of LFH administration on functional activity. Increase in O(2)(-) production by bovine neutrophils occurred upon addition of LFH to neutrophils. These results demonstrate that LFH possesses antibacterial activity against pathogens that cause mastitis and activates neutrophil superoxide production. PMID:17456148

Kawai, K; Shimazaki, K; Higuchi, H; Nagahata, H

2007-01-01

345

Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

 The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Also groups of pathogens were investigated, Gram-negative v. Gram-positive and contagious v. environmental pathogens. Data from 168 158 Danish Holstein cows calving first time between 1998 and 2006 were used in the analyses. Variances and covariances were estimated using uni- and bivariate threshold models via Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of heritabilities of pathogen-specific mastitis were lower than the heritability of unspecific mastitis, ranging from 0.035 to 0.076 for S. aureus and S. uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations among the pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteristics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study should be considered as different traits. Genetic evaluation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance may be beneficial despite lower heritabilities than unspecific mastitis because a pathogen-specific mastitis trait is a direct measure of an udder infection, and because the cost of a mastitis case caused by different pathogens has been shown to differ greatly. Sampling bias may be present because there were not pathogen information on all mastitis treatments and because some farms do not record pathogen information. Therefore, improved recording of pathogen information and mastitis treatments in general is critical for a successful genetic evaluation of udder health. Also, economic values have to be specified for each pathogen-specific trait separately

Sørensen, L P; Madsen, P

2009-01-01

346

Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Also groups of pathogens were investigated, Gram-negative v. Gram-positive and contagious v. environmental pathogens. Data from 168 158 Danish Holstein cows calving first time between 1998 and 2006 were used in the analyses. Variances and covariances were estimated using uni- and bivariate treshold models via Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of heritabilities of pathogen-specific mastitis were lower than the heritability of unspecific mastitis, ranging from 0.035 to 0.076 for S. aureus and S. uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations amongthe pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteritics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study should be considered as different traits. Genetic evaluation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance may be beneficial despite lower heritabilities than unspecific mastitis because a pathogen-specific mastitis trait is a direct measure of an udder infection, and because the cost of a mastitis case caused by different pathogens has been shown to differ greatly. Sampling bias may be present because there were not pathogen information on all mastitis treatments and because some farms do not record pathogen information. Therefore, improved recording of pathogen information and mastitis treatment sin general is critical for a successful genetic evaluation of udder health. Also, economic values have to be specified for each pathogen-specific trait separately.

Sørensen, Lars Peter; Madsen, P.

2009-01-01

347

Granulomatous Mastitis during Chronic Antidepressant Therapy: Is It Possible a Conservative Therapeutic Approach?  

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Granulomatous mastitis is a rare benign inflammatory disease of the breast with multiple etiologies such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, foreign body reaction, and mycotic and parasitic infections. In contrast, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is characterized by the presence of chronic granulomatous lobulitis in the absence of an obvious etiology. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma and so awareness of surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists is essential to avoi...

Bellavia, Maurizio; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Spinelli, Gabriele; Tomasello, Giovanni; Marrazzo, Antonio; Ficarella, Silvia; Bruno, Antonio; Sammartano, Antonino; Fiorentini, Tiziana; Scio, Antonio; Maione, Carolina; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

2012-01-01

348

Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123  

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Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + ?-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + ?-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, an...

Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

2010-01-01

349

A partial budget model to estimate economic benefits of Lactational treatment of subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis  

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linical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is rarely treated during lactation because it is widely believed to be uneconomical, although there are no economic studies that support this view. Partial budgeting was used to develop a deterministic simulation model to estimate the net cost or benefit of antibiotic treatment of subclinical S. aureus mastitis during lactation. Direct and indirect effects of treatment were taken into account, including prevention of clinical flare-ups and contagious tra...

Swinkels, J. M.; Hogeveen, H.; Zadoks, R. N.

2005-01-01

350

Prevalence and Susceptibility Assay of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Farms of Jimma Town, South West Ethiopia  

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Cross sectional experimental study was conducted to assess the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis to commonly used antibacterial agents in Jimma town dairy farms, South West Ethiopia from January-July, 2010. Milk samples were collected aseptically and California Mastitis Test (CMT) was carried out to identify subclinical mastitis from dairy cows. All CMT high scored and clinically positive samples were investigated microbiologic...

2011-01-01

351

Treatment of subclinical mastitis through the mineral homeopathic supplement in the diet of lactating milking cows: case study. Tratamiento de la mastitis subclínica mediante suplementación de la dieta de vacas lecheras en lactación: estudio de caso. Tratamento de mastite subclínica por meio de suplementação mineral homeopática da dieta de vacas leiteiras em lactação: estudo de caso.  

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The present work results from experimental research conducted in a dairy establishment in the city of Perobal, Paraná. It was tested a homeopathic treatment in 32 animals with symptoms of subclinic mastitis detected previously by the California Mastitis Test (CMT).The remedies were prepared according to the Hahnemannian method for the decimal scale and divided in 4 groups according to their pathogenetic action: Group A (Phytolacca D30, Urtica ureus D3, Asa foetida D6); Group B (Phyt...

Cláudia Ribeiro Martins; Êrica Cristina Vieira; Zilda Cristina Gazim; Carlos Massambani

2007-01-01

352

Sarcoidosis – A Clinical Case with Neuropsychiatric Presentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neurosarcoidosis can present neuropsychiatric manifestations, being a rare form of presentation of sarcoidosis, with a possible large spectrum of clinical manifestations, making the diagnosis more difficult. Neuroimage exams are an essential tool in detecting central nervous system (CNS lesions, but definitive diagnosis can only be established after biopsy and anatomopathological examination. The authors present a clinical case of neurosarcoidosis, where the first manifestations of the disease were tonic-clonic seizures and psychotic episode.

Ana Margarida Baptista

2012-06-01

353

Tylosin susceptibility of staphylococci from bovine mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30?g tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15?g disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ?256?g/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30?g disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ?256?g/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8?g/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. PMID:24461550

Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

2014-07-16

354

Natural variation in biomarkers indicating mastitis in healthy cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dairy herds are expanding and, with increasing numbers of animals in each herd, there is a need for automatic recording of indicators in milk in order to detect mastitis, inflammation of the udder. A number of biomarkers for mastitis have been suggested over the years. Mastitis usually occurs in one of the four udder quarters and since it is now possible to milk each udder quarter separately in automated milking systems, it is important to evaluate the normal variation in the biomarkers at udder quarter level. This study evaluated the normal variations between milkings for some biomarkers in clinically healthy cows, determined by repeated somatic cell count and bacteriological analysis. The biomarkers studied were serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), parameters that have been suggested as markers for mastitis. Ten cows were monitored on 42 consecutive milking occasions through collection of udder quarter milksamples and representative cow composite milk samples, giving a total of 2100 individual milk samples. Each cow had its individual profile for the concentrations and variations in the parameters analysed. Although there was relatively large variation between cows for the biomarkers analysed, the variation between milkings in clinically healthy quarters within cows was often below 10%. The biomarker with the lowest variation in this study was LDH. The results suggest that comparing quarters within an individual cow can identify deviations from the natural variations between milkings. This could be a valuable tool instead of, or in combination with, a cut-off value for each parameter in order to detect changes in the milk indicating mastitis.

�kerstedt, Maria; Forsbäck, Linda

2010-01-01

355

Clinical analysis of cases with nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-one cases with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in our department between 1991 and 2007 were clinically analyzed. The mean age of the cases was 53 years old, and the male-to female ratio was 3.6:1. The most common chief complaint was ear symptoms followed by neck, eye, and nose symptoms. The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma, followed by undifferentiated carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and spindle cell carcinoma. More than half of the cases were classified as clinical stage IV. For squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma cases, concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy was applied. For adenocarcinoma cases, transpalatal resection and postoperative radiotherapy was applied. The five-year overall survival rate was 64.1% and the disease-specific five-year survival rate was 71.2%. No significant statistical differences were seen between early stage (I, II) and late stage (III, IV), between I, II, III stage and IV stage. Recurrence occurred in 24.4% of the cases, and distant metastasis was more dominant than local recurrence. For the diagnosis and treatment of NPC, proper detection of NPC from variegated symptoms, and chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma cases were considered to be important. (author)

2010-04-01

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Epidemiological Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy cows in Assiut Governorate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this investigation, some epidemiological studies were run on subclinical mastitis for totally 350 dairy cows of different breeds, ages and distributed in different villages in Assiut governorate, Assiut, Egypt, along a whole year (during the period from June 2006 till July 2007 through field screening surveys by using of the California mastitis test (CMT for each quarter milk sample followed by bacteriological examination to identify the major causative agents of intramammary infection (IMI. The dairy cows were differed from the breed point of view as 230 Holstein Friesian breed and 120 native breed. Also, they were differed from the age point of view as a group of 95 cows aged from 2 to 4 years old and another group of 255 cow aged from 5 to 8 years old. All dairy cows were apparently healthy with clinically sound udder secreting apparently normal milk. All the cows lived nearly under the same conditions of breeding from the habitat, hygiene and feeding systems. The obtained results revealed that 67 cows (19.14% had 80 infected quarters (5.71%. It was found that the most frequently major causative agents isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli from the positive CMT samples with prevalence 52.5, 31.25 and 16.25%, respectively. With studying the breed factor, it was found Friesian breed was sensitive towards infection (20.43% at the cow level and 6.09% at the quarter level than of native breed (16.67% at the cow level and 5% at the quarter level. It was also noticed that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in hot weather as during summer (9.14% at the cow level and 2.64% at the quarter level and during spring (4.86% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level was higher than in cold weather as during winter (2% at the cow level and 0.64% at the quarter level and during autumn (3.14% at the cow level and 1.07% at the quarter level. In relation to age susceptibility, 5-8 years old cows (15.43% at the cow level and 4.36% at the quarter level were susceptible than those of 2-4 years (3.71% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level. The degree of quarter attack according to positive CMT was varied from 35 quarters (2.50% showed degree (+++, to 45 ones (3.22% showed degree (++, to 120 ones (8.57% showed degree (+ and the rest (85.71% showed degree (-. The obtained results threw the light on the epidemiology of subclinical mastitis in Assiut villages and provided an importance of the CMT for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis due to it is a reliable, easy, rapid and cheap tool helping in diagnosis and controlling the disease because it directs attention to individual mammary quarter that is secreting milk of high somatic cell content (SCC. Programs for control of subclinical mastitis may be planned around the routine examination of all lactating cows, and consequently early treatment can be applied towards positive cases rapidly for preventing their conversion towards clinical form among dairy cows and for protecting the herd health, milk hygiene and consequently the consumer health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 373-380

Ahmed Abdel-Rady

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228

Lin Chih-Hsun

2012-01-01

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with corynebacterium sp. Infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory condition of the breast. The etiology and treatments options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that Corynebacterium sp., a gram-positive bacillus endogenous to the skin, may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM with a positive culture for Corynebacterium sp. reported in the United States. PMID:21857740

Stary, Creed Michael; Lee, Yun Sun; Balfour, John

2011-05-01

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

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Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu...

Lin Chih-Hsun; Hsu Chih-Wei; Tsao Tang-Yi; Chou Jason

2012-01-01

360

Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis Associated with Corynebacterium Sp. Infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory condition of the breast. The etiology and treatments options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that Corynebacterium sp., a gram-positive bacillus endogenous to the skin, may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM with a positive culture for Corynebacterium sp. reported in the United States.

Stary, Creed Michael; Lee, Yun Sun; Balfour, John

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

Laerte Francisco Filippsen

1999-03-01

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Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná / Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros [...] , na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test) em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados. Abstract in english Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams an [...] d CMT (California Mastitis Test) were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

Filippsen, Laerte Francisco; Moreira, Fernanda Barros; Sakashita, Adauto Taiti; Bittencourt, Daniéla Regina.

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Marketing and clinical trials: a case study  

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Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, o...

2007-01-01

364

Marketing and clinical trials: a case study  

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Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analy...

2007-01-01

365

A clinical case treated with clear aligners.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are a wide variety of techniques, prescriptions and materials that can be used to correct malocclusions. Esthetic and discrete appliances have gained popularity in recent years and there seems to be a continual search for new materials that can provide similar orthodontic results. This article will describe the relevant aspects of clear aligners and present clinical cases to document some of the applications of Invisalign. PMID:22031989

Torres, Fernando César; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Cepera, Fernanda; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Sanders, Derek

2011-01-01

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Mastitis bovina por Prototheca zopfii: primer aislamiento en Chile / Bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: first isolation in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El género Prototheca está formado por microalgas unicelulares sin clorofila, ampliamente distribuidas en el medio ambiente, algunas de las cuales pueden ser patógenas para el hombre y animales. Sin embargo, no existen antecedentes bibliográficos previos sobre la existencia de estas algas patógenas p [...] ara el hombre y animales en Chile. Se examinó bacteriológicamente un total de 200 muestras de leche provenientes de 150 vacas lecheras con mastitis clínica, las cuales fueron sembradas en medio PIM modificado, selectivo para Prototheca. Se aisló Prototheca spp. en dos ocasiones consecutivas de una misma vaca muestreada con un intervalo de dos meses. El examen microscópico directo de las muestras de leche en fresco reveló la presencia células características de Prototheca spp. Mediante asimilación de fuentes de carbono se identificó la especie como P. zopfii, constituyendo el primer aislamiento de este agente a partir de un cuadro de mastitis clínica bovina en Chile. Este hallazgo es relevante para los programas de control de mastitis bovina en los rebaños lecheros ya que es un organismo poco frecuente y desconocido que no responde a los tratamientos antibióticos convencionales. Abstract in english The genus Prototheca includes unicellular achlorophyllous microalgae widely distributed in the environment, some of which could be pathogenic for human and animals. However, there is no previous report regarding these pathogenic microalgae causing infections in man or animals in Chile. Two-hundred m [...] ilk samples collected from 150 dairy cows with clinical mastitis were inoculated onto PIM modified medium. Prototheca spp was isolated on two consecutive occasions from one cow sampled two months apart. Direct microscopic examination of wet smears made from milk samples revealed typical Prototheca cells. Biochemical tests based on carbon source assimilation identified the organism as Prototheca zopfii. This finding represents the first isolation of this environmental alga from bovine mastitis in Chile. This could be of great importance for mastitis control programs in dairy herds as Prototheca is an uncommon mastitis pathogen that does not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

Zaror, L; Valenzuela, K; Kruze, J.

367

Potential of lactoperoxidase to diagnose subclinical mastitis in goats  

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This study was conducted to determine the potential of lactoperoxidase (LP) for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in goats. The activities of LP and somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined in the milk of clinically healthy Saanen and South African Indigenous goats and the correlation between LP activity and SCC was measured. An increase in LP activity was observed with increasing number of somatic cells in the milk of the two goat breeds. A significantly (p < 0.01) positive correlation ...

Seifu, Eyassu; Donkin, Edward Francis; Buys, Elna M.

2007-01-01

368

Vacinação com Escherichia coli J5 no pré-parto e ocorrência de mastite e produção de leite de vacas mestiças leiteiras / Escherichia coli J5 vaccination during pre-calving and mastitis and milk production of crossbred cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 no período pré-parto e a ocorrência de mastite e de produção de leite. Foram utilizadas 93 vacas, sendo 43 vacinadas e 50 não vacinadas. Para a análise dos dados de produção e CCS (contagem de células somáticas), utilizou-se delineamento inteir [...] amente ao acaso em sistemas de parcelas subdivididas. Os dados de CCS e duração de casos clínicos de mastite foram transformados em Log10CCS. Para as médias de CCS e a duração de casos clínicos, usou-se o teste t. Para comparações de médias de recidivas de casos clínicos, usou-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. Para frequência de microrganismos e de mastite subclínica, usou-se o teste de qui-quadrado. A interação dessas variáveis foi analisada pelo teste de McNemar. Não houve redução na prevalência de infecções por coliformes entre a secagem e o parto nos dois grupos. A duração total dos casos clínicos de mastite em animais que apresentaram mastite clínica foi menor em vacas vacinadas. O número de episódios clínicos e a intensidade dos casos clínicos não diferiu entre os grupos. A prevalência de animais com mastite subclínica no pós-parto e a (CCS) nos 100 primeiros dias de lactação foram mais baixas no grupo de animais vacinados. Não foi observada diferença na produção de leite entre os grupos. A vacinação de vacas com E. coli J5 melhora a saúde da glândula mamária de vacas leiteiras e, consequentemente, reduz a prevalência de animais com mastite subclínica no pós-parto, bem como a duração dos casos clínicos de mastite e a CCS nos 100 primeiros dias de lactação. Abstract in english The effect of immunization with Escherichia coli J5 vaccine in the pre-partum on the occurrence of mastitis and milk production in crossbred dairy cows was evaluated. Ninety-three cows were used as follows: forty-three were vaccinated and fifty cows were unvaccinated. For the production analysis, da [...] ta and CCS were used in a completely randomized split-plot system. CCS data and duration of clinical cases of mastitis were transformed into Log10CCS. For the CSS averages and duration of clinical cases we used the t test. For comparisons of means of recurrences of clinical cases we used the Mann-Whitney test. For frequency of subclinical mastitis organisms and we used the chi-square test. The interaction of these variables was analyzed using the McNemar test. There was no reduction in the prevalence of infections caused by coliforms between drying-off and parturition in both groups. The total duration of clinical mastitis in animals with clinical mastitis was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. The number of clinical episodes and intensity of clinical cases did not differ between groups. The prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum and somatic cell count (SCC) in the first 100 days of lactation was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. However, there was no difference in milk production between groups. Vaccination of cows with E. coli J5 improves mammary gland health by reducing the prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum, as well as the duration of the clinical cases of mastitis and SCC in the first 100 days of lactation.

Maia, P.V.; Molina, L.R.; Facury Filho, E.J.; Gonçalves, R.L.; Moreira, L.P.V.; Carvalho, A.Ú..

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