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Sample records for clinical mastitis cases

  1. Mastitis, a Radiographic, Clinical, and Histopathologic Review.

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    Cheng, Lin; Reddy, Vijaya; Solmos, Gene; Watkins, Latanja; Cimbaluk, David; Bitterman, Pincas; Ghai, Ritu; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign inflammatory process of the breast with heterogeneous histopathological findings, which clinically and radiographically may mimic a mammary carcinoma. We undertook a retrospective study on 37 cases of mastitis in our institution to correlate the radiographic imaging features and the clinical presentation with the histopathological findings. Histologically, there were 21 granulomatous, 7 fibrous, 3 plasma cell, 3 lupus, 2 lymphocytic, and 1 case of acute mastitis. Radiographically, 16/25 (64%) patients with ultrasound studies showed irregular hypoechoic masses suspicious for malignancy. Clinically, 38% of patients had an associated systemic disease. PMID:25940456

  2. Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy cows: incidence and costs

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    Perez-Cabal, M. A.; Yaici, S.; Alenda, R.

    2008-07-01

    Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.

  3. Granulomatous mastitis: a report of seven cases

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    Fletcher, A; Magrath, IM; Riddell, RH; Talbot, IC

    1982-01-01

    The clinical history and histological features of seven cases of granulomatous mastitis are presented. The lesion occurs in young parous women as a tender extra-areolar breast lump. Histologically, non-caseating discrete granulomas are present, confined to breast lobules with, in three cases, coalescence of the granulomas and microabscess formation. Pathogenesis of the changes is discussed. It is thought that granulomatous mastitis is an entity morphologically distinct from duct ectasia/plasm...

  4. Candida Mastitis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Louisa; Cruz, Stacie A

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been demonstrated to have many benefits for both mother and child. Nipple pain in the breastfeeding woman is a common complaint; it is the second most common cause of breastfeeding discontinuation in the first six months after childbirth. This case report addresses the characteristics of breast pain induced by Candida mastitis and the risk factors for and treatment of mastitis. Educating family physicians and other clinicians about how to recognize and treat this often diffi...

  5. Udder quarter risk factors associated with prevalence of bovine clinical mastitis

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    Nakov Dimitar; Trajcev Metodija

    2012-01-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out to estimate prevalence of clinical mastitis on udder quarters level and to determinate the quarter risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis during lactation.The individual risk factors included assessments of parity, season of year when case of clinical mastitis was occurred, conformation characteristics of udder quarters and teats and distance from front and rear teat end to the floor. Cows with clinical mastitis were detected ...

  6. A peptide derived from human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) exerts bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical cases of bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for approximately one-third of the clinical cases of bovine mastitis and can elicit a life-threatening, systemic inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a membrane component of all Gram-negative bacteria and is largely responsible for evoking the de...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of mastitis pathogens isolated from acute cases of clinical mastitis in dairy cows across Europe: VetPath results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Valérie; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; Simjee, Shabbir; El Garch, Farid; Morrissey, Ian; Marion, Hervé; Vallé, Michel

    2015-07-01

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry not recently treated with antibiotics. Non-replicate milk samples were collected from cows with acute clinical mastitis in eight countries. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis were isolated by standardised methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined in a central laboratory by CLSI broth microdilution methodology; results were interpreted using clinical breakpoints where available. Among E. coli (n=280), resistance to tetracycline (14.3%) and cefapirin (11.1%) were most common. Resistance to other ?-lactam antibiotics was absent (ceftiofur) or very low (cefalexin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). The MIC90 of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin was 0.03 and 0.06?g/mL, respectively, with 0.7% of strains displaying a deviating high MIC. Staphylococcus aureus (n=250) were susceptible to most antibiotics tested, although 36.0% were resistant to penicillin G. For other ?-lactam antibiotics where a CLSI breakpoint was available, no resistance was detected. Tetracycline resistance was low (5.2%). Streptococcus uberis (n=282) were susceptible to all ?-lactam antibiotics, although 29.8% were intermediately susceptible to penicillin G; 18.8% of strains were resistant to erythromycin and 28.7% to tetracycline. This European study shows that bacteria associated with acute clinical mastitis are susceptible to most antibiotics with the exception of penicillin G against S. aureus, and erythromycin and tetracycline against S. uberis. The results of this study should serve as a reference baseline. This work also highlights the urgent need to set additional clinical breakpoints for antibiotics frequently used to treat mastitis. PMID:26003836

  8. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Varshochi; Mehdi Haghdoost; Omid Mashrabi

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis (GLM) or autoimmune mastitis is a rare and benign disease which, except one case reported in an old man, is usually seen during pregnancy or lactation period. This disease was described for the first time by Kessler. Approach: Our case is a 34 year-old woman who has a child with a history of using OCP that primary complaint was swelling, heat and erythema in the right breast. She was diagnosed with mastitis and treated with...

  9. Periductal mastitis. Clinical characteristics and outcome.

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    Fuad F. Ammari; Rami J. Yaghan; Abdel-Karim H. Omari

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review our experience with periductal mastitis and address the clinical characteristics, management and outcome. METHODS A retrospective study was carried out at Princess Basma Teaching Hosptal, Irbid, Jordan. Thirty-five patients with the diagnosis of periductal mastitis from the year 1994 through to 2000 were reviewed. Patients presenting with periareolar non-lactating inflammation, a periareolar inflammatory mass, abscess, mammary fistula, or nipple inversion were in...

  10. Mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática: reporte de un caso / Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Takano; Percy, Prialé.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis cónica granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en mujeres, preferentemente en edad reproductiva, con características clínicas, mamográficas, ecográficas y citológicas sugestivas de cáncer mamario. Se informa un caso de patología mamaria en paciente mujer de 35 año [...] s de edad, portadora de tumoración eritematosa, sensible, localizada en mama izquierda. La lesión fue tratada como "mastitis" con antibióticos y corticoides durante dos semanas. La persistencia de tumoración y sensibilidad, así como los controles mamográficos y ecográficos sugestivos de neoplasia, decidieron la extirpación quirúrgica. El diagnóstico histopatológico fue de mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática. Abstract in english Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor [...] localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis.

  11. Mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática: reporte de un caso / Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Takano; Percy, Prialé.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis cónica granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en mujeres, preferentemente en edad reproductiva, con características clínicas, mamográficas, ecográficas y citológicas sugestivas de cáncer mamario. Se informa un caso de patología mamaria en paciente mujer de 35 año [...] s de edad, portadora de tumoración eritematosa, sensible, localizada en mama izquierda. La lesión fue tratada como "mastitis" con antibióticos y corticoides durante dos semanas. La persistencia de tumoración y sensibilidad, así como los controles mamográficos y ecográficos sugestivos de neoplasia, decidieron la extirpación quirúrgica. El diagnóstico histopatológico fue de mastitis crónica granulomatosa idiopática. Abstract in english Idiopathic chronic granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease in women at the reproductive life with clinic, mammographic, echographic and cytological characteristics suggestive of breast cancer. We report a case of breast pathology in a 35 years old woman who had a sensitiveness and eritematous tumor [...] localized in the left breast. With the diagnosis of "mastitis", she was treated with antibiotics and corticoids for two weeks. Because the lesion and the sensitiveness persist and the mammographic and ecographic controls were suggestive of malignancy, the tumor was surgically removing. The histopathological diagnosis was idiopatic chronic granulomatous mastitis.

  12. Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis

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    Rajesh Rathore; Vinod Kumar Gupta; Ricky Jhambh; Umesh Dimri

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy contr...

  13. Granulomatous lobular mastitis ,A case series.

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    Ali Pourzand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM is an inflammatory disease of the breast, which can mimic breast cancer in clinical and radiological findings. We conducted the present study in order to determine the diagnostic and other important aspects of this disease. METHODS: In this study, we reviewed the records of 38 patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis in order to describe the clinical, imaging, laboratory, pathologic, and treatment aspects of this disease. RESULTS: All of the patients’ ages were in the range of 22-62 years (mean age: 42 years. All of them had children, history of oral contraceptive pill (OCP usage, antibiotic therapy and mammoplasty. In physical examination, dimpling, edema, inflammation, ulcer, abscess, and firm mass were detected. Size of masses was in the range of 2 × 2 to 8 × 6 cm and their location, in most cases, was in the superior lateral quadrant or central region. In Ultrasonography, a hypoechoic fibroglandular mass and collection, and in pathologic findings, granulomatous reaction was reported. These patients were treated by antibiotics, corticosteroids, and surgery. CONCLUSIONS: GLM is a chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast which can mimic breast cancer. A history of child bearing, lactation, and OCP drug usage have suspicious roles in the formation of GLM. The most common clinical sign in these patients is a painful mass in the breast. We uncovered that clinical and radiological findings are not specific and sufficient for diagnosis of GLM. Therefore, for better diagnosis of this disease, usage of core, incisional, or excisional biopsy are recommended.

  14. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis; Clinical presentation, radiological features and treatmant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the clinical characteristic, clinical presentations and radiological features of diopathic granulomatous mastitis, and the best treatment approaches of this clinical entity. Between 1996 and 2003 the files and histopathology reports of 25 patients with granulomatous mastitis at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital Jeddah, Kindom of Saudi Arabia were reviewed. The data were analyzed and a Medline search was carried out from 1970 to 2003 to review relevant cases. The age of patients ranged from 24-66 years and the mean age was 36.6+-9.43 years. All patients were females. The most common clinical presentation was palpable tender mass. The most common mammographic finding was ill-defined mass. However, mixed hypo- and hyper-echogenic lesions with tubular connections were the common ultrasonic findings. Treatment approaches were conservative or surgical excision or steroid. Conservative treatment associated with the higher rate of complications, while treatment with steroid showed complete remission of disease. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, benign breast disease that is usually underestimated or misdiagnosed. The clinical and radiological features resemble those of infectious mastitis or breast carcinoma. Early recognition and initiation of steroid treatment will result in complete remission of the disease and prevent complications. (author)

  15. Bilateral Tubercular Mastitis - Case Reports.

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    Chowdhury, A K; Mubin, S; Yousuf, N A; Rahman, M; Islam, M A; Ahmed, S U

    2015-07-01

    Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis. Moreover the disease is often overlooked and misdiagnosed as carcinoma or pyogenic abscess. Reports on breast tuberculosis have been few; reported incidence of breast tuberculosis amongst the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.1 and 4 percent. Bilateral involvement is still more uncommon (3%). Here we report 3 cases of adult female ranging from 27 to 35 years who presented with 1 to 4 months history of firm lumps in both breasts and no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of breast lump in all 3 cases were done but in 1 case showed evidence of tubercular mastitis and other 2 cases findings were inconclusive. Subsequent Excisional Biopsy of those 2 cases showed features of tuberculosis. All 3 were prescribed with four drug anti-tubercular treatments continued for 12 months in 2 cases and 9 months in other case depending upon their response. The lumps disappeared and ulcer healed after anti-tubercular treatment. PMID:26329964

  16. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis mimicking breast cancer: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaiem, F; Korbi, S; Tlili, T; Haddad, I; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S; Gara, F; Mzabi, S

    2012-06-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease of unknown aetiology that is frequently mistaken for breast carcinoma both clinically and mammographically. In this paper, the authors report two cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis that occurred in two parous women aged 38 and 45 years. Clinically, both patients presented with a tender palpable lump in the left breast. Mammography showed an poorly-defined mass in both patients with microcalcification in the first case and skin retraction in the second case. Breast lumpectomy was performed in both patients. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed non-caseating granulomas confined to breast lobules. Special staining for fungi and tuberculosis were all negative. Correct diagnosis ofidiopathic granulomatous mastitis requires the exclusion of malignancy, other granulomatous disease and infectious aetiologies. Histopathologic examination remains the gold standard for diagnosis. This disease is rare, and therefore the optimum treatment protocol is still being established. PMID:22931042

  17. Clinical Mastitis and Combined Defensin Polymorphism in Dairy Cattle

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    Joanna Szyda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defensins are particularly active against gram-positive bacteria and fungi but at higher concentrations they are also, capable of destroying gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, enveloped viruses and some protozoons. The aim of this study was to search for associations between the occurrence of clinical mastitis and Combined Defensin Genotypes (CDG and to investigate the possibility of using defensin gene polymorphisms in marker-assisted selection for immunity towards mastitis in dairy cows. This study included such indicators as the number of clinical cases of mastitis acuta and chronica, number of affected udder quarters and duration of the condition in 1,025 cows (Polish Holstein-Friesian breed kept on a farm located in the North-Western region of Poland. The cows were of different ages and in different lactations parities (from 1st to 6th. An analysis of associations between selected CDGs and susceptibility/immunity towards mastitis has showed statistically significant relations with regard to all the indicators under study and CDGs. Moreover, some genotypes have been found to have different effects on chronic and acute infections.

  18. The clinical and mammographic features of plasma cell mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and mammographic features of plasma cell mastitis. Methods: Twenty-five patients (28 lesions) with histologically confirmed plasma cell mastitis, aged from 26 to 70 years (mean age 41 years), were examined with X-ray mammography. The clinical manifestations and imaging features were retrospectively reviewed. Results: No case was in lactation. The painful irregular masses, ranged from 1.3 to 8cm in size, were found in 22 patients, while 3 patients with acute episode. Recurrent episodes of breast masses were noted in 4 patients. Based on the mammographic appearances, the plasma cell mastitis were classified as the following four types: inflammation-like type (2/28), ductal ectasia type (3/28), focal infiltration type (10/28) and nodular type (13/28). The valuable radiographic signs: (1) An asymmetrically increased density along the lactiferous duct with a flame-like appearance, inhomogeneous low density tubular structures and scattered stick-shape calcifications. (2) Architectural distortion and oil cysts formation in adjacent area, (3) Subareolar ductal ectasia. Conclusions: The clinical and mammographic characteristics of plasma cell mastitis are critical to avoiding unnecessary surgery. Histopathological result is needed for the diagnosis in patients highly suspected of malignancy. (authors)

  19. Mining sensor data to discover clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    When cows are milked with an automatic milking system (AMS), clinical mastitis (CM) cannot be detected adequately without using electronic sensing devices. This paper describes approaches to improve automated CM detection in AMS using sensor inputs and data mining. Sensor data and observational CM data, both at quarter level, were collected over two years at nine Dutch AMS farms. Decision-tree induction was used for model development using data from cows that were highly likely to be healthy ...

  20. Efficacy of a botanical preparation for the intramammary treatment of clinical mastitis on an organic dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Pinedo, Pablo; Karreman, Hubert; Bothe, Hans; Velez, Juan; Risco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a botanical product (PHYTO-MAST®) for the intra-mammary treatment of clinical mastitis (CM) in dairy cows managed in an organic system. The study involved 194 naturally occurring cases of clinical mastitis. Treatment was applied every 12 hours for 3 days and cows were evaluated for clinical cure starting on day 4. Outcomes of interest consisted of mastitis resolution at day 4, time to resolution, somatic cell score (SCS) after recovery, and bacter...

  1. Low somatic cell count : a risk factor for subsequent clinical mastitis in a dairy herd

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    Suriyasathaporn, W.; Schukken, Y. H.; Nielen, M; Brand, A.

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to evaluate factors measured at the udder inflammation-free state as risk factors for subsequent clinical mastitis. The factors including somatic cell count (SCC), body condition score, milk yield, percentages of milk fat and milk protein, and diseases were evaluated for their association with the results of udder inflammatory response. The results of the response were specified as presence (case) and absence (control) of clinical signs of mastitis. Data on ...

  2. Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

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    Sargeant, J. M.; Scott, H. M.; Leslie, K E; Ireland, M. J.; Bashiri, A

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to ma...

  3. Fibrinogen and Ceruloplasmin in Plasma and Milk from Dairy Cows with Subclinical and Clinical Mastitis

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    A. Davasaz Tabrizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb and Ceruloplasmin (Cp in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0 and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s. The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p<0.01. There was no significant difference in plasma concentration of Cp between healthy and subclinical groups (p>0.05, but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (p<0.05. The concentrations of Fb and Cp in the milk of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (p<0.01. The results indicated that measurement of Fb in plasma and milk and Cp only in milk might be suitable for early diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows.

  4. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

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    Maede Moosavi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Mohsen Ghavami; Amin Tamado?

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ? 150 DIM), duration of masti...

  5. Mastitis

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    Fazilet Erözgen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an infectious or non-infectious breast disease associated with breast inflammation. It is observed most frequently during milk stasis (engorgement and lactation period (puerperal with superimposed infection. Most mastitides heal with simple self-help measures, however, sometimes antibiotherapy and abscess drainage may be required. Other than lactating period, mastitides are encountered in the presence of recurrent infections and abscess. Although various factors, such as smoking, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis can at times be the root causes of mastitis, they are frequently observed in granulomatous mastitides. Treatment approaches not involving biopsy are disadvantageous and harmful in such cases which can be confused with breast cancer. Ultrasound-guided abscess drainage in patients with breast abscess and irrigation of the pouch with saline are the preferred treatment approach today. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 150-2

  6. Prevalence and antibiogram profile of bacterial Isolates from clinical bovine mastitis

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    Sumathi B.R

    Full Text Available This study investigated the current status of clinical mastitis among dairy cattle in and around Bangalore. The prevalence of mastitis was assessed by the results of bacteriological evaluation of milk samples collected from clinical mastitis cases. A total of seventy five bacterial isolates were recovered from sixty clinical cases of mastitis affected cows. The prevalence of major pathogens isolated was twenty four per cent for Staphylococcus aureus twenty per cent for Escherichia coli followed by sixteen per cent for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus spp and ten per cent for Klebsiella spp. Antibiogram studies were also performed for these isolates and Gentamicin was found to be the most effective drug. It was concluded that microbiological and antibiogram studies are necessary for treatment and control of the disease. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 237-238

  7. An Unusual Case of Bilateral Granulomatous Mastitis

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    Pistolese, C. A.; Di Trapano, R.; Girardi, V.; Costanzo, E.; Di Poce, I.; Simonetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate ...

  8. Granulomatous lobular mastitis.

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    Going, J. J.; Anderson, T. J.; Wilkinson, S; Chetty, U

    1987-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of nine cases of granulomatous mastitis were compared with those of 10 cases of duct ectasia/periductal mastitis (DE/PM), all of which were associated with active granulomatous inflammation. Granulomatous mastitis affects a younger age group, and although there is some overlap with DE/PM, it has distinctive pathological features, particularly a lobule centred distribution, for which the term "granulomatous lobular mastitis" is recommended. There is a str...

  9. Tuberculous Mastitis: A Case Report

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    Gopal A. Pandit; Sunita S. Dantkale; Nisha V. Thakare; Smita S. Pudale

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis of breast is an uncommon diseaseclinically mimicking breast carcinoma. Wepresent a case of a 22 years old female whocomplained of a breast mass and axillary swell-ing of three months duration. Clinically she wasdiagnosed as having phyllodes tumour. Thebreast mass ultrasonography revealed a benigncystic hypoechoic lesion. Grossly the excisedmass was a cyst containing serous fluid alongwith a small solid yellowish white nodule withfoci of caseation. The axillary lymph nodes alsosho...

  10. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania

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    R.H. Mdegela

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest® for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69. Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91. Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91 while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90. Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353, while for bacteria and fungi it was 16 % and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n =67. The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

  11. Somatic cell count distributions during lactation predict clinical mastitis

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    Green, M. J.; Green, L.E.; Schukken, Y. H.; Bradley, A. J.; Peeler, E.J.; Barkema, H. W.; Haas, Y., de; Collis, V.J.; Medley, G. F.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated somatic cell count (SCC) records during lactation, with the purpose of identifying distribution characteristics (mean and measures of variation) that were most closely associated with clinical mastitis. Three separate data sets were used, one containing quarter SCC (n = 1444) and two containing cow SCC (n = 933 and 11,825). Clinical mastitis was defined as a binary outcome, present or absent, for each lactation, and SCC were log (base 10) transformed. A generalized ...

  12. Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis

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    Rajesh Rathore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Somatic Cell Count (SCC and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy control. Antioxidant parameters measured in blood were superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration. Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation (LPO was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA production. Results: Significant (P<0.05 decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentration and an increase in erythrocytic lipid peroxides was observed in cows with clinical mastitis. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a compromise in antioxidant defense of the body in dairy cows with clinical mastitis resulting in oxidative damage, therefore, necessitate the use of antioxidants and other protective compounds along with conventional therapy for mastitis control. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 271-273

  13. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R H, Mdegela; R, Ryoba; E D, Karimuribo; E J, Phiri; T, Løken; O, Reksen; E, Mtengeti; N A, Urio.

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clini [...] cal changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest® for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69). Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91). Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91) while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90). Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353), while for bacteria and fungi it was 16% and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n = 67). The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

  14. Recovery from Mastitis in Dairy Cows – Development of Behaviour, Milk Production and Inflammatory Markers in the Weeks during and after Naturally Occurring Clinical Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis results from invasion of infectious pathogens into a mammary gland and constitutes a significant problem in dairy herds around the world. In addition to economic consequences for the farmer, episodes of clinical mastitis in dairy cows are associated with discomfort and increased risk of culling and death. Although mastitis has received significant scientific attention, one aspect of bovine mastitis has only been touched upon very briefly; the characterization of the recovery period and its potential for modulation. Hence, in order to increase the understanding of the recovery period after bovine mastitis and to create a basis for future facilitation of recovery, the present thesis focussed on two selected aspects of recovery; a behavioural as well as an inflammatory aspect, aiming to 1) describe the behaviour of dairy cows in the days before, during and after antibiotic treatment for naturally occurring mastitis and to compare with behaviour of healthy cows; 2) describe the development within milk production and inflammatory markers before, during and after antibiotic treatment of naturally occurring mastitis, and to compare with healthy cows, with special focus on the expected post-mastitis stabilisation within these measures and 3) investigate a possible relationship between behaviour, milk production and inflammatory markers during naturally occurring bovine mastitis and its early recovery. Overall, the focus was on dairy cows housed in free stalls with automatic milking systems (AMS). This type of housing is gaining ground in the modern dairy farm. Furthermore, these settings are well suited for studies, like the present, where the use of automatically recorded measures are prioritised. The aims were achieved by two studies, the results of which are described in three papers included in this thesis. Study 1 was a cohort study using matched pair design where clinical registrations, production data and automatically recorded behavioural and inflammatory measures were collected prior to, during and after antibiotic treatment of naturally occurring mastitis. Based on 30 mild cases without systemic symptoms, the daily activity, feed intake and behaviour during milking of the infected animals were shown to differ from the healthy controls. For the majority of the examined behavioural measures, a lack of stabilisation during the week after finalisation of antibiotic treatment was found, suggesting that even within relatively mild cases of clinical mastitis, the cows were not recovered within this time frame. The description of the inflammatory aspect of mastitis focussed on changes in milk yield and inflammatory markers. Based on Study 1, the local clinical symptoms faded after antibiotic treatment but persisted for at least a week afterwards, which may have affected the welfare of the cows. The results of Study 2, involving automatically recorded measurements of milk yield and inflammatory markers from 174 mastitic and 858 control lactations, confirmed the findings of Study 1 and showed that milk yield, inter-quarter milk yield ratio and lactate dehydrogenase activity stabilised within one to three weeks post antibiotic treatment, but did not reach the pre-mastitis levels during the observation period of eight weeks post-mastitis. Hence, mastitis had a long-term effect on the measured variables and the infected cows were not fully recovered within eight weeks after antibiotic treatment. The presented combination of inflammatory as well as behavioural aspects of the recovery from bovine mastitis is new, and these results provide a more complete description of the recovery status of individual cows after a mastitis infection than what has been available until now. The co-development within the measures obtained in Study 1, which has been described in Paper III, e.g. showing a negative relationship between clinical score and lying time, has not been described before and may be considered as a first step to increase the understanding of the effect of mastitis infections in terms of animal welfare. Overall, the results

  15. [Evidence-based aspects of clinical mastitis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansion-de Vries, E M; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

    2015-10-14

    Mastitis is one of the most common and expensive diseases in dairy cattle. The decision to treat clinical mastitis is usually made without any knowledge of the etiology, and can therefore only be evidence-based to a limited extent. Evidence-based medicine relies essentially on a combination of one's own clinical competence and scientific findings. In mastitis therapy, those insights depend mostly on pathogen-specific factors. Therefore, in evidence-based therapeutic decision making the pathogen identification should serve as a basis for the consideration of scientifically validated therapeutic concepts. The present paper considers evidence-based treatment of clinical mastitis based on a literature review. The authors conclude that an anti-inflammatory treatment using an NSAID should be conducted regardless of the pathogen. However, the choice of an antibiotic therapy depends on the mastitis causative pathogen, clinical symptoms and the animal itself. In principle, a local antibiotic treatment should be chosen for mild and moderate mastitis. It should be noted, that the benefit of an antibiotic therapy for coliform infections is questionable. With knowledge concerning the pathogen, it appears entirely reasonable to refrain from an antibiotic therapy. For severe (i.???e. feverish) mastitis, a parenteral antibiotic therapy should be selected. An extension of the antibiotic therapy beyond the manufacturer's information is only reasonable for streptococcal infections. It is important to make the decision on a prolonged antibiotic therapy only with the knowledge of the mastitis-causative pathogen. In terms of the therapy of a staphylococcus or streptococcus infection, a narrow-spectrum antibiotic from the penicillin family should be adopted when selecting the active agents. PMID:26365364

  16. A Cross Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Sub Clinical Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in and Aronund Gondar, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibret Moges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on 322 local (n = 57 and crossbred (n = 265 lactating hand milked small holder cows in and around Gondar. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis and the associated risk factors by clinical examination and using california mastitis test. Bacterial culture was also conducted to determine the casual agents of mastitis. The prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis in the study area was 0.93 and 31.67%, respectively with an overall prevalence of 32.6%. Out of 1288 quarters examined 164 were infected while 39 were blind. The number of clinically and sub clinically infected quarters were 7 and 157, respectively. Several pyogenic bacteria have been isolated from cases of sub clinical mastitis during the study period. The major bacteria isolated in this study were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae with a prevalence of 16.5, 15.9 and 14.0%, respectively. Among the risk factors considered, breed, age, parity and stage of lactation have been shown statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in the prevalence of mastitis. Sub clinical mastitis in both breeds has been reported to be higher than clinical mastitis. The odds of occurrence of mastitis were two times more likely in crossbreds compared to local zebu. The present study disclosed that high prevalence of sub clinical mastitis and the occurrence Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp. as dominant bacterial species from mastitic milk of the study area. All the risk factors considered were significant effect on the prevalence of mastitis. Appropriate control and prevention methods should be applied to reduce the prevalence and effect of mastitis in dairy cows.

  17. Implementation of strategies for mastitis control in dairy herds in Macedonia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasov Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is probably the most common and costly disease in modern dairy cow husbandry. The aim of the present paper was to report the results concerning udder health after implementation of a specific strategy using both field and laboratory methods. During the period June 2010-December 2011 a total of 674 dairy cows from four dairy farms were included in the investigation. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed by detection of signs of inflammation in the udder, while subclinical mastitis was diagnosed at the animal level by an increased Somatic Cell Count (SCC using laboratory tests, and subsequently confirmed at quarter level by California Mastitis Test (CMT.Microbiological analysis of the milk samples was carried out by standard procedures using Gram staining, biochemical tests and automated identification system.The distribution of somatic cell counts on cow level (n=674 was:305 (45.3% with SCC less than 100,000SCC/mL, 236 (35.0% 100,001 - 350,000 SCC/mL, and 133 (18.7% with more than 350,000SCC/mL. From a total of 1684 quarters tested by CMT, 644 quarters (38.2% were positive and 1040 quarters (61.8% were negative. In 60 out of 101 quarters that had a positive CMT result and no current treatment and that were sampled for bacteriology, bacteria could be isolated. Main bacteria identified, were coagulase - negative staphylococci (40.0%, Streptococcus agalactiae was present in 25.0%, Escherichia coli in 16.6%, Proteus spp. in 11.7% and Staphylococcus aureus in 6.7% of the bacteriological positive samples. After introducing specific mastitis-control measures, focusing on milking hygiene, dry-off treatment, and antibiotic treatment of both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis cases, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was reduced from 38.2to 10.8%, while the incidence of clinical mastitis decreased from 21.0% to 4.9%.In conclusion, the implementation of a standard mastitis control plan based on a regular assessment of the somatic cell count can reduce the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in dairy herds.

  18. Cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis in Brazilian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A

    2015-10-01

    Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis. PMID:26302854

  19. Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hussein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

  20. Impact of subclinical and clinical mastitis on sensitivity to pain of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M D P; Silveira, I D B; Fischer, V

    2015-12-01

    A total of 90 cows from three commercial farms were used to evaluate the relationship between subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis and thermal nociceptive threshold. Milk strips from all udder quarters were tested for clinical mastitis with visual inspection of milk and udder alterations and for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test. Milk yield was recorded, milk was sampled and further analyzed for somatic cells count (SCC). Cows were considered healthy when SCC200 000 cells/ml and no visual alterations in milk and/or udder, with moderate subclinical mastitis when SCC>500 000 cells/ml and no visual alterations in milk and/or udder and with clinical mastitis when visual alterations in milk and/or udder were detected. Nociceptive threshold was evaluated with the thermal threshold meter apparatus applied to the rear legs. Thermal threshold (TT) decreased when we compared healthy cows with cows presenting clinical mastitis and tended to decrease when we compare healthy cows with those with moderate subclinical mastitis. TT was lower at the ipsilateral rear leg compared with the contralateral leg to the infected mammary gland. TT linearly decreases as log10SCC increased and it showed sharp decrease as log10SCC exceed the value of 6.4. Increase in one unit of log10SCC increased the odds of low thermal threshold (lower than 55.8°C). Subclinical mastitis might be a welfare issue as it tended to decrease nociceptive thermal threshold. PMID:26220469

  1. Phylogeny, virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated in clinical bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Suojala, Leena; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Simojoki, Heli; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa.; Pitkälä, Anna; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify specific phylogeny groups, virulence genes or antimicrobial resistance traits of Escherichia coli isolated in bovine mastitis associated to clinical signs, persistence of intramammary infection in the quarter and recovery from mastitis. A total of 154 E. coli isolates from bovine clinical mastitis, 144 from the acute stage and 10 from follow-up samples three weeks later, originating from 144 cows in 65 dairy herds in Southern Finland w...

  2. Pathogen-specific effects of quantitative trait loci affecting clinical mastitis and somatic cell count in danish holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, J.R.; Lund, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mastitis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second parity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL affecting SCS. The 5 most common mastitis pathogens in the Danis...

  3. Pathogen-Specific Effects of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Clinical Mastitis and Somatic Cell Count in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mastitis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second parity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL affecting SCS. The 5 most common mastitis pathogens in the Danis...

  4. Mannheimia Species Associated with Ovine Mastitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Omaleki, Lida; Barber, Stuart R.; Allen, Joanne L.; Browning, Glenn F.

    2010-01-01

    Mannheimia glucosida, M. haemolytica, and M. ruminalis were isolated from cases of acute mastitis in ewes. M. glucosida was found to be a common cause of clinical mastitis in sheep. Selected phenotypic tests in addition to genotyping were needed to definitively identify Mannheimia species causing ovine mastitis.

  5. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovi? Vojislav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis poses a major economic and health problem in herds of dairy cows. The many years of taking different approaches to treating mastitis have not resulted in an adequate solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. The treatment of mastitis using antibiotics yields satisfactory results, but it implies substantial costs for treatment and losses in rejecting milk. Due to the above reasons, a new area of scientific research offers possibilities for finding new solutions to the ever present problem of mastitis - immunoprophylaxis. Vaccines against mastitis available at this time are still not sufficiently effective in general practice, and they are at the level of experimental vaccines. All barn vaccines which have been worked on so far have been significantly experimentally successful. The success is in a significant increase in the antibody titer in serum (but not in milk, as well as in reducing the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases among experimental and control animals. Nevertheless, it is still believed that immunoprophylaxis, as a method for preventing inflammation of the udder and the occurrence of mastitis, is still an insufficiently investigated field of scientific research. Many scientists are engaged on the problem of finding a vaccine against mastitis, but the coplexity of the mammary gland and the specific permeability of the blood-milk barrier do not permit these efforts to be as successful as they might be if this were not the case.

  6. Short communication: Protease activity measurement in milk as a diagnostic test for clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; van Werven, T; Roffel, S; Hogeveen, H; Nazmi, K; Bikker, F J

    2015-07-01

    Due to the increasing use of automated milking systems, automated detection of clinical mastitis is becoming more important. Various in- or on-line diagnostic tests are in use, but generally suffer from false mastitis alerts. In this study, we explored a new diagnostic approach based on measurement of protease activity using fluorogenic protease substrates, which can be performed on site, at high speed, and at low costs. Samples from cows with clinical mastitis submitted for bacteriological culture at the University Farm Animal Practice were collected during several months and kept at -20°C until protease activity measurement. A reference set of milk samples from clinically healthy cows were collected on 9 different farms and were tested for protease activity directly and after freezing at -20°C to allow for comparison with the samples from clinical cases. The protease activity in mastitic milk samples was significantly higher than in samples from healthy animals. Based on 71 clinical mastitis samples and 180 milk samples from clinically healthy quarters, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was estimated to be between 0.88 and 0.90, and at a threshold of 38 fluorescence per minute the test had a specificity of 0.99 at a sensitivity of 0.58. Protease activity measured in fresh milk from clinically healthy cows was significantly associated with somatic cell count and parity, but not with electrical conductivity, whereas protease activity in milk that had been frozen was statistically significantly associated with all 3 parameters. This study indicates that protease activity measurement as a stand-alone test can be used for detecting mastitis samples, using milk samples that have been frozen. Because protease activity acts in part on a different biological mechanism than somatic cell count or electrical conductivity, this test may increase the accuracy of mastitis diagnosis in combination with currently available in- or on-line tests in automated milking systems. PMID:25981067

  7. Virulence Properties of Escherichia coli Isolated from Clinical Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Leyla; GÜNDÜZ, Kadri

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the presence of the genes for some virulence factors in Escherichia coli isolates from clinical bovine mastitis. A total of 100 E. coli isolates, each isolated from individual cows in different herds between 2000 and 2005, were examined. Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to detect the presence of the genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (stx1 and stx2), intimin (eaeA), heat-stable enterotoxin a (Sta), and F5 (K99), F41, and F17 f...

  8. Investigation of the association between the test day milk fat-protein ratio and clinical mastitis using a Poisson regression approach for analysis of time-to-event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoche-Golob, V; Heuwieser, W; Krömker, V

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between the milk fat-protein ratio and the incidence rate of clinical mastitis including repeated cases of clinical mastitis to determine the usefulness of this association to monitor metabolic disorders as risk factors for udder health. Herd records from 10 dairy herds of Holstein cows in Saxony, Germany, from September 2005-2011 (36,827 lactations of 17,657 cows) were used for statistical analysis. A mixed Poisson regression model with the weekly incidence rate of clinical mastitis as outcome variable was fitted. The model included repeated events of the outcome, time-varying covariates and multilevel clustering. Because the recording of clinical mastitis might have been imperfect, a probabilistic bias analysis was conducted to assess the impact of the misclassification of clinical mastitis on the conventional results. The lactational incidence of clinical mastitis was 38.2%. In 36.2% and 34.9% of the lactations, there was at least one dairy herd test day with a fat-protein ratio of 1.5, respectively. Misclassification of clinical mastitis was assumed to have resulted in bias towards the null. A clinical mastitis case increased the incidence rate of following cases of the same cow. Fat-protein ratios of 1.5 were associated with higher incidence rates of clinical mastitis depending on week in milk. The effect of a fat-protein ratio >1.5 on the incidence rate of clinical mastitis increased considerably over the course of lactation, whereas the effect of a fat-protein ratio 1.5 on the precedent test days of all cows irrespective of their time in milk seemed to be better predictors for clinical mastitis than the first test day results per lactation. PMID:26164530

  9. Managerial and environmental determinants of clinical mastitis in Danish dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.

  10. Tuberculous mastitis simulating carcinoma of the breast in a young Nigerian woman: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabageh, Donatus; Amao, Emmanuel Afolabi; Ayo-Aderibigbe A, Adebisi; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous mastitis is an uncommon disease even in countries where tuberculosis is highly endemic. It typically presents a diagnostic challenge masquerading as carcinoma or other primary disease of the breast. We report the case of a young multiparous Nigerian woman who presented with a tender left breast lump and enlargement of the left axillary lymph nodes for which a provisional diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast was made after clinical and radiological evaluation. The mass was pathologically diagnosed as tuberculous mastitis and anti-tuberculous therapy was instituted although she later absconded. This case shows that TM may present a diagnostic challenge on clinical, radiologic and microbiological investigation. Therefore, a high index of suspicion as well as FNAC and/or histological evaluation of tissue samples remain very important its diagnosis. PMID:26327962

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus Strain Isolated from a Cow with Clinical Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Paresh; Reddy, D Peddi; Kumar, P Anand; Gadicherla, Ramya; George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Staphylococcus aureus causing clinical mastitis in a cow from India. It is a major causative agent of mastitis and, further, livestock-associated strains are emerging as a potential threat to public health, thereby warranting studies to understand the genome of this deadly pathogen. PMID:26294628

  12. Occurrence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffaloes in the State of Haryana (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sindhu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to determine the occurrence and etiology of mastitis in traditionally managed buffaloes. A total of 5707 quarter milk samples from 2057 buffaloes were examined. Of these, 2948 (51.65% samples were found culturally positive. Among these, 1070 cases were from clinical mastitis and rest 1878 cases were positive for subclinical mastitis. As many as 3447 isolates were obtained from infected quarters. Out of these, 38.81% were Staphylococcus spp., 32.4% Streptococcus spp., 11.80% E. coli, 5.2% Corynebacterium spp., 1.36% Bacillus spp., 2.03% Klebsiella spp., 0.78% Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 0.14% Proteus , 0.14% yeast. Staphylococcus spp. was predominant mastitogenic organisms followed by Streptococcus spp. Of the staphylococcal organisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most prevalent being present in the 63.15% of the isolates. Among streptococci, Streptococcus agalactiae were the predominant organisms followed by Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. The mixed infections were detected in 7.33% quarters in different combinations. Most common combination was of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. followed by Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Results of Antibiotic sensitivity were variable.

  13. Relationship between teat-end callosity and occurrence of clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Neijenhuis, F.; Barkema, H. W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal study in 15 herds, with a total of 2157 cows, was conducted to examine the relationship between teat-end callosity (TEC) and the incidence of clinical mastitis. During the 1.5-yr study period, clinical mastitis was diagnosed by the farmers based on clinical signs. Teat-end callosity was scored every month according to a teat-end callosity classification system, which discriminates between teat-end callosity thickness (TECT) and roughness (TECR). Differences in TECT between heal...

  14. Effects of repeated episodes of generic clinical mastitis on mortality and culling in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, D; Gröhn, Y T; Bennett, G; González, R N; Hertl, J A; Schulte, H F; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Schukken, Y H

    2008-06-01

    Bovine clinical mastitis (CM) can be detrimental to a dairy farm's profitability, not only in terms of lost production and treatment costs, but also because of the loss of the cows themselves. Our objective was to estimate the effects of multiple occurrences of generic bovine CM on mortality and culling. We studied 16,145 lactations from 5 large, high-producing dairy herds, with 3,036 first, 758 second, and 288 third CM cases observed in the first 10 mo after calving. Generalized mixed models, with a random herd effect, were used to quantify the effect of CM on mortality and culling. Other control variables included in the models were parity, stage of lactation, and other diseases. Clinical mastitis in the current month significantly increased mortality in all parities. Among primipara, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 5.6 (1.7, 18.0), 23.3 (7.1, 76.2), and 27.8 (3.7, 209.9) for the first, second, and third CM episode, respectively. Among multipara, respective estimates were 9.9 (7.4, 13.2), 12.0 (8.0, 18.0), and 11.5 (6.1, 21.4). Clinical mastitis significantly increased the risk of a cow being culled for a period of at least 2 mo after any CM case. Our findings provide dairy producers with information on mortality and culling associated with CM cases without considering the causative agent, and can also be used for economic analysis of CM management options. PMID:18487642

  15. Mastite clinica caprina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes / Clinical mastitis in goat due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Garino Jr; R.A.T., Matos; E.G., Miranda Neto; J.N.N., Bernardino; E.D., Santos; G.M.N., Aguiar.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This paper reports the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State - Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. Amastectomywasperformedasclinical treatment. [...

  16. Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A) in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound) and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A) in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT) test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood sa...

  17. Mammographic and sonographic findings of periductal mastitis : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Yang [Pochon CHA Univ. College of Medicine, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Periductal mastitis arises from major ducts. Radiographic reports describing the phases of duct ectasia and secretory calcifications, have been published, but descriptions of the phases of periductal mastitis are rare. We report the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of periductal mastitis in a 30-year-old woman who presented with a breast lump.

  18. Mammographic and sonographic findings of periductal mastitis : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periductal mastitis arises from major ducts. Radiographic reports describing the phases of duct ectasia and secretory calcifications, have been published, but descriptions of the phases of periductal mastitis are rare. We report the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of periductal mastitis in a 30-year-old woman who presented with a breast lump

  19. A Cross Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Sub Clinical Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in and Aronund Gondar, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nibret Moges; Yilikal Asfaw; Kelay Belihu

    2011-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted on 322 local (n = 57) and crossbred (n = 265) lactating hand milked small holder cows in and around Gondar. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis and the associated risk factors by clinical examination and using california mastitis test. Bacterial culture was also conducted to determine the casual agents of mastitis. The prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis in the study area was 0.93 and 3...

  20. Mastite granulomatosa idiopática: aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e ultra-sonográficos Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Caetano Stefanon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as características clínicas, mamográficas e ultra-sonográficas de três casos de mastite granulomatosa idiopática. Esta afecção pode simular câncer de mama nos exames clínico e mamográfico, porém os achados ultra-sonográficos de múltiplas imagens tubulares hipoecóicas, contíguas e confluentes em mulheres jovens com história de lactação recente sugerem o diagnóstico de mastite granulomatosa idiopática.The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings of three cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. This disease can mimic breast carcinoma on clinical and mammographic examinations. However, ultrasound examinations showing multiple clustered and often contiguous tubular hypoechoic lesions in young women with history of recent lactation suggest the diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

  1. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SOME INDIRECT DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS AND BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. IQBAL, M. AMJED1, M. A. KHAN, M. S. QURESHI1 AND U. SADIQUE1

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare five laboratory diagnostic tests for sub-clinical mastitis in cattle and buffaloes and to compute cost, time taken by each test and its ranking for availability, adoptability, interpretability and sensitivity. There were 352 cases with each test type viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Side Test (WST, White Side + Dye (WSTD, Surf Test and Surf + Dye, and 880 cases with each species type (cattle and buffaloes. Result scores (1760 for sub-clinical mastitis in each category of negative, trace, single positive, double positive and triple positive by species, and laboratory tests, were analyzed using nonparametric tests. Chi-square statistics showed that CMT was equally effective at both locations (farm vs. laboratory. Correlation further suggested that the association was highly significant. Moreover, cases in category of negative, trace and single positive strongly differed (P0.05. The study further suggested that CMT was the most sensitive test, followed by WST/WSTD and Surf/Surf + Dye. Although, the five tests showed slight discrepancy in the trace category reaction, a strong relationship of Surf Test to CMT, its low cost, easy availability and readily adoptable qualities should spur the relevant authorities to recommend the use of Surf test as a routine practice in dairy farming and add this test in the curriculum of diploma and degree programmes.

  2. Assessment of sub-clinical mastitis and its associated risk factors in dairy livestock of Lamjung, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal T; Pandit A.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mastitis is one among the top three threats faced by dairy farmers. The study was carried out to assess sub-clinical mastitis, management practices and associated risk factors for mastitis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Chandreshwor and Archalbot VDCs of Lamjung district taking 63 dairy livestock randomly each from a herd along with questionnaire survey to respective owner. Tem ml of milk sample from each quarter was taken in a sterilized syringe...

  3. Diagnostics, incidence and course of nonpuerperal mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinic of radiology at the university of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostics, incidence and course of nonpuerperal mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goelles, M.; Kopp, W.; Beaufort, F.

    1985-02-01

    The clinic of radiology at the University of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made.

  5. Comparative analysis of agr groups and virulence genes among subclinical and clinical mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates from sheep flocks of the Northeast of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lara M. de, Almeida; Mayra Zilta P.R.B. de, Almeida; Carla L. de, Mendonça; Elsa M., Mamizuka.

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent mastitis causative agents in small ruminants. The expression of most virulence genes of S. aureus is controlled by an accessory gene regulator (agr)locus. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups and to evaluate the oc [...] currence of encoding genes for cytotoxin, adhesins and toxins with superantigen activity in S. aureus isolates from milk of ewes with clinical and subclinical mastitis in sheep flocks raised for meat production The agr groups I and II were identified in both cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Neither the arg groups III and IV nor negative agr were found. The presence of cflA gene was identified in 100% of the isolates. The frequency of hla and lukE-D genes was high -77.3 and 82.8%, respectively and all isolates from clinical mastitis presented these genes. The sec gene, either associated to tst gene or not, was identified only in isolates from subclinical mastitis. None of the following genes were identified: bbp, ebpS, cna, fnbB, icaA, icaD, bap, hlg, lukM-lukF-PV and se-a-b-d-e.

  6. Effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on probability of conception in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM), occurring in different weekly intervals before or after artificial insemination (AI), on the probability of conception in Holstein cows. Clinical mastitis occurring in weekly intervals from 6 wk before until 6 wk after AI was modeled. The first 4 AI in a cow's lactation were included. The following categories of pathogens were studied: Streptococcus spp. (comprising Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and other Streptococcus spp.); Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level that can be detected from our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample and cases with contamination (? 3 pathogens in the sample); and other pathogens [including Citrobacter, yeasts, Trueperella pyogenes, gram-negative bacilli (i.e., gram-negative organisms other than E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter, and Citrobacter), Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium spp., Pasteurella, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, and others]. Other factors included in the model were parity (1, 2, 3, 4 and higher), season of AI (winter, spring, summer, autumn), day in lactation of first AI, farm, and other non-CM diseases (retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Data from 90,271 AI in 39,361 lactations in 20,328 cows collected from 2003/2004 to 2011 from 5 New York State dairy farms were analyzed in a generalized linear mixed model with a Poisson distribution. The largest reductions in probability of conception were associated with CM occurring in the week before AI or in the 2 wk following AI. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. had the greatest adverse effects on probability of conception. The probability of conception for a cow with any combination of characteristics may be calculated based on the parameter estimates. These findings may be helpful to farmers in assessing reproduction in their dairy cows for more effective cow management. PMID:25173468

  7. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (? 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of CM increased with case number. Mastitic cows were generally higher producers before the CM episode than their nonmastitic herdmates. Milk loss varied with pathogen and case number. In primiparas, the greatest losses were associated with E. coli and "other not treatable" organisms. In multiparas, the greatest losses were associated with Klebsiella spp. and "other not treatable" organisms. Milk loss was not associated with occurrence of CNS. The findings may help farmers to make optimal management decisions for their cows. PMID:24418269

  8. Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and an environmental spread of Escherichia coli IMI in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were calculated into the total annual net costs of IMI during lactation per scenario and compared with a default scenario. Input parameter values were based on the scientific literature. The scenarios were 3-d intramammary lactational treatment (default), 5-d intramammary treatment, 5-d intramammary treatment and 3-d systemic treatment, 3-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows, and 5-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on parameter input values. The results showed that interventions including antibiotic treatment combined with culling unrecovered clinical IMI cows resulted in the lowest transmission, number of IMI cases, and persistent subclinical IMI cases. Nonetheless, the high associated costs of culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows made the other scenarios with a long and intensive antibiotic treatment, but without culling, the most cost effective. The model was sensitive to changes to the cure rate of clinical IMI following treatment, but the ranking of the intervention scenarios did not change. The model was most sensitive to the changes to the transmission rate of Staph. aureus. The ranking of the intervention scenarios changed at low transmission rate of this pathogen, in which the default scenario became the most cost-effective scenario. In case of high transmission of contagious IMI pathogens, long and intensive treatment of clinical IMI should be preceded by strategies that lower the transmission.

  9. Effect of extended cefquinome treatment on clinical persistence or recurrence of environmental clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, J M; Lam, T J G M; Green, M J; Bradley, A J

    2013-09-01

    The effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis (CM) is classically evaluated using bacteriological cure, which provides a concise and objective way of assessing efficacy but does not reflect the situation in the field where persistence or recurrence of clinical signs lead to perceived treatment failure. If clinical signs persist or recur, intramammary (IMM) treatment is often extended or supplemented with parenteral therapy in the expectation of a more efficient elimination of clinical signs or a lower probability of recurrence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy against clinical persistence or recurrence of three cefquinome treatment regimes, standard 1.5-day intramammary (SIMM), 5-day extended intramammary (EIMM) and combination of EIMM plus 5-day extended parenteral (ECOMBO) treatment. The study was conducted on three dairy farms with a high recurrence rate of environmental mastitis. Efficacy was evaluated using a multi-level model at the quarter and at the cow level, based on the persistence or recurrence of clinical signs at any time during a 105-day period following the end of the initial treatment, independent of pathogen. The most prevalent pathogens were E. coli (16.9%) and S. uberis (11.97%). EIMM and ECOMBO significantly decreased the persistence or recurrence of CM by 8% and 6% at the quarter level and by 9% and 8% at the cow level, respectively. ECOMBO may not reduce the persistence or recurrence of CM beyond EIMM. Whilst extended treatment regimens offered an improved outcome in this study, the producer and practitioner need to carefully consider such regimens from the perspective of prudent antibiotic use. PMID:23702283

  10. Study on some characteristics of Staphylococci isolated from sheep sub clinical mastitis milk in Shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococci release a large number of enzymes. Some of these, such as coagulase, beta lactamase, hemolysins and biofilms are considered indices of pathogenicity. The aim of the current study was based on the isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS strains from sheep sub clinical mastitis and examining their biofilm, beta lactamase, hemolysins production and antibiotic resistance pattern. Materials and methods: 55 Staphylococci strains were isolated from seventy cases of sheep subclinical mastitis. Thirty three were determined as Staphylococcus aureus (60% and 22 (40% as CNS. The hemolytic activity was evaluated by plating Staphylococci strains on 5% bovine blood agar. The biofilm assay was performed by using micro titer plates. Beta Lactamase production was detected by test tube iodometric technique and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined for isolated strains by the disk diffusion method. Results: Twenty six (78.8% S. aureus strains were biofilm producers. For CNS (59.9% strains were positive in biofilm production. Two isolates (6.06%, of S. aureus were ?, the same number ? and 6 (18.2% isolates were ? hemolysin producers. Six isolates of CNS (27.27% were ? and ten (45.45% ? hemolysin producers. Sixteen S. aureus (48.5% and five CNS (22.72% isolates were positive in beta lactamase production. The isolated Staphylococci show a low sensitivity pattern to methicillin and streptomycin. Discussion and conclusion: A high percentage of strains make ? toxin that play a role in S. aureus biofilm formation. Twenty one out of 33 (63.63% isolated Staphylococci were biofilm producers that can have deleterious effects because biofilm formation is thought to play an important role in the survival of virulent strains of Staphylococci. Sixteen out of 33 (48.5% isolated S. aureus were positive in beta lactamase test, Excluding resistant to methicillin, all of these isolates show a marked sensitivities to other examined beta lactam drugs. High percentage of hemolysins, biofilm and beta lactamase production by isolated Staphylococci, suggest an important role of these virulence factors in the pathogenesis of isolated Staphylococci from mastitis sheep milk samples.

  11. Characterization of Staphylococcus simulans strains isolated from cases of bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank MØller; Larsen, H. D.

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize Staphylococcus simulans isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. A total of 134 isolates of S. simulans selected from 80 quarters from 61 cows or heifers in 37 different herds were characterized by EcoRI ribotyping. From 22 quarters two to seven consecutive isolates taken at weekly intervals were selected. Furthermore, three isolates from clinical infections in humans and two reference strains were included. A total of 16 different ribotypes were found, however, two types predominated. In most herds more than one type was found. From the 22 different quarters, where 76 paired or multiple isolates were at disposal, the same ribotype was constantly found in the same quarter. This study showed that S. simulans causing bovine mastitis could be divided into relatively large number of different types, but that two types predominated. More than one type could be found in the same herd and within different quarters of the same cow, but ribotyping confirmed that S. simulans could be the cause of persistent and stable infections.

  12. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3?d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment, this difference persisted until at least 10?d after diagnosis. Sick cows spent less time lying in the initial days after treatment, reversing to the level of the control cows within the 10?d posttreatment period. In the 48?h before antibiotic treatment, the mastitic cows showed increased restlessness during milking, as seen by a higher frequency of tripping and kicking. Mastitic cows continued to show increased kicking during milking even after the antibiotic treatment period. These results show that the behavioral changes induced by naturally occurring mastitis persisted beyond the days of antibiotic treatment, thereby calling for further investigation into management of mastitic dairy cows to optimize recovery and ensure animal welfare during the recovery period after clinical mastitis.

  13. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogsgaard, K K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Herskin, M S

    2015-03-01

    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment, this difference persisted until at least 10 d after diagnosis. Sick cows spent less time lying in the initial days after treatment, reversing to the level of the control cows within the 10 d posttreatment period. In the 48 h before antibiotic treatment, the mastitic cows showed increased restlessness during milking, as seen by a higher frequency of tripping and kicking. Mastitic cows continued to show increased kicking during milking even after the antibiotic treatment period. These results show that the behavioral changes induced by naturally occurring mastitis persisted beyond the days of antibiotic treatment, thereby calling for further investigation into management of mastitic dairy cows to optimize recovery and ensure animal welfare during the recovery period after clinical mastitis. PMID:25547306

  14. Costs of mastitis: facts and perception

    OpenAIRE

    Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2008-01-01

    A model to calculate the economic losses of mastitis on an average Dutch dairy farm was developed and used as base for a tool for farmers and advisors to calculate farm-specific economic losses of mastitis. The economic losses of a clinical case in a default situation were calculated as ¿210, varying from ¿164 to ¿235 depending on the month of lactation. The total economic losses of mastitis (subclinical and clinical) per cow present in a default situation varied between ¿65 and ¿182/cow per ...

  15. Investigations on Prevalence and Oxidative Stress Aspects of Mastitis in Buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, V. K.; Sharma, A.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, M

    2010-01-01

    The 424 quarter milk samples collected from 106 apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were screened for mastitis using bacterial cultural examination and somatic cell count. The prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM), latent mastitis and non-specific mastitis were found to be 9.90% (42/424), 4.24% (18/424), and 15.80% ( 67/424), respectively. There was significant (P?0.05) elevation of blood malondialdehyde (MDA) level in SCM and clinical mastitis cases. Besides, milk malondialdehyde l...

  16. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF VARIETY PLANTS AGAINST THE RESISTANT STREPTOCOCCUS WHICH CAUSE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    SHAZA ANWAR AL LAHAM; FRDOOS MOHAMMAD AL FADEL

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus is considered to be one of the most dangerous causes of Clinical mastitis in cows. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of extracts prepared from different parts of the flowing plants: Oleaeuropea Linn(Oleaceae), Myrtuscommunis Linn (Liliaceae) ,thymus vulgaris Linn (Laminaceae), Rosemery Linn(Laminaceae), Ficuscarica Linn (Moraceae), and Achilleafalcata Linn(Asteraceae) against resistant Streptococcus in 1371 Samples of milk. This work was achieved in four...

  17. Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Barua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commercial dairy farms and 55 from backyards lactating dairy cows were considered. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM was determined using three different indirect screening tests: California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Slide Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. Sensitivity and specificity were also determined to measure the accuracy of those tests. Results: The prevalence of SCM by CMT, WST and SFMT were 32.43% (n=144, 33.56% (n=149 and 31.53% (n=140, respectively. Distribution of SCM in relation to different variables at quarter level and animal level was also recorded. The prevalence of SCM was significantly (P4 than others at quarter level. No significant difference (P>0.05 was found in relation to breed. Using CMT as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of WST and SFMT were also calculated at 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and disease prevalence by WST and SFMT were comparable. Conclusion: This study recommends that regular screening of sub-clinical mastitis will reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, dry cow therapy specially in high yielding dairy cows.

  18. Clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about clinical cases and the contribution of the PET - CT Fag application in the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer. The cases presented were: neck diseases, epidermoid carcinoma, liver damage and metastasize, lymphoma, thrombosis, colonic cancer and lung disease

  19. Clinical characteristics and persistence of bovine mastitis caused by different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci identified with API or AFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taponen, S.; Simojoki, H.

    2006-01-01

    The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP-typing of CNS was compared with the phenotypic identification. A total of 133 clinical or subclinical quarter cases of intramammary infection caused by CNS from the practice area of the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Helsinki were studied. Bacteriological diagnosis was based on biochemical (API) testing. Staphylococcus simulans (43.6%) followed by S. chromogenes (23.3%) were the most common CNS species isolated from the milk samples. Ninety-nine isolates were genotyped using AFLP-analysis. Only 75.0% of S. chromogenes and S. simulans isolates identified with API test were clustered with the type strains of these species. Approximately half of the mastitis cases were clinical, and in the majority clinical signs were mild. The severity and persistence of intramammary infection were unaffected by CNS species. Fifty-nine percent of the quarter cases were treated with antimicrobials, and the rest were left without treatment. Mastitis due to P-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were P-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as opposed to only 45.5% for untreated quarters. Bacterial cure rates for the most common CNS species or AFLP clusters were not statistically different. Further studies on identification of CNS species are needed.

  20. A field study evaluation of Petrifilm™ plates as a 24-h rapid diagnostic test for clinical mastitis on a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansion-de Vries, Elisabeth Maria; Knorr, Nicole; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Zinke, Claudia; Hoedemaker, Martina; Krömker, Volker

    2014-03-01

    Clinical mastitis is one of the most common and expensive diseases of dairy cattle. To make an informed treatment decision, it is important to know the causative pathogen. However, no detection of bacterial growth can be made in approximately 30% of all clinical cases of mastitis. Before selecting the treatment regimen, it is important to know whether the mastitis-causing pathogen (MCP) is Gram-positive or Gram-negative. The aim of this field study was to investigate whether using two 3M Petrifilm™ products on-farm (which conveys a higher degree of sample freshness but also bears a higher risk for contamination than working in a lab) as 24-h rapid diagnostic of clinical mastitis achieved results that were comparable to the conventional microbiological diagnostic method. AerobicCount (AC)-Petrifilm™ and ColiformCount (CC)-Petrifilm™ were used to identify the total bacterial counts and Gram-negative bacteria in samples from clinical mastitis cases, respectively. Missing growth on both plates was classified as no bacterial detection. Growth only on the AC-Petrifilm™ was assessed as Gram-positive, and growth on both Petrifilm™ plates was assessed as Gram-negative bacterial growth. Additionally, milk samples were analysed by conventional microbiological diagnostic method on aesculin blood agar as a reference method. Overall, 616 samples from clinical mastitis cases were analysed. Using the reference method, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mixed bacterial growth, contaminated samples and yeast were determined in 32.6%, 20.0%, 2.5%, 14.1% and 1.1% of the samples, respectively. In 29.7% of the samples, microbiological growth could not be identified. Using the Petrifilm™ concept, bacterial growth was detected in 59% of the culture-negative samples. The sensitivity of the Petrifilm™ for Gram-positive and Gram-negative MCP was 85.2% and 89.9%, respectively. The specificity was 75.4% for Gram-positive and 88.4% for Gram-negative MCP. For the culture-negative samples, sensitivity was 41.0% and specificity was 91.0%. The results indicate that the Petrifilm™ concept is suitable for therapeutic decision-making at the farm level or in veterinary practice. As this concept does not allow any statement about the genus or species of microorganisms, relevant MCP should be assessed periodically at the herd level with conventional microbiological diagnostics. PMID:24382427

  1. Efficacy of Targeted 5-day Combined Parenteral and Intramammary Treatment of Clinical Mastitis Caused by Penicillin-Susceptible or Penicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyörälä S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was compared to parenteral treatment only. Cows with clinical mastitis (166 mastitic quarters caused by S. aureus treated by veterinarians of the Ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine during routine farm calls were included. Treatment was based on in vitro susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolate. Procaine penicillin G (86 cases due to ?-lactamase negative strains or amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (24 cases due to ?-lactamase positive strains was administered parenterally and intramammarily for 5 days. Efficacy of treatments was assessed 2 and 4 weeks later by physical examination, bacteriological culture, determination of CMT, somatic cell count and NAGase activity in milk. Quarters with growth of S. aureus in at least one post-treatment sample were classified as non-cured. As controls we used 41 clinical mastitis cases caused by penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates treated with procaine penicillin G parenterally for 5 days and 15 cases due to penicillin-resistant isolates treated with spiramycin parenterally for 5 days from the same practice area. Bacteriological cure rate after the combination treatment was 75.6% for quarters infected with penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, and 29.2% for quarters infected with penicillin-resistant isolates. Cure rate for quarters treated only parenterally with procaine penicillin G was 56.1% and that for quarters treated with spiramycin 33.3%. The difference in cure rates between mastitis due to penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. aureus was highly significant. Combined treatment was superior over systemic treatment only in the ?-lactamase negative group.

  2. Relationship Between Some Teat and Body Measurements of Holstein Cows and Sub-Clinical Mastitis and Milk Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sekkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between some teat and body measurements of lactating cows and sub-clinical mastitis and milk yield. The material was consisted of 125 Holstein cows. The teat diameter, length and height from floor surface, wither height, hip height and chest girth of cows were measured. The cows were grouped according to Californian Mastitis Test (CMT score as positive (CMT Score: 2-4 and negative (CMT Score: 0 and 1 and also according to the 305 days corrected milk yield as low (=5000 kg and high (>5000 kg milk production. The significant differences were found between sub-clinical mastitis groups in terms of teat height, left and right hind teat diameter and right hind teat length (p<0.05. About 305 days corrected milk yield means of positive and negative sub-clinical mastitis groups were 5185.91180.81 and 4994.94210.80 kg, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to milk yield and body measurement between sub-clinical mastitis groups. There were no significant differences between milk yield groups with regard to teat measurements except for right front and hind diameter means (p<0.05. The means of wither height, hip height and chest girth according to low and high milk yield groups were found significant (p<0.001.

  3. QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

  4. Efecto de la mastitis clínica y subclínica sobre la concentración plasmática de metabolitos, proteínas totales y albúmina en hembras bovinas / Effect of clinic and subclinic mastitis on the plasmatic concentration of metabolites, total protein, and albumen in bovine females

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aleidy J, Aranguren Parra; Aura A, López Ortega; Carmen A, Mendoza; Norka, Delgado.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la mastitis es considerada, en el ámbito agropecuario, como una de las enfermedades más costosas debido a las pérdidas económicas que desde el punto de vista productivo genera. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la mastitis clínica y subclínica en hembras bovinas l [...] echeras, sobre algunos parámetros metabólicos plasmáticos. Se utilizaron 30 vacas mestizas Holstein de una finca lechera comercial, ubicada en Quibor, Lara, Venezuela, sometidas a las mismas condiciones de manejo, distribuidas en tres grupos de 10 animales cada uno: vacas sanas, con mastitis subclínica y con mastitis clínica. La concentración de glucosa, colesterol total y sus fracciones Col-HDL y Col-LDL, triglicéridos, proteínas totales y albúmina se cuantificaron por kits comerciales. En ambos tipos de mastitis hubo un aumento altamente significativo (P Abstract in english At present time, mastitis is considered, in the farming scope, one of the most expensive diseases due to the economic losses from the productive point of view. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the clinical and subclinical mastitis in milk bovine females on some plasmatic met [...] abolic parameters. Thirty racially mixed cows Holstein were used from a commercial milk farm which is located in Quibor, Lara, Venezuela, managed under the same conditions and distributed in three groups of 10 animals each: healthy cows, with subclinical mastitis, and clinical mastitis. The concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and its fractions Col- HDL and Col-LDL, triglycerides, proteins, and albumen were quantified by commercial kits. In both types of mastitis there was a highly significant increase (P

  5. The use of successive milking as a procedure for the elimination of infection on due to Prototheca spp in cases of bovine clinical mastitis. (A case report / Utilização de ordenhas sucessivas como procedimento para eliminação de infecção por prototheca spp de casos de mastite clínica bovina (relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Kiyoe Shimada

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work relates the case of two animals (Black and White Holstein from a bovine milking herd, from north of Paraná State, in which mastitis due Prototheca spp was diagnosed. As a procedure for the infection elimination, it was opted for the use of successive milking performed six times daily, during eight days. The animals were followed up through mycological cultures from milk Samples after 15, 30 and 60 days from the beginning of the procedure. The clinical signs regressed after three days and the mycologicai cultures were negative after the 15th day.O presente trabalho relata um caso de dois animais HPB de um rebanho bovino leiteiro, da região norte do Estado do Paraná, dos quais diagnosticou-se mastite clínica por Prototheca spp. Como procedimento para eliminação da infecção optou-se peta utilização de ordenhas sucessivas praticadas seis vezes diariamente durante oito dias. Os animais foram acompanhados através de culturas micológicas das amostras de leite após 15, 30 e 60 dias do inicio do procedimento. Os sinais clínicos regrediram após três dias, e a partir do 15° dia as culturas foram negativas.

  6. Discriminating between true-positive and false-positive clinical mastitis alerts from automatic milking systems

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, W.; Van der Gaag, L.C.; Ouweltjes, W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) generate alert lists reporting cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Dutch farmers indicated that they use non-AMS cow information or the detailed alert information from the AMS to decide whether to check an alerted cow for CM. However, it is not yet known to what extent such information can be used to discriminate between true-positive and false-positive alerts. The overall objective was to investigate whether selection of the alerted cows that need furt...

  7. A descriptive epidemiological study of mastitis in 12 Irish dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett Damien J; Doherty Michael L; Healy Anne M

    2005-01-01

    Factors relating to the occurrence of mastitis were studied on 12 Irish dairy herds with histories of elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and/or increased incidence of clinical mastitis cases. Milk recording data were analysed, housing conditions and calving areas were examined; dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis records, milking technique and aspects of milking machine function were assessed. Herds with a ratio of less than 110 cubicles per 100 cows were more likely to experience environmenta...

  8. Sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Savannah Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Shittu Aminu; Abdullahi Jamilu; Jibril Aliyu; Mohammed Aminu A; Fasina Folorunso O

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sub-clinical mastitis limits milk production and represents an important barrier to profitable livestock economics worldwide. Milk production from cows in Nigeria is not at optimum levels in view of many factors including sub-clinical mastitis. Results The overall herd-level prevalence rate for SCM was 85.33% (256/300 heads of cows) while the quarter-level prevalence rate of SCM was 43.25% (519/1,200 quarters). The prevalence of SCM was 50.67%, 43.67%, 39.67% and 39.13% fo...

  9. Optimal insemination and replacement decisions to minimize the cost of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, E; Kristensen, A R; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-04-01

    Mastitis is a serious production-limiting disease, with effects on milk yield, milk quality, and conception rate, and an increase in the risk of mortality and culling. The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) to develop an economic optimization model that incorporates all the different types of pathogens that cause clinical mastitis (CM) categorized into 8 classes of culture results, and account for whether the CM was a first, second, or third case in the current lactation and whether the cow had a previous case or cases of CM in the preceding lactation; and (2) to develop this decision model to be versatile enough to add additional pathogens, diseases, or other cow characteristics as more information becomes available without significant alterations to the basic structure of the model. The model provides economically optimal decisions depending on the individual characteristics of the cow and the specific pathogen causing CM. The net returns for the basic herd scenario (with all CM included) were $507/cow per year, where the incidence of CM (cases per 100 cow-years) was 35.6, of which 91.8% of cases were recommended for treatment under an optimal replacement policy. The cost per case of CM was $216.11. The CM cases comprised (incidences, %) Staphylococcus spp. (1.6), Staphylococcus aureus (1.8), Streptococcus spp. (6.9), Escherichia coli (8.1), Klebsiella spp. (2.2), other treated cases (e.g., Pseudomonas; 1.1), other not treated cases (e.g., Trueperella pyogenes; 1.2), and negative culture cases (12.7). The average cost per case, even under optimal decisions, was greatest for Klebsiella spp. ($477), followed by E. coli ($361), other treated cases ($297), and other not treated cases ($280). This was followed by the gram-positive pathogens; among these, the greatest cost per case was due to Staph. aureus ($266), followed by Streptococcus spp. ($174) and Staphylococcus spp. ($135); negative culture had the lowest cost ($115). The model recommended treatment for most CM cases (>85%); the range was 86.2% (Klebsiella spp.) to 98.5% (Staphylococcus spp.). In general, the optimal recommended time for replacement was up to 5 mo earlier for cows with CM compared with cows without CM. Furthermore, although the parameter estimates implemented in this model are applicable to the dairy farms in this study, the parameters may be altered to be specific to other dairy farms. Cow rankings and values based on disease status, pregnancy status, and milk production can be extracted; these provide guidance when determining which cows to keep or cull. PMID:24534495

  10. Mastitis in a neonatal filly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilday, Rebecca; Lewis, Danyse; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal mastitis is a rare occurrence in the horse. This report documents a case of mastitis caused by an organism within the Streptococcus dysgalactiae group in a 1-week-old Paint filly. PMID:25565717

  11. Nordic dairy farmers' threshold for contacting a veterinarian and consequences for disease recording : Mild clinical mastitis as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espetvedt, Mari; Lind, Ann-Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have addressed the differences in registered disease incidence between the Nordic dairy disease recording systems. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic dairy farmers have varying intention to contact a veterinarian the same day as detecting signs of mild clinical mastitis (MCM) in a lactating dairy cow. This is the first, and necessary, step in the process leading to a disease event being recorded. The second objective was to study underlying behavioural components influencing this threshold for action. A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The questionnaire was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour from the field of social psychology. After performing qualitative face-to-face elicitation interviews a set of statements about treatment of MCM was identified. These were grouped into behavioural, normative and control beliefs. The most frequently mentioned beliefs were rephrased as questions. Behavioural intention, a proxy for the behaviour of interest, was assessed using case scenarios. The target and eligible herds were in milk recording and had an average herd size of at least 15 cows. The questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly sampled dairy producers per included country. The response rate was around 50% in all four countries. The hypothesis of differences in behavioural intention between the countries was tested using Wilcoxon's rank-sum tests. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the country-specific variability in behavioural intention as explained by attitude, subjective norm or perceived behavioural control alone, or in combination. The Spearman rank correlations between behavioural intention and each belief, weighted by its outcome evaluation or the motivation to comply, were estimated to find the most important drivers, constraints and social referents for the behaviour of interest. There were significant (p <0.01) differences in behavioural intention between all countries except Denmark and Norway. Swedish farmers had the weakest behavioural intention and Finnish farmers the strongest. Attitude explained most of the variability in behavioural intention in all four countries. The most important driver in all countries was to achieve a quick recovery for the cow. The varying behavioural intention partly explain the differences in completeness of disease data in the Nordic countries: if farmers have different thresholds for contacting a veterinarian the registered incidence of clinical mastitis will be affected. Knowledge about the importance of attitudes and specific drivers may be useful in any communication about mastitis management in the Nordic countries. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathogen group specific risk factors for clinical mastitis, intramammary infection and blind quarters at the herd, cow and quarter level in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Ayana, Z; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ?90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1.02-5.71)] were risk factors for quarters being blind. In conclusion, replacement of old cows, prevention of teat injuries/lesions, drying teats with 1 towel per cow before milking, improving fertility in order to shorten the lactation period, allowing (restricted) suckling, access to feed and water immediately after milking, and improving tick control could improve udder health in Jimma. PMID:26008577

  13. Characterization of two proteins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis with homology to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goji, Noriko; Potter, Andrew A; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2004-04-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative agent of bovine mastitis and vaccines developed to control this disease showed limited protection due in part to the lack of common antigens among the mastitis isolates. We isolated and identified two genes encoding proteins with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity from a S. aureus strain isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. The GapB and GapC proteins share considerable homology to the GapB and GapC products of human strains of S. aureus. These two proteins could be distinguished by their different GAPDH activities and binding to bovine transferrin properties. Both gapB and gapC genes were conserved in 11 strains tested, and the GapC protein was present on the surface of all S. aureus strains. PMID:15066729

  14. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman Alibeigi; Omid Reza Hosseini; Sepideh Assar

    2010-01-01

    Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas adm...

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from crossbred dairy cows with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Fekadu; Araya, Mengistu

    2012-08-01

    Following the rapidly expanding dairy enterprise, mastitis has remained the most economically damaging disease. The objective of this study was mainly to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Combretum molle (R.Br.Ex.G.Don) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) against antibiotic-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis using agar disc diffusion method. The leaf and bark extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus at concentrations of 3 mg/ml while the stem and seed extract did not show any bioactivity. Although both leaf and bark extracts were handled in the same manner, the antibacterial activity of the bark extract against the bacterial strains had declined gradually to a lower level as time advanced after extraction. The leaf extract had sustained bioactivity for longer duration. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the leaf extract is not obviously different between S. aureus and S. agalactiae. Also, there was no difference in susceptibility to the leaf extract between the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive bacteria. Further phytochemical and in vivo efficacy and safety studies are required to evaluate the therapeutic value of the plant against bovine mastitis. PMID:22207479

  16. Evaluation of a polyherbal topical aerosol spray as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Selvam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal topical aerosol spray Wisprec and reg; Advanced (M/S. Natural Remedies Private Limited, India as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 41 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis were selected, and Wisprec and reg; Advanced was sprayed on mastitis affected quarters of udder two times a day along with a parenteral antibiotic till complete recovery. The rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder, swelling of udder, consistency of milk, recovery period and product satisfaction score were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of Wisprec and reg; Spray. Topical application of Wisprec and reg; Advanced Spray have shown a significant improvement (p<0.001 in alleviation of rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder and swelling of udder, and the consistency of milk was restored to normal after 3 to 4 days of treatment. The results demonstrate that the Wisprec and reg; Advanced spray could be considered as an alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis of dairy cows. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 285-290

  17. ETIOLOGY OF THE BOVINE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN GOIÂNIA ETIOLOGIA DA MASTITE CLÍNICA BOVINA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Moreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    There is an estimate that the mastitis in dairy herds causes production losses between 5 and 35%, equivalent from 85 to 500 million dollars per year. 231 milk samples from 231 cows on different stages of lactation, with clinic mastitis, from 35 farms of Goiânia, were analyzed in order to map the pathogens implicated in these process and to discover the microorganisms with major prevalence. All the samples had positive growth. The principal agents were Staphylococcus coagulase positive (32.90%, Streptococcus sp. (22.07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12.12%, Enterobacter sp. (10.38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8.65%, Escherichia coli (8.22%, Bacillus sp. (8.22%, Proteus sp. (6.49%, Klebsiella sp. (4.32% and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (3.46%. The Nocardia genus was isolated in 0.86% of the cases.

    KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; etiology; isolated microorganisms.

    Estima-se que a presença de mastite bovina em rebanhos produtores provoque perdas de produção entre 5 e 35%, o que equivale de 85 a 500 milhões de dólares ao ano. Com o objetivo de mapear os patógenos envolvidos nesse processo e evidenciar os microrganismos com maior freqüência foram examinadas amostras de leite de 231 vacas, em diferentes estágios de lactação, que apresentaram sinais de mastite clínica e eram pertencentes a 35 propriedades rurais da bacia leiteira de Goiânia. Todas as amostras tiveram crescimento bacteriano positivo. Os principais agentes isolados foram o Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (32,90%, Streptococcus sp. (22,07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12,12%, Enterobacter sp. (10,38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8,65%, Escherichia coli (8,22%, Bacillus sp. (8,22%, Proteus sp. (6,49%, Klebsiella sp. (4,32% e Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (3,46%. O gênero Nocardia foi isolado em 0,86 % dos casos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite bovina; etiologia; microrganismos isolados.

  18. Accuracy of Clinicians in Predicting the Bacterial Cause of Clinical Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    White, Maurice E.; Glickman, Lawrence T.; Barnes-Pallesen, Frances D.; Stem, Edgar S.; Dinsmore, Page; Powers, Michael S.; Powers, Pamela; Smith, Mary C.; Jasko, David

    1986-01-01

    We examined the ability of clinicians to predict the causative organism of bovine mastitis in our practice. We obtained 118 milk culture results from 112 mastitic cows and compared the culture results to the predictions of clinicians at the time of milk sample collection. Sixty of 118 culture results were accurately predicted. The positive predictive value for coliform mastitis was 42% and the negative predictive value was 79% in a study population with a 31% prevalence of coliform mastitis. ...

  19. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Danish Holstein cattle affecting clinical mastitis, somatic cell score, udder conformation traits, and assessment of associated effects on milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M S; Guldbrandtsen, B; Buitenhuis, A J; Thomsen, B; Bendixen, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to 1) detect QTL across the cattle genome that influence the incidence of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS) in Danish Holsteins, and 2) characterize these QTL for pleiotropy versus multiple linked quantitative trait loci (QTL) when chromosomal regions affecting clinical mastitis were also affecting other traits in the Danish udder health index or milk production traits. The chromosomes were scanned using a granddaughter design where markers were typed for 1...

  20. An estimation of the clinical mastitis incidence per 100 cows per year based on routinely collected herd data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it was possible to (1) estimate the clinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI) for all Dutch dairy herds and (2) to detect farms with a high CMI based on routinely collected herd data. For this study, 240 dairy farms with a conventional milking system that participated in the milk recording program every 4 to 6 wk were randomly selected and agreed to participate. From the initial 240 herds, data of clinical mastitis (CM) registrations and routinely collected herd data of 227 herds were complete and could be used for analysis. Routinely collected herd data consisted of identification and registration records, antimicrobial usage, test-day records from the milk recording program, bulk tank milk (BTM) somatic cell count data and results of diagnostic tests on BTM samples. For each of the 227 herds, the CMI per 100 cows per year was calculated per quarter of the year and was combined with the available herd data. Two models were developed to predict the CMI for all dairy herds and to detect individual herds that belonged to the 25% herds with the highest CMI. Records of 156 (67%) herds were used for development of the models and the remaining 71 (33%) were used for validation. The model that estimated the CMI in all herds consisted of 11 explanatory variables. The observed and predicted averages of the validation herds were not significantly different. The model estimated a CMI per 100 cows per year of 32.5 cases (95% confidence interval=30.2-34.8), whereas the farmers registered 33.4 cases (95% confidence interval=29.5-37.4). The model that aimed at detecting individual herds with a high CMI contained 6 explanatory variables and could correctly classify 77% of all validation herds at the quarter-year level. The most important variables in the model were antibiotic usage for treating CM and BTM somatic cell count. In conclusion, models based on routinely collected herd data gave an accurate prediction of CMI for all Dutch dairy herds and could detect individual dairy herds with a high CMI. With these models it is possible to periodically monitor CMI both at the herd and at the national level, which is valuable for monitoring purposes and can motivate farmers to continuously improve udder health in their herds. PMID:26278495

  1. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden

    2015-01-01

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5%) were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes. PMID:26244583

  2. Molecular analysis of virulent genes (coa and spa) of staphylococcus aureus involved in natural cases of bovine mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to determine the distribution and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from naturally occurring mastitis in cattle and buffaloes. For this purpose a total of 1445 lactating cattle (653) and buffaloes (792) present at two experimental livestock farms Okara (Bahadarnagar) and Sahiwal (Qadiarabad), in and around district Faisalabad and slaughtered at an abattoir due to low milk yield and were screened for mastitis. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to detect sub clinical mastitis. The positive quarter milk samples were collected for culturing of S. aureus isolates. taphylococcus aureus isolates were identified on the basis of growth features, biochemical characteristics, coagulase test and as well as amplification of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes specific to its virulence. S. aureus isolates (n=265) were characterized by Polymerase chain reaction to determine the frequency of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes. From these isolates the amplification of the coagulase (coa) gene yielded three different PCR products approximately 204bp to 490bp while spa (spa-X) gene produced five different products ranging in size from 190bp to 320bp. PCR revealed that from all the coagulase positive S. aureus isolates 261(98.5%) had spa (spa-X) gene. The results of the present study indicated that S. aureus isolates recovered from bovine mastitis were genetically different within and among the various herds which may provide essential and valuable strategies to control staphylococcal infections in future. (author)

  3. STUDIES ON MASTITIS AMONG DAIRY BUFFALOES

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Ahmad,

    2001-01-01

    A total of 2340 mammary glands of 585 primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffaloes in different stages of lactation were examined with California Mastitis Test ( CMT) and laboratory examination was carried out to identify the most prevalent micro-organisms in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. The physical examination revealed 2.61 per cent blind teats and CMT revealed 6.71 per cent positive quarters for mastitis. Microbiological examination of 157 sub-clinical mastitis milk samples and ...

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy Assessment of Sensititre and Agar Disk Diffusion for Determining Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bovine Clinical Mastitis Pathogens?

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, V; Riekerink, R. G. M. Olde; McClure, J T.; Barkema, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the accuracy and precision of a measuring instrument is pertinent in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This study was conducted to predict the diagnostic accuracy of the Sensititre MIC mastitis panel (Sensititre) and agar disk diffusion (ADD) method with reference to the manual broth microdilution test method for antimicrobial resistance profiling of Escherichia coli (n = 156), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 154), streptococcal (n = 116), and enterococcal (n = 31) bovine clinical ...

  5. Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in the united Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, J.E.; Green, M. J.; Bradley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis (CM) during lactation were investigated during a 12-mo longitudinal study on 8 commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy farms in the southwest of England. The individual risk factors studied on 1,677 cows included assessments of udder and leg hygiene, teat-end callosity, and hyperkeratosis; body condition score; and measurements of monthly milk quality and yield. Several outcome variables for CM were used for statisti...

  6. Supplementation to prevent subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    A.K.Upadhayay; Pritee Gangwar and Mahesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Effect of supplementation of Zinc, Copper and Levamisole on incidence of subclinical mastitis was studied. The level of zinc increases significantly after supplementation and 75% animals was recovered. However in copper supplemented animals (12) only two animals showed complete recovery. None of the animals in Zinc and Copper supplemented group developed clinical mastitis. In levamisole supplemented group, 50% cows remained in subclinical state while 50% converted in clinical mastitis. So, th...

  7. Lifetime risk and cost of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in relation to heifer rearing conditions in southwest Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, J; Svensson, C

    2009-07-01

    Relationships between heifer rearing conditions and the risk of veterinary-reported clinical mastitis (VRCM) during productive life were studied by generalized linear mixed modeling at the lactation level. Data consisted of 5,693 lactations in 2,126 Swedish Reds, Swedish Holsteins, or dairy cows of other or mixed breeds, representing all female animals born in 110 herds in southwest Sweden in 1998. During a lactation, a cow was defined as affected by VRCM if one or more cases were reported by a veterinarian, starting from 7 d precalving. The applied model of VRCM included effects of breed, parity, diarrhea between 3 and 7 mo of age, increase in body weight from weaning to first breeding, increase in daily concentrate ration before first calving, herd-level median age at first calving, cow housing, and random effects of cow and herd. The VRCM incidence was 14% in a given lactation, or 0.11 cases/cow annually; 31% of the cows had VRCM at least once during their productive life. Ninety percent of the variation in mastitis risk was due to factors at the lactation level such as parity, milk yield, cow diseases, and other disturbances, instead of cow or herd factors. Severe diarrhea between 3 and 7 mo of age was associated with 2.8-fold higher odds of VRCM compared with mild diarrhea during the same period, whereas the VRCM odds of calves with mild diarrhea were half that without diarrhea. The odds of VRCM had a predicted maximum at an estimated prepubertal growth rate of 859 g/d and increased with 10% for every 1-kg increase in concentrate ration during the last 2 mo before first calving. Costs of VRCM were estimated based on assumptions regarding veterinary service, extra labor, culling and herd replacement, discarded milk, and production loss depending on parity and lactation stage when VRCM was diagnosed. The total mean costs of VRCM were estimated to be $735 per lactation with a diagnosis of CM, $103 per lactation across all cows, or $95 per cow annually during lifetime. PMID:19528604

  8. Sub-acute mastitis associated with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a cow: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Chandrasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year old Holstein Friesian cross breed cow was presented to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history of reduced milk yield. Clinical examination of udder revealed normal milk color and soft udder. The milk pH was 7.0, with California Mastitis Test score 3+, Electrical Conductivity 270U, and Somatic Cell Count as 328,000. Isolation and identification of causative agent revealed Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from the sub-acute mastitis sample. Agar disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility revealed that the MRSA was sensitive to Enrofloxacin, Gentamicin, Oxytetracycline and Amoxicillin+Sulbactam. On the other hand, the isolate was resistance to Amoxicillin, Penicillin G, Ceftriaxone and Methicillin. The isolate was positive for ?-lactamase resistance by Nitrocefin test. The MRSA was confirmed for the presence of mecA and blaZ target genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The cow was treated with Enrofloxacin, Vitamin E and inorganic Selenium, and was recovered after 5 days of post-treatment.

  9. Revisiting QTL Affecting Clinical Mastitis by High-Density GWAS and Resequencing in the Finnish Ayrshire Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Iso-Touru, Terhi

    Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cattle, causing high economic losses each year. Studies to locate QTL affecting clinical mastitis and milk somatic cell counts have been carried out to increase our understanding of the disease. As part of the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we have used most recent genomic tools to characterize QTL affecting mastitis incidence in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Clinical mastitis diagnoses from -15 to 50 days and 51 to 300 days of first lactation and SCC (geometric mean of SCS observations between 5 to 170 days of first lactation) were included. In total, 1920 progeny tested bulls were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 chip. After quality control, 38473 SNPs were analyzed using a mixed linear model (software package DMU). Associations (5% Bonferroni threshold) were detected in 9 peaks on 5 chromosomes. A set of 238 of the bulls were re-genotyped with the BovineHD chip, and the remaining bulls imputed to high density genotypes using Beagle software. GWAS was repeated with the imputed HD-data with GRAMMAS (GenABEL in R). Thereby 17 peaks on 12 chromosomes were identified. Eight high priority peaks were defined based on both 50K and imputed HD results, and overlap with previous QTL findings. Eighteen ancestral Finnish Ayrshire bulls were sequenced to over 20X coverage, and this data was used to identify sequence variations in regions flanking 2.5 Mb each side of the high priority peaks. The variations were ranked according to estimated effect by a pipeline developed within the Quantomics project

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.

    2013-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently isolated from cases of subclinical bovine mastitis. Reported here is a draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, an isolate recovered from a chronic intramammary infection of a Holstein cow. Unexpectedly, a cluster of genes encoding gas vesicle proteins was found within the 2,755-kb genome. PMID:24336375

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.; Middleton, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently isolated from cases of subclinical bovine mastitis. Reported here is a draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, an isolate recovered from a chronic intramammary infection of a Holstein cow. Unexpectedly, a cluster of genes encoding gas vesicle proteins was found within the 2,755-kb genome.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus chromogenes Strain MU 970, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Pamela R.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Suntrup, Douglas G.; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.; Middleton, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococcal species are a common cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being one of the most frequently identified species in these cases. The draft genome sequence of an S. chromogenes isolate (MU 970) recovered from the milk of a cow with a chronic intramammary infection is reported here.

  13. Genome Sequences of Two Bovine Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Florent; Loux, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the main pathogenic agents causing inflammatory infections in the bovine udder. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two strains isolated from different cases of clinical mastitis. PMID:25858841

  14. Genome Sequences of Two Bovine Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Florent; Loux, Valentin; Germon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the main pathogenic agents causing inflammatory infections in the bovine udder. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two strains isolated from different cases of clinical mastitis.

  15. Genetic correlations between pathogen-specific mastitis and somatic cell count in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, L P; Mark, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations (ra) between 2 lactation average somatic cell count (LASCC) traits and 6 different mastitis traits in 226,482 first-parity Danish Holstein cows that calved between 1998 and 2008. The LASCC traits were defined from 5 to either 170 d (LASCC_170) or 300 d (LASCC_300) after calving, and the mastitis traits were unspecific mastitis (all mastitis treatments, both clinical and subclinical, regardless of the causative pathogen) and mastitis caused by either Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus uberis. Variance components were estimated using bivariate threshold-Gaussian models via Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of ra between LASCC_170 and the mastitis traits were greatest for unspecific mastitis (ra = 0.71), followed by CNS, Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and E. coli (ra = 0.54 to 0.69) and were lowest for Staph. aureus mastitis (ra = 0.44). The genetic correlation between LASCC_300 and the mastitis traits were generally smaller (ra = 0.47 to 0.69). Caution should be taken when interpreting the results, however, because some posterior density intervals for ra were large (between 0.14 and 0.47 units). Phenotypically, Staph. aureus is known to be associated with high SCC and especially with subclinical mastitis through chronic infections, so the low ra between Staph. aureus mastitis and LASCC, compared with ra for the other pathogens, was not expected. Subclinical cases are usually submitted to dry cow therapy (not included in the present study), not treated at all, or wrongly recorded as clinical cases. Thus, the incidence of Staph. aureus mastitis is likely too low, and the genetic correlation between Staph. aureus mastitis and LASCC may therefore be underestimated in the present study. The results for the remaining pathogens were as expected, smallest for E. coli and larger but similar for Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and CNS. Selection for lower LASCC is expected to decrease the incidence of pathogen-specific mastitis, especially for Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and CNS and, to a lesser extent, for Staph. aureus and E. coli. Data recording should preferably be improved, and economic weights for the pathogen-specific mastitis traits should be estimated before implementing an udder health index that includes pathogen-specific mastitis traits

  16. Profile of patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis presenting to a university teaching hospital in UAE: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manda Venkatramana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the profile of five patients diagnosed as having idiopathic granulomatous mastitis by histopathological examination. Materials and Methods: This presentation is a case series of patients, diagnosed as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis by histopathological examination of excised specimens. The total number of cases included in the report was five females over a 4-year period from 2005 to 2009. Results: The mean age of the patients was 29.6 years and the duration of symptoms varied from 3 weeks to 4 months. All the patients presented with a palpable mass in the breast, and two patients had associated pain and one had a bloody nipple discharge. The average size of the excised mass was 3.8 × 3.1 cm. Four out of the five patients diagnosed to have breast abscess or segmental mastitis had taken a course of antibiotics. One patient had a persistent wound sinus which subsided with ATT and the rest of the patients had no post-operative complications. Conclusion: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a relatively rare disease which mimics the common breast disorders in the reproductive age group including malignancy

  17. Correlation of hypothetical virulence traits of two Streptococcus uberis strains with the clinical manifestation of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Riccardo; McNeilly, Tom N; Sipka, Anja; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. Several virulence mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the species' ability to cause disease. Here, virulence characteristics were compared between S. uberis strains FSL Z1-048, which consistently caused clinical mastitis in a challenge model, and FSL Z1-124, which consistently failed to cause disease in the same model, to ascertain whether in vitro virulence characteristics were related to clinical outcome. Macrophages derived from bovine blood monocytes failed to kill FSL Z1-048 whilst reducing survival of FSL Z1-124 by 42.5%. Conversely, blood derived polymorphonuclear cells caused more reduction (67.1 vs. 44.2%, respectively) in the survival of FSL Z1-048 than in survival of FSL Z1-124. After 3 h of coincubation with bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1, 1000-fold higher adherence was observed for FSL Z1-048 compared to FSL Z1-124, despite presence of a frame shift mutation in the sua gene of FSL Z1-048 that resulted in predicted truncation of the S. uberis Adhesion Molecule (SUAM) protein. In contrast, FSL Z1-124 showed higher ability than FSL Z1-048 to invade BME-UV1 cells. Finally, observed biofilm formation by FSL Z1-124 was significantly greater than for FSL Z1-048. In summary, for several hypothetical virulence characteristics, virulence phenotype in vitro did not match disease phenotype in vivo. Evasion of macrophage killing and adhesion to mammary epithelial cells were the only in vitro traits associated with virulence in vivo, making them attractive targets for further research into pathogenesis and control of S. uberis mastitis. PMID:26497306

  18. A case of Panton–Valentine leucocidin toxin?positive Staphylococcus aureus?mediated neonatal mastitis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Connor, Ciara

    2014-09-01

    Introduction: Neonatal mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast frequently associated with Staphylococcus aureus. While Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL), a B?pore?forming cytotoxin, is commonly associated with enhanced virulence in community?acquired methicillin?resistant S. aureus isolates, this is the first report to our knowledge of neonatal mastitis caused by PVL?positive S. aureus.\\r\

  19. Oleogranulomatous Mastitis: A Topical Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoch, Vaneesa; Bodin, Frederic; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine; Wilk, Astride; Mathelin, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Paraffin and petrolatum have been known for more than 100 years as volumizing products. Certain countries still use them despite important complications. The authors report the case of a 39-year-old patient presenting a bilateral oleogranulomatous mastitis. An injection of petrolatum had been realized 2 years ago in Chechnya for cosmetic reasons. Clinically, she presented dense, erythemic, and painful breasts. The radiological examination found diffuse oily cysts. After first abdominal expansion, a bilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction was performed. The authors present a literature review about the clinical and radiological data and the possible treatments, and underline the numerous risks of this procedure, which should be strictly forbidden. PMID:26579342

  20. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Alibeigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

  1. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azizollah Ebrahimi; Azar Moatamedi; Sharareh Lotfalian; Pejhman Mirshokraei

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were bio...

  2. Imaging features of tuberculous mastitis : Comparison with non-tuberculous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Mi Sook; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Kim, Young Mook; Lee, Myung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included.

  3. Imaging features of tuberculous mastitis : Comparison with non-tuberculous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium bovis DSM 20582, Which Causes Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Jasmin; Glaub, Alina; Schneider, Jessica; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bovine mastitis represents the most economically important disease in dairy cows and can be caused by Corynebacterium bovis, a commensal in the bovine udder. The draft genome sequence provides insights into the adaptation of this bacterium to the bovine habitat and its lipolytic capabilities to utilize components of cow's milk.

  5. Genome-wide association study using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequences for clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions.

  6. The effect of repeated episodes of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis on mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, E; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a first and repeated cases of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis (CM) on the risk of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. The pathogens studied were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Trueperella pyogenes, others, and no growth on aerobic culture. A total of 50,166 lactations were analyzed from 5 large, high-milk-producing dairy herds in New York State from 2003/2004 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of parity, month of lactation, CM, calving diseases, pregnancy status, current season, and economic values on the risk of mortality and culling. Among first-lactation cows, the presence of a first CM case generally exposed cows to a greater risk of mortality in the current month (compared with the absence of a first case). This was especially acute with a first case of Klebsiella spp., where cows were 4.5 times more at risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-7.6] of mortality, and with a first case of E. coli were 3.3 times more at risk (95% CI: 2.5-4.5). In first-parity cows, the risk of culling generally increased with a case of bacteria-specific CM. This was observed among cows with a first case of T. pyogenes [relative risk=10.4 (95% CI: 8.4-12.8)], a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=6.7 (95% CI: 5.5-8.1)], a first case of Staph. aureus [relative risk=4.8 (95% CI: 2.7-8.4)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.6)], and a third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=5.0 (95% CI: 3.1-8.0)]. In general, the presence of a first or second/third case resulted in cows in parity ?2 with a greater risk of mortality. This was greatest for cows with a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.3)], followed by a second/third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.2 (95% CI: 2.5-4.0)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.0 (95% CI: 2.7-3.3)], and a first case of other CM [relative risk=1.8 (95% CI: 1.6-2.0)]. Among cows of parity ?2, the risk of culling was greater for cows as they progressed through lactations [i.e., cows in parity 4+ were 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0-2.2) times more likely to be culled compared with cows in lactation 2 (the baseline)]. The risk of culling dependent on the cow's characteristics can be easily calculated from the parameter estimates in the provided tables. PMID:23769361

  7. A comparative study on the blood and milk cell counts of healthy, subclinical and clinical mastitis Karan Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanned Alhussien

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to study the use of cell counts as an early indicator of mammary health. Materials and Methods: Milk and blood cell counts were estimated from 8 healthy, 8 subclinical (SCM, and 8 clinically mastitis (CM groups of Karan Fries (KF cows. Results: Total leucocyte counts and neutrophil percent in blood and milk somatic cells and milk neutrophil percent of healthy cows increased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM cows and CM cows. Viability of blood and milk neutrophils was more in healthy cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM and CM cows. Significant (p<0.05 decrease were also observed in both the blood and milk lymphocytes and monocytes of SCM and CM cows. Phagocytic activity (PA of blood neutrophils also decreased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM cows. There was no difference between the PA of SCM and CM cows. Milk neutrophil percent was more in the SCM and clinically infected milk than in the blood of these cows. About 96-97% of the neutrophils had segmented nucleus in both healthy and subclinical milk, whereas, 2-3% were having band shaped or immature nuclei. There was a significant decrease in the segmented neutrophils, whereas, band neutrophils increase significantly to about 5% in the infected milk of mastitic cows. Viability of the milk neutrophils decreased more in case of subclinical and clinical milk as compared to that of blood. PA was found to be highest in the milk of healthy group of cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05 in subclinically infected cows. However, there was no difference between the PA of milk neutrophils of SCM and CM cows. PA of milk was also found to be significantly lower in the milk of healthy cows when compared to that of blood neutrophils. Conclusion: This study indicated that percent neutrophils and their type in conjunction with milk somatic cell counts can be used as a more reliable indicator of mammary health in cows.

  8. Risk factors for the occurrence of new and chronic cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, L L; Thaler Neto, A; Souza, G N; Picinin, L C A; Felipus, N C; Reche, N L M; Schmidt, F A; Werncke, D; Simon, E E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the risk factors for new and chronic subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) using the monthly somatic cells count of dairy cows. The study took place at 30 dairy herds with approximately 1,700 cows in lactation. Data characterizing the dairy farms and their milking management were obtained from a survey questionnaire. The somatic cells count values from 2 consecutive months were used to classify cows as either healthy or with new or chronic infections. A chi-squared test was used in the analysis of subclinical IMI to evaluate associations between each independent variable, followed by logistic regression to estimate the risk of a new infection in healthy cows and of chronic infection in cows with new infections. Factors increasing the odds ratio of a cow developing a new case of subclinical mastitis were (1) cows with more than 3 lactations, (2) cows with a mean hyperkeratosis score above 3, (3) cows with the udder below the hock, (4) cows with very dirty udders, and (5) milking of infected animals before healthy cows. Factors increasing the risk of a subclinical chronic infection compared with new cases of subclinical mastitis were (1) a lack of regular maintenance of milking machinery, (2) cows over 100 d in lactation, and (3) cows with the udder on or below the hock. The risk factors identified in this study can be used in IMI control programs to reduce the frequency of new and chronic cases of subclinical mastitis. PMID:26298754

  9. Clinical Case Registries (CCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Clinical Case Registries (CCR) replaced the former Immunology Case Registry and the Hepatitis C Case Registry with local and national databases. The CCR:HIV and...

  10. Nordic veterinarians' threshold for medical treatment of dairy cows, influence on disease recording and medicine use : Mild clinical mastitis as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espetvedt, Mari N.; Rintakoski, Simo

    2013-01-01

    National databases for dairy cows in the four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have been found to capture varying proportions of disease events on farm. A variation in the thresholds of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment may be a reason for this. Studying these thresholds may increase the understanding of prudent use of antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic veterinarians, on a between country-level, vary in their intention to start medical treatment of a dairy cow with mild clinical mastitis, on the same day as making the diagnosis. The threshold for initiating treatment was quantified as an intention score. Secondary, underlying behavioural components of the intention score was studied within each country. A social psychology model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), was used to design a questionnaire that was distributed to 1047 veterinarians in cattle practice in the four countries during autumn 2010. The response rate was around 50% in all the countries, and 543 observations were retained for analysis. The between-country differences in intention were tested with one-way analysis of variance. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the proportion of variability in intention explained by the three behavioural components, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The Spearman rank correlations between specific beliefs about the behaviour and intention scores were estimated to find beliefs of high influence on the decision to treat or not. Intention scores differed between all countries (p <0.05) except between NO and SE (p = 0.06). The mean intention scores were 0.71, 0.42, 0.58 and 0.50 in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. As measured by the adjusted R-2 in linear regression models, the underlying behavioural components of the TPB explained 0.37, 0.41, 0.40 and 0.48 of the variation in intention scores in OK, Fl, NO and SE, respectively. Attitude was the most important predictor in DK, NO and SE, but perceived behavioural control was most important in Fl. In all countries the specific attitude belief of highest influence was that starting treatment the same day as diagnosing a case of mild clinical mastitis gives the best result, compared to delaying treatment. The varying intentions of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment are likely to influence centrally registered mastitis incidence. This study has given an improved understanding of this behaviour, which may be useful in intervention studies or campaigns aiming at prudent use of antibiotics on dairy farms. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Difference in virulence between Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing gangrenous mastitis versus subclinical mastitis in a dairy sheep flock

    OpenAIRE

    Vautor, Eric; Cockfield, Joshua; Le Marechal, Caroline; Le Loir, Yves; Chevalier, Marlène; Robinson, D.; Thiery, Richard; Lindsay, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy sheep ranges from subclinical mastitis to lethal gangrenous mastitis. Neither the S. aureus virulence factors nor the host-factors or the epidemiological events contributing to the different outcomes are known. In a field study in a dairy sheep farm over 21 months, 16 natural isolates of S. aureus were collected from six subclinical mastitis cases, one lethal gangrenous mastitis case, nasal carriage from eight ewes and one isolate from ambient air in th...

  12. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  13. Mammographic features of isolated tuberculous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To present the mammography findings in 8 patients with tuberculosis (TB) of the breast, with a review of the literature. This study is a retrospective data collection. Each chart with confirmed breast TB based on bacteriology or pathologic findings was analyzed for clinical presentation, gender, nationality, demographic data, prior history of TB, investigation, management, mammographic findings and ultrasound, when available. Mammograms were reviewed by 2 consultant radiologists without knowing the previous diagnosis or the nature of the study. The study was carried out at The State Tuberculosis Registry and Radiology Department, Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar, from 1990 to 2002. Out of 13 females with TB mastitis, only 8 cases had mammograms preoperatively. The incidence of breast TB in Qatar is rare (1/1000 mammograms per year). Three types of TB mastitis were identified in our study; the nodular (50%), the diffuse (37.5%) of which 77% were limited to one sector of the breast and the sclerosing (12.5%) mastitis. Three patients (43%) were reported as carcinoma. Although mammography identified 3 types of TB, it was not helpful in differentiating TB from carcinoma of the breast. However, the careful evaluation of the degree of density and trabecular thickening of the mass in relation to it size might reduce the number of false positive cases of carcinoma diagnosed with mammograms. Biopsy specimen remains the best diagnostic tool in TB mastitis. (author)

  14. [Breast cancer treated by antibiotherapy? Granulomatous mastitis with Corynebacterium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, J; Grignon, Y; Gallon, F

    2015-09-01

    Granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease, often associated with Corynebacterium infection. It raises the problem of diagnosis of breast tumor with a fast evolution and inflammatory character. We report two cases of granulomatous mastitis with Corynebacterium. It concerns the clinical and radiological description, followed by the therapeutic alternatives and future of the patients. The clinical presentation is variable. The treatment consists in a surgical procedure of resection. The medical treatment based of corticosteroids also proves efficient. The association between Corynebacterium presence and this pathology seems frequent and needs a specific bacteriological search. PMID:25721346

  15. Fator necrosante citotóxico em Escherichia coli isolada de mastite clínica bovina Cytotoxic necrotizing factor in Escherichia coli strain isolated from clinical bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, M.G.; E. O. Costa; D.S. Leite; Ferreira, A. J. P.; Silva, A. S.; H.H.M. Della Colleta

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the production of cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF) by an Escherichia coli strain isolated from clinical bovine mastitis with clinical signs of toxemia The animal had hemorrhages and necrosis of the mammary glands, and died within 24 hours after the onset of clinical signs. In addition to CNF identification, alpha-haemolysin and siderophores production were also characterized in this strain. This report reinforce the association of CNF and alpha-haemolysin production in...

  16. Supplementation to prevent subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Upadhayay

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of supplementation of Zinc, Copper and Levamisole on incidence of subclinical mastitis was studied. The level of zinc increases significantly after supplementation and 75% animals was recovered. However in copper supplemented animals (12 only two animals showed complete recovery. None of the animals in Zinc and Copper supplemented group developed clinical mastitis. In levamisole supplemented group, 50% cows remained in subclinical state while 50% converted in clinical mastitis. So, the zinc supplementation is better over other two supplementation [Veterinary World 2008; 1(2.000: 40-41

  17. The magnetic resonance image findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rare disease of breast. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year old female patient with the diagnosis, concentrating on magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and its clinical application. There have been other reports on MRI findings in this entity in the radiological literature, but in our case report clinical, cytological, pathological and radiological correlations are also provided. (author)

  18. Fatores de risco, etiologia e aspectos clínicos da mastite em ovelhas de corte no Paraná / Risk factors, etiology and clinical aspects of mastitis in meat ewes of Parana, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscilla F. V., Pereira; Erika S., Stotzer; Lucienne G., Pretto-Giordano; Ernst E., Müller; Júlio A. N., Lisbôa.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mastite em ovelhas da raça Santa Inês apresenta-se como um problema de grande proporção e gravidade e é dificilmente tratada com sucesso. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e etiológicos da mastite clínica em ovelhas de corte criadas no norte do Paraná. O p [...] resente estudo foi realizado entre os meses de outubro de 2009 a setembro de 2010 envolvendo 54 rebanhos de ovinos de corte de diferentes raças. Durante as visitas às propriedades, um questionário foi preenchido com a finalidade de caracterizar o problema. Setenta ovelhas com mastite clínica foram examinadas e amostras de secreção láctea foram colhidas para exame microbiológico. A mastite foi considerada um problema relevante em 39 propriedades (72,3%), com frequência média de 6,74%. Casos crônicos e agudos de mastite foram observados em 69% e 31% das ovelhas examinadas, respectivamente. Em ambos os casos, a mastite flegmonosa foi a forma mais encontrada (65,5% dos casos). O agente etiológico mais prevalente foi Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (54,5%), seguido por S. aureus e A. pyogenes (11,5% cada). Mannheimia haemolytica foi isolada em dois casos. Sistema de criação não extensivo e raça Santa Inês foram identificados como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de mastite clínica. Secagem das fêmeas após 120 dias de lactação e separação de fêmeas doentes do rebanho foram associadas com menor ocorrência da doença. Recomenda-se a limpeza adequada das instalações e a secagem mais tardia, principalmente em rebanhos Santa Inês. Abstract in english Mastits is infrequent in meat ewes. However Santa Ines ewes have a high incidence of this disease and it is severe and difficult to treat. The goal of this study was to characterize clinical, epidemiological and etiological aspects of clinical mastitis in meat ewes reared in the north of Parana, Bra [...] zil. Fifith four farms were visited from October 2009 to September 2010. The surveyed data included frequency, breeds of sheep affected, lamb mortality rates, main clinical signs, attempts and outcome of treatment, method and period of weaning and management features. Seventy ewes with clinical mastitis were fully examinated and samples of mammary secretion were asseptically taken for bacteriological culture. Mastitis was identified in 39 farms (72.3%) as a relevant problem (mean frequency was 6,74%). Chronic and acute mastitis were observed in 69% and 31% of the examinated ewes, respectively. In both cases, phlegmonous mastitis was the most prevalent form (65.5%). Coagulase negative Staphylococccus (CNS) was the main isolated microorganism (54.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (11.5%, each one). Mannheimia haemolytica was found in two cases. The risk factors for clinical mastitis were intensive management system and Santa Ines breed. Weaning after 120 days of lactation and isolation of affected ewes were associated with lower frequency of mastitis. Preventive measures recommended are daily cleaning of facilities and delayed weaning, mainly in Santa Ines flocks.

  19. Primary tubercular mastitis masquerading as malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Prathima, S; Kalyani, R.; Parimala, S.

    2014-01-01

    The significance of primary tubercular mastitis is due to rare occurrence and often overlooked and misdiagnosed as pyogenic breast abscess or malignancy. Despite the high incidence of tuberculosis in India, reports of breast tuberculosis among the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.64% and 3.59%. We report a case of a 35-year-old lady with breast lump of 3 months duration, which simulated malignancy on clinical examination but fine needle aspiration cytology revealed granulom...

  20. Eosinophilic mastitis masquerading as breast carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, M; Kumar, S.; Neogi, S

    2012-01-01

    We report the sixth case of Eosinophilic Mastitis, presenting similarly enough to be confused with breast carcinoma. A 50 year old lady presented with a six month history of progressively enlarging asymptomatic breast lump, cough and breathlessness. Clinical examination, mammography and axillary lymphadenopathy suggested malignant disease. Ronchi were heard on chest auscultation. Needle cytology was twice inconclusive and Tru-cut biopsy showed acute on chronic inflammation. Blood investigatio...

  1. Recurrent granulomatous mastitis mimicking inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ergin, Ahmet Bahadir; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Daw, Hamed; Tahan, Gulgun; GONG, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon benign breast lesion. Diagnosis is a matter of exclusion from other inflammatory, infectious and granulomatous aetiologies. Here, we presented an atypical GM case, which had clinical and radiologic features overlapping with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The disease had multiple recurrences. The patient is a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with a sudden onset of left breast swelling accompanied by diffuse skin redness, especially of the subareolar reg...

  2. Bilateral tubercular mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Surya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis. Moreover the disease is often overlooked and misdiagnosed as carcinoma or pyogenic abscess. Reports on breast tuberculosis from India have been few; reported incidence of breast tuberculosis amongst the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.64 and 3.59 per cent. Bilateral involvement is still more uncommon (3%. Most accepted view for spread of infection is centripetal lymphatic spread as axillary node involvement was shown to occur in 50 to 75 per cent of cases of tubercular mastitis. Here we re-port a case of a young female who presented with draining sinuses in the breast and no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of breast lump showed evidence of granulomatous mastitis. She was given therapeutic trial of four drug antitubercular treatment. Both the lump disappeared and sinus healed after six months of antitubercular treatment. Thus a retrospective diagnosis of tu-bercular mastitis was made.

  3. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih ALTINTOPRAK; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a che...

  4. The association between farmers’ participation in herd health programmes and their behaviour concerning treatment of mild clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Ann-Kristina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Denmark, it has recently become mandatory for all dairy farmers with more than 100 cows to sign up for a herd health programme. Three herd health programmes are available. These differ in a number of aspects, including the frequency of veterinary visits and the farmer’s access to prescription drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy farmers’ behavioural intentions, i.e. to call a veterinarian or start medical treatment on the day that they detect a cow with mild clinical mastitis (MCM, are different depending on the type of herd health programme. Methods A questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was conducted. TPB proposes that a person’s behavioural intention is strongly correlated with his or her actual behaviour. Three behavioural factors determine the behavioural intention: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Each of these factors is decided by a set of beliefs, each of which in turn is weighted by an evaluation: 1 the expected outcomes of performing the behaviour, 2 what a person believes that others think of the behaviour, and 3 the person’s perceived power to influence the behaviour. A set of statements about the treatment of MCM based on interviews with 38 dairy farmers were identified initially. The statements were rephrased as questions and the resulting questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly selected Danish dairy farmers who use the two most restrictive herd health programmes, either Core or Module1, and to all 669 farmers with the least restrictive herd health programme, Module2. The association between intention and the herd health programme was modelled using logistic regression. Results The farmers with the Module2 herd health programme had a significantly higher behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, when compared to farmers with a more restrictive herd health programme (OR = 2.1, p Conclusion Danish dairy farmers who participate in Module2 herd health programme had a higher intention to treat cases of MCM, compared to farmers who participate in a more restrictive herd health programme in which the veterinarian initiates treatments.

  5. EFICACIA ANTIBACTERIANA DE EXTRACTOS DE PLANTAS: APLICACIÓN CLÍNICA EN MASTITIS BOVINA / ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF PLANT EXTRACTS: CLINICAL APPLICATION IN BOVINE MASTITIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco, Leal.

    2014-06-30

    Full Text Available La mastitis en los bovinos es una enfermedad que afecta la calidad y la cantidad de la leche, teniendo un impacto directo sobre la salud pública. Muchos tratamientos han sido utilizados, con el fin de disminuir la inflamación y la infección, causados por este problema; sin embargo, la utilización de [...] casi todos los fármacos conlleva a residuos en la leche. Se evaluaron extractos fitoterapéuticos, con capacidad antibacteriana reportada, contra tres bacterias causantes de mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae y Escherichia coli. Los extractos empleados fueron obtenidos de Thymus vulgaris, Calendula officinalis y Salvia officinalis. Los hallazgos in vitro revelaron efecto bactericida con C. officinalis, en diluciones ½, ¼ y 1:8, en comparación con un efecto bactericida de los otros extractos, en las dos primeras diluciones. Con el grupo control con vehículo de propilenglicol, se obtuvo un menor efecto bactericida. Con base en los efectos in vitro, se intentó disminuir las células somáticas en bovinos con mastitis diagnosticada. Los resultados en los grupos tratados fueron en promedio un 23% de tasa de curación de los cuartos infectados. Se obtuvieron reacciones adversas en el 60% de los cuartos tratados. Con lo anterior, se concluyó que, a pesar de existir un comportamiento bactericida in vitro, no se puede asegurar que se obtendrán resultados antiinflamatorios en la glándula mamaria y que las reacciones adversas a la mezcla de extractos se deben más al uso per se de los extractos que al vehículo, tomando en cuenta que el propilenglicol es un vehículo común de preparaciones farmacéuticas tópicas y parenterales. Abstract in english Mastitis in cattle is a disease that affects the quality and quantity of milk, having a direct impact on public health. Many treatments have been used to reduce inflammation and infection caused by this problem. However, the use of almost all drugs needs a withdrawal time. Using herbal extracts with [...] reported antibacterial capacity, were used against three common mastitis-causing bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli. Extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Calendula officinalis and Salvia officinalis were evaluated. In vitro findings revealed bactericidal effect in all dilutions of C. officinalis ½, ¼ and 1:8, as compared with the bactericidal effect of other extracts in the first two dilutions. Control group using propylene glycol demonstrated lower bactericidal effect. Based on these in vitro effects minimization of somatic cell count in bovine mastitis was attempted. The results in the treated groups were of an average of 23% cure rate of infected quarters. Adverse reactions were obtained in 60% of treated quarters. With the above it was conclude that the behavior of the extracts in vitro and in vivo is different. Adverse reactions to the mixture of extracts apparently were not due to the vehicle, taking into account that propylene glycol is a common vehicle for topical and parenteral pharmaceutical preparations.

  6. The environmental impact of mastitis: a case study of dairy herds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hospido, Almudena [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: ahospido@usc.es; Sonesson, Ulf [Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK), PO Box 5401, SE-402 29 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector.

  7. The environmental impact of mastitis: a case study of dairy herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector

  8. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Ozturk; Murat Akin; Mehmet F. Can; Ismail Ozerhan; Bulent Kurt; Gokhan Yagci; Turgut Tufan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To discuss the clinical and radiological features and treatment approaches in 14 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (GM). METHODS We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings, and treatment approaches in 14 patients with idiopathic GM in the General Surgery Department, Gulhane School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between April 2000 and June 2006. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 34.5 years (range 27-41 years)....

  9. Mouse model of plasma cell mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Jian-jun; Bao Shan-lin; Yu Sheng-lin; Zhang Da-Qing; Loo Wings TY; Chow Louis WC; Su Li; Cui Zhen; Chen Kai; Ma Li-Qiong; Zhang Ning; Yu Hui; Yang Yun-Zhen; Dong Yu; Yip Adrian YS

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasma cell mastitis is distinct from the common form of mastitis and clinically resembles breast carcinoma. The lesion occurs in non-lactating young women, and the incidence rate is rising. Surgical resection is the main treatment, but cannot prevent recurrence of the disease. Disfigurement or removal of breast after the operations can cause marked physical and psychological distress. The etiology of plasma cell mastitis is unclear up till now. It is therefore necessary t...

  10. Radiodiagnostic aspects of non-puerperal mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overhagen, H. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Lameris, J.S.

    1988-09-01

    The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients.

  11. Periductal mastitis in a male breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Jung Im; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Woo Chan; Hahn, Seong Tai [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination.

  12. Radiodiagnostic aspects of non-puerperal mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients. (orig.)

  13. Periductal mastitis in a male breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination

  14. Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep. PMID:23178047

  15. Bovine mastitis therapy and why it fails : continuing education

    OpenAIRE

    J.H. Du Preez

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of bovine mastitis depends on the cause, the clinical manifestation and the antibiotic susceptibility of the agent. Mastitis therapy is commonly unsuccessful owing to pathological changes that occur in the udder parenchyma as a result of the inflammatory reaction to mastitogenic bacteria, pharmacokinetic properties of antimicrobial mastitis drugs, mastitogenic bacterial and related factors, and poor animal husbandry and veterinary interventions.

  16. Sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Savannah Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu Aminu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical mastitis limits milk production and represents an important barrier to profitable livestock economics worldwide. Milk production from cows in Nigeria is not at optimum levels in view of many factors including sub-clinical mastitis. Results The overall herd-level prevalence rate for SCM was 85.33% (256/300 heads of cows while the quarter-level prevalence rate of SCM was 43.25% (519/1,200 quarters. The prevalence of SCM was 50.67%, 43.67%, 39.67% and 39.13% for the left fore-quarter, right hind-quarter, left hind-quarter and right fore-quarter, respectively. The Rahaji breed had the highest prevalence of SCM with 65.91% (29/44, while the White Fulani breed had the least with 32.39% (57/176. A total of 32.33% (97/300 had only one mammary quarter affected, 30.33% (91/300 had two quarters affected, 16.00% (48/300 had three quarters affected while 6.67% (20/300 had all the four quarters affected. A total of 53.00% had SCM in multiple quarters (159/300. The risk of SCM decreased significantly among young lactating cows compared to older animals (OR?=?0.283; P?P?=?0.013; 95% CI?=?1.557; 43.226. Improved sanitation (washing hands before milking will decrease the risk of SCM (OR?=?0.173; P?=?0.003; 95% CI?=?0.054; 0.554. Conclusion SCM is prevalent among lactating cows in the Nigerian Savannah; and this is associated with both animal characteristics (age, breed and individual milk quarters and milking practices (hand washing.Good knowledge of the environment and careful management of the identified risk factors with improved sanitation should assist farm managers and veterinarians in implementing preventative programmes to reduce the incidence of SCM.

  17. Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae?

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Júlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude

    2008-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates ...

  18. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis. PMID:25908141

  19. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis.

  20. Arcanobacterium pluranimalium leading to a bovine mastitis: species identification by a newly developed pla gene based PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, A; Stephan, R.; Sager, J; Corti, S.; Lehner, A

    2013-01-01

    We are describing a clinical case of bovine mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pluranimalium in a Holstein-Friesian heifer, delivering bloody milk on the left hindquarter. Moreover, we report on the development and evaluation of PCR primers based on the pluranimaliumlysin (pla) gene for the identification of this species. With the primer pair PlaF/PlaR the A. pluranimalium type strain as well as the mastitis isolate 704 revealed a correctly sized amplification product (458 bp), whereas no amplif...

  1. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: rare but important

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, M. J.; A. Rogers; Vidya, R

    2010-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman attended the breast clinic with unresolving mastitis and an associated mass, following failed treatment with antibiotics. Triple assessment confirmed idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Unresponsive to further conservative management and steroid therapy, she underwent surgical excision and made uneventful recovery. No evidence of recurrence was detected at 18 months follow-up.

  2. Tubercular Mastitis - A Great Masquerader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia GON

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubercular mastitis is a rare clinical entity as mammary gland tissue, like spleen and skeletal muscle, offers resistance to the survival and multiplication of the tubercle bacillus. Tuberculosis of the breast can mimic carcinoma, whereas in young patients it can be mistaken for a pyogenic breast abscess, thus labeled a “great masquerader” in recognition of its multifaceted presentation. Breast tuberculosis commonly affects women in the reproductive age group, between 21 and 30 years, and is rare in prepubescent females and elderly women. Fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful and it is a promising technique in expert hands. In tuberculosis-endemic countries, the finding of granuloma on fine needle aspiration cytology warrants empirical treatment for tuberculosis even in the absence of positive acid-fast bacilli and without culture results. We hereby report a case of tubercular mastitis in a post-menopausal seronegative female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology with a positive acid-fast bacilli and a review of the recent literature.

  3. PERINATAL LEUKODYSTROPHY CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mihut

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the authors want to present a case of a premature newborn who presented an extremely rare disease for medical practice. Low prevalence of the perinatal leukodystrophy, the difficulty of the clinical diagnosis and the echography resemblance with other diseases of the periventricular white matter is the subjects of this presentation.

  4. Mastitis diagnosis in dairy goats through somatic cell counts and Californian Mastitis Test. Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Álvaro; Valentim, Ramiro; Nunes, Manuel; Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Trigo, Margarida; Maurício, Raimundo; Costa, Cristina; Coelho, Alípio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate somatic cell count (SCC) and Californian mastitis test (CMT) reliability as methods to survey mastitis in Serrana goats. Microbiological diagnosis, SCC and CTM were performed on 2028 samples, collected from individual goat glands during a lactation period. According to results CMT (predictive negative value = 69.5%) may be used as a cheap and practical method for sub clinical mastitis survey in Serrana goats. Decision on SCC use will depend on additional r...

  5. Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kudinha

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %, followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 % and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1 %, whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2 % and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2 % the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 % of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95 % of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9 %, S. epidermidis (7.4 % and S. hominis (5.9 %. They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90 %of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6 %, followed by lincomycin (13.7 %. About 8 % of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.

  6. Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rubén N; Wilson, David J

    2003-03-01

    Mycoplasmal bovine mastitis is potentially a highly contagious disease that can cause severe economic problems in affected herds. The purchase of replacement heifers and cows are frequently the origin of mycoplasmal mastitis outbreaks in previously Mycoplasma-free herds. Purchased cows and heifers should be quarantined and tested for mycoplasmal mastitis before admission to the regular herd. Detection of Mycoplasma-infected cows by culture of milk is straightforward, although there are problems of sensitivity for its detection in milk samples that are inherent to the nature of the disease and laboratory procedures. After detection of infected cows, the best way to protect the herd is to culture all cows in the herd, cows with clinical mastitis, and all heifers and cows after calving and before entering the milking herd. Control of mycoplasmal mastitis requires test and culling from the herd of Mycoplasma-positive cows if possible. When a large number of cows are infected, strict segregation with adequate management is an option; however, animals in this group should never re-enter the Mycoplama-free herd. The functioning of the milking equipment and milking procedures should be evaluated carefully and any flaws corrected. There is no treatment for mycoplasmal mastitis, and vaccination has not proven to be efficacious to prevent, decrease the incidence, or ameliorate the clinical signs of mycoplasmal mastitis. Waste milk should not be fed to calves without pasteurization. M bovis may cause several other pathologies in animals of different ages on a farm, including pneumonia, arthritis, and ear infections. The survival of mycoplasmas in different farm microenvironments needs to be further investigated for its impact on the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:12682943

  7. Vaccines against bovine mastitis in the New Zealand context: what is the best way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Wedlock, D N; Lacy-Hulbert, S J; Hillerton, J E; Buddle, B M

    2009-06-01

    Mastitis is an important animal health disease which constitutes a serious problem for the dairy industry in New Zealand. Mastitis reduces milk yield and quality, necessitates the use of antibiotic therapy, with associated risks of contaminating the raw milk supply, and imposes a serious economic burden, currently estimated at NZ$300 million per year. Mastitis is caused by a variety of infectious agents. In the New Zealand context, with cattle grazing on pasture, Streptococcus uberis is a major bacterial pathogen, responsible for a significant proportion of clinical cases, especially during early lactation and the dry period. Other pathogens of significance include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Escherichia coli, as well as so-called 'minor pathogens', namely coagulase-negative staphylococci(CNS). Current strategies aimed at reducing cases of mastitis include improved hygiene in the farm environment, particularly with regards to the health and cleanliness of teats. Once mastitis occurs, antibiotic therapy is a favoured option, and as a prophylactic tool, in the form of dry-cow therapy, has also shown value. Prevention of mastitis using immunological tools such as vaccines lags behind the major vaccine breakthroughs that have been achieved in preventing and/or reducing the severity of numerous infectious diseases in animals. In this review, the current state of research in the area of development of vaccines against mastitis is summarised, with particular emphasis on bacteria important to the dairy farming industry in New Zealand. Few, if any, effective vaccines have been designed to prevent or mitigate intramammary infections. It is argued that novel approaches must be considered to search for vaccine candidates, and vaccines need to be designed and constructed within the special framework of their uses, in the mammary gland which offers a unique immunological environment. In addition, effective vaccines against mastitis due to Strep. uberis may be more likely to emerge from strategies that target the cell-mediated arm of the immune response rather than strategies that target specific antibody responses. PMID:19521461

  8. Comparison of a commercialized phenotyping system, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and tuf gene sequence-based genotyping for species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cases of bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Capurro, A.; Artursson, K; Waller, K Persson; BENGTSSON;, B.; Ericsson-Unnerstad, H.; Aspán, A

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of a commercialized phenotyping system, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and tuf gene sequence-based genotyping for species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cases of bovine mastitis

  9. Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions

  10. Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.

  11. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Østergaard, SØren

    2010-01-01

    The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted bulk tank SCC exceeded 220 000, 200 000 or 180 000 cells/ml, and on cow-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted SCC in an individual cow's milk exceeded 1 000 000, 750 000 or 500 000 cells/ml. The accuracy with which SCC was measured and predicted was assumed to affect the profitability of withdrawing milk with high SCC and this was investigated by applying high, low or no uncertainty to true SCC. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis was estimated at €8235, assuming that the initial incidence of mastitis could be reduced by 50%. This cost corresponded to 5% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk withdrawal that was not offset by a sufficient increase in the average price per delivered kg milk. It had the most negative impact on net return when high incidence of mastitis was simulated. Withdrawing milk with high SCC based on low-uncertainty information reduced the amount of withdrawn milk and thus resulted in less negative effect on net return. It was concluded that the current milk-pricing system makes it more profitable for farmers to sell a larger amount of milk with higher SCC than to withdraw milk with high SCC to obtain payment premiums, at least in herds with mastitis incidences within the simulated ranges. Udgivelsesdato: 21. May 2010

  12. Genetic evaluation of mastitis liability and recovery through longitudinal analysis of transition probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Franzén Jessica; Thorburn Daniel; Urioste Jorge I; Strandberg Erling

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many methods for the genetic analysis of mastitis use a cross-sectional approach, which omits information on, e.g., repeated mastitis cases during lactation, somatic cell count fluctuations, and recovery process. Acknowledging the dynamic behavior of mastitis during lactation and taking into account that there is more than one binary response variable to consider, can enhance the genetic evaluation of mastitis. Methods Genetic evaluation of mastitis was carried out by mode...

  13. Ovine Mastitis Due to Histophilus ovis

    OpenAIRE

    Beauregard, M.; Higgins, R.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical, pathological and bacteriological findings related to ovine mastitis caused by Histophilus ovis are described. A high proportion of the ewes belonging to a flock were infected, but the source of the contamination could not be determined.

  14. Treatment of Sporadic Acute Puerperal Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, W. David; Barton, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this study were to compare the efficacy of amoxicillin and cephradine for the treatment of sporadic acute puerperal mastitis (SAPM) and to evaluate the microbiology and clinical parameters of this infection.

  15. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment

  16. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL

  18. Antepartum Mastitis: A Rare Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sushma; Patil, Varsha Anant; Korday, Charusheela Sujit; Shah, Dipti Parag

    2015-08-01

    Puerperal or lactational mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast that is commonly encountered in breastfeeding mothers. It occurs most commonly in the postpartum period, generally in the first 6 weeks of breastfeeding. In contrast, antepartum mastitis is an uncommon condition, and if not treated adequately, it may be complicated by the formation of a breast abscess. The authors present a case of a 24-year-old, second gravida mother who developed unilateral antepartum mastitis with abscess formation at 34 weeks of gestation, which was initially treated with antibiotics and surgical drainage. However, her symptoms persisted over the next 2 weeks, and she was referred to the authors' institution, where she was managed with antibiotics and surgical drainage after delivering a healthy near-term infant. The abscesses healed completely 2 months later, with sequelae of residual scarring and a nonprotractile nipple. The authors wish to emphasize that health care providers should be aware of the occurrence of mastitis in the antepartum period. Early recognition with adequate treatment of mastitis is the key to avoiding complications, and this will prevent lactation issues and also reduce morbidity in the mother and neonate. PMID:25952032

  19. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms were very low. Farmers had no knowledge on sub-clinical mastitis. Staphylococcus species were the most common isolates and more than 50% of the isolates were resistant to the commonly used antibiotics penicillin and tetracycline.

  20. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to discuss the clinical and radiological features and treatment approaches in 14 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (GM). We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings and treatment approaches in 14 patients with idiopathic GM in the General Surgery Department, Gulhane School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between April 2000 and June 2006. The mean age of the patients was 34.5 years (range 27-41 years). The complaints at admission were a mass in the breast in 7 (50%) patients, an abscess and a mass in 6 (42.8%) and a skin fisculain one (7.2%). Granulomatous mastitis was unilateral in all subjects (on the right in 5 patients and on the left in 9). All of the patients underwent ultrasonographic evaluation. Mammography was performed in 8 and magnetic resonance imaging in 5 patients. Seven patients (50%) were suspected to have breast carcinoma according radiological findings. We performed the large excision in 11, incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage in one, and incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage plus medical treatment (prednisolone, methotrexate) in 2 patients. Due to the development of abscess after 9 months, drainage and large excision were performed in one patient who received medical treatment. Idiopathic GM is a disease that generally affects young women of reproductive age and may be mistaken for breast carcinoma in clinical and radiological evaluations. The gold standard for the diagnosis is histopathologic evaluation. (author)

  1. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject comprises detecting the presence or absence of a genetic marker that is linked to a trait indicative of mastitis resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens SandØ Aarhus University,

    The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) for the determination of mastitis resistance in a bovine subject. The determination of mastitis resistance involves resolution of the specific microsatellite status. Furthermore, the invention relates to a diagnostic kit for detection of genetic marker(s) associated with mastitis resistance. The method and kit of the present invention can be applied for selection of bovine subjects for breeding purposes. Thus, the invention provides a method of genetically selecting bovine subjects with mastitis resistance, thereby yielding cows less prone to mastitis

  2. Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy cows in the Moghan region of Ardabil State, Iran : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ghazaei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma bovis were diagnosed in Ardabil State, Iran. An investigation was carried out with the aim of establishing the extent of mycoplasma infections in dairy cows in Ardabil State. Milk samples obtained from 80 cows with clinical mastitis were cultured in the laboratory for the presence of mycoplasmas. Similarly, 48 bulk-tank milk samples were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. A modified Hayflick broth was used to isolate the mycoplasmas and an immunoperoxidase test used for the species identification of the isolates. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 39 (48.75 % of the clinical mastitis samples and from 48 of the bulk-tank milk samples tested. This indicated that mycoplasma udder infections were more prevalent in dairy cows in Ardabil State than previously thought.

  3. Métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina (Methods of detection of the bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedolla, CC

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre los métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina que se utilizan más comúnmente en el mundo. La mastitis bovina es la inflamación de la glándula mamaria causada por una infección por patógenos. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la producción que afecta a la industria lechera en todo el mundo. Puede presentarse de manera clínica y subclínica. La mastitis subclínica es de larga duración y es mucho más frecuente que la mastitis clínica. Dentro de los métodos que se usan con mayor frecuencia a nivel de campo para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas, se encuentran el método de observación y palpación de la ubre y las pruebas físicas, como la prueba de escudilla de ordeño, prueba del paño negro y taza probadora. Las pruebas químicas, como la prueba de conductividad eléctrica de la leche, papel indicador de mastitis y prueba de whiteside que sirven también para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas y subclínicas. Las pruebas biológicas, como son la prueba de California para mastitis, la prueba de Wisconsin, el diagnóstico bacteriológico por los métodos de aislamiento, cultivo, tinción, pruebas bioquímicas e identificación y el conteo de células somáticas por microscopia directa y el somaticell. Otros métodos utilizados actualmente por su rapidez y efectividad son los electrónicos como el fossomatic y el counter coulter, los cuales tienen una aplicación universal sobre todo en laboratorios de control lechero o dedicados al diagnóstico e investigación de la mastitis y el DeLaval cell counter. Los métodos de detección de mastitis son una herramienta que permite identificar el tipo de infección clínica o subclínica que puede presentarse dentro de un hato lechero, por lo que el método que se elija para determinar las pruebas será esencial para tener un diagnóstico más preciso.AbstractThis article is a bibliographical revision on the methods of detection of the bovine mastitis that is used more commonly in the world. The bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland caused by an infection by pathogens. Is one of the most frequent diseases of the production that affects the milk industry anywhere in the world. It can appear of clinical and subclinical way. The subclinical mastitis is long play and is much more frequent that the clinical mastitis. Within the methods that are used most frequently at field level to diagnose clinical mastitis, are the method of observation and palpation of udder and the physical tests, as the container of milking test, the black cloth test and cup test. The chemical tests, like the electrical conductivity of milk test, paper test of mastitis and whiteside test that they also serve to diagnose clinical and subclinical mastitis. The biological tests, as they are the California mastitis test, the Wisconsin test, the bacteriological diagnosis by the methods of isolation, culture, biochemical stain, tests and identification, the count of somatic cells by direct microscope and somaticell. Other methods used at the moment by their rapidity and effectiveness are the electronic ones like the fossomatic, the counter coulter and the, which mainly have a universal application in laboratories of control milk or dedicated to the diagnosis and investigation of the mastitis and the DeLaval cell counter. The methods of detection of mastitis are a tool that allows to identify the type of clinical infection or subclinical that can appear within a milk cattle ranch, reason why the method that is chosen to determine the tests will be essential to have a more precise diagnosis.

  4. Fatal mastitis of dairy cows: a retrospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazlett, M. J.; Little, P B; Maxie, M. G.; Barnum, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The necropsy records of dairy cows with mastitis were reviewed from the provincial veterinary laboratory in Guelph (44 cases of mastitis in nine years) and from the Ontario Veterinary College (168 cases in 14 years). Mastitis was considered to be the primary cause of death in 167 of 212 cows (79%). Of these 167 cases of mastitis, Escherichia coli was involved in 107 (64%), Klebsiella sp. in 12 (7%) and Staphylococcus aureus in 11 (7%). Bacteriology was not reported in 22 cases. Coliform masti...

  5. Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomsen, Bo; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP...

  6. The effect of a national control program on mastitis occurence in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Borne, B.H.P., van den; Lam, T.G.J.M.; Sampimon, O.C.; Jansen, J.; Schalk, G.

    2011-01-01

    A 5-year national mastitis control program was initiated in the Netherlands in 2005. Knowledge transfer and improvements of dairy farmers’ motivation towards udder health were used as means to decrease mastitis occurrence in Dutch dairy herds. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the control program on (sub)clinical mastitis occurrence and on farmers’ mindset and behaviour in relation to clinical mastitis. Two identical surveys were conducted in the same herds at the beginning...

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology of granulomatous mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, G M K; Poon, C S P; Law, B K B; Pang, L M; Chu, W C W; Ma, T K F

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon breast lesion that mimics carcinoma. The fine needle aspiration cytological (FNAC) features of GM have rarely been discussed in the literature. These features are reported in eight histologically confirmed cases of GM.

  8. Expanding Disease Spectrum Associated With Puerperal Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    McAdoo, Gregg L.; Monif, Gilles R. G.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus and the ?-hemolytic streptococci are the commonest causes of puerperal mastitis which tends to be a localized disease process. This report describes 2 cases attributable to these bacteria that resulted in extramammary involvement and augmented morbidity.

  9. Climatic effects on occurrence of clinical mastitis in different breeds of cows and buffaloes / Efectos climáticos sobre la ocurrencia de mastitis clínica en diferentes razas de vacas y búfalas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.C., Jingar; R.K., Mehla; M., Singh.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado para hallar la influencia estacional sobre la incidencia de la mastitis a lo largo del año, en vacas indígenas, vacas cruzadas y búfalas Murrah. Se analizaron los registros de lactación correspondientes a un periodo de 12 años, la incidencia de mastitis fue comparada con l [...] os climogramas de la zona de Karnal, Haryana, India. El clima cálido y húmedo afectó negativamente a la incidencia de mastitis en todas las razas bovinas y los búfalos. La incidencia fue afectada significativamente por la estación (p Abstract in english The study was conducted to find out the effect of different seasons on incidence of mastitis throughout the year in Indigenous cows, crossbred cows and Murrah buffaloes. Lactation records pertaining to the 12 year period were collected and incidence of mastitis was plotted against the climograph of [...] the Karnal zone, Haryana, India. The hot humid climate was found to adversely affect the incidence of mastitis in all the breeds of cows and Murrah buffaloes. The incidence was significantly affected by the season (p

  10. Profilaxis, immunoprophylaxis and therapy of staphylococcal mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis, in cows presents one of the most acute problems in intensive milk production, incurring huge economic losses which reach from 20-80% even in developed countries in the past decade. On the grounds of the programme of the respective Ministry, the Veterinary Service of the Republic of Serbia is obliged to monitor, detect, curb and control infective inflammation of the mammary gland caused by staphylococcus and streptococcus. Long-term different approaches to mastitis treatment did not result in the required solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. In order to prevent the infiltration of the pathogenic cause into the mammary gland, its populating and multiplication, it is necessary to maintain constant and regular controls of milk, as well as undertake of preventive and therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the incidence of mastitis. Immunization and immunotherapy of mastitis are new and very interesting areas for scientific investigations and work. In the recent decades vaccines against staphylococcal mastitis are being successfully developed, whose success is reflected in the reduced incidence of clinical and subcilinical mastitis.

  11. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were ? hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  12. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Moatamedi, Azar; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Mirshokraei, Pejhman

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6%) isolates were ? hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases. PMID:25568683

  13. A genetic and spatial Bayesian analysis of mastitis resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Frigessi Arnoldo; Sæbø Solve

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A nationwide health card recording system for dairy cattle was introduced in Norway in 1975 (the Norwegian Cattle Health Services). The data base holds information on mastitis occurrences on an individual cow basis. A reduction in mastitis frequency across the population is desired, and for this purpose risk factors are investigated. In this paper a Bayesian proportional hazards model is used for modelling the time to first veterinary treatment of clinical mastitis, including both ge...

  14. Trends in Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Mastitis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Dhama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT; R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins and herbs (Terminalia spp. are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant or chimeric (pauA; live (S. uberis 0140J stain based and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR 2 and 4, interleukin (IL 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1 and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1 are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition.

  15. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin (IL) 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1) are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition. PMID:24506032

  16. Hygiene-related and feed-related hoof diseases show different patterns of genetic correlations to clinical mastitis and female fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line HjortØ; SØrensen, Anders Christian

    2011-01-01

    Hoof diseases are a problem in many dairy herds. To study one aspect of the problem, genetic correlations between 4 hoof diseases, protein yield, clinical mastitis, number of inseminations, and days from calving to first insemination were estimated in first-parity Swedish Red cows using trivariate linear animal models. Occurrence of dermatitis, heel horn erosion, sole hemorrhage, and sole ulcer were reported by hoof trimmers. The data set contained about 314,000 animals with records on at least one of the traits; among these, about 64,000 animals had records on hoof diseases. Heritabilities were low for all hoof diseases (0.03 to 0.05). The hoof diseases fell into 2 groups: (1) dermatitis and heel horn erosion (i.e., diseases related to hygiene) and (2) sole hemorrhage and sole ulcer (i.e., diseases related to feeding). The genetic correlations between traits within the 2 groups were high (0.87 and 0.73, respectively), whereas the genetic correlations between traits in different groups were low (?0.23). Theseresults indicate that the 2 groups of hoof diseases are partly influenced by the same genes. All genetic correlations between hoof diseases and protein yield were low to moderate and unfavorable. Moderate and favorable genetic correlations were found between the feed-related hoof diseases and clinical mastitis (0.35 and 0.32), whereas the genetic correlations between the hygiene-related hoof diseases and clinical mastitis were low and not significantly different from zero. The genetic correlations between the hygiene-related hoof diseases and number of inseminations were low to moderate and favorable (0.32 and 0.22), and the genetic correlations between the feed-related hoof diseases and number of inseminations were low and not significantly different from zero. A moderate genetic correlation was found between sole ulcer and days from calving to first insemination (0.33), whereas the genetic correlations between days from calving to first insemination and sole hemorrhage and the hygiene-related hoof diseaseswere low and not significantly different from zero. In general, the 2 groups of hoof diseases showed different patterns of genetic correlations to the other functional traits, but both were unfavorably correlated to protein yield. A simulation study showed that inclusion of hoof diseases in the selection index will not only reduce the genetic decline in resistance to hoof diseases but also be favorable for other functional traits and improve overall genetic merit

  17. Tuberculous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find out the different clinical presentations of breast tuberculosis and its treatment outcome. Subjects and Methods: Fifty consecutive female patients above 13 years presenting with breast lump, multiple sinuses, axillary lymphadenopathy, and cold abscess were included in the study. Medical records of the patients presented were reviewed and analyzed. Data was collected regarding the patient's name, age and marital and lactational status. Clinical Examinations and investigations were carried out by triple assessment i.e. clinical, radiological and histological/cytological evaluation. Results: The commonest presentation was a solitary breast lump in 30 (60%) patients, breast lump with axillary lymphadenopathy in 13 (26%). Four (8%) patients presented with generalized breast swelling (edema) with ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. Two (4) presented with breast abscess and axillary lymphadenopathy and one (2%) with axillary sinus and breast lump. Upper outer quadrant was most frequently involved in 29 (58%) of patients. Thirty two (64%) cases were secondary to tuberculosis in other sites, mostly (40%) from tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis. Forty eight (96%) patients responded well to one year antituberculous treatment with complete disappearance of the lumps except 2 patients who had shrinkage of lump size only, underwent excision of lump. Conclusion: Solitary lump and enlarged lymph nodes are the commonest presentation of mammary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and treatment is necessary to prevent disfigurement of breast. Antituberculous therapy is the treatment of choice. Surgery should be reserved for unresponsive lumps. (author)

  18. Mastite clínica em vacas leiteiras suplementadas com selênio e vitamina E Clinical mastitis in dairy cows supplemented with selenium and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jorge Paschoal

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a prevalência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça Holandesa. Oitenta vacas foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: controle e suplementação com 2,5 mg selênio dia-1 , com 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 e com 2,5 mg selênio + 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 . A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas, quinzenalmente, para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de selênio. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, no parto, 30 e 60 dias após o parto, para determinação dos níveis de selênio. O teste de Tamis e a análise clínica do úbere foram realizados semanalmente, para detecção de mastite até a décima segunda semana de lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos superiores (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selenium and vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Eighty cows were allocated into four treatments: control, supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1, supplementation with 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 , and supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1 + 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 . The supplementation started 30 days prior to probable parturition date until parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical and selenium analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, right after parturition, 30 and 60 days after it to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test and udder analysis were weekly performed to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration compared with control group (P<0.05. Vitamin E and selenium did not decrease the prevalence of clinical mastitis up to 12th week and there was no interaction between those elements.

  19. A Genome-Wide Association Study for Clinical Mastitis in First Parity US Holstein Cows Using Single-Step Approach and Genomic Matrix Re-Weighting Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiezzi, Francesco; Parker-Gaddis, Kristen L.; Cole, John B.; Clay, John S.; Maltecca, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the health disorders with large impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CM in first-lactation Holstein. Producer-recorded mastitis event information for 103,585 first-lactation cows were used, together with genotype information on 1,361 bulls from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Single-step genomic-BLUP methodology was used to incorporate genomic data into a threshold-liability model. Association analysis confirmed that CM follows a highly polygenic mode of inheritance. However, 10-adjacent-SNP windows showed that regions on chromosomes 2, 14 and 20 have impacts on genetic variation for CM. Some of the genes located on chromosome 14 (LY6K, LY6D, LYNX1, LYPD2, SLURP1, PSCA) are part of the lymphocyte-antigen-6 complex (LY6) known for its neutrophil regulation function linked to the major histocompatibility complex. Other genes on chromosome 2 were also involved in regulating immune response (IFIH1, LY75, and DPP4), or are themselves regulated in the presence of specific pathogens (ITGB6, NR4A2). Other genes annotated on chromosome 20 are involved in mammary gland metabolism (GHR, OXCT1), antibody production and phagocytosis of bacterial cells (C6, C7, C9, C1QTNF3), tumor suppression (DAB2), involution of mammary epithelium (OSMR) and cytokine regulation (PRLR). DAVID enrichment analysis revealed 5 KEGG pathways. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway (cell proliferation and apoptosis) and the ‘Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction’ (cytokine and interleukines response to infectious agents) are co-regulated and linked to the ‘ABC transporters’ pathway also found here. Gene network analysis performed using GeneMania revealed a co-expression network where 665 interactions existed among 145 of the genes reported above. Clinical mastitis is a complex trait and the different genes regulating immune response are known to be pathogen-specific. Despite the lack of information in this study, candidate QTL for CM were identified in the US Holstein population. PMID:25658712

  20. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus LØnne

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective antimicrobial treatment in mastitis cases caused by gram-negative bacteria.

  1. Breast Carcinoma Occurring from Chronic Granulomatous Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Luqman, Mazlan; Shahrun Niza, Abdullah Suhaimi; Saladina Jaszle, Jasmin; Nani Harlina, Md Latar; Sellymiah, Adzman; Rohaizak, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous mastitis is known as a benign and relatively rare disorder that is often difficult to differentiate from breast carcinoma. We highlight the case of a 34-year-old woman who had recurrent episodes of right breast swelling and abscess for 8 years. These were proven to be chronic granulomatous mastitis by tissue biopsies on 3 different occasions. Her condition improved on similar courses of antibiotics and high-dose prednisolone. However, she subsequently developed progressi...

  2. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Krogh, K.; Larsen, H.K.D.; Jensen, Arne Bent; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathoge...

  3. Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance and milk somatic cell score in French Lacaune dairy sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Barillet, Francis; Rupp, Rachel; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Jacquin, Michèle

    2001-01-01

    Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance was studied from two data sets. Firstly, risk factors for different mastitis traits, i.e. culling due to clinical or chronic mastitis and subclinical mastitis predicted from somatic cell count (SCC), were explored using data from 957 first lactation Lacaune ewes of an experimental INRA flock composed of two divergent lines for milk yield. Secondly, genetic parameters for SCC were estimated from 5 272 first lactation Lacaune ewes recorded among 38 flock...

  4. Clinical case of toxocariasis chorioretinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Pikhovskaia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of a toxocariasis chorioretinitis which is of interest for ophthalmologists is described. Insufficient knowledge of clinic and diagnostics of a lesion of eyes by Toxocara canis, their infrequent occurrence, similarity of the ophthalmologic picture with inflammatory diseases and eye neoplasms can be at the bottom of gross diagnostic mistake and wrong choice of treatment tactics.

  5. Changing trends in mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zadoks RN; Fitzpatrick JL

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of ...

  6. Changing trends in mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadoks RN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control.

  7. Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Newbould 305, a Strain Associated with Mild Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Damien; Peton, Vincent; Almeida, Sintia; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Berkova, Nadia; Rault, Lucie; Francois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Even, Sergine; Hernandez, David; Le Loir, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiological agent of mastitis in ruminants. We report here the genome sequence of bovine strain Newbould 305, isolated in the 1950s in a case of bovine mastitis and now used as a model strain able to reproducibly induce chronic mastitis in cows.

  8. Incidence of Subclinical Mastitis and Prevalence of Major Mastitis Pathogens in Organized Farms and Unorganized Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Raveendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Prabhu, K. Nithin; Shome, B. R.; Rathnamma, D.; V.V.S. Suryanarayana; Yatiraj, S.; Prasad, C. Renuka; N. Krishnaveni; Sundareshan, S; Akhila, D. S.; A. R. Gomes; Hegde, Nagendra R.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SCM) represents a major proportion of the burden of mastitis. Determining somatic cell count (SCC) and electrical conductivity (EC) of milk are useful approaches to detect SCM. In order to correlate grades of SCM with the load of five major mastitis pathogens, 246 milk samples from a handful of organized and unorganized sectors were screened. SCC (>5 × 105/mL) and EC (>6.5 mS/cm) identified 110 (45 %) and 153 (62 %) samples, respectively, to be from SCM cases. Randomly s...

  9. Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Azmi D. Hawari; Fawzi Al-Dabbas

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7%) had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pa...

  10. Granulomatous mastitis — a diagnostic dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Mote, Dajiram G.; Gungi, Raghavendra P.; Satyanarayana, V.; Premsunder, T.

    2008-01-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare benign breast disease. It is characterized by chronic, non-caseating granulomatous lobulitis. It may be misdiagnosed as a carcinoma of the breast and may lead to mastectomy. Diagnostic criteria include-A) Granulomatous infl ammation with multinucleated giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes. B) It is centered on lobules with minor ductal and periductal infl ammation. C) It nearly always follows the pregnancy. A case of GLM, which was treated with local e...

  11. The role of diagnostic microbiology in mastitis control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Allan M

    2012-07-01

    There are a number of important issues for the dairy practitioner to consider in designing the most appropriate mastitis microbiological service for his or her clients. These include the decision to use enhancement tools or selective agars to optimize sensitivity and specificity. The service should include a monthly BTC service that monitors for the important contagious mastitis organisms: S aureus, S agalactia, and Mycoplasma. At the cow level, a zero tolerance program to protect healthy cows from exposure to contagious mastitis will require a routine culture service to monitor for these pathogens in new herd additions, clinical cases, and all fresh cows and heifers. A wide variety of additional benefits for maintaining good udder health and the production of quality milk can come from a more comprehensive diagnostic service that looks at both individual cow and bulk tank milk. Finally, more practitioners can help their clients economically by implementation of an on-farm TNT culture service and significantly reducing the use of intramammary therapy. PMID:22664202

  12. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Osterás, O.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a framework for economic analysis. As a second step calculations of the costs of mastitis and the costs in relation to the benefits of mastitis management published since 1990 in peer-reviewed journals are...

  13. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis cases and close human contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Kock, M M; Ehlers, M M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from bovine intramammary infections and humans working in close contact with the animals and to evaluate the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates to different antimicrobials. A total of 3,387 milk samples and 79 human nasal swabs were collected from 13 sampling sites in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In total, 146 Staph. aureus isolates and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were recovered from clinical and subclinical milk samples. Staphylococcusaureus was isolated from 12 (15.2%) of the human nasal swabs and 95 representative CNS were recovered for further characterization. The CNS were identified using multiplex-PCR assays, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and tuf gene sequencing. Seven Staphylococcus spp. were identified among the CNS of bovine origin, with Staph.chromogenes (78.4%) predominating. The predominant CNS species recovered from the human nasal swabs was Staph.epidermidis (80%) followed by Staph.chromogenes (6.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and was supplemented by screening for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. Ninety-eight (67.1%) Staph.aureus isolates of bovine origin were pansusceptible; 39 (26.7%) isolates were resistant to a single class, and 7 (4.8%) isolates were resistant to 2 classes of antimicrobials. Two Staph. aureus (1.4%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to penicillin was common, with 28.8% of the bovine and 75% of the human Staph. aureus isolates exhibiting resistance. A similar observation was made with the CNS, where 37.3% of the bovine and 89.5% of the human isolates were resistant to penicillin. Multidrug-resistance was common among the human CNS, with 39% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial susceptibility results suggest that resistance among staphylococci causing bovine intramammary infections in South Africa is uncommon and not a significant cause for concern. In contrast, antimicrobial resistance was frequently observed in staphylococcal isolates of human origin, highlighting a possible reservoir of resistance genes. Continued monitoring of staphylococcal isolates is warranted to monitor changes in the susceptibility of isolates to different classes of antimicrobials. PMID:26188567

  14. Effectiveness of Topical Curcumin for Treatment of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Raha Afshariani; Pooya Farhadi; Fariborz Ghaffarpasand; Jamshid Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32) or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31). Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast infla...

  15. Milk transfer of phenoxymethylpenicillin during puerperal mastitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, I; Samseth, M; Løberg, R; Faegri, A; Prentice, A.

    1988-01-01

    1 The milk excretion of phenoxymethylpenicillin (PMP) was studied from both breasts in patients with mastitis (n = 12) and healthy volunteers (controls, n = 4) to investigate the hypothesis that milk transfer of PMP is higher in mastitic than in non-mastitic breasts. 2 Patients were included according to clinical symptoms of mastitis. Milk (and serum from controls) were sampled 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h after a single oral dose of 1320 mg PMP. Penicillin concentrations in milk and serum were m...

  16. Prevalence and major bacterial causes of bovine mastitis in Asella, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Matios; Tolosa, Tadele; Tigre, Worku

    2009-10-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in and around Asella town from November 2007 to April 2008 on dairy cows to determine the prevalence of mastitis, impact of risk factors and isolate the dominant mastitis causing bacteria on total of 223 lactating cows, of which 92 were indigenous Arsi, and 131 Holstein Zebu cross by using clinical examination and California mastitis test (CMT). Of these 144 (65.6 %) were positive by clinical examination and CMT for clinical and sub clinical mastitis, with prevalence of 26.5 % and 38 %, respectively. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) on the prevalence of mastitis between cows kept under different hygiene of milking process. Similarly a significant difference on the prevalence of mastitis between the two breeds (P < 0.05) was also observed. From 144 CMT and clinically positive milk samples analyzed microbiologically, 133 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and while 11 were negative. The dominant bacterial isolates in the study animals were Staphylococcus species (41.4 %), Streptococcus species (24.8 %), and other gram positive rods and gram negative enteric bacteria (33.8 %). Good hygiene in milking process, milking clinically infected cows at last, culling chronic mastitis carriers, treating clinically infected cows and dry period therapy could reduce the prevalence of contagious mastitis in the study area. PMID:19333772

  17. Effect of mastitis on macro-minerals of bovine milk and blood serum in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    G. E. Mohamed; O.A.O. ElOwni; I.E.M. El Zubeir

    2012-01-01

    Milk and blood serum from clinically mastitis infected, subclinically mastitis infected and healthy Friesian cows (15 samples from each of 3 groups) were evaluated for macrominerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus). The milk from cows infected with subclinical mastitis revealed a significant decrease in potassium (P < 0.001) and a significant increase in sodium and phosphorus content (P < 0.01). Similarly, the milk from cows with the clinical form of the di...

  18. Postherpetic neuralgia: two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Serrano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is the most common complication of Herpes Zoster, characterized by the presence of neuropathic-type pain limited to a dermatomic area after outbreak of Herpes Zoster (commonly known as shingles, usually a month after the appearance of vesicles on the skin . The aim of this report is to present two cases of PHN and their responses to different treatments. The first case presented intolerance to amitriptyline and a good clinical response to gabapentin at a dose of 900 mg/day. The second case showed intolerance to capsaicin but responded well to the combination of pregabalin and topical lidocaine. Gabapentin, pregabalin and lidocaine are effective for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. All these recommendations are consistent with those treatments used by the family physicians in the two cases study presented.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Two Klebsiella pneumoniae Mastitis Outbreaks on a Dairy Farm in New York State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marcos A.; Welcome, Francis L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.

    2007-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing. PMID:17928424

  20. Molecular epidemiology of two Klebsiella pneumoniae mastitis outbreaks on a dairy farm in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marcos A; Welcome, Francis L; Schukken, Ynte H; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2007-12-01

    Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing. PMID:17928424

  1. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis in two Uruguayan dairy farms / Caracterización de Staphylococcus aureus aislados a partir de casos de mastitis subclínicas en dos tambos de Uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, de los Santos; M, Fernández; S, Carro; P, Zunino.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la prevalencia y evolución de mastitis bovina subclínica (MBS) a lo largo de un año en dos tambos comerciales localizados en un área de producción lechera (Sur) de Uruguay e identificar y caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus aisladas de la leche de vaca [...] s con resultados de trazas, 1, 2 o 3 correspondientes a la escala del California Mastitis Test (CMT). Producción de coagulasa, presencia de cápsula, producción de limo, formación de biofilms, autoagregación, hemaglutinación y sensibilidad a diferentes antibióticos fueron evaluadas en el caso de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas. La incidencia de MBS a lo largo del estudio fue baja y no se correlacionó con variables climáticas. El número de aislamientos de S. aureus de las muestras de leche fue bajo en comparación con estudios previos y la mayoría de ellos se obtuvo de muestras que presentaban un resultado de CMT de 1. La formación de cápsula, limo y biofilms así como la ocurrencia de autoagregación en todas las cepas confluyen en la habilidad bacteriana para adherirse y persistir en la glándula contribuyendo a la cronicidad de la infección y a la adhesión a superficies inertes. La resistencia bacteriana frente a distintos antibióticos fue baja. La evaluación de la expresión de factores de virulencia de S. aureus en el contexto de mastitis subclínica en tambos puede ser de utilidad para desarrollar acciones precisas y tratamientos para el control de mastitis y la promoción de la salud animal y la producción de leche. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to identify and to characterise Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with subclinical mastitis obtained from milk of lactating cows showing a California Mastitis Test (CMT) score result of traces, 1, 2, or 3. Coagulase, hemolysis, presence of capsule, slime formation, b [...] iofilm production, autoaggregation, hemagglutination and antibiotic susceptibility were assessed to evaluate S. aureus virulence factors expression potentially associated to bovine subclinical mastitis isolates. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis along the study was low and did not correlate with months or climatic variables. Most of S. aureus (20) were isolated from milk samples showing a CMT score result of 1. Formation of capsule, slime, biofilms and the occurrence of bacteria aggregation in all the tested isolates converged in the bacterial ability of adherence and persistence in the mammary gland and probably contribute to the further chronicity of the infection and even the colonization of dairy installations. Resistance against a set of commonly used antibiotics was low. The evaluation of virulence factors of S. aureus isolates in the context of subclinical mastitis in dairy farms may be useful to develop precise actions and treatments to control mastitis and to improve animal health and milk production in dairy bovine herds.

  2. Aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais da mastite induzida por inoculação intramamária de Staphylococcus aureus em vacas e búfalas / Clinical and laboratory aspects of mastitis induced by intramammary inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in cows and buffaloes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.M., Lazzari; M.V.S., Oliveira; B., Moreti; G., Guimarães; F., Krug; G., Noleto; A.J., Mesquita; J.P., Neves.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vários aspectos relacionados à mastite bubalina precisam ser esclarecidos. Muitas condutas são adaptadas a essa espécie pelo conhecimento adquirido com a espécie bovina. Com este experimento, objetivou-se evidenciar particularidades da mastite em búfalas e vacas que tiveram uma glândula inoculada co [...] m 1,0 x 103 UFC de S. aureus. Os animais foram monitorados por cultura bacteriana do leite, California Mastitis Test (CMT), e escores para avaliação da severidade da mastite. Foram utilizados os seguintes critérios: temperatura retal, apetite, produção de leite (resposta sistêmica à inflamação), contagem de células somáticas (CCS), aparência/consistência da glândula e aparência da secreção láctea (resposta localizada à inflamação). Todos os animais desenvolveram mastite clínica superaguda. A bactéria foi recuperada de todas as glândulas desafiadas, sem diferença significativa no percentual de isolamento entre as espécies até o 11º dia pós-inoculação, porém com diferença (P Abstract in english Several aspects related to bubaline mastits need to be clarified. Many conducts are adapted to this species by the knowledge adquired with the bovine species. This experiment aimed to evidence particularities of mastits in buffaloes and cows submitted to one-gland inoculation with 1.0 x 103 CFU of S [...] . aureus. The animals were monitored through bacterial culturing milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and scores to assess the severity of mastitis. The following criteria were used: rectal temperature, appetite, milk production (systemic response to inflammation), somatic cell count (SCC), appearance/consistency of the gland and appearance of the milk secretion (localized response to inflammation). All animals developed hyperacute clinical mastitis. The bacteria was recovered from all challenged glands, with no significant difference in the percentage of isolation between the species until day 11 after inoculation, but with a difference (p

  3. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    OpenAIRE

    Østerås O; Sølverød L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd leve...

  4. The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis

  5. Effectiveness of Topical Curcumin for Treatment of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Afshariani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32 or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31. Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast inflammation before entering the study. The outcome of treatment was evaluated using the same index at 24, 48 and 72 hours of starting the treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics such as age (p=0.361 and duration of lactation (p=0.551. After 72-hour of therapy, patients in curcumin groups had significantly lower rate of moderate (p=0.019 and mild (p=0.002 mastitis. Patients in curcumin group had significantly lower scores for tension (p<0.001, erythema (p<0.001 and pain (p<0.001, after 72-hour of treatment. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that topical preparation of curcumin successfully decrease the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration without side effects. Thus, topical preparation of curcumin could be safely administered for those suffering from lactational mastitis after excluding infectious etiologies.

  6. Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Isabela Fonseca; Priscila Vendramini Silva; Carla Christine Lange; Guimarães, Marta F. M.; Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller; Katiene Régia Silva Sousa; Paulo Sávio Lopes; José Domingos Guimarães; Simone E.F. Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF-? genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 g...

  7. Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7% had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pathological lesions and change in udder secretion, in addition to that 276 quarters (31.4% showed subclinical mastitis. The incidence of mastitis was found to be increased in older cows. Staphylococcus aurous was considered to be the most common cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis and followed by coli forms, streptococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., proteus spp. and pseudomonas spp. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains using tertracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim.

  8. Economic decisions in mastitis management

    OpenAIRE

    Huijps, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was conducted with the main objectives (i) to calculate costs of mastitis and cost-efficiency of mastitis management measures and (ii) to acquire insights in the economic decision behaviour of dairy farmers with respect to mastitis management. Animal health economics is a decision supporting science, based on a decision making function of evaluating and choosing between alternative strategies on animal diseases. The potential economic importance of diseases such as mastitis is not...

  9. Tuberculous osteomyelitis of sternum secondary to primary tuberculous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Girish D; Shenoy, Sachin S; Jadhav, Kavita V; Tayade, Mukund B; Rawoot, Suhaib S; Jain, Kavitha

    2014-06-18

    Sternal tuberculosis secondary to tuberculous mastitis is uncommon. The invasion of the sternum following a primary focus in the breast has not been reported. This may be due to the resistance offered by pectoral fascia and periosteum to the spread of infection into the bone. We present a case of tubercular sternal osteomtyelitis following tubercular mastitis in a 40-year old female. A brief case report and a review of literature are presented. PMID:25332764

  10. Tuberculous Osteomyelitis of Sternum Secondary to Primary Tuberculous Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Girish D. Bakhshi; Shenoy, Sachin S.; Kavita V. Jadhav; Mukund B. Tayade; Rawoot, Suhaib S.; Jain, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Sternal tuberculosis secondary to tuberculous mastitis is uncommon. The invasion of the sternum following a primary focus in the breast has not been reported. This may be due to the resistance offered by pectoral fascia and periosteum to the spread of infection into the bone. We present a case of tubercular sternal osteomtyelitis following tubercular mastitis in a 40-year old female. A brief case report and a review of literature are presented.

  11. Tuberculous osteomyelitis of sternum secondary to primary tuberculous mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sternal tuberculosis secondary to tuberculous mastitis is uncommon. The invasion of the sternum following a primary focus in the breast has not been reported. This may be due to the resistance offered by pectoral fascia and periosteum to the spread of infection into the bone. We present a case of tubercular sternal osteomtyelitis following tubercular mastitis in a 40-year old female. A brief case report and a review of literature are presented.

  12. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Kr. Sinha; Thombare, N. N.; Biswajit Mondal

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from mil...

  13. Tuberculous Mastitis Presenting as Breast Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Tauro, Leo Francis; Martis, John S.; George, Celine; Kamath, Aroon; Lobo, Geover; Hegde, B. Rathnakar

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in its diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination w...

  14. Differences in severity of mastitis and the pathogens causing various oxidative product levels

    OpenAIRE

    Witaya Suriyasathaporn; Teera Chewonarin; Usanee Vinitketkumnuen

    2012-01-01

    Differences in severity of mastitis and their causing pathogens might be associated with oxidative product levels occurring during the inflammatory process in infected udders. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship of oxidative product levels, using malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker on both mastitis severity and its causing pathogens. Quarter milk samples of all lactating cows in the selected farms were primarily tested for mastitis severity levels including clinical ...

  15. Potential mechanism of action of J5 vaccine in protection against severe bovine coliform mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dosogne, Hilde; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Burvenich, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Coliform mastitis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat in the modern dairy industry. Curative therapy with antibiotics remains only moderately effective and depends on the stage at which the disease is treated. The most successful strategies for combating coliform mastitis appear to be prevention by hygienic management or prophylactic immuniz aion. The severity of clinical symptoms of coliform mastitis has been shown to be reduced by immunization with the Escherichia coli J5 vaccine...

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Two Klebsiella pneumoniae Mastitis Outbreaks on a Dairy Farm in New York State?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Marcos A.; Welcome, Francis L.; Schukken, Ynte H; Zadoks, Ruth N.

    2007-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated f...

  17. Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zaini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

  18. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n?=?390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p?farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2)?=?0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  19. Bovine Mastitis: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Major Pathogens in Dairy Farms of Holeta Town, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekibib

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2008 to April 2009 to estimate prevalence of mastitis and to see associated bacterial pathogens in lactating dairy cows in Holeta town. A total of 107 cross bred milking cows were tested using California Mastitis Test (CMT. Prevalence of mastitis at cow level was 71.0% (76/107, out of which 22.4% (24/107 and 48.6% (52/107 were clinical and subclinical, respectively. The quarter level prevalence was 44.9% (192/428; from this the clinical and subclinical forms were 10.0% (43/428 and 34.8% (149/428, respectively. Out of the 43 quarters with clinical cases, 31 had blind teats while 12 of them revealed active cases of mastitis. Samples from all 12 active clinical cases and 90.0% (134/149 of the CMT positive subclinical quarters were found to be culture positive. From 146 culture positive samples, a total of 153 bacteria were isolated, the most prevalent being S. aureus (47.1% followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS (30.1%. Other bacterial isolates included Streptococcus (7.2%, E.coli (4.6%, Micrococcus species (3.3%, Klebsella pneumonae (3.3%, Enterobater aerogen (1.3%, Corynebacterium species (2.0% and Bacillus (1.3%. Risk factors analysis revealed that prevalence significantly differed with the age (P < 0.05, parity (P < 0.05 and udder hygiene condition (P < 0.03. Thus, prevalence was relatively higher in adult cows (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.15, 3.64, cows with moderate calves (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.6, cows with injured teat (OR = 7.7, 95%CI = 0.9, 64.1 and cows with unwashed udder (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 0.8, 6.4 than those corresponding animals. In conclusion, this study revealed the importance of mastitis and associated bacterial pathogen in the study area. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 397-403

  20. Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simbarashe, Katsande; Gift, Matope; Masimba, Ndengu; Davies M, Pfukenyi.

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composi [...] te milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 10³ cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal-and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1% (123/584) had mastitis, 16.3% (95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%), Escherichia coli (25.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were I: associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

  1. Mastitis tuberculosa / Tuberculosis of the breast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia Isabel, Cuervo; Diego Andrés, Bonilla; Martha Isabel, Murcia; Johana, Hernández; Julio César, Gómez.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se informa un caso de mastitis granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis en una paciente inmunocompetente con lesiones inflamatorias crónicas de la mama, diagnosticada por la detección de ADN de la micobacteria mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de la secuencia de [...] inserción IS6110 presente en el complejo M. tuberculosis , en una biopsia de mama embebida en parafina. La tuberculosis primaria de la mama es rara, incluso en países con alta prevalencia de tuberculosis, y debe sospecharse en pacientes con mastitis granulomatosa crónica de causa no clara. El pilar del tratamiento es la quimioterapia antituberculosa y, ocasionalmente, la cirugía. Abstract in english We report a case of granulomatous mastitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an immunocompetent woman with chronic inflammatory lesions of the breast. It was diagnosed by detection of mycobacteria DNA using polymerase chain reaction technique targeting IS6110 insertion element of M. tuberculos [...] is complex in a paraffin-embedded histological specimen. The primary breast tuberculosis is rare, even in countries where the incidence and prevalence of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis are high. It should be suspected in female patients with chronic granulomatous mastitis with no apparent cause. The cornerstone of treatment is antituberculous chemotherapy, and surgery is rarely required.

  2. Association between isolation of Staphylococcus aureus one week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count, clinical mastitis, and culling through the remaining lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, Anne Cathrine; Osterås, Olav; Sølverød, Liv

    2009-02-01

    Cows with isolation of Staphylococcus aureus approximately 1 week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis (CM), and culling risk through the remaining lactation were assessed in 178 Norwegian dairy herds. Mixed models with repeated measures were used to compare milk yield and SCC, and survival analyses were used to estimate the hazard ratio for CM and culling. On average, cows with an isolate of Staph. aureus had a significantly higher SCC than culture-negative cows. If no post-milking teat disinfection (PMTD) was used, the mean values of SCC were 42,000, 61,000, 68,000 and 77,000 cells/ml for cows with no Staph. aureus isolate, with Staph. aureus isolated in 1 quarter, in 2 quarters and more than 2 quarters respectively. If iodine PMTD was used, SCC means were 36,000; 63,000; 70,000 and 122,000, respectively. Primiparous cows testing positive for Staph. aureus had the same milk yield curve as culture-negative cows, except for those with Staph. aureus isolated in more than 2 quarters. They produced 229 kg less during a 305-d lactation. Multiparous cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter produced 94-161 kg less milk in 2nd and >3rd parity, respectively, and those with isolation in more than 2 quarters produced 303-390 kg less than multiparous culture-negative animals during a 305-d lactation. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratio for CM and culling in cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter was 2.0 (1.6-2.4) and 1.7 (1.5-1.9), respectively. There was a decrease in the SCC and in the CM risk in culture-negative cows where iodine PMTD had been used, indicating that iodine PMTD has a preventive effect on already healthy cows. For cows testing positive for Staph. aureus in more than 2 quarters at calving, iodine PMTD had a negative effect on the CM risk and on the SCC through the remaining lactation. PMID:18922193

  3. Therapy of mastitis puerperalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, H.; Reich, W.; Schmeisser, G. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-01-01

    70 patients with mastitis were treated by low dose irradiation with soft X-rays and by secondary inhibition of the lactation by conservative physical measures. Breast abscesses were observed only in 6 of 70 patients. Therefore the antiinflammatory irradiation with low dose X-rays is a suitable method of treatment.

  4. Lupus mastitis: a mimicker of breast carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Warne, Richard Roger; Taylor, Donna; Segal, Amanda; Irish, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of lupus mastitis which was initially diagnosed following an incisional biopsy of a breast lump, with similar pathology found 2 years later after an ultrasound guided biopsy of the same lump. The woman had been diagnosed 7 years before with systemic lupus erythematosus. The radiological and pathological features are presented in this report with discussion of similar cases in the literature.

  5. Longitudinal Analysis of Somatic Cell Count for Joint Genetic Evaluation of Mastitis and Recovery Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; de Koning, D J

    Abstract Text: Better models of genetic evaluation for mastitis can be developed through longitudinal analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) which usually is used as a proxy for mastitis. Mastitis and recovery data with weekly observations of SCC were simulated for daughter groups of 60 and 240 per sire. Data were created to define cases: 1 if SCC was above a pre-specified boundary, else 0. A transition from below to above the boundary indicates probability to contract mastitis, and the other way indicates recovery. The MCMCglmm package was used to estimate breeding values. In the 60 daughters group, accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 for mastitis and 0.22 to 0.23 for recovery. Whereas, in the 240 daughters group accuracies ranged from 0.83 to 0.85 for mastitis and 0.57 to 0.65 for recovery. Reasonable accuracies can be achieved from SCC based estimates.

  6. Enzyme activity and acute phase proteins in milk utilized as indicators of acute clinical E. coli LPS-induced mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Røntved, Christine M.; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Vels, Lotte; Bjerring, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The importance of non-visual and on-line monitoring of udder health increases as the contact between humans and animals decreases, for example, in robotic milking systems. Several indicator systems have been introduced commercially, and a number of techniques are currently in use. This study describes the kinetics of seven indigenous milk parameters for monitoring udder inflammation in an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin)-induced mastitis model. Proportional milk from LPS-infu...

  7. Bovine Mastitis in Subtropical Dairy Farms, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Qin-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of Clinical Mastitis (CM and Subclinical Mastitis (SCM, isolation and identification of the major pathogens and test the antimicrobial resistance of milk bacterial isolates in subtropical dairy farms in Guangxi region (south of China between 2005 and 2009. The average percentages of blind quarter(s at cow and quarter level were 11.5 and 3.7%, respectively. The incidence of CM at cow and quarter level were 8.7 and 3.7%, respectively while that of SCM at cow and quarter level were 48.8 and 19%, respectively. A total of 105 and 56 microorganisms were isolated from the 109 CM and 67 SCM samples, respectively. The most common bacterial isolates from CM cases were S. aureus (29.5%, E. coli (25.7% and C. neoformans (16.2%, however in SCM they were S. aureus (32.1%, CNS (19.7% and St. agalactiae (17.9%. The antimicrobial sensitivity test indicated that all the antimicrobial agents (except for ampicillin showed lower proportion of resistant isolates of all the isolated bacteria (except for C. neoformans, among the employed antimicrobials, Ruyanxiao showed the lowest proportion of resistant isolates.

  8. Longitudinal Analysis of Somatic Cell Count for Joint Genetic Evaluation of Mastitis and Recovery Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; de Koning, D J; Janss, Luc; Franzén, J.; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Text: Better models of genetic evaluation for mastitis can be developed through longitudinal analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) which usually is used as a proxy for mastitis. Mastitis and recovery data with weekly observations of SCC were simulated for daughter groups of 60 and 240 per sire. Data were created to define cases: 1 if SCC was above a pre-specified boundary, else 0. A transition from below to above the boundary indicates probability to contract mastitis, and the other way ...

  9. Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance and milk somatic cell score in French Lacaune dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astruc Jean-Michel

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance was studied from two data sets. Firstly, risk factors for different mastitis traits, i.e. culling due to clinical or chronic mastitis and subclinical mastitis predicted from somatic cell count (SCC, were explored using data from 957 first lactation Lacaune ewes of an experimental INRA flock composed of two divergent lines for milk yield. Secondly, genetic parameters for SCC were estimated from 5 272 first lactation Lacaune ewes recorded among 38 flocks, using an animal model. In the experimental flock, the frequency of culling due to clinical mastitis (5% was lower than that of subclinical mastitis (10% predicted from SCC. Predicted subclinical mastitis was unfavourably associated with the milk yield level. Such an antagonism was not detected for clinical mastitis, which could result, to some extent, from its low frequency or from the limited amount of data. In practice, however, selection for mastitis resistance could be limited in a first approach to selection against subclinical mastitis using SCC. The heritability estimate of SCC was 0.15 for the lactation mean trait and varied from 0.04 to 0.12 from the first to the fifth test-day. The genetic correlation between lactation SCC and milk yield was slightly positive (0.15 but showed a strong evolution during lactation, i.e. from favourable (-0.48 to antagonistic (0.27. On a lactation basis, our results suggest that selection for mastitis resistance based on SCC is feasible. Patterns for genetic parameters within first lactation, however, require further confirmation and investigation.

  10. Treatment of mastitis during lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Pyörälä S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, bec...

  11. Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes in two seasons in Semnan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narenji Sani, Reza; Mahdavi, Ali; Moezifar, Melika

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-one dairy ewe flocks selected by stratified random sampling were subjected to study the prevalence and etiology of subclinical intramammary infections and to assess the influence of parity on the prevalence of intramammary infections. Also, spontaneous cure rates were determined over study period. A total of 1192 milk samples were collected at 2 weeks after lambing until tenth-week postpartum. All flocks had hand milking; those which were classified by bacterial culture and California Mastitis Test (CMT) as positive were deemed to have glands with subclinical mastitis (SCM). Of 1192 halves examined, 791 samples were collected during spring and 401 samples were collected during summer. Prevalence rate of SCM in spring was 14.7 %; and spontaneous cure that occurred in this season was 88.8 %; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most common isolates (66.6 %). Samples collected in spring showed higher prevalence rate of SCM than summer samples. This rate was 8.9 % in summer. Spontaneous cure rate in this season was 69.4 %, and Staphylococcus aureus (72.2 %) was the most common isolates. SCM was seen at significantly lower rates in left half than in right one (p?clinical mastitis (defined as number of clinical cases per 100 ewe-months) was 0.21 and 0.74 in spring and summer, respectively. The isolates from clinical cases in spring were fungi and, from summer, were S. aureus. Also, S. aureus SCM cases were not significantly severe than other SCM cases. In conclusion, multiparous ewes were most at risk, and severity of infection was higher in summer. PMID:26041046

  12. Neonatal Mastitis: A Clinico-Microbiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Talat Masoodi; Gowhar Nazir Mufti; Javeed Iqbal Bhat; Rubina Lone; Syed Arshi; Syed Khurshid Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neonatal breast hypertrophy is a common phenomenon in term infants, superadded infection can lead to mastitis and that can progress to breast abscess with short and long term detrimental effects. Our effort is to study the prevalence, risk factors, the current microbial profile and sensitivity pattern in these infections in order to suggest an optimal treatment plan for these patients. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Hospital based study conducted in Kashmir on the native population....

  13. Feline gangrenous mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Courtney R.

    2013-01-01

    A 3.7-kg, 3-year-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with the chief complaint of anorexia and lethargy of 3 days duration with a noticeable decrease in body condition and a large open wound on her ventral caudal abdomen. A diagnosis of acute mastitis with gland abscessation was made. The patient was successfully treated with oral antibiotics and open wound management using surgical debridement and lavage followed by wound dressings using honey.

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains 1303 and ECC-1470 Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection. PMID:25814601

  15. Corynebacterium accolens Isolated from Breast Abscess: Possible Association with Granulomatous Mastitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Lei M. N.; Brown, Hamish

    2007-01-01

    Corynebacterium accolens is rarely isolated as a human pathogen. We describe here a case of C. accolens isolated from a breast abscess in a patient previously diagnosed with granulomatous mastitis. The possible association of Corynebacterium accolens and granulomatous mastitis in this patient is discussed.

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains 1303 and ECC-1470 Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection.

  17. Frequência de Staphylococcus aureus em casos de mastite bovina subclínica, na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul / Frequency of staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.S., Bandeira; T., Picoli; J.L., Zani; W.P. da, Silva; G., Fischer.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A mastite bovina é uma doença importante na exploração leiteira, não apenas pelas perdas econômicas diretas que promove, mas também pelas perdas indiretas e o potencial risco à saúde pública. Dentre as principais causas de infecções intramamárias, destacam-se as bactérias do gênero Staphylococcus sp [...] p., sendo que Staphylococcus aureus é o agente etiológico predominante em mastite subclínica. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar a frequência de mastite subclínica em oito rebanhos localizados na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) e a relação da enfermidade com a presença de S. aureus. Adicionalmente, pesquisou-se a presença de S. intermedius e S. hyicus nas amostras de leite obtidas. Para identificação da doença, utilizou-se o California Mastitis Test (CMT). A identificação da espécie de Staphylococcus spp. foi feita em meio de cultura ágar Baird-Parker, com posterior confirmação das colônias suspeitas em coloração de gram, prova de catalase, pesquisa de coagulase livre e pesquisa de termonuclease. A mastite subclínica foi constatada em 53,6% dos animais testados. A presença de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva foi identificada em 12,6% dos animais com mastite subclínica. Nesses mesmos animais, a bactéria identificada como S. aureus foi o agente etiológico presente em 17,6% dos casos. Adicionalmente, pode-se perceber que, dentre o grupo identificado como coagulase positiva, 85,7% corresponderam a S. aureus, enquanto 8,5% mostraram características bioquímicas compatíveis com S. intermedius e 5,8% foram consideradas S. hyicus. Abstract in english Bovine mastitis is an important disease in dairy farming, not only by promoting direct economic losses, but also for indirect losses and the potential risk to public health. The main causes of intramammary infections include the bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus being [...] the predominant etiologic agent in subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of subclinical mastitis in eight herds from southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and the relationship of the disease with the presence of S. aureus. In addition, we checked for the presence of S. intermedius and S. hyicus in the milk samples obtained. For identification of the disease, we used the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Identification of Staphylococcus spp. species was made in Barid-Parker agar culture medium, with subsequent confirmation of suspected colonies by way of Gram stain and catalase test along with free-coagulase and thermonuclease research. Subclinical mastitis was identified in 53.6% of animals tested. The presence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was identified in 12.6% of animals with subclinical mastitis. In these same animals, bacteria identified as S. aureus were the etiologic agent present in 17.6% of cases. Additionally, it was revealed that among the group identified as coagulase positive, 85.7% corresponded to S. aureus, while 8.5% had biochemical characteristics consistent with S. intermedius and 5.8% were considered S. hyicus.

  18. Using Disguised Clinical Case Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    When, why, and how clinicians decide to write about clients are ethical concerns. There are risks and potential clinical ramifications as well as responsibilities for how these decisions are made. On the basis of 141 interviews with psychoanalysts who have published in 3 major national and international psychoanalytic journals, the author explores…

  19. Efeito da suplementação de selênio e vitamina E sobre a incidência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça holandesa Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on incidence of clinical mastitis in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Paschoal

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e quatro vacas da raça holandesa foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos (grupos: o grupo A recebeu 5mg Se/dia, o B recebeu 1000 UI vit. E/dia, o C 5mg Se + 1000 UI vit. E/dia e o D foi usado como controle. A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas quinzenalmente para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de Se e de vit. E. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, ao parto, aos 30 e aos 60 dias após o parto para determinação dos níveis de Se no soro sangüíneo das vacas. O teste de Tamis foi realizado semanalmente para detecção dos casos clínicos de mastite e iniciado logo após o parto, prolongando-se até a 12ª semana da lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos de Se superiores (PEighty four Holstein cows were randomly allotted to four groups: group A was supplemented with 5mg Se/day, group B with 1000 IU vitamin E/day, group C with 5mg Se/day+1000 IU vitamin E/day and D was used as a control. The supplementation period started 30 days prior to probable parturition date and ended at parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical, selenium and vitamin E analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, at parturition, and at 30 and 60 days after parturition to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test was weekly done to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration in comparison to the control group (P<0.05. The vitamin E (P<0.05 as well as selenium supplementation (P<0.08 decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis during the first 12 weeks of the lactation period.

  20. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and risk factors associated with bovine mastitis in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina C. Krewer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the etiology of mastitis, determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and to identify the risk factors associated with infection in dairy cows in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco, Brazil. From the 2,064 milk samples analyzed, 2.6% were associated with cases of clinical mastitis and 28.2% with subclinical mastitis. In the microbiological culture, Staphylococcus spp. (49.1% and Corynebacterium spp. (35.3% were the main agents found, followed by Prototheca spp. (4.6% and Gram negative bacilli (3.6%. In the antimicrobial susceptibility testing, all 218 Staphylococcus spp. were susceptible to rifampicin and the least effective drug was amoxicillin (32.6%. Multidrug resistance to three or more drugs was observed in 65.6% of Staphylococcus spp. The risk factors identified for mastitis were the extensive production system, not providing feed supplements, teat drying process, not disinfecting the teats before and after milking, and inadequate hygiene habits of the milking workers. The presence of multiresistant isolates in bovine milk demonstrates the importance of the choice and appropriate use of antimicrobial agents. Prophylactic and control measures, including teat antisepsis and best practices for achieving hygienic milking should be established in order to prevent new cases of the disease in herds.

  1. Diabetic Lymphocytic Mastitis: A Clinico-Imaging Mimicker of Malignancy [Clinico-Pathologic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita B. Sankaye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and imaging appearance of diabetic lymphocytic mastitis and stromal fibrosis very much resembles a malignant lesion. These clinico-imaging findings are not specific and often create doubts about possibility of underlying malignancy ultimately leading to biopsy. Accurate diagnosis can reduce patient`s anxiety and prevent unnecessary surgery as these lesions are known to recur. Therefore, we present a classic case of this entity for the benefit of one and all. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 950-954

  2. Using Clinical Cases to Teach General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…

  3. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, L P; Mark, T

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits and lactation average somatic cell count from 5 to 170 d after first calving (LASCC170) with another index consisting of 1 unspecific mastitis trait and LASCC170. Economic values were estimated for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from €149 to €570 per mastitis case and were highest for contagious pathogens such as Staph. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci and lowest for Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. The value for unspecific mastitis was €231 per case. Selection differentials (in €) were estimated for 4 different selection indices, including 1) unspecific mastitis, 2) unspecific mastitis and LASCC170, 3) 5 pathogen-specific mastitis traits and unspecific residual mastitis (unspecific mastitis treatments minus mastitis treatments caused by the 5 pathogens), and 4) as index 3 including LASCC170. The breeding goal was identical to selection index 3. Mastitis data from primiparous cows calving from 1998 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic parameters of the mastitis traits using linear models and AI-REML algorithm. These parameters were used for construction of the selection index equations. For the selection indices, information sources were measurements of mastitis treatments and LASCC170 from 50, 80, or 130 daughters of a bull as well as measurements of mastitis treatments from 1,000 progeny of the bull's sire and 1,000 daughters of his maternal grandsire. Differences in selection differentials were marginal among the 4 indices. Without considering LASCC170, the selection differential of an unspecific mastitis index was €0.4 (<1%) better than that of a pathogen-specific index. On the other hand, the selection differential of the pathogen-specific index was €0.3 (<1%) better than that of an unspecific index when LASCC170 was included in the indices. Reliabilities of the selection indices were 0.62 to 0.67 (80 daughters) and were proportional to the selection differential. Changing the number of daughters to 50 or 130 did not change ranking of the indices. Heritabilities of the pathogen-specific traits were very low (h2=0.005â€"0.021) compared with unspecific mastitis (h2=0.062), which may limit the selection differential of the pathogen-specific index

  4. Mastitis bovina por Prototheca zopfii: primer aislamiento en Chile / Bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: first isolation in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Zaror; K, Valenzuela; J, Kruze.

    Full Text Available El género Prototheca está formado por microalgas unicelulares sin clorofila, ampliamente distribuidas en el medio ambiente, algunas de las cuales pueden ser patógenas para el hombre y animales. Sin embargo, no existen antecedentes bibliográficos previos sobre la existencia de estas algas patógenas p [...] ara el hombre y animales en Chile. Se examinó bacteriológicamente un total de 200 muestras de leche provenientes de 150 vacas lecheras con mastitis clínica, las cuales fueron sembradas en medio PIM modificado, selectivo para Prototheca. Se aisló Prototheca spp. en dos ocasiones consecutivas de una misma vaca muestreada con un intervalo de dos meses. El examen microscópico directo de las muestras de leche en fresco reveló la presencia células características de Prototheca spp. Mediante asimilación de fuentes de carbono se identificó la especie como P. zopfii, constituyendo el primer aislamiento de este agente a partir de un cuadro de mastitis clínica bovina en Chile. Este hallazgo es relevante para los programas de control de mastitis bovina en los rebaños lecheros ya que es un organismo poco frecuente y desconocido que no responde a los tratamientos antibióticos convencionales. Abstract in english The genus Prototheca includes unicellular achlorophyllous microalgae widely distributed in the environment, some of which could be pathogenic for human and animals. However, there is no previous report regarding these pathogenic microalgae causing infections in man or animals in Chile. Two-hundred m [...] ilk samples collected from 150 dairy cows with clinical mastitis were inoculated onto PIM modified medium. Prototheca spp was isolated on two consecutive occasions from one cow sampled two months apart. Direct microscopic examination of wet smears made from milk samples revealed typical Prototheca cells. Biochemical tests based on carbon source assimilation identified the organism as Prototheca zopfii. This finding represents the first isolation of this environmental alga from bovine mastitis in Chile. This could be of great importance for mastitis control programs in dairy herds as Prototheca is an uncommon mastitis pathogen that does not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

  5. [Bladder carcinosarcoma. A clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Outeiriño, J M; León Dueñas, E; Romero Gil, J R; Leal López, A

    1995-03-01

    Presentation of a new case of vesical carcinosarcoma in a 49 year-old male patient. The tumour's pathoanatomical study showed an epithelial pattern of transitional and squamous cells and a sarcomatous pattern composed of rabdomiosarcoma, osteochondrosarcoma and pleomorphous indifferentiated sarcoma with giant multinuclear cells. Histogenesis, signs and symptoms, and treatment, as well as the need of performing an immunohistochemical study for its diagnosis are discussed. PMID:8659281

  6. Enzyme activity and acute phase proteins in milk utilized as indicators of acute clinical E. coli LPS-induced mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; RØntved, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of non-visual and on-line monitoring of udder health increases as the contact between humans and animals decreases, for example, in robotic milking systems. Several indicator systems have been introduced commercially, and a number of techniques are currently in use. This study describes the kinetics of seven indigenous milk parameters for monitoring udder inflammation in an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin)-induced mastitis model. Proportional milk from LPS-infused quarters was compared with milk from parallel quarters, which were placebo-treated with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. Somatic cell counts (SCCs), the acute phase proteins (APP), that is, milk amyloid A (MAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), and the enzymes N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were measured at fixed intervals during the period from -2 to +5 days after LPS and NaCl infusions. All parameters responded significantly faster and were more pronounced to the LPS infusions compared with the NaCl infusions. All parameters were elevated in the proportional milk collected at the first milking 7 h after infusion and developed a monophasic response, except Hp and MAA that developed biphasic response. SCC, LDH, NAGase and Hp peaked at 21 h followed by AP, AcP and MAA peaking at 31 h with the highest fold changes seen for MAA (23 780×), LDH (126×), NAGase (50×) and Hp (16×). In the recovery phase, AP, AcP and Hp reached base levels first, at 117 h, whereas LDH, NAGase and MAA remained elevated following the pattern of SCC. Minor increases of the milk parameters were also seen in the neighboring (healthy) quarters. Distinction between inflamed and healthy quarters was possible for all the parameters, but only for a limited time frame for AP and AcP. Hence, when tested in an LPS mastitis model, the enzymes LDH, NAGase and AP in several aspects performed equally with SCC and APP as inflammatory milk indicators of mastitis. Furthermore, these enzymes appear potent in the assessment of a valuable time sequence of inflammation, a necessary ingredient in modeling of programs in in-line surveillance systems.

  7. ROLE OF NEUTROPHILS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF BOVINE COLIFORM MASTITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Around parturition dairy cows are at increased risk for intramammary coliform infections. A high proportion of these infections may develop disease characterized by inflammatory signs and sepsis during the first 60-70 days of lactation. The clinical picture is reputed as toxic mastitis. There is a r...

  8. Development of an improved Streptococcus uberis experimental mastitis challenge model using different doses and strains in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazandi, Manouchehr; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Perry, Jeanette; Hickey, Elizabeth; Page, Stephen; Garg, Sanjay; Petrovski, Kiro R

    2015-11-01

    Developing a reliable mastitis challenge infection model is required to test new intramammary antimicrobial preparations, other novel bovine mastitis treatments, and study mastitis pathogenesis. Three treatment groups of Holstein Friesian cows in active lactation were administered two doses (104 and 106 cfu/quarter) on a single occasion with one of the three Streptococcus uberis strains (BFR6019, MFF1283 and SA002) suspended in 5 ml of sterile PBS, administered via intramammary inoculation immediately after milking. All quarters that were challenged with S. uberis strains MLF1283 and BFR6019 showed clinical signs of mastitis on day 1 and 2 after the challenge. Strain SA002 had a lower rate of inducing clinical mastitis which was detected later than day 3 after the challenge. We successfully developed a rapid and reliable model for inducing experimental S. uberis mastitis with 100% success rate in cows in active lactation. On the basis of the correlation results between strains, RAPD fingerprinting results, clinical findings, and a 100% success rate of mastitis induction for low and high doses S. uberis strains MLF1283 and BFR6019, strain virulence seems to be a more important effect than challenge dose in induction of clinical mastitis following experimental challenge. PMID:26190128

  9. Congenital pancreas malformations: a clinical case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, A.; Baptista, H; Oliveira, FJ

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review the congenital malformation known as agenesis of the dorsal pancreas (ADP) and other pancreatic birth defects, based on a rare and exemplary clinical case of pancreatic malformations. The intent was to review the latest information published in the national and international literature on pancreatic birth defects, and to investigate the diversity of clinical presentations of ADP and other congenital pancreas abnormalities. The purpose was to identify w...

  10. [Report of an amyopathic dermatomyositis clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paulo; Duarte, Cátia; Salvador, Maria João; Malcata, Armando

    2009-01-01

    The authors report a clinical case of a 41-years-old man with astenia and myalgias maintained for many years without an accurate diagnosis. Amyopathic dermatomyositis was diagnosed based on the presence of typical cutaneous lesions and the absence of myositis. Subsequent evidence of subclinical myositis allowed the diagnosis of hypomyophatic dermatomyositis. Finally, the diagnosis of classical dermatomyositis could be made when the patient presented elevated levels of muscle enzimes. There was a good clinical response to imunossupressor therapy and the patient remains asymptomatic. Differences in the clinical management of amyopathic, hypomyopathic and classic dermatomyositis are discussed. PMID:19474781

  11. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quali...

  12. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of ...

  13. Status of mastitis as an emerging disease in improved and periurban dairy farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sachin; Gokhale, Suresh

    2006-10-01

    While reviewing present status of mastitis in India, results of investigations from periurban dairy farms on epidemiological, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, bacterial isolation, in vitro drug sensitivity, and treatment of subclinical mastitis have been presented. Mastitis, on account of its causing serious wastage and undesirable milk quality, is emerging as a major challenge among the others (like breeding improvement, nutrition management, control of infectious, tick-borne, blood, and internal parasitic diseases) in dairy development of tropics. Subclinical mastitis was found more important in India (varying from 10-50% in cows and 5-20% in buffaloes) than clinical mastitis (1-10%). The incidence was highest in Purebred Holsteins and Jerseys and lowest in local cattle and buffaloes. An investigation on 250 animals from periurban farms indicated that the monsoon season was more prone to subclinical mastitis than summer or winter, prevalence increased with higher lactation number and animals in 4th-5th month of lactation were found more susceptible (59.49%), hind quarters were found more affected (56.52%) than fore quarters (43.47%). The factors like herd size, agro climatic conditions of the region, variations in sociocultural practices, milk marketing, literacy level of the animal owner, system of feeding, and management were found important affecting the incidence of subclinical mastitis. Comparison of efficacy of different diagnostic techniques for subclinical mastitis, such as modified California mastitis test (MCMT), bromo thymol blue (BTB), modified whiteside test, trypsin inhibition test, milk pH, and electric conductivity indicated MCMT to be most sensitive (95.16%) and specific (98.02%) test. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that most of the bacterial strains (gram positive, gram negative, and mixed) isolated from subclinical mastitis milk samples, were highly sensitive to enrofloxacin 53.91%, least sensitive to oxytetracycline 17.39% and ampicillin 7.83%, and resistant to streptomycin. The therapy with enrofloxacin and nimesulide was found more efficacious (92.30%) in treating subclinical mastitis cows. It was concluded that consideration of socioecological factors for mastitis control in periurban area would help to reduce the cost of mastitis control in clean milk production. PMID:17135496

  14. Advance modern medicine with clinical case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J.

    2014-01-01

    Randomized clinical trial (RCT) can fail to demonstrate the richness of individual patient characteristics. Given the unpredictable nature of medicine, a patient may present in an unusual way, have a strange new pathology, or react to a medical intervention in a manner not seen before. The publication of these novelties as case reports is a fundamental way of conveying medical knowledge. Throughout history there have been famous case studies that shaped the way we view health and disease. Cas...

  15. Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A

    Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from the estimated effect: creating stop gain/loss, affecting splice site or RNA structure (RNAsnp), predicted disruptiveness (SIFT), occurring in miRNA or miRNA target site, or in UTR or ncSNP overlapping with a GERP element. Their effects on mastitis traits were estimated in new validation samples from Finnish Ayrshire (SCC, clinical mastitis, udder conformation) and Valdostana (SCC, milk bacteriological results). Furthermore, association analysis across the regions was performed with a linear mixed model using imputed sequence for 845 Danish Red sires with nine mastitis phenotypes. Associations in five regions (on BTA3, BTA6, BTA8, BTA19, and BTA27) agreed across the breeds, but no identical associated SNPs were detected. Higher power (imputation to bigger population samples) will be needed to confirm results. On BTA6 the results indicate several QTL within a 5 Mb region. The results provide a basis for functional studies of promising candidates. The information can also be used for prior weighting of genomic segments in genomic selection

  16. BACTEREMIA NOT DETECTED DURING EXPERIMENTAL COLIFORM MASTITIS INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bacteremia, caused by diverse species, was associated with about one third of acute coliform mastitis cases occurring in a field study report. However, blood is typically a very hostile environment for bacteria. Using blood from normal cows we demonstrate that when 2000 CFU of Escherichia coli o...

  17. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a great imitator?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiter, Annabel M; Vegting, Irene L; Nanayakkara, Prabath W. B.

    2010-01-01

    The patient in this case was seen by numerous doctors for a long time before the diagnosis was made because, right from the start, an abscess or a cancer of the breast was suspected. She was first seen by her general practitioner (GP); thereafter, she went to two consultant physicians and a surgeon in a regional hospital and eventually an idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) diagnosis was made by a specialist in internal medicine in a university hospital. When the diagnosis IGM was made, t...

  18. [Bacteriological diagnosis with Petrifilm of mastitis pathogens in milk samples from each quarter and bulk milk samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömker, V; Hauptmann, T; Bormann, A

    2007-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate four different Petrifllm products (3M, Neuss) for detection of mastitis pathogens in quarter and bulk milk samples, comparing them to the results of standard microbiological techniques. The aim of experiment 1 was to determine the sensitivity of 3M Rapid Coliform Count Plate in identifying clinical mastitis cases caused by coliform bacteria. Within 12 h of incubation, three times more coliform bacteria could be identified with Petrifilm than with the standard technique. For a valid result, milk samples must be free of contamination. Experiment 2 focused on whether Petrifilm was able to monitor S. aureus on bulk milk level in herds being infected with this pathogen. In relation to the gold standard (combination of both procedures (standard and Petrifilm, prevalence 52%), sensitivity for the standard procedure amounted to 15.4% and to 94% for Petrifilm. In Experiment 3 the combination of several Petrifilm (RUEGG, 2004) was compared with the standard diagnostic technique (gold standard). Sensitivity of the Petrifilm method approached the assumed gold standard to 43% and specificity to 29%. The positive predictive value of 28% showed that both procedures are not directly comparable with each other. Due to the definition of a gold standard, the weaknesses of the classical technique can be interpreted as a disadvantage of the Petrifilm procedure. The strength of the available Petrifilm as mastitis diagnostic tools is the identification of S. aureus and coliform microorganisms, moreover E. coli. PMID:17970336

  19. Dentine in a capsule: Clinical case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Kenchappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodentine TM , a calcium silicate based material has been popular now and can be used as an alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA due to superior physical and biologic properties. It has been known by several terms as Biodentine, dentin substitute, and RD 94. It has varied clinical applications such as apexification, apexogenesis, pulpotomy, internal resorption, root perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping procedure, and dentin replacement. This article describes the clinical case reports using Biodentine in apexification, apexogenesis, pulpotomy, and root perforation repair.

  20. Dentine in a capsule: clinical case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenchappa, Mallikarjuna; Gupta, Shilpi; Gupta, Puneet; Sharma, Priyamvada

    2015-01-01

    Biodentine TM , a calcium silicate based material has been popular now and can be used as an alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) due to superior physical and biologic properties. It has been known by several terms as Biodentine, dentin substitute, and RD 94. It has varied clinical applications such as apexification, apexogenesis, pulpotomy, internal resorption, root perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping procedure, and dentin replacement. This article describes the clinical case reports using Biodentine in apexification, apexogenesis, pulpotomy, and root perforation repair. PMID:26156282

  1. Silent pituitary adenomas: review and clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Konstantinovna Lipatenkova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Silent, or clinically nonfunctioning adenomas are morphologically heterogeneous group, characterized by positive immunoreactivity for one or more hormones classically secreted by normal pituitary cells but without clinical expression. Although in some occasions enhanced or changed secretory activity can develop over time. According to immunoreactivity they are divided into "silent" gonado-, cortico-, somato -, mammo – and thyrotropinomas, oncocytomas, «zero-cell» tumors. All types of "silent" adenomas have different biological activity, secretory capacity and outcomes in the postoperative period. This series of clinical cases shows more «aggressiveness», a higher risk of relapse for "silent" cortico- and somatotropinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis of residual tissue can be used to identify patients with high risk of recurrence, to develop optimal treatment and follow-up.

  2. Graves Disease And Down Sindrome : Clinical Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scrinic Olesea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pacients with Down’s syndrome present an increase revalence of autoimune endocrine disorders. We communicate the case of 14 years and 6 months old pacient known with Down syndrome admitted in Endocrinology department with suspicion of hyperthyroidism, the diagnosis being confirmed by hormonal dosage. The particularity of the case consists in: symptomatology onset during puberty, clinical evolution with mild symptoms, without ocular involvement, morphological and functional remission obtained relatively soon after the initiation of antithyroid therapy, lack of posttherapy side effects, favorabile evolution under the “block and replace” therapy

  3. External cervical resorption: clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hansel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available External cervical resorption (ECR is an invasive type of resorption that begins below the gingival epithelium and affects mineralized tissues, e.g., cementum and dentin. Most authors refer to dental trauma, whitening agents, and orthodontic treatment as etiologic factors of ECR; clinical diagnosis is performed via inspection of the gingival groove and margin. In this scenario, cone beam computed tomography has become a highly valuable ancillary method, as it allows to assess the proximity between the resorption and the pulp cavity, and thus, plan treatment. This article describes, in the form of a clinical case report, the diagnosis and treatment of a case of ECR affecting tooth no. 11, classified as Class III according to Heitersay’s classification. Surgical approach, restoration and clinical follow-up over 2-years of follow-up are described. In view of the clinical and radiographic findings observed during follow-up, it can be concluded that treatment was successful in healing periodontal tissues, suggesting a good prognosis.

  4. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Entwistle Vikki A; Snowdon Claire; Garcia Jo; Knight Rosemary C; Shakur Haleema; Elbourne Diana R; Roberts Ian; Francis David; McDonald Alison M; Grant Adrian M; Campbell Marion K

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, o...

  5. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reactions — Clinical Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete GyL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tatooing has been practiced for thousands of years. It has become a common practice for people of Western countries in the last 10-20 years, where approximately 3-5% of the population has at least one tattoo. Various pigmented substances introduced into the skin may cause the occurrence of adverse irritative, immunological, infectious or other reactions of the skin. We present three clinical cases with adverse reactions after tattooing.

  6. Cost of Mastitis in Scottish Dairy Herds with Low and High Subclinical Mastitis Problems

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Cengiz

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of mastitis and the contribution of each cost component of mastitis to the total mastitis induced cost in herds with low and high levels of subclinical mastitis under Scottish field conditions. It was estimated that mastitis cost £140 per cow/year to the average Scottish dairy farmer in 1996. However, this figure was as low as £69 per cow/year in herds with lower levels of subclinical mastitis, and as high as £228 cow/year in herds with high s...

  7. Mastitis granulomatosa idiopática: 10 años de experiencia en el Centro de Imagenología del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tamara, Ramírez P; Alejandra, López P; Patricia, Arancibia H; Carla, Sáez T; Lorena, Díaz C; Teresa, Taub E; Leonor, Moyano S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis granulomatosa idiopática es una patología inflamatoria de la mama poco frecuente, de etiología desconocida. Dado su forma de presentación clínica e imágenes puede simular tanto patología infecciosa como neoplásica, por lo que es importante sospecharla con el fin de realizar un diagnóstic [...] o adecuado y oportuno. La mayoría de los reportes en la literatura sobre esta patología corresponden a series de pocos casos. En este estudio se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos, ima-genológicos y de manejo de 36 casos diagnosticados mediante biopsia Core bajo ecografía en el Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile entre los años 2004 y 2014. En este reporte, al igual que en la literatura, los hallazgos clínicos e imagenológicos de la mastitis granulomatosa se superponen con los de la patología maligna e infecciosa. Si bien no observamos hallazgos patognomónicos, existen signos que hacen sospechar esta patología. En nuestro estudio encontramos que la presentación clínica más frecuente fue la masa o nódulo palpable, seguida de fístulas a la piel y engrosamiento cutáneo. Imagenológicamente el hallazgo mamográfico más frecuente fue la asimetría y en ecografía fue el área irregular con extensiones tubulares hipoecogénicas. Se revisan además aspectos histológicos, fisiopatológicos y del manejo de esta patología. Abstract in english Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is an infrequent inflammatory disease of the breast, with etiology still unknown. Clinical presentation and images can simulate both infectious and neoplastic disease so it's important to suspect it to make a proper and timely diagnosis. Most reports in the literatu [...] re on this topic correspond to small case series. This study is a retrospective analysis of the clinical, histopathological and imaging features and its management of 36 cases diagnosed by core biopsy under ultrasound at the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile between 2004 and 2014. In this report, as in the literature, clinical and imaging findings in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis overlap with malignant and infectious diseases. Although we observed no pathognomonic findings, there are signs that make you suspect this condition. In our study we found that the most common clinical presentation was a palpable mass or nodule, followed by cutaneous fistula. Radiologically the most common mammographic finding was lobulated or irregular area and in ultrasound the most frecuent is the distorted breast parenchyma with posterior acoustic shadowing. Histological, pathophysiological and management aspects of this pathology was also reviewed.

  8. The clinical case for proton beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert L; Stafford, Scott L; Petersen, Ivy A; Pulido, Jose S; Clarke, Michelle J; Schild, Steven E; Garces, Yolanda I; Olivier, Kenneth R; Miller, Robert C; Haddock, Michael G; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia N; Arndt, Carola A S; Buskirk, Steven J; Miller, Vickie L; Brent, Christopher R; Kruse, Jon J; Ezzell, Gary A; Herman, Michael G; Gunderson, Leonard L; Erlichman, Charles; Diasio, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. SUMMARY SENTENCE: Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy. PMID:23083010

  9. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foote Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.

  10. Epidemiological Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy cows in Assiut Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Rady

    Full Text Available In this investigation, some epidemiological studies were run on subclinical mastitis for totally 350 dairy cows of different breeds, ages and distributed in different villages in Assiut governorate, Assiut, Egypt, along a whole year (during the period from June 2006 till July 2007 through field screening surveys by using of the California mastitis test (CMT for each quarter milk sample followed by bacteriological examination to identify the major causative agents of intramammary infection (IMI. The dairy cows were differed from the breed point of view as 230 Holstein Friesian breed and 120 native breed. Also, they were differed from the age point of view as a group of 95 cows aged from 2 to 4 years old and another group of 255 cow aged from 5 to 8 years old. All dairy cows were apparently healthy with clinically sound udder secreting apparently normal milk. All the cows lived nearly under the same conditions of breeding from the habitat, hygiene and feeding systems. The obtained results revealed that 67 cows (19.14% had 80 infected quarters (5.71%. It was found that the most frequently major causative agents isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli from the positive CMT samples with prevalence 52.5, 31.25 and 16.25%, respectively. With studying the breed factor, it was found Friesian breed was sensitive towards infection (20.43% at the cow level and 6.09% at the quarter level than of native breed (16.67% at the cow level and 5% at the quarter level. It was also noticed that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in hot weather as during summer (9.14% at the cow level and 2.64% at the quarter level and during spring (4.86% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level was higher than in cold weather as during winter (2% at the cow level and 0.64% at the quarter level and during autumn (3.14% at the cow level and 1.07% at the quarter level. In relation to age susceptibility, 5-8 years old cows (15.43% at the cow level and 4.36% at the quarter level were susceptible than those of 2-4 years (3.71% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level. The degree of quarter attack according to positive CMT was varied from 35 quarters (2.50% showed degree (+++, to 45 ones (3.22% showed degree (++, to 120 ones (8.57% showed degree (+ and the rest (85.71% showed degree (-. The obtained results threw the light on the epidemiology of subclinical mastitis in Assiut villages and provided an importance of the CMT for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis due to it is a reliable, easy, rapid and cheap tool helping in diagnosis and controlling the disease because it directs attention to individual mammary quarter that is secreting milk of high somatic cell content (SCC. Programs for control of subclinical mastitis may be planned around the routine examination of all lactating cows, and consequently early treatment can be applied towards positive cases rapidly for preventing their conversion towards clinical form among dairy cows and for protecting the herd health, milk hygiene and consequently the consumer health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 373-380

  11. Multiple malignant tumors – a clinical case

    OpenAIRE

    Daciana N. Chiril?; C?t?lina I. Bung?rdean; Tudor R. Pop; ?tefan C. Vesa; Nicolae A. Constantea

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We present a clinical case of an old woman who suffered at different ages surgical excisions for three different primarymalignant tumors. The patient is now 86 years old. She was diagnosed at the age of 35 with a malignant tumor of the corpus uteri, and thenwhen she was 78 with a basocellular carcinoma of the nose skin and at 81 she was diagnosed with an ascendant large bowel adenocarcinoma.Despite the occurrence of three different tumors she is alive five years later and cancer-fr...

  12. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Chih-Hsun; Hsu Chih-Wei; Tsao Tang-Yi; Chou Jason

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228

  13. Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

  14. Vacinação com Escherichia coli J5 no pré-parto e ocorrência de mastite e produção de leite de vacas mestiças leiteiras / Escherichia coli J5 vaccination during pre-calving and mastitis and milk production of crossbred cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.V., Maia; L.R., Molina; E.J., Facury Filho; R.L., Gonçalves; L.P.V., Moreira; A.Ú., Carvalho.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 no período pré-parto e a ocorrência de mastite e de produção de leite. Foram utilizadas 93 vacas, sendo 43 vacinadas e 50 não vacinadas. Para a análise dos dados de produção e CCS (contagem de células somáticas), utilizou-se delineamento inteir [...] amente ao acaso em sistemas de parcelas subdivididas. Os dados de CCS e duração de casos clínicos de mastite foram transformados em Log10CCS. Para as médias de CCS e a duração de casos clínicos, usou-se o teste t. Para comparações de médias de recidivas de casos clínicos, usou-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. Para frequência de microrganismos e de mastite subclínica, usou-se o teste de qui-quadrado. A interação dessas variáveis foi analisada pelo teste de McNemar. Não houve redução na prevalência de infecções por coliformes entre a secagem e o parto nos dois grupos. A duração total dos casos clínicos de mastite em animais que apresentaram mastite clínica foi menor em vacas vacinadas. O número de episódios clínicos e a intensidade dos casos clínicos não diferiu entre os grupos. A prevalência de animais com mastite subclínica no pós-parto e a (CCS) nos 100 primeiros dias de lactação foram mais baixas no grupo de animais vacinados. Não foi observada diferença na produção de leite entre os grupos. A vacinação de vacas com E. coli J5 melhora a saúde da glândula mamária de vacas leiteiras e, consequentemente, reduz a prevalência de animais com mastite subclínica no pós-parto, bem como a duração dos casos clínicos de mastite e a CCS nos 100 primeiros dias de lactação. Abstract in english The effect of immunization with Escherichia coli J5 vaccine in the pre-partum on the occurrence of mastitis and milk production in crossbred dairy cows was evaluated. Ninety-three cows were used as follows: forty-three were vaccinated and fifty cows were unvaccinated. For the production analysis, da [...] ta and CCS were used in a completely randomized split-plot system. CCS data and duration of clinical cases of mastitis were transformed into Log10CCS. For the CSS averages and duration of clinical cases we used the t test. For comparisons of means of recurrences of clinical cases we used the Mann-Whitney test. For frequency of subclinical mastitis organisms and we used the chi-square test. The interaction of these variables was analyzed using the McNemar test. There was no reduction in the prevalence of infections caused by coliforms between drying-off and parturition in both groups. The total duration of clinical mastitis in animals with clinical mastitis was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. The number of clinical episodes and intensity of clinical cases did not differ between groups. The prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum and somatic cell count (SCC) in the first 100 days of lactation was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated cows. However, there was no difference in milk production between groups. Vaccination of cows with E. coli J5 improves mammary gland health by reducing the prevalence of animals with subclinical mastitis at postpartum, as well as the duration of the clinical cases of mastitis and SCC in the first 100 days of lactation.

  15. SLAP lesions: Clinical experience of 63 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Jiménez-Martín; FJ, Santos-Yubero; M, Zurera-Carmona; FJ, Najarro-Cid; FJ, Chaqués-Asensi; S, Pérez-Hidalgo.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Superior Labrum Anterior and Posterior injuries or SLAP injuries have a frequency of 3.9% to 12%, and up to 35% in contact sportsmen. Our purpose is to check this pathology in our centre and to value clinical and working final results after its treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observa [...] tional, descriptive and retrospective study of 63 patients. Medium age, sex, laterality, profession, type of SLAP, associated injuries, surgical techniques, complications, and Rowe, Constant and UCLA tests among other data, are analysed. RESULTS: 89% men, 11% women. Median age 45.3 ± 9.8 years. Right shoulders: 68%; left 32%. Intra-operative data: predominant SLAP type was type II (59.5%). We achieved subacromial decompression in 43.5% of cases. Rowe's test: 84.5 ± 18.3 points; Constant's test 72 ± 20.4 points; UCLA test: 29.5 ± 9.1 points. CONCLUSION: SLAP injuries constitute an important reason for shoulder pain in the labour world, although it is probably unsuspected. Treatment by means of shoulder arthroscopy with bioabsorbable bioknotless anchors is successful in many cases in allowing patients to show clinical improvement and return to work. Other concomitant injuries to SLAP must be investigated to optimise the results of surgical treatment.

  16. Bovine mastitis in the metropolitan area of Curitiba: antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial control of the infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luis, Parada; Dicezar, Gonçalves; Vanete Tomaz, Soccol; Marisa, Lima; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A study from cows with mastitis was performed and Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen in 46.4 % among 153 studied strains from 276 milk samples of infected cows. Antibiotic resistance of 71 S. aureus isolates was determined in order to search resistant strains to antibiotics of clinic [...] al interest, as well as to determine their degree of multi-resistance. It was found that 60% of the S. aureus strains presented resistance to ?-lactams, but none to oxacillin, teicoplamin or vancomycin. On the other hand, with the aim of reducing the use of current antibiotics and their associated resistance, a new formulation was introduced. The antimicrobial compounds (P22-P32), demonstrated to be effective in 55% of the 76 mastitis cases studied. The use of P22-P32 reduced the number of somatic cell to less than 300,000 SCC/mL-1 in 75.2 % of milk samples analyzed, normalizing the milk quality, fat and lactose levels and increasing the volume of production in 10.1 %.

  17. Hubungan antara pH Susu dengan Jumlah Sel Somatik Sebagai Parameter Mastitis Subklinik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sudarwanto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to measure the relationship of the pH value to the somatic cell count as a parameter of sub clinical mastitis detection. Two hundreds quarter milk samples were used in this research and the test (the pH value, IPB-1 mastitis test and Breed method was done in parallel way. The results showed that 152 samples from 200 samples (76% tested with Breed method came from the herds which suffered from sub-clinical mastitis and with IPB-1 test showed that 145 (72.5% of the samples had positive reaction. Using pH meter, it showed that 44 samples (22 % had pH > 6.75, presumed suffered from sub-clinical mastitis and 2 samples (1% showed pH < 6.30 (6.25 and 6.28. At the same time, these two samples showed a negative reaction with IPB-1 test and had somatic cell count of 360,000/ml and 280,000/ml, each. It also showed that there was a close relationship between pH value and IPB-1 test. The conclusion of this research was that the measurement of pH value was not a sensitive method for detecting sub-clinical mastitis.

  18. Effects of environmental modification on mastitis occurrence and hormonal changes in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R.P. Arcaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of evaporative cooling in freestall on mastitis occurrence, milk production, and composition, as well as cortisol, T3 (triiodothyronine, and T4 (thyroxin levels in lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows averaging 70 ± 10 day postpartum were used in four treatments from January to March 2003. The treatments were: Day (cooling from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.; Night (cooling from 7:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.; 24-hour (cooling 24-hour; and Control (no cooling. Wired cup test was used for clinical mastitis diagnosis, and the California Mastitis Test (CMT was used to identify subclinical mastitis. Blood and milk samples were taken weekly for microbiological and hormonal analyses. The cortisol levels were higher than normal values in all treatment groups, suggesting stress conditions, but T3 and T4 levels remained normal in all groups. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis was lower in Day and Night groups than in Control and 24-hour groups. Regarding the microbiological analyses, in all groups the isolation of Corynebacterium sp. from milk samples increased while negative coagulase staphylococci (CNS declined as etiological agents of subclinical mastitis. However, in Day and 24-hour groups, coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS increased mainly Staphylococcus aureus (49.8% and 47.7% respectively. The Night group showed a decrease in subclinical mastitis occurrences. Our data indicate that all animals subjected to treatments presented high levels of cortisol, indicating a stress condition. The Night treatment presented a reduction in microbial isolation, suggesting a reduced susceptibility to mastitis.

  19. Multiple malignant tumors – a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daciana N. Chiril?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We present a clinical case of an old woman who suffered at different ages surgical excisions for three different primarymalignant tumors. The patient is now 86 years old. She was diagnosed at the age of 35 with a malignant tumor of the corpus uteri, and thenwhen she was 78 with a basocellular carcinoma of the nose skin and at 81 she was diagnosed with an ascendant large bowel adenocarcinoma.Despite the occurrence of three different tumors she is alive five years later and cancer-free, but suffering because of other medical diseasesincluding diabetes, hypertension, myocardial ischemia and migraines. Conclusion: a patient diagnosed with a cancer and who survive from itmust be submitted to periodically medical controls because of the possibility to develop several other cancers. With an increasing survival inpatients after malignant tumors therapy, there is an increased risk to develop other cancers as the patients are getting older.

  20. Influência da escala de produção no impacto econômico da mastite em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros / Influence of production scale in the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiana Alves, Demeu; Marcos Aurélio, Lopes; Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da, Rocha; Geraldo Márcio da, Costa; Glauber dos, Santos; Agnelo Franco, Neto.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram analisar e quantificar a influência da escala de produção no impacto econômico da mastite em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros. A pesquisa foi realizada, por meio de simulação, no sistema computacional CU$TO MASTITE, com rebanhos leiteiros de 50, 100 e 150 vacas em lactaçã [...] o. Foram consideradas como de prevenção as despesas com monitoramento (cultura e antibiograma, CCST e CCSI), pré e pós dipping, vacinação, tratamento de vacas secas e manutenção de ordenhadeira. Como medidas curativas, consideraram-se os tratamentos com casos clínicos, cuja percentagem foi de 7% das vacas em lactação. O impacto da mastite foi estimado como sendo o total de perdas, acrescido das despesas com prevenção e tratamento de casos clínicos. O aumento da escala de produção resultou em menor impacto econômico da mastite por vaca em lactação. Quando se analisou o efeito da escala de produção, os maiores responsáveis pelo impacto econômico foram, em ordem decrescente, as perdas com descarte de leite, o tratamento curativo de animais acometidos clinicamente e a redução da produção de leite. As despesas com tratamento preventivo representaram, no máximo, 11,7% do impacto econômico, o que demonstra vantagens em investir nessa prática, que irá contribuir significativamente para diminuição do impacto econômico da mastite Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to analyze and to quantify the influence of the production scale on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds. The study was conducted through a simulation in the computer system 'CU$TO MASTITE' ('MASTITIS CO$T'), considering dairy cattle with 50; 100 and [...] 150 lactating cows. Monitoring expenses (culture and antibiogram, CCST and CCSI), pre and post dipping, vaccination, treatment of dry cows and milking maintenance, were considered as prevention. The treatments with clinical cases, which had a 7% percentage of lactating cows were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as the total of losses plus expenses with prevention and the treatments of clinical cases. The increase of the production scale resulted in a lower economic impact of mastitis per lactating cow. When the effect of the production scale was analyzed, the losses with milk disposal, curative treatment of clinically affectedanimals and a decrease in milk production were the factors that most affected the economic impact, in a descending order. Expenses with preventive treatment accounted for, at maximum, 11.7% of the economic impact, which demonstrates advantages of investing on that practice because it will contribute significantly for the reduction of the economic impact caused by mastitis

  1. Cystic Neutrophilic Granulomatous Mastitis: Further Characterization of a Distinctive Histopathologic Entity Not Always Demonstrably Attributable to Corynebacterium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Moo, Tracy-Ann; Arleo, Elizabeth K; Cheng, Esther; Antonio, Lilian B; Hoda, Syed A

    2015-10-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is an uncommon condition that typically occurs in parous, reproductive-aged women and can simulate malignancy on the basis of clinical and imaging features. A distinctive histologic pattern termed cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis (CNGM) is seen in some cases of GLM and has been associated with Corynebacterium infection. We sought to further characterize the clinical, imaging, and histopathologic features of CNGM by studying 12 cases and attempted to establish the relationship of this disease with Corynebacterium infection. Patients were women ranging in age from 25 to 49 years (median: 34 y), and all presented with a palpable mass that was painful in half of the cases. In 2 of 9 cases, imaging was highly suspicious for malignancy (BI-RADS 5). CNGM was characterized by lobulocentric granulomas with mixed inflammation and clear vacuoles lined by neutrophils within granulomas. Gram-positive bacilli were identified in 5/12 cases. In 4 patients, the disease process worsened after the diagnostic core biopsy, with the development of a draining sinus in 2 cases. No growth of bacteria was seen in any microbial cultures. No bacterial DNA was identified by 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction for 1 case that showed gram-positive bacilli on histology. Patients were treated with variable combinations of surgery, antibiotics, and steroids. The time to significant resolution of symptoms ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Similar to other forms of GLM, CNGM can mimic malignancy clinically and on imaging. When encountered in a needle core biopsy sample, recognition of the characteristic histologic pattern and its possible association with Corynebacterium infection can help guide treatment. PMID:26200100

  2. Evaluation and Treatment of Surgical Management of Silicone Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Scott; Lim, Alan A.

    2012-01-01

    Injected liquid silicone continues to be employed by unscrupulous practitioners in many parts of the world for the purpose of breast augmentation. Complications vary; however, inflammation, foreign body reaction, and granuloma formation often lead to painful and disfigured breasts. Furthermore, migrations of silicone to remote tissues cause additional problems. We present a review of cases and propose an updated algorithm for the diagnosis and management silicone mastitis. We describe two rep...

  3. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying an internal quality control strain, i.e. including the same strain of Streptococcus agalactiae in all iterations of the proficiency test, served to gauge the bias caused by the year-to-year variation in the selection of test strains. A total of 73% of all uploaded results over the years were correct, with the internal quality control strain exhibiting a statistically significant ascending trend from 54% correct identifications in 2006 to 91% in 2011 (p-value=0.0082; n=13).Even if specifics were not recorded as regards the laboratory methods employed at the veterinary clinics for identification of mastitis pathogens, the results from this study indicate that the practices’ application of basic biochemical analyses in this context could be optimized. In addition, dissemination of information on new methods and updated nomenclature appeared to be an area which future efforts with advantage could aim at.

  4. EVALUACIÓN DE LA SENSIBILIDAD Y ESPECIFICIDAD DEL DIAGNÓSTICO MOLECULAR DEL Staphylococcus aureus EN LECHE DE VACAS AFECTADAS POR MASTITIS / EVALUATION OF SENSITIVITY AN SPECIFICITY OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS FOR Staphylococcus aureus IN MILK OF COWS AFFECTED BY MASTITIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Restrepo; Luisa, Ortiz; Ximena, Cardona; Martha, Olivera.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre los agentes contagiosos que inducen mastitis severas en la vaca, se encuentra el Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), de difícil cura bacteriológica y alta resistencia antimicrobiana. Debido a que el cultivo microbiológico de las muestras clínicas, solo ofrece resultado en un 50% de los casos (1 [...] ) el diagnóstico por PCR es una alternativa. El objetivo de este estudio fue probar si los cebadores descritos por Cremonesi et al. (2) para el diagnóstico de S. aureus, como de buena sensibilidad y especificidad, sirven para ser usados en muestras clínicas. Los resultados demostraron que las siguientes secuencias de nucleótidos como cebadores: F 5' AGC TGT GGA TTG TCC TTT GG 3' y R 5' TCG CTC GCT CAC CTT AGA A 3', para obtener un amplificado de 499 pb no sirven en muestras clínicas por su baja especificidad (62,95%). Se requiere buscar nuevos cebadores que amplifiquen regiones del S. aureus que no se compartan con otras bacterias, en especial aquellas que producen mastitis en vacas productoras de leche. Abstract in english Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the infectious agents that induce severe mastitis in cows with a difficult bacteriological cure and high antimicrobial resistance. Because the microbiological culture of clinical samples only shows results in 50% of the cases (Koskinen et al., 2009), diagn [...] ostic through PCR is an alternative. The aim of this study was to prove if the primers described by Cremonesi et al. (2006) for the S. aureus diagnosis, with good sensitivity and specificity, could be used in clinical samples too. The results showed that the following nucleotide sequences can be used as primers: F 5' AGC TGT GGA TTG TCC TTT GG 3' and R 5' TCG CTC GCT CAC CTT AGA A 3' in order to obtain a 499 pb enlargemenr are not useful in clinical samples due their low specificity (62.95%). It is required to search new primers to amplify S. aureus regions not shared with other bacteria, especially those cauding mastitis in dairy cows.

  5. Molecular basis of virulence in Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Seyffert, Nubia; Jardin, Julien; Hernandez, David; Jan, Gwenaël; Rault, Lucie; Azevedo, Vasco; Francois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; van de Guchte, Maarten; Even, Sergine; Berkova, Nadia; Thiéry, Richard; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Vautor, Eric

    2011-01-01

    S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection.

  6. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B; Jensen, Katrine Fogsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables.

  7. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Esherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B.; Fogsgaard, Katrine; Røntved, Christine Maria; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Herskin, Mette S.

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables.

  8. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  9. Osteopontin: an early innate immune marker of Escherichia coli mastitis harbors genetic polymorphisms with possible links with resistance to mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Pierre Jessika

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is the most important disease in dairy cows and it causes significant lost of profit to producers. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis. The progeny of dairy cows would benefit from receiving favourable alleles that support greater resistance to infection, thus reducing antibiotic use. This study aims to identify a key gene in the innate immune response to mastitis, led us to evaluate its genetic association with somatic cell score (SCS, which is an indicator of clinical mastitis, and to evaluate its impact on other traits related to milk production. Results The osteopontin transcript (SPP1 was identified in the somatic cells from cows experimentally infected with Escherichia coli. By selecting bulls with extreme estimated breeding values (EBVs for SCS, which is an indicator of mammary gland health, four DNA polymorphisms in the SPP1 genomic sequence were found. Statistical analysis revealed that the SNP SPP1c.-1301G>A has an impact on EBV for SCS (P SPP1c.-1251C>T, SPP1c.-430G>A, and SPP1c.*40A>C have an impact on SCS whereas SPP1c.-1301G>A has an effect on the EBVs for milk yield (second and third lactations, fat and protein percentages (all three lactations. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences between haplotype groups at a comparison-wise level with sire EBVS for SCS for the first (P = 0.012, second (P P Conclusion This study reports the link between DNA polymorphisms of SPP1, the number of milk immune cells and, potentially, the susceptibility to mastitis. These SNPs were identified by in silico search to be located in transcription factor recognition sites which factors are presumably involved in the Th1 immune response and in the Th2 regulation pathway. Indeed, one SNP abolished the SP1 recognition site, whereas another SNP affected the transcription binding factor IKAROS. All together, these findings support the genetic potential of these variants in terms of selection for the improvement of mastitis resistance in dairy cows.

  10. EFECTO DE LA MASTITIS SUBCLÍNICA SOBRE EL RENDIMIENTO EN LA FABRICACIÓN DEL QUESO COSTEÑO / THE EFFECT OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS ON COASTAL CHEESE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso, Calderón; Margarita Rosa, Arteaga; Virginia Consuelo, Rodríguez; Germán Javier, Arrieta; Diana Carolina, Bermudez; Viviana Patrícia, Villareal.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La inflamación de las glándulas mamarias produce un descenso en la síntesis de los diferentes componentes de la leche, como respuesta para neutralizar agentes infecciosos, reparar el epitelio alveolar y retornar a la función normal. En la mastitis clínica y subclínica, hay un aumento del número de c [...] élulas somáticas cuya función es fagocitar, lisar a los patógenos, remover los deshechos producidos en el foco de infección mediante enzimas bacterianas que se incorporan a la leche reduciendo la vida útil de los diferentes derivados. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la mastitis subclínica sobre el rendimiento del queso costeño. Se realizó un estudio observacional transversal, en una empresa ganadera con dos grupos, seleccionando cinco cuartos con resultados grado 3 del CMT y 5 cuartos con reacciones negativas al CMT. Se minimizó la variabilidad por raza y lactancia. Los análisis fisicoquímicos se efectuaron por triplicado y se llevaron a cabo, teniendo en cuenta los métodos referenciados, el RCS se realizó en un contador electrónico de células somáticas. Los resultados de la calidad fisicoquímica de la leche con y sin mastitis, se compararon por medio de la prueba t-Student y se procesaron en el software SAS 9.0. Los quesos elaborados con leches sin mastitis subclínicas mostraron un 5.8 % de mayor rendimiento sobre los quesos elaborados con leches provenientes de vacas con mastitis subclínica. El rendimiento de la leche en la elaboración de queso costeño está directamente relacionado con el número de células somáticas. Abstract in english The mammary gland inflammation diminishes the synthesis of different milk compounds as a response to neutralize pathogens, repair the alveolar epithelium and return to normal functioning. In clinical and subclinical mastitis there is a significant increase of somatic cell count whose function is to [...] phagocytose, lyse pathogens, and to remove wastes in the infection focus through bacterial enzymes that are added to milk, reducing the life span of different derivates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical mastitis on coastal cheese production efficiency. A cross sectional observational study was carried out in a cattle enterprise having two groups from which five quarters with California Mastitis Test grade 3 and five quarters with negative California Mastitis Test reaction were selected. The variability by breed and lactation was minimized. The physical and chemical milk analyses were done in triplicate and were carried put considering reference methods. The somatic cells count was measured with an electronic somatic cell counter. The results of the physicochemical quality of the milk with and without mastitis were compared using the t-Student test and were processed using the SAS software 9.0. The cheese made using milk without sub clinic mastitis showed 5.8% better output over the cheese prepared with milk coming from cows with sub clinic mastitis. The efficiency of milk in the production of coastal cheese is directly related with somatic cell counts.

  11. [Neonatal Dengue. Presentation of clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Santacruz, Edith; Lira-Canul, Janeth Jaqueline; Pacheco-Tugores, Fredy; Palma-Chan, Adolfo Gonzalo

    2015-05-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by a flavivirus, with four serotypes, transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In Mexico it is a public health problem, especially in the region of central and southeast of the country. The disease can be asymptomatic or present serious forms and even death. It is confirmed by detection of the NS1 Antigen; IgM antibodies, polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation. The vertical transmission to de newborn has been little studied. 7 cases in neonates from November to December 2011 are reported. All patients were male, obtained by caesarean section between 34 and 40 weeks of gestation, whose mothers were enrolled with fever and symptoms associated with dengue disease and serology positive for dengue. Six with positive AgNS1 and one positive IgM; one mother died. All the newborns had positive serology for dengue, 4 with positive AgNS1 and 3 positive IgM. The clinical features of the newborn ranged from asymptomatic to one serious dengue fever, shock and hemorrhage. The symptomatic 6 attended with thrombocytopenia, changes in temperature and unspecific disturbance. The severity of mothers conditioned disrepair product at birth, but not with subsequent gravity of the new born. Vertical trasmission of dengue should be suspected in risk areas, to maintain vigilance and to give early treatment. Also is neccesary promote the realization of specific diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines to the neonatal period. PMID:26233977

  12. Evaluation and treatment of surgical management of silicone mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injected liquid silicone continues to be employed by unscrupulous practitioners in many parts of the world for the purpose of breast augmentation. Complications vary; however, inflammation, foreign body reaction, and granuloma formation often lead to painful and disfigured breasts. Furthermore, migrations of silicone to remote tissues cause additional problems. We present a review of cases and propose an updated algorithm for the diagnosis and management silicone mastitis. We describe two representative cases of mastitis cause by injected liquid silicone. Patients uniformly developed inflammation and granuloma formation causing painful and disfigured breasts. Each patient required bilateral mastectomy and breast reconstruction. Although injection of liquid silicone has been condemned by the legitimate medical community for the purpose of breast augmentation, it continues to be illicitly performed and there exists a sizable patient population suffering from the complications of this procedure. Accurate identification requires a high index of suspicion in patients presenting with firm and painful breasts. An aggressive management strategy is recommended in the setting of silicone mastitis due to the risk of obscuring malignancy.

  13. Utilization of zinc methionine supplementation in Friesian cows: somatic cell count in milk and mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two hundreds and forty lactating Friesian cows on the 1st to 8th of lactation and different stages of lactation were used to study some factors affecting on somatic cell count and its effects on milk yield and composition. Also, 12 normal cows, 15 subclinical and 15 clinical mastitis cows were used to study the effect of zinc methionine supplementation on somatic cell count and mastitis. Cows were divided into three similar groups, the first groups was unsupplemented, while the second and third groups were supplemented with 5 and 10 gm zinc methionine / head / day, respectively. Subclinical and clinical mastitis cows were intramammary injected by antibiotic Gentamast (Gentamicin 100 mg) till complete recovery. The obtained results showed that winter season showed significantly (P < 0.05) the highest somatic cell count followed by summer season, while the lowest value was in autumn season. Somatic cell count tended to decrease with the progress of lactation up to the peak period and increased significantly (P < 0.05) thereafter and also with the progress number of lactation. The percentages of normal, subclinical and clinical mastitis cows were 77.71, 15.82 and 6.46%, respectively. Milk yield and composition and its output decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing somatic cell count. Zinc methionine supplementation resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decrease in somatic cell count in milk. Zinc methionine supplementation for subclinical and clinical mastitis cows led to significant decrease (P < 0.05) on somatic cell count, electrical conductivity, recovery time and the cost of therapy compared with unsupplemented group. It could be concluded that increasing somatic cell count decreased milk yield and composition. Zinc methionine supplementation at the level of 5 g per head daily to lactating Friesian cows reduced somatic cell count in milk, recovery time and therapy cost of mastitis. (author)

  14. Tonsillolith: A report of three clinical cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariela Dura Gontijo de, Moura; Davidson Fróis, Madureira; Luiz Cláudio, Noman-Ferreira; Evandro Neves, Abdo; Evandro Guimarães de, Aguiar; Freire, Addah Regina da Silva.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El tonsilolito es una calcificación distrófica rara que surge como consecuencia de la inflamación crónica de las amígdalas. Se relatan tres casos asintomáticos de tonsilolitos, descubiertos durante el examen radiográfico de rutina por medio de radiografías panorámicas, que mostraron distintos tamaño [...] s de imágenes radiopacas, que variaron entre 2 y 5 mm. Los casos I y III presentaron imágenes que no se sobrepusieron a la línea de la mandíbula, lo que condujo a un diagnóstico probable de calcificación de tejido suave. El caso II tenía una imagen radiopaca unilateral, con densidad ósea, sobreponiéndose a la línea de la mandíbula, conduciendo a una lesión benigna intra-ósea, que fue considerada como el diagnóstico diferencial. No se encontraron síntomas en ningún caso. Sólo el caso I tenía características clínicas, mostrando unas placas blancas, visibles a través de la mucosa. Fueron solicitadas tomografías computarizadas de la región maxilo-facial para averiguar la ubicación exacta de estas imágenes, ya que la mayor parte de la superposición de las imágenes radiopacas en la línea mandibular era muy similar a anormalidades intra-óseas. Las tomografías computarizadas mostraron imágenes hiperdensas en las amígdalas palatinas, confirmando el diagnóstico de tonsilolitos. Los pacientes están actualmente en seguimiento. No se requiere tratamiento si no existen síntomas. Concluyendo que los tonsilolitos pueden mostrar imágenes en las radiografías panorámicas similares a alteraciones intra-óseas. El diagnostico es relativamente fácil cuando la tomografía computarizada es solicitada, a pesar de que las imágenes no son patognomónicas. Abstract in english Tonsillolith is a rare dystrophic calcification as a result of chronic inflammation of the tonsils. Three asymptomatic cases of tonsillolith are reported, incidentally discovered through panoramic radiographs, which showed different sizes of radiopaque images, varying from 2 to 5mm; cases I and III [...] images did not overlap the mandible ramus, which led to a probable diagnosis of soft tissue calcification. Case II had radiopaque unilateral images, with osseous tissue density, overlapping the mandibular ramus, leading to a benign intra-osseous lesion, which was considered as differential diagnosis. No symptoms were reported in any case. Only case I had clinical characteristics, showing highly consistent white plaques partially visible through the mucosa. Computed tomography of the maxillofacial region/head and neck were requested to find out the exact location of these images, since most of the overlapping radiopaque images in the mandibular ramus were very similar to intra-osseous abnormalities. The computed tomography showed hyperdense images in the palatine tonsils, confirming the diagnosis of tonsillolith. The patients are currently under follow-up. No treatment is required if there is no symptom. In conclusion, tonsillolith might show images on panoramic radiographs similar to intra osseous abnormalities. The diagnosis is relatively easy when computed tomography is requested, although the images are not pathognomonic. Therefore, clinicians should consider other pathologies as differential diagnosis.

  15. Mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum en una paciente HIV negativa Mastitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo J. Palmero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente HIV negativa de 39 años con una mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum, sin antecedentes patogénicos previos. Fue tratada en base a las pruebas de susceptibilidad a antibióticos y quimioterápicos y a la evidencia empírica citada por la bibliografía, con kanamicina, doxiciclina, ciprofloxacina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se obtuvo la remisión completa de sus lesiones luego de 15 meses de tratamiento. Se comenta la capacidad de producir lesiones de esta micobacteria de crecimiento rápido, su diagnóstico y tratamiento.A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented.

  16. Mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum en una paciente HIV negativa / Mastitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Domingo J., Palmero; Marta G., Ambroggi; Susana E., Poggi.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente HIV negativa de 39 años con una mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum, sin antecedentes patogénicos previos. Fue tratada en base a las pruebas de susceptibilidad a antibióticos y quimioterápicos y a la evidencia empírica citada por la bibliografía, con kanamicina, [...] doxiciclina, ciprofloxacina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se obtuvo la remisión completa de sus lesiones luego de 15 meses de tratamiento. Se comenta la capacidad de producir lesiones de esta micobacteria de crecimiento rápido, su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Abstract in english A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sul [...] fametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented.

  17. Factores asociados a mastitis en vacas de la microcuenca lechera del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia / Factors Associated to Mastitis in Cows from the Dairy Production Basin in the Northern Highlands of Antioquia, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nicolás, Ramírez Vásquez; Ofelia, Arroyave Henao; Mario, Cerón-Muñoz; Manuel, Jaramillo; Juan, Cerón; Luis Guillermo, Palacio.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatores associados à mastite em vacas da microbacia leiteira do altiplano norte da Antioquia, Colômbia [...] Abstract in spanish Se efectuó un estudio de corte sobre la prevalencia de mastitis bovina en una muestra representativa de las granjas lecheras del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia. Se evaluaron los resultados del California Mastitis Test (CMT), Recuento de Células Somáticas (RCS) y cultivo bacteriológico de lec [...] he, y se analizaron los factores de riesgo asociados a mastitis bovina. El análisis estadístico de la información se efectuó por medio de estadística descriptiva, análisis de razón de prevalencias y regresión logística multinivel. Con la prueba de CMT se detectó un 20% de cuartos afectados con mastitis, la prevalencia de mastitis sub-clínica por vaca fue del 39,5% y la de mastitis clínica fue del 1,7%. Se efectuaron 648 cultivos de muestras de leche, de las cuales 23,9% fueron negativas, 34% positivas a Streptococcus agalactiae y 10,2% a Estafilococo coagulasa negativo. El análisis de regresión reveló que las vacas que tuvieron más de seis meses de lactancia presentaron una Odds Ratio (OR) de 2,65 en comparación con las de un mes de lactancia (p Abstract in english A study was conducted on the prevalence of bovine mastitis in a representative sample from dairy farms in the northern highlands of Antioquia, Colombia. The results of California Mastitis Test (CMT) were evaluated, as well as the Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and the bacteriological culture of milk. The [...] risk factors associated with bovine mastitis were also analyzed, and the statistical analysis of the information was made through descriptive statistics, prevalence ratio analysis and multilevel logistic regression. The CMT test detected that 20% of the cow were affected with mastitis, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis per cow was of 39.5%, and of clinical mastitis was 1.7%. Six hundred and forty eight (648) cultures were made of milk samples, 23.9% of which came out negative, 34% positive with Streptococcus agalactiae, and 10.2% with coagulase-negative staphylococci. The regression analysis revealed that cows that had more than six months of lactation showed an Odds Ratio (OR) of 2.65 compared to cows that had one month of lactation (p

  18. RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL IN CHIKUNGUNYA ARTHRITIS CASES

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    Mansoor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus is no stranger to the Indian sub- continent. Since its first isolation in Calcutta [1] in 1963, there have been several reports of chikung unya virus infection in different parts of India [2], [3], [4]. The last outbreak of chikungunya virus infection o ccurred in India in 1971. Subsequently there has been no activ e or passive surveillance carried out in the country and therefore, it ‘seemed’ that the virus h ad ‘disappeared’ from the subcontinent [5] However, recent reports of large scale outbreaks of fever caused by chikungunya virus infection in several parts of Southern India have confirmed th e re-emergence of this virus. It has been estimated that over 1,80,000 cases have occurred in India since December 2005 [6] Andhra Pradesh (AP was the first state to report this dise ase in December 2005, and one of the worst affected (over 80,000 suspected cases . Over 12% of patients who contract chikungunya virus infection develop chronic joint symptoms [7] . OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of chloroquine in reducing the pain of chikungunya induced arthritis a s compared to paracetamol. METHODOLOGY: A Randomized Clinical Trial was carried out in a c ommunity attached to urban health centre of PESIMSR, Kuppam during August 2006. Among the 132 cases of arthritis, 86 persons were selected based on their availability and consent to participate. They were divided into two randomly assigned groups namely Cat egory–1(Chloroquine group and Category–2 ( Paracetamol group. Chloroquine tablet -155 mg and Paracetamol tablet - 500 mg were administered as a single dose to the two groups respectively. The groups were followed up for 8 days and the results were analyzed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Analysis was carried out by using S.P.S.S. package. Asymptoic test statistic an d X 2 MH (Chi square test were used to evaluate the effect of the drugs. RESULTS OF THE STUDY: The decrease of pain in chikungunya arthritis cases was significant in the mild and mod erate pain categories with ‘p’ values of 0.0117 and 0.0129 respectively. Asymptoic test statistic was 1.70 for chloroquine gr oup and ?²MH was 2.76 (’P’ value between 0.05 to 0.1.OR= 48.59.Incidence Risk Ratio for chloroquine was 1.52 with CI ; 1.14 – 1.90.The efficacy of chloroquine in reducing pain i n arthritis was 51.83% ( effect size.The logistic equivalents of odds for chloroquine and par acetamol group were 0.41 and 0.02 respectively in logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Choloroquine is more efficient in reducing the pain of chikungunya arthritis as compar ed to paracetamol in both sexes and in all age groups.

  19. Efeito da suplementação de vitamina A sobre a incidência de mastite em vacas da raça Holandesa Effect of vitamin A on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Paschoal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the influence of prepartum vitamin A supplementation on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Forty two cows were randomly distributed into blocks according to the parity and divided in two treatments: control and supplemented with 180,000IU vit.A/day. The supplementation started 30 days before probable parturition date up to parturition. The Tamis test was performed weekly for clinical mastitis detection, and milk samples were collected for somatic cell counts. Vitamin A treatment decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis (P<0.05, however no effect on milk somatic cell count was observed.

  20. Efeito da suplementação de vitamina A sobre a incidência de mastite em vacas da raça Holandesa / Effect of vitamin A on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.J., Paschoal; M.A., Zanetti.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This experiment was designed to evaluate the influence of prepartum vitamin A supplementation on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Forty two cows were randomly distributed into blocks according to the parity and divided in two treatments: control and supplemented with 180,000IU vit.A/day. The [...] supplementation started 30 days before probable parturition date up to parturition. The Tamis test was performed weekly for clinical mastitis detection, and milk samples were collected for somatic cell counts. Vitamin A treatment decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis (P

  1. Preliminary study of homeopathic treatment of subclinical mastitis evaluated through somatic cells count (SCC) and California mastitis test (CMT) Estudio preliminar del tratamiento homeopático de la mastitis sublínica evaluado mediante recuento de células somáticas (SCC) y California Mastitis Test (CMT) Estudo preliminar do tratamento homeopático da mastite subclínica avaliado por contagem de células somáticas (SCC) e California Mastitis Test (CMT)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Dias Barzon; Franciele de Medeiros; Roberson Eduardo Moraes; Luiz Cláudio Monteiro da Silva; Carlos Massambani; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Zilda Cristiani Gazim

    2008-01-01

    The present paper presents the results of homeopathic treatment of 25 Holstein breed cows aged 3 to 8 years old diagnosed with subclinical mastitis through California Mastitis Test (CMT). Animals were divided into 3 groups according with infection level. A homeopathic complex was developed on the grounds of clinical aspects, including Phosphorus 30x, Phytolacca 30x, Silicea 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x and biotherapic of Staphylococcus aure...

  2. An outbreak of acute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coliform mastitis is described in a dairy herd from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During a four-month period 14 fatal cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae-related mastitis were observed in a herd of 104 lactating cows. The symptoms included peracute enterotoxemia in which the cows died 6 to 12 h after the detection of mastitis by CMT. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae were also isolated although could not be associated with cases of acute fatal mastitis. Milking practices were also evaluated. The milking machine was being used correctly and adequate precautions for hygiene and pre-milking and post-milking teat dipping were used. The organism was sensitive to gentamicin. Therapy for acute toxic mastitis required early action for the treatment of infections, involving corticosteroids and fluid therapy. The use of a Klebsiella vaccine produced from the microorganisms isolated from the herd, associated with hygiene measures, resulted in the control of the outbreak.

  3. Facilitating Case Studies in Massage Therapy Clinical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Baskwill, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The integration of evidence into reflective health care practice has been on the rise in recent years and is a phenomenon that has affected all health care professions, including massage therapy. Clinical case studies are a research design that follows one patient or subject, making the studies ideal for use in clinical practice. They are valuable for communicating information from clinical practice to the broader community. Case studies have face validity that may be more valuable to individ...

  4. Mammographic and sonographic features of tuberculous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From December 1999 to April 2001, 10 cases of tuberculous mastitis were presented to the Radiology Unit at the Medical Research Institute of Alexandria University for mammographic and sonographic evaluation. Sixty percent presented with masses, 50% mastalgia, 40% discharge, and 10% complained of skin sinus. In 30% of the patients the complaint was bilateral. All cases underwent full mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) studies, and US-guided fine needle aspiration. Also pathological, bacteriological analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done to all patients to prove the tuberculous nature of their lesions. Thirty percent of the cases had surgical excision on their masses. On mammography 30% were found to have mass lesion mimicking malignant tumors, 40% smooth bordered masses, 40% axillary or intramammary adenopathy, 30% asymmetric density, 30% duct ectasia, 20% with skin thickening and nipple retraction, 20% with macrocalcification, and 10% with skin sinus. On US 60% had hypoechoic masses, 40% focal or sectorial duct ectasia, and 50% axillary adenopathy. History of tuberculosis was found in 30% of the cases. Chest X-ray was positive in 20% and breast magnetic resonance imaging was done to one patient who had skin sinus

  5. Mammographic and sonographic features of tuberculous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakr, Ayman A. E-mail: fahmi.sakr@link.netaymansakr12345@hotmail.com; Fawzy, Rawya K.; Fadaly, Gylan; Baky, Moustafa Abdel

    2004-07-01

    From December 1999 to April 2001, 10 cases of tuberculous mastitis were presented to the Radiology Unit at the Medical Research Institute of Alexandria University for mammographic and sonographic evaluation. Sixty percent presented with masses, 50% mastalgia, 40% discharge, and 10% complained of skin sinus. In 30% of the patients the complaint was bilateral. All cases underwent full mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) studies, and US-guided fine needle aspiration. Also pathological, bacteriological analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done to all patients to prove the tuberculous nature of their lesions. Thirty percent of the cases had surgical excision on their masses. On mammography 30% were found to have mass lesion mimicking malignant tumors, 40% smooth bordered masses, 40% axillary or intramammary adenopathy, 30% asymmetric density, 30% duct ectasia, 20% with skin thickening and nipple retraction, 20% with macrocalcification, and 10% with skin sinus. On US 60% had hypoechoic masses, 40% focal or sectorial duct ectasia, and 50% axillary adenopathy. History of tuberculosis was found in 30% of the cases. Chest X-ray was positive in 20% and breast magnetic resonance imaging was done to one patient who had skin sinus.

  6. Mastitis in One Humped She-Camels (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan

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    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish data on mastitis in she-camels in Jordan. Milk samples were collected from 90 dromedary camels in south province of Jordan. California Mastitis Test (CMT gave results with 70 milk samples; 42 samples (60% showed positive CMT. Infection with some bacterial species was associated with positive CMT. About 21% of the camels revealed clinical signs of mastitis. The highest percentage of bacterial count, which range from 3.0x102 to <3.0x103 cfu mL-1, was founded in the milk samples. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Gentamycin, Ampicillin and Tetracycline were the most effective antimicrobial agents against the bacterial isolates.

  7. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Radhwane, Saidi; Djamel, Khelef; Rachid, Kaidi.

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the [...] positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%).

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Plant-Derived Diterpenes against Bovine Mastitis Bacteria

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    Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL?1 against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect, but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis.

  9. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhwane Saidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed ??Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40% was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%, Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%, Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%, S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%, and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%.

  10. Infrared thermography of the udder after experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Moritz; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Seemueller, Andrea; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm

    2015-06-01

    The study aimed to use infrared thermography (IRT) to evaluate the changes in udder surface temperature after induction of Escherichia coli mastitis in the right hind quarter. Over a time period of 24?h before to 24?h post-inoculation, thermograms of both hind quarters were taken every 2?h to determine maximum (Tmax) and average (Tavg) temperatures. Differences in both maximum and average temperatures (DTmax and DTavg) were calculated, as well as temperature differences between both hind quarters. All cows developed signs of clinical mastitis with a significant increase in DTmax and DTavg with Tmax at 13?h post-inoculation for the (non-infected) left hind quarters. The results demonstrate that detection of mastitis using IRT is possible if the interval between examinations does not exceed 2?h. PMID:25957921

  11. EFFECT OF MASTITIS AND POSTPARTUM METABOLIC DISEASES ON LACTATION PERSISTENCY OF HOLSTEIN AND JERSEY COWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) and post-partum metabolic disease (PPMD) on persistency of milk yield (P) in Holstein (H) and Jersey (J) cows. Data consisted of daily milk yields and health events for 59 H and 27 J calving between July, 2004 and ...

  12. Genome Sequences of Klebsiella variicola Isolates from Dairy Animals with Bovine Mastitis from Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Fraser W; Whitney, Hugh G; Tahlan, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella variicola was recently reported as an emerging and/or previously misidentified species associated with opportunistic infections in humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of K. variicola isolates from two animals with clinical mastitis from a dairy farm in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:26358587

  13. Prevalence of some mastitis causes in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

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    A.A. Al-Juboori1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis, the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67% in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%, Enterobacter spp. (15.00%, C. pyogenes (10.00%, Micrococcus spp. (5.00%, Pasteurells spp. (5.00% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%. Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.

  14. Genome Sequences of Klebsiella variicola Isolates from Dairy Animals with Bovine Mastitis from Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Fraser W.; Whitney, Hugh G.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella variicola was recently reported as an emerging and/or previously misidentified species associated with opportunistic infections in humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of K. variicola isolates from two animals with clinical mastitis from a dairy farm in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:26358587

  15. Mycoplasma bovis infections in Swiss dairy cattle: a clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart H P; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case-control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One control herd with no history of clinical mycoplasmosis, matched for herd size, was randomly selected within a 10 km range for each case herd. Animal health data, production data, information on milking and feeding-management, housing and presence of potential stress- factors were collected. Composite quarter milk samples were aseptically collected from all lactating cows and 5% of all animals within each herd were sampled by nasal swabs. Organ samples of culled diseased cows were collected when logistically possible. All samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In case herds, incidence risk of pneumonia, arthritis and clinical mastitis prior to the first visit and incidence rates of clinical mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two visits was estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis infection. In case herds, incidence risk of M. bovis mastitis prior to the first visit ranged from 2 to 15%, whereas 2 to 35% of the cows suffered from clinical pneumonia within the 12 months prior to the first herd visit. The incidence rates of mycoplasmal mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two herd visits were low in case herds (0-0.1 per animal year at risk and 0.1-0.6 per animal year at risk, respectively). In the retrospective-case-control study high mean milk production, appropriate stimulation until milk-let-down, fore-stripping, animal movements (cattle shows and trade), presence of stress-factors, and use of a specific brand of milking equipment, were identified as potential herd-level risk factors. The prospective cohort study revealed a decreased incidence of clinical disease within three months and prolonged colonization of the nasal cavity by M. bovis in young stock. PMID:25884203

  16. Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandrasekaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119, Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104 and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA (n=12. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay microdilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64% followed by S. aureus (44.25% and MRSA (5.11%. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23s rRNA (E. coli , 16s-23s rRNA (S. aureus and MRSA (mecA and blaZ could be amplified from 119, 104 and 12 isolates with a percentage positivity of 50.64 (119/235, 89.64 (104/116 and 10.34 (12/116 respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in bovine mastitis pathogens was high. Most MRSA pathogens were multidrug resistant. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were resistant to few antimicrobials.

  17. The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Sa Rah; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [CHA University, Bundang CHA Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis.

  18. Cytotoxic Activity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Songlin; Maddox, Carol W.

    2000-01-01

    Secreted toxins play important roles in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. In this study, we examined the presence of secreted cytotoxic factors of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from bovine clinical and subclinical mastitis. A 34- to 36-kDa protein with cell-rounding cytotoxic activity was found in many CoNS strains, especially in Staphylococcus chromogenes strains. The protein caused cell detachment and cell rounding in several cell lines, including HEp-2, Int 407, CHO-K1, a...

  19. Phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of selected resistance genes in gram-positive mastitis pathogens isolated from Wisconsin dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, P L; Oliveira, L; Jin, W; Okwumabua, O

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, few intramammary antimicrobials exist that are approved for treatment of bovine mastitis; thus, ensuring judicious use of these products is a priority. The objectives of this study were to determine phenotypic susceptibility and presence of selected antimicrobial resistance genes from staphylococci, streptococci, and streptococcal-like organisms recovered from cases of clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large Wisconsin farms. Staphylococcus aureus (n=35 from 19 herds), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=51 from 30 herds), Streptococcus spp. (n=78 from 36 herds), and streptococcal-like organisms (n=31 from 19 herds) were used in this study. All Staphylococcus spp. were susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalothin, and the combination of penicillin and novobiocin. Of all staphylococci, only a single Staphylococcus epidermidis exhibited phenotypic resistance to oxacillin. Phenotypic susceptibility to erythromycin was observed in only 8.6 and 15.7% of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, respectively. Approximately 20% of staphylococci and 13 to 22% of streptococci and streptococcal-like organisms exhibited phenotypic resistance to pirlimycin. All Streptococcus spp. exhibited phenotypic susceptibility to ceftiofur, cephalothin, and oxacillin. The proportion of isolates exhibiting phenotypic susceptibility to pirlimycin and sulfadimethoxine differed among Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. All streptococcal-like organisms exhibited phenotypic susceptibility to ceftiofur, cephalothin, oxacillin, penicillin, and the combination of penicillin and novobiocin. Of all organisms tested, 36.9% did not carry any of the resistance genes (ermC, blaZ, tetK, or tetM), 35.4% carried 1 gene, and 27.7% carried multiple genes (usually blaZ in combination with a tet gene). Eighteen (51.4%) Staph. aureus and 12 (48.0%) Staphylococcus chromogenes carried multiple resistance genes. Six (12.2%) Strep. dysgalactiae and no Strep. uberis carried multiple resistance genes. Results indicate that most gram-positive mastitis organisms were susceptible to most antimicrobials used for intramammary administration, but some resistance to drugs used for systemic treatment of mastitis was noted. The presence of selected resistance genes was not proportional to the occurrence of phenotypic resistance. PMID:25912858

  20. Lupus mastitis - peculiar radiological and pathological features

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Fatani, Mohamed I; Shakour, Bothaina Abdul

    2009-01-01

    Lupus mastitis is a form of lupus profundus that is seen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. It usually presents as a swelling (or swellings) in the breasts, with or without pain. The condition is recurrent and progresses along with the underlying disease, with fat necrosis, calcification, fibrosis, scarring, and breast atrophy. Lupus mastitis is often confused with malignancy and lymphoma and, in our part of the world, with tuberculosis. Confusion is especially likely when it occu...

  1. Experiment on radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis in 78 women are presented. It is shown that the radiotherapy is the method of choice. Application of radiotherapy at different stages of disease promotes either complete resolution of infiltration (1-2 irradiations) or stipulates the decrease in temperature, abatement of pains and improvement of general state (at the presence of purulent fusion of mammary tissue). X-ray therapy of postnatal mastitis has does not affect the lactational function of mammary gland

  2. Clinical Pathologic Conference Case 3: Nodular Fasciitis

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Aparna; Lerman, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Intraoral nodular nodular fasciitis is a rare entity that is important to recognize because it may simulate a malignancy clinically and histologically. The rapid growth and high mitotic index seen in nodular fasciitis may suggest a malignant neoplastic process, but it is generally considered to be a benign reactive proliferation. Recognizing the unique histologic features of nodular fasciitis is important to avoid a possible misdiagnosis as a malignancy, leading to unnecessary further treatment.

  3. Pycnodysostosis. A report of 3 clinical cases

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Pereira, Daniela; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2008-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is a rare clinical entity, first described in 1962 by Maroteaux and Lamy. It is a genetic disorder, usually diagnosed at an early age. However, the diagnosis is sometimes late, made as a result of bone fracture, given the severe bone fragility resulting from increased bone density. Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of this disease are very clear. The head is usually large, the nose beaked, the mandibular angle obtuse, and both maxilla and mandible hypoplastic. Dental abnor...

  4. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study.

  5. Facilitating case studies in massage therapy clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskwill, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The integration of evidence into reflective health care practice has been on the rise in recent years and is a phenomenon that has affected all health care professions, including massage therapy. Clinical case studies are a research design that follows one patient or subject, making the studies ideal for use in clinical practice. They are valuable for communicating information from clinical practice to the broader community. Case studies have face validity that may be more valuable to individual practitioners than homogeneous randomized controlled trials, as the practitioner may recognize a complex patient in the case report. At Humber College, Student Massage Therapists (SMTs) create, conduct, and communicate results of a clinical case study prior to graduation. This article describes the process and experience. PMID:23730397

  6. [Paraffinomas: history, clinical features and treatment. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounios-Perchenet, A S; Le Fourn, B; Hepner-Lavergne, D; Pannier, M

    1997-02-01

    One case of paraffinoma is reported on a 60 years old man following injections of paraffin fourty years ago. The authors recalled with this observation history of paraffin, clinical aspect and surgical treatment of the paraffinoma. PMID:9768132

  7. Clinical Competence: General Ability or Case-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Paul F.; Splinter, Ted A. W.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Before the 1970s, research into the development of clinical competence was mainly focused on general problem-solving abilities. The scope of research changed when Elstein and colleagues discovered that individual ability to solve clinical problems varies considerably across cases. It was concluded that problem solving abilities are…

  8. Case reports in the era of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, David

    2013-03-01

    Once upon a time, case reports were the primary content of scholarly medical journals. Case reports are still common but have come to be viewed more often than not as anecdotes rather than evidence. And even though David Sackett referred to the important link between clinical expertise and external evidence,(1) the "gold standard" today is the randomized controlled clinical trial. Why is this? PMID:24416660

  9. Clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hartady, Tyagita; Saad, Mohd Zamri; Bejo, Siti Khairani; Salisi, Mohd Shahrom

    2014-01-01

    Clinical human brucellosis is quite rare in Malaysia although seroconverters are relatively more. This report describes a case of clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia. This case involved a 29-year-old research assistant in a veterinary microbiology laboratory. She complained of intermittent fever, anorexia, profuse sweating, malaise, headache, normotensive (110/60 mm Hg), muscle pain, and arthralgia for 3 d. Blood tests against dengue and malaria were negative thus she was prescribed vitami...

  10. Clinical analysis of 22 cases with Hashimoto's encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan GE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical presentations of Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE, so as to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical features, laboratory findings, imaging profiles, treatment and outcomes of 22 patients with HE who were admitted to our hospital between June 2010 and September 2013.  Results Clinical symptoms were mainly acute or subacute cognitive impairment (9 cases, psychiatric symptoms (6 cases, seizures (5 cases, ataxia (5 cases, stroke-like episodes (6 cases, tremor (1 case, myoclonus (2 cases and disturbance of consciousness (3 cases. Marked increase was found in serum anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibody level (19 cases and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG antibody level (20 cases. Twenty-one cases were treated with glucocorticoids, and one patient was treated only with general neurotrophic therapy, such as ganglioside. Except for 4 cases showed bad response to steroids, the rest patients had an obvious improvement. Conclusions Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an encephalopathy with the presence of elevated antithyroid antibodies, and most patients showed good response to steroids. So early diagnosis and treatment is particularly important for improving prognosis. This disease should be considered as an important differential diagnosis for encephalopathy of unknown etiology, and screening for serum antithyroid antibodies should be performed as initial screening test. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.07.008

  11. An overview on single nucleotide polymorphism studies in mastitis research

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Muhasin Asaf; Amod Kumar,; Abdul Rahim; Renjith Sebastian; Vysakh Mohan; Prashant Dewangan; Manjit Panigrahi

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland caused by microorganisms as diverse as bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma, yeasts and algae. Mastitis is an economically devastating disease mainly affecting the crossbred cattle in India. Control strategies against mastitis includes antibiotic therapy, vaccination, improvements in dairy cattle husbandry, farm and feeding management etc. but has met with little success.. Mastitis tolerance/susceptibility is difficult to measure directly an...

  12. Occurrence of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Balqees A. Ali

    2012-01-01

    California mastitis tests (CMT) and white side test (WST) were used to determine the occurrence rate of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok province of Iraq. The rate of subclinical mastitis was 40.5% and 37.5% by CMT and WST respectively. The Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolate with 72.38% followed by Klebsiella spp. (29.79%) and Escherichia coli (27.65%). This is the first report on subclinical mastitis repor...

  13. Mandible osteoradionecrosis: a clinical case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a case report of the mandible osteoradionecrosis with its evolution and treatment, until the patient's cure. It's briefly discussed the treatment used, stressing the dentistry conscientiousness about the careless upon the manipulation of the patients submitted to radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Five Clinical Cases of Necropsobacter rosorum Bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Thean Yen; Ng, Lily Siew Yong; Eng, Li Ching

    2013-01-01

    Five cases of bacteremia with Necropsobacter rosorum are described, originating from intra-abdominal infections or localized soft tissue infections in the pelvic region. N. rosorum is consistently misidentified by commercial identification systems, which may delay recognition of this organism as a human pathogen.

  15. Refractory secondary glaucoma-clinical case

    OpenAIRE

    Barac, IR; Pop, MD; Balt?, F

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and objective:The major objective of treatment in glaucomatous disease is the decrease of intraocular pressure while maintaining the patient's vision and quality of life. Despite therapeutic possibilities, some cases of glaucoma remain refractory to treatment with the maintenance of elevated intraocular pressure and further progression of the disease.

  16. Arch therapy clinical case of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1998 to 2006, the Ministry of Public Health of the Republic of Cuba maintained a balanced collaboration with the Social Security Fund (CCSS) of the Republic of Costa Rica with the objective of providing professional services in radiotherapy. As part of the Cuban mission in the 2003-2005 period was conducted clinic design and implementation of a dynamic rotational technique with electron beams for treatment of a neoplastic lesion from the neuro ectoderm early in the first linear accelerator belonging to the CCSS and installed in Hospital Mexico, San Jose. The objective was to achieve locoregional control of the lesion by treatment Radiant surgical bed in the chest wall. We discuss different options settings for the treatment values arch therapy the best choice taking into account the cylindrical geometry of the treatment area and the superficiality of its location. For the determination of the absolute dose used Khan's recommendations. Treatment planning was done following the methodology suggested by Podgorsak et al. We performed a quality control of patient-specific planning and dosimetry in anthropomorphic dummy radiographic, resulting in isodose distribution of very good uniformity in the area of clinical interest. The electron arch therapy technique proved to be superior to alternative proposals for the treatment of superficial lesions with cylindrical symmetry frankly, with regard to dose homogeneity in the target volume and lower dose in critical organs. (author)

  17. Proteomic analysis reveals protein expression differences in Escherichia coli strains associated with persistent versus transient mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature, causing an infection that lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli has been shown to cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that allow for...

  18. Demographic Data and Clinical Characteristics of 202 Cerebral Palsy Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Esma Öcal Eriman; Afitap ?ça?as?o?lu; Esma Demirhan; ?eyma Koluk?sa; Huriye Aras; Sema Halilo?lu; Hatice ?ule Baklac?o?lu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who applied to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinic.Materials and Methods: Data of the 202 cases who had reffered to our outpatient clinic between December 2005 and June 2007 was evaluated retrospectively.Results: Ninety-four of the cases were girls and 108 were boys. Their mean age was 6.98 years (1-33 years). The distribution of cerebral palsy ...

  19. Brote de mastitis clínica por Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococcus dysgalactiae en cabras en Salta, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.F, Micheloud; V, Neder; F, Nuovo; V.H, Suarez; L, Calvinho.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones mamarias son un problema grave para la producción lechera en cabras a nivel mundial. Staphylococcus spp. es el patógeno más prevalente en las infecciones intramamarias de los pequeños rumiantes, sin embargo, es escasa la información acerca de mastitis caprinas en LA Argentina. El obj [...] etivo de esta comunicación es describir un brote de mastitis clínica que afectó a 12 de 24 cabras lecheras. Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococus dysgalactiae fueron aislados en forma pura de las muestras de leche. Todos los aislamientos fueron identificados bioquímicamente y sometidos a prueba de sensibilidad antibiótica. Abstract in english ntramammary infections are a serious problem for goat’s milk production worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the most prevalent pathogens responsible for intramammary infection in small ruminants; however, there is only little information about goat mastitis in Argentina. The objective of this communi [...] cation was to describe an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 12 of 24 lactating goats. Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates were identified by biochemical tests and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests.

  20. Disseminated Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infection in a Foal and Associated Mastitis in a Mare

    OpenAIRE

    KOCABIYIK, A. Levent; BÜYÜKCANGAZ, Esra; AKKOÇ, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    A systemic infection with Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is described in a 22-day-old female foal for the first time in Turkey. Clinically the foal was in poor condition and had severe pneumonia. Painful swellings of the carpal and tarsal joints were evident. Examination of the dam revealed clinical mastitis. Postmortem histopathological and microbiological examinations of samples from the foal revealed a disseminated infection with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. The causative agent w...

  1. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis; Diagnostic strategy and therapeutic implications in Omani patients

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Al-Jabri; Ritu Lakhtakia; Varna Taranikanti; Adil Al-Jarrah; Sukhpal Sawhney

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign disorder of the breast whose aetiology is controversial, and is often misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as mammary malignancy; as a result, it may be incorrectly treated. Although no standard treatment is available for this chronic disease, surgery with or without corticosteroids has been tried with controversial results. This study discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, recurrence, and follow-u...

  2. Value of magnetic resonance mammographic at 1.5 T in the differential diagnosis of mastitis versus inflammatory carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The distinction between mastitis and inflammatory breast carcinoma is an important one. Current methods of evaluation including mammography, ultrasound and clinical examination do not enable this distinction. Dynamic magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) is a study with potential in this regard. Material and methods: 12 patients, in whom clinical examination, mammography and ultrasound could not distinguish between both diseases, were reviewed retrospectively by means of MRM using a 1.5 T Siemens Magnetom SP and a circular mamma coil. We used dynamic 3-D gradient echo sequences with a duration of one minute. Results: At present MRM cannot definitely distinguish between mastitis and inflammatory carcinoma, 80% of the inflammatory carcinomas were found to enhance more than 100% in the first minute, compared to 43% for mastitis. No other differences were seen. Conclusion: MRM proved useful in the follow-up of treated mastitis to demonstrate the success of antibiotic treatment of mastitis and to diagnose a histologically unconfirmed inflammatory carcinoma by means of a different follow-up. (orig.)

  3. Avaliação da efetividade de um programa de controle de mastite bovina em fazendas produtoras de leite B do estado de São Paulo Evaluation of the effectiveness of a mastitis control program in grad B milk farms of the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Laranja

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi correlacionar a adoção ou não de seis práticas de manejo, higiene e terapia que compõem um Programa de Controle de Mastite com os coeficientes indicadores da prevalência e dinâmica de incidência da doença. O estudo foi desenvolvido em 7 fazendas produtoras de leite B no Estado de São Paulo durante um período de 11 meses (Março/91 a Fevereiro/92 envolvendo 1683 vacas. As medidas de controle analisadas foram as seguintes: 1 Tratamento de vacas secas, 2 Tratamento das mastites clínicas, 3 Bom manejo da ordenha, 4 Bom funcionamento do equipamento de ordenha, 5 Descarte/segregação de vacas com mastite crônica, 6 Bom conforto e higiene na área de permanência dos animais. Para fins de avaliação da prevalência e dinâmica da incidência de mastite foram analisados os coeficientes: % DE VACAS CMT ++/+ + + ,% DE NOVAS INFECÇÕES E % DE INFECÇÕES CRÔNICAS. Os resultados demonstraram que o Programa de Controle de Mastite que envolvia as 6 práticas analisadas, conhecido como Programa dos 6 pontos, mostrou-se bastante efetivo no controle da doença.The present work aimed to establish relationships between management practices, hygiene and therapy, that are components of a Mastitis Control Program with indication coefficients of prevalence and incidence of mastitis. Data were collected from seven grade "B" milk producing dairy farms, during eleven months (March/91 to February/92, comprising 1,683 lactating cows. Management, hygiene therapy practices evaluated, that are included in a Mastitis Control Program were: 1 Intramammary antibiotic treatment of all dry cows, 2 Instant treatment of clinical mastitis cases, 3 Proper milking management, with special emphasis on teat dipping after milking, 4 Good working condition of milking equipment, 5 Culling/segregation of cows with chronic mastitis, 6 Good hygiene conditions and confort for the cows in the management area. The coefficient used for mastitis prevalence and incidence evaluation were % of cows scored CMT ++/+ + + ,% of new infections and % of chronic infections. Results clearly suggest that all mastitis control practices were effective. Hence, those farms that adopted control practices, most of them showed lowest infection prevalence coefficient.

  4. Neurorretinitis: Casos clínicos / Neuroretinitis: Clinical cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Valverde-Gubianas; J.F., Ramos-López; J.A., López-Torres; M., Toribio-García; C., Milla-Peñalver; J., Gálvez Torres-Puchol; S., Medialdea-Marcos.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la etiología y las alteraciones funduscópicas más frecuentes de las neurorretinitis. Métodos: Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 24 años con disminución de la agudeza visual (AV) bilateral, indolora y progresiva cuyo examen funduscópico mostraba un edema de disco óptico bilatera [...] l sin hemorragias ni exudados, edema retiniano en polo posterior y zonas de flebitis. El estudio sistémico fue normal excepto el hemograma (18.000/mm³ leucocitos con 79% de neutrófilos) y la serología positiva frente a Chlamydia. Presentamos también el caso de una mujer de 64 años de edad con disminución de la AV en el ojo derecho de 1 semana evolución. En el fondo de ojo (FO) se aprecia una estrella macular y edema de papila. Resultó estudio sistémico normal y serología positiva a Bartonella henselae. Resultados: La enfermedad por arañazo de gato es la causa más común de neurorretinitis. Los hallazgos habituales consisten en una pérdida de AV, discromatopsia, defecto pupilar aferente y anormalidades en el campo visual. Otros hallazgos frecuentes en el FO son hemorragias en la capa de fibras nerviosas, exudados algodonosos, edema de papila, estrella macular e inflamación vítrea. El papel de la terapia antibiótica es cuestionable. Parece que el ciprofloxacino oral tiene buenos resultados. Abstract in english Objective: Evaluate the etiology and the most frequent funduscopic alterations of the neuroretinitis. Methods: We present the case of a woman 24 years old with a bilateral decrease of visual sharpness (AV), painless and progressive, the funduscopic examination of which reveals a bilateral optical di [...] sc edema, with no hemorrhages or exudates, retina edema of the posterior pole and phlebitic areas. The systematic study was normal except for the hemogram (18,000/mm³ leucocytes with 79% neutrophils) and the positive serology next to a Chlamydia. We also present the case of a 64 years old woman with a decrease of AV at the right eye of one week duration. At the back of the eye a macular star can be seen, and papilla edema. A systematic study gave normal results and positive serology at Bartonella henselae. Results: The illness produced by a cat scratch is the most common cause of neuroretinitis. The customary findings are a loss of AV, discromatopsia, afferent papillary defects and abnormality on the visual field. Other frequent findings at the back of the eye are hemorrhagic nerve fibers, cotton-like exudates, papilla edema, macular star and glassy inflammation. The roll of antibiotic therapy is questionable. Oral ciprofloxacine seems to give good results.

  5. Asteroid hyalosis: clinical review of 58 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nuno Vargas Galveia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Understand the behavior, functional repercussion and relationship with epidemiological factors of asteroid hyalosis (AH and retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients diagnosed with AH (24 women and 34 men were studied. All patients were submitted to a thorough ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: We observed a statistical association between the presence of AH and male sex (p=0,042. An increase in prevalence of this pathology was observed with increasing age. We determined an odds ration of 5,24 of a patient over 50 years old having AH, when compared to patients bellow this threshold. Eighty-six percent of patients had unilateral vitreous deposits. We measured a lower IOP in the affected eye, with the difference being in average 2,68 ± 1,45 mmHg (p=0,037. We observed no statistical association between AH and age related macular degeneration, diabetes or glaucoma. Five eyes were submitted to facoemulsification combined with pars plana vitrectomy with an average gain of 7 lines (Snellen in visual acuity (p=0,03. CONCLUSION: In our sample a clear association between AH, ageing and male sex was observed. The majority of patients had unilateral vitreous deposits. Vitrectomy in association with facoemulsification is a safe and effective intervention in this group of patients.

  6. Bone metastasis from ovarian cancer. Clinical analysis of 26 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Min Zhang; Jimei Sun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the clinical characteristics of bone metastasis from ovarian cancer, and facilitate physicians to develop treatment strategies. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in the Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong, China. Twenty-six cases of bone metastasis from ovarian cancer treated between January 2002 and May 2008 were reviewed, and the clinical data were collected. Results: In the current study, the incidence of bone metastasis is 0...

  7. Postpartum Mastitis and Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Pavani; Qi, Chao; Zembower, Teresa; Noskin, Gary A.; Bolon, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    This single-center, case-control study documents a relative increase in methicillin resistance among 48 cases of Staphylococcus aureus–associated postpartum mastitis during 1998–2005. Of 21 cases with methicillin resistance, 17 (81%) occurred in 2005. Twenty (95%) isolates contained the Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec type IV gene; this suggests that the increase is due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Unusual Multiorgan Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Inflammation: Autoimmune Pancreatitis, Mikulicz Syndrome, and IgG4 Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trna, Jan; Kinkor, Zden?k; Novotný, Ivo; Lata, Jan; Kiani?ka, Bohuslav; Hermanová, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) type 1 is commonly associated with simultaneous involvement of extrapancreatic organs. Sclerosing cholangitis, sialadenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, Sjögren syndrome, and other extrapancreatic lesions are often observed concurrently with AIP. High levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) in the blood serum and affected tissues are typical of this diagnostic entity. We describe a case report of a 58-year-old female with findings of AIP (according to Asian criteria), IgG4-positive mastitis, and histologically verified Mikulicz syndrome. The effect of corticoid therapy supported the diagnosis of AIP and simultaneously led to the eradication of recurrent mastitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concurrent findings of AIP and IgG4 mastitis. Our case report supports the concept of systemic IgG4 syndrome with multisystem involvement. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy can be effective in a high percentage of patients. PMID:24073323

  9. Fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii / Risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Artioli Machado, Yamamura; Ernst Eckhardt, Müller; Roberta Lemos, Freire; Júlio César de, Freitas; Lucienne Garcia, Pretto-Giordano; Roberta dos Santos, Toledo; Márcio Garcia, Ribeiro.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca s [...] pp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2%) vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, permanência das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imersão dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa. Abstract in english This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening [...] of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and milk cans, and herds with somatic cells count over 5x105cel mL-1. The samples collected consisted of: milk, water, soil, manure and swabs of teat cup rubbers. Prototheca spp. was isolated from mammary quarters with clinical and subclinical mastitis of milk samples in one herd and from the environment and cows in four herds. Out of 383 cows examined, Prototheca spp. was isolated in 20 (5.2%) cows with mastitis, and 18 of them were characterized as P. zopfii. In four herds when Prototheca spp. was identified from mammary quarters and environment the agent was isolated from the following samples: water in the waterers, puddled water in the stalls and the milking parlour, supply, sewage, cow pen and pasture soil, teat cup rubbers and manure from calves and swines. The risk factors associated with P. zopfii mastitis consisted of: pasture system, pasture and silage feeding, use of milking machine in stalls, cow pen without fresh feed after milking, raising of swines near bovine housing, existence of dogs, cats and rodents, absence of teats hygienization with water, use of pre-immersion devices with return and without change of antiseptic, calves fed with milk of clinical mastitis cases and the Holstein breed.

  10. Fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii Risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Artioli Machado Yamamura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca spp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2% vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, permanência das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imersão dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa.This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and milk cans, and herds with somatic cells count over 5x105cel mL-1. The samples collected consisted of: milk, water, soil, manure and swabs of teat cup rubbers. Prototheca spp. was isolated from mammary quarters with clinical and subclinical mastitis of milk samples in one herd and from the environment and cows in four herds. Out of 383 cows examined, Prototheca spp. was isolated in 20 (5.2% cows with mastitis, and 18 of them were characterized as P. zopfii. In four herds when Prototheca spp. was identified from mammary quarters and environment the agent was isolated from the following samples: water in the waterers, puddled water in the stalls and the milking parlour, supply, sewage, cow pen and pasture soil, teat cup rubbers and manure from calves and swines. The risk factors associated with P. zopfii mastitis consisted of: pasture system, pasture and silage feeding, use of milking machine in stalls, cow pen without fresh feed after milking, raising of swines near bovine housing, existence of dogs, cats and rodents, absence of teats hygienization with water, use of pre-immersion devices with return and without change of antiseptic, calves fed with milk of clinical mastitis cases and the Holstein breed.

  11. A clinical study of 68 cases of small intestinal perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From January 2000 to September 2008 we analyzed the clinical features of 68 patients attending our hospital who had undergone surgery for small intestinal perforations. The nature of the rupture in 51 patients was endogenous, and endogenous in the other 17. Endogenous ruptures included ileus in 16 cases, tumors in 7 cases, of unknown origin in 5 cases, and blunt trauma in 23 cases. Exogenous rupture included iatrogenic in 5, foreign body digestion in 5, and penetrating trauma in 7. Postoperative complications occurred significantly more in the endogenous rupture cases than in the exogenous ones. There were 4 hospital deaths, which were in all endogenous cases. The high complication rate and a certain proportion of poor prognosis in cases of endogenous rupture necessitate imminent treatment as soon as an endogenous perforation is suspected. (author)

  12. Economic aspects of mastitis: New developments

    OpenAIRE

    Hogeveen, H.; Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large part of this advice is given around the planning of management to maintain or improve the udder health status of a farm. Mastitis is a costly disease, due to losses (a reduction of output due to masti...

  13. MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis: case interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael M.; Brian, James M.; Methratta, Sosamma T.; Hulse, Michael A.; Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Eggli, Kathleen D.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    As utilization of MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis becomes more common, there will be increased focus on case interpretation. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to share our institution's case interpretation experience. MRI findings of appendicitis include appendicoliths, tip appendicitis, intraluminal fluid-debris level, pitfalls of size measurements, and complications including abscesses. The normal appendix and inguinal appendix are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Results Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 ?g/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Conclusion Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows. PMID:25653501

  15. Potential and limits of mammography (Statistical and casuistic investigation of clinically positive, mammographically negative cases among the patients of Goettingen Radiological University Hospital)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the radiological clinic of the Goettingen university, 23 945 patients were mammographed from 1971 to 1977. For 612 patients with existing clinical findings, a negative radiological finding was established; as for the 202 patients who are dealt with in this paper, in 192 of these cases a histological or cytological clarification was carried out; 10 other cases were observed over a longer period. The average age of the patients examined was 39.7 years. The maximum frequency with regard to the age lies in the 5th life decade with 26.2%. Corresponding to the Goettingen model, the patients examined were assigned to 4 main groups in accordance to their parenchymal structure. In relation to the mamma structure, the clinical finding in 53.9% is hardening and in 46.1% nodes. As for the nodes, most have the size of cherry or plum (21.3%), this is followed by those with the size of beans (13,8%) and lenses (10.9%). A coherence between age and size of the clinical finding cannot be manifested definitely. In nearly half of the cases, the histological or cytological examination revealed a masthopathy (48.9%). In 10.4% a fibroadenoma was found and in 2.1% a carcinoma. In the remaining 32,8% the finding referred to lipomas, mastitis, atypical cells or negative cytological results. Related to the age, mastopathy is dominant in women between 20 and 60 years of age. In women below 20 years, fibroadenomas are dominant, in women in their 7th decade other benign diagnoses which in the 8th decade are of the same frequency as carcinomas. With increasing age, the number of fibroadenomas decreases. (orig./MG)

  16. Clinical research: the case study and single-subject designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I S; Eisen, R G

    1985-05-01

    The case study and single-subject research designs are presented as methods of increasing the research productivity of allied health clinicians. The AB, ABAB, ABAC, multiple-baseline, multiple-treatment, and changing-criterion designs are discussed. Clinical examples illustrate use of these designs. Methods of data evaluation are briefly described. PMID:3880056

  17. [Craniofacial polyostotic fibro-osseous dysplasia. (1) A clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, C F; Barreto, F B; Ferreira, J D; Furtado, I A

    1989-01-01

    Taking the opportunity of a richness of clinical and radiological manifestations from an uncommon pathology, the authors present a case on polyostotic bony--fibrous displasia with a large envelopment of the facial-skull massif, and outstand the role of the stomatologist as member of a multidisciplinary medical team and the successful therapheutical result achieved through the surgical intervention performed. PMID:2639500

  18. Cancer of unknown primitive metastatic. About two clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the two clinical cases about the unknown primitive metastatic cancer. The main techniques used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of different s carcinomas are: Electronic microscope, molecular biology and genetics, especially histopathological study, topographic survey, ultrasound, radiography, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

  19. Coexistence of lobular granulomatous mastitis and ductal carcinoma: a fortuitous association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaiem, F; Khadhar, A; Hassan, F; Bouraoui, S; Lahmar, A; Mzabi, S

    2013-12-01

    A 77-year-old female patient with a medical history significant for hypertension and epilepsy presented with right breast pain of 6-months duration. Examination revealed a hard sub-areola tender mass with irregular borders associated with mild right nipple retraction. Mammography showed a 2.2 x 2.4 cm stellate mass of the right breast. Ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the tumour were performed. Pathological examination revealed a grade II infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The patient underwent right radical mastectomy with homolateral axillary lymphadenectomy. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed grade II infiltrating ductal carcinoma concomitant with granulomatous lobular mastitis. To the best of our knowledge, the coexistence of granulomatous lobular mastitis and ductal carcinoma has been described only twice in the English language literature. The theory that chronic inflammation leads to cancer is well documented. Whether our patient had developed cancer from granulomatous lobular mastitis or otherwise is a matter of debate until more cases are encountered and more research is done in the area of breast cancer pathogenesis with regards to it arising from granulomatous lobular mastitis. PMID:24734318

  20. Friedreich's ataxia: clinical and molecular study of 25 Brazilian cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albano Lilian M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Friedreich's ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder whose clinical diagnostic criteria for typical cases basically include: a early age of onset (< 20 or 25 years, b autosomal recessive inheritance, c progressive ataxia of limbs and gait, and d absence of lower limb tendon reflexes. METHODS: We studied the frequency and the size of expanded GAA and their influence on neurologic findings, age at onset, and disease progression in 25 Brazilian patients with clinical diagnosis of Friedreich's ataxia - 19 typical and 6 atypical - using a long-range PCR test. RESULTS: Abnormalities in cerebellar signs, in electrocardiography, and pes cavus occurred more frequently in typical cases; however, plantar response and speech were more frequently normal in this group when the both typical and atypical cases were compared. Homozygous GAA expansion repeats were detected in 17 cases (68% - all typical cases. In 8 patients (32% (6 atypical and 2 typical, no expansion was observed, ruling out the diagnosis of Friedreich's ataxia. In cases with GAA expansions, foot deformity, cardiac abnormalities, and some neurologic findings occurred more frequently; however, abnormalities in cranial nerves and in tomographic findings were detected less frequently than in patients without GAA expansions. DISCUSSION: Molecular analysis was imperative for the diagnosis of Friedreich's ataxia, not only for typical cases but also for atypical ones. There was no genotype-phenotype correlation. Diagnosis based only on clinical findings is limited; however, it aids in better screening for suspected cases that should be tested. Evaluation for vitamin E deficiency is recommended, especially in cases without GAA expansion.

  1. IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in plasma cell mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Yi-Na; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Jiang; Ren, Yu; Han, Shui-Ping; Liu, Pei-Jun; Xu, Jing; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell mastitis (PCM), a particular type of mastitis, mainly occurs in females at nonpregnant and nonlactating stages. The infiltration of abundant plasma cells and lymphocytes is the hallmark of the disease. The incidence rate of PCM increased gradually and its pathogenesis remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, which is vital not only for the differentiation of plasma cells but also for survival of plasma cells and T lymphocytes, in 30 PCM cases, 10 acute mastitis cases and 10 normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. IL-6 level was significantly higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group. The positive rate of IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining in PCM samples was 93.3% (28/30) and 70% (21/30), respectively, and there was a significant positive association between IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining (r=0.408, P=0.025). In PCM group, the rate of nipple retraction was 40% (12/30). Significantly higher IL-6 expression was found in PCM patients with nipple retraction than in other PCM patients. However, no significant difference in IL-6 or p-STAT3 staining was detected between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. In addition, Bcl-2 level was higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group, but there was no difference in Bcl-2 immunostaining between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. These indicate that IL-6/STAT3 signaling is activated in PCM and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCM. PMID:26722442

  2. La rutina de ordeño y su rol en los programas de control de mastitis bovina The milking routine and its role in mastitis control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kruze

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cuantiosas pérdidas económicas por mastitis en los rebaños lecheros, especialmente de carácter subclínica, por menor producción y menor calidad higiénica y nutricional de la leche, justifican plenamente el control de la enfermedad. Durante el proceso de la ordeña existe un alto riesgo de infección intramamaria y de transmisión de los agentes causantes de mastitis, especialmente, de los patógenos contagiosos. En consecuencia, para reducir los riesgos de infección es necesario realizar una buena rutina de ordeño extremando las medidas de higiene y evitando al máximo los factores predisponentes por el inadecuado uso de la máquina de ordeño. Una adecuada rutina de ordeño involucra una serie de procedimientos que deben realizarse cuidadosamente en cada período de ordeño en forma correcta y consistente que se pueden resumir en los siguientes aspectos: proporcionar un ambiente limpio y tranquilo a las vacas evitando el estrés; extraer y examinar los primeros chorros de leche para detectar mastitis clínica y estimular la bajada de la leche; lavar y secar completamente los pezones con toallas individuales desechables para reducir la transmisión de los patógenos mamarios y minimizar la contaminación de la leche; colocar las pezoneras dentro de 1 minuto de iniciada la estimulación para lograr una ordeña completa; observar y ajustar cuando sea necesario las unidades de ordeño para evitar la entrada de aire al sistema; cortar el vacío antes de retirar las pezoneras; y desinfectar los pezones al término de la ordeña con una solución desinfectante segura y eficaz. Opcionalmente, en determinados rebaños se puede agregar a esta rutina la desinfección de los pezones antes de la ordeña (pre"dipping" y la desinfección de las pezoneras al pasar de una vaca a otra durante la ordeñaEconomic losses due to mastitis in dairy herds, in particularsubclinical mastitis, because of less milk yield and poor milk quality,make its control a goal to be achieved in every dairy herd. The risk of intramammary infection and transmission of mastitis pathogens,mainly contagious organisms, is higher during milking. Consequently, agood milking routine and udder preparation greatly reduces the risk ofinfection, being specially important the hygiene and the milking machineinducing factors. A good milking routine involves a number of procedures which must be properly and carefully practised at every single milking. These procedures can be summarised as follows: provide cows with a clean environment, free of stress; check foremilk using a strip-cup to detect clinical mastitis and stimulate milk let-down; wash and thoroughly dry the surface of the teats with an individual disposable paper towel to reduce the spread of mastitis pathogens and to avoid milk contamination during milking; attach the teat cups within 1 minute after initiating udder preparation to get the maximum effect of oxytocin; check and adjust the milking units, as needed, to avoid air admission and prevent liner slip; shut off the vacuum before detaching the milking units to prevent impact; disinfect teats after milking with a safe and effective teat dip to destroy mastitis pathogens remaining on the teat. In some herds, other optional measures can be added to this routine, mainly teat disinfection before milking (predipping and disinfection of clusters between cows during milking

  3. La rutina de ordeño y su rol en los programas de control de mastitis bovina / The milking routine and its role in mastitis control programmes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Kruze.

    Full Text Available Las cuantiosas pérdidas económicas por mastitis en los rebaños lecheros, especialmente de carácter subclínica, por menor producción y menor calidad higiénica y nutricional de la leche, justifican plenamente el control de la enfermedad. Durante el proceso de la ordeña existe un alto riesgo de infecc [...] ión intramamaria y de transmisión de los agentes causantes de mastitis, especialmente, de los patógenos contagiosos. En consecuencia, para reducir los riesgos de infección es necesario realizar una buena rutina de ordeño extremando las medidas de higiene y evitando al máximo los factores predisponentes por el inadecuado uso de la máquina de ordeño. Una adecuada rutina de ordeño involucra una serie de procedimientos que deben realizarse cuidadosamente en cada período de ordeño en forma correcta y consistente que se pueden resumir en los siguientes aspectos: proporcionar un ambiente limpio y tranquilo a las vacas evitando el estrés; extraer y examinar los primeros chorros de leche para detectar mastitis clínica y estimular la bajada de la leche; lavar y secar completamente los pezones con toallas individuales desechables para reducir la transmisión de los patógenos mamarios y minimizar la contaminación de la leche; colocar las pezoneras dentro de 1 minuto de iniciada la estimulación para lograr una ordeña completa; observar y ajustar cuando sea necesario las unidades de ordeño para evitar la entrada de aire al sistema; cortar el vacío antes de retirar las pezoneras; y desinfectar los pezones al término de la ordeña con una solución desinfectante segura y eficaz. Opcionalmente, en determinados rebaños se puede agregar a esta rutina la desinfección de los pezones antes de la ordeña (pre"dipping") y la desinfección de las pezoneras al pasar de una vaca a otra durante la ordeña Abstract in english Economic losses due to mastitis in dairy herds, in particularsubclinical mastitis, because of less milk yield and poor milk quality,make its control a goal to be achieved in every dairy herd. The risk of intramammary infection and transmission of mastitis pathogens,mainly contagious organisms, is hi [...] gher during milking. Consequently, agood milking routine and udder preparation greatly reduces the risk ofinfection, being specially important the hygiene and the milking machineinducing factors. A good milking routine involves a number of procedures which must be properly and carefully practised at every single milking. These procedures can be summarised as follows: provide cows with a clean environment, free of stress; check foremilk using a strip-cup to detect clinical mastitis and stimulate milk let-down; wash and thoroughly dry the surface of the teats with an individual disposable paper towel to reduce the spread of mastitis pathogens and to avoid milk contamination during milking; attach the teat cups within 1 minute after initiating udder preparation to get the maximum effect of oxytocin; check and adjust the milking units, as needed, to avoid air admission and prevent liner slip; shut off the vacuum before detaching the milking units to prevent impact; disinfect teats after milking with a safe and effective teat dip to destroy mastitis pathogens remaining on the teat. In some herds, other optional measures can be added to this routine, mainly teat disinfection before milking (predipping) and disinfection of clusters between cows during milking

  4. Neuro-Behçet: report of three clinically distinct cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiani Giorgio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three patients who collectively have very representative clinical forms of neuro-Behçet and different neurological findings. The first case, male, 49 years old, presents symptoms similar to multiple sclerosis. The second case, male 15 years old, presents with parenchymatous compromise and an association with antiphospholipid antibody. And the third case, female 25 years old, presents an acute meningitis. Neuro-Behçet must always be included as a differential diagnosis of neurological disorders that have any difficulties in establishing a definite diagnosis.

  5. Compromised neutrophil function and severe bovine E.coli mastitis: is C5a the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Around the periparturient period and during early lactation dairy cows have an elevated risk for clinical mastitis. The severity of Gram-negative infections during these periods has been correlated with reduced neutrophil functions. In this review we focus on the potential role of C5a in the develop...

  6. Breast Pain: Engorgement, Nipple Pain, and Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Pamela D

    2015-12-01

    This review explores current concepts surrounding breastfeeding complications including nipple pain and trauma, breast engorgement, mastitis, and breast abscess. The review discusses possible etiologies, risk factors, incidence, differential diagnosis, and suggested treatment strategies. The evidence that supports these management options is discussed. PMID:26512442

  7. On the therapy of mastitis puerperalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    70 patients with mastitis were treated by low dose irradiation with soft X-rays and by secondary inhibition of the lactation by conservative physical measures. Breast abscesses were observed only in 6 of 70 patients. Therefore the antiinflammatory irradiation with low dose X-rays is a suitable method of treatment. (author)

  8. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases for Control of Mastitis Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis results in annual losses between $1.7 billion and $2 billion in the United States alone. Among the most relevant causative agents of this disease are Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B; GBS) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Group C; GCS) streptococci as well as Staphylococcus aureus. ...

  9. PRIMARY ACTINOMYCOSIS OF BREAST – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Primary actinomycosis of breast is a rare disease. Here we report one such case in a 25 year old lactating mother f rom West Bengal with a breast lump and multiple discharging sinuses, clinically normal otherwise with no remarkable clinical history. Histopathology from breast lump suggested granulomatous mastitis. Microbiological investigations isolated Actinomyces isra elii and Staphylococcus aureus. A diagnosis of primary actinomycosis of breast was made and clinical response was followed up with overall improvement in patient’s condition

  10. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for mastitis resistance on bovine chromosome 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, N F; Sahana, G; Iso-Touru, T; Lund, M S; Andersson-Eklund, L; Viitala, S M; Värv, S; Viinalass, H; Vilkki, J H

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell score (SCS) were mapped on bovine chromosome 11. The mapping population consisted of 14 grandsire families belonging to three Nordic red cattle breeds: Finnish Ayrshire (FA), Swedish Red and White (SRB) and Danish Red. The families had previously been shown to segregate for udder health QTL. A total of 524 progeny tested bulls were included in the analysis. A linkage map including 33 microsatellite and five SNP marke...

  11. Identification of Trueperella pyogenes Isolated from Bovine Mastitis by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagib, Samy; Rau, Jörg; Sammra, Osama; Lämmler, Christoph; Schlez, Karen; Zschöck, Michael; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Klein, Guenter; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to identify Trueperella (T.) pyogenes isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. FT-IR spectroscopy was applied to 57 isolates obtained from 55 cows in a period from 2009 to 2012. Prior to FT-IR spectroscopy these isolates were identified by phenotypic and genotypic properties, also including the determination of seven potential virulence factor encoding genes. The FT-IR analysis reveal...

  12. Stem Cell Research: A Novel Boulevard towards Improved Bovine Mastitis Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry is a multi-billion dollar industry catering the nutritional needs of all age groups globally through the supply of milk. Clinical mastitis has a severe impact on udder tissue and is also an animal welfare issue. Moreover, it significantly reduces animal value and milk production. Mammary tissue damage reduces the number and activity of epithelial cells and consequently contributes to decreased milk production. The high incidence, low cure rate of this highly economic and so...

  13. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Plant-Derived Diterpenes against Bovine Mastitis Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani; Martins, Carlos H. G.; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Sérgio R. Ambrósio; Jairo K. Bastos; Luiza J. Carneiro; Thaís S. Moraes; Fernanda T. Estrela; Ariana P. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA) was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL?1) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered ...

  14. Surto de mastite bovina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes / Outbreak of bovine mastitis caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.G., Motta; M.G., Ribeiro; I.B.M., Perrotti; D.G., Motta; P.F., Domingues; T.M., Lucas; T.O., Zamprogna; F.J.P., Listoni.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english An uncommon outbreak of mastitis caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 26 cows is reported. The epidemiological findings, clinical signs, microbiological exams, somatic cell count, in vitro susceptibility profile of strains, efficacy of intramammary treatment and control measures were discussed. Flo [...] rfenicol (96.2%), cefoperazona (92.3%), cefaloxin (84.6%) and ceftiofur (84.6%) were the most effective antimicrobials, and neomicin (27.0%) and enrofloxacin (17.4%) the least effective antimicrobials.

  15. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibioti...

  16. Crescentic glomerulonephritis: A clinical and histomorphological analysis of 46 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN, defined as crescents involving more than 50% of the glomeruli, includes pauci-immune, immune complex-mediated and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. Objectives: The present study was aimed at evaluating the various clinical, biochemical and histological parameters in CrGN with respect to these categories and clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: Renal biopsies diagnosed as CrGN between Jan 2008 and Feb 2010 were included. Clinical and laboratory parameters were retrieved along with the therapeutic approach and clinical outcome, wherever available. Renal biopsy slides were evaluated for various glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and arteriolar features. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance. Results: A total of 46 cases of CrGN were included; majority (71.7% of cases were pauci-immune (PI while 28.3% were immune complex-mediated (IC. Among clinical features, gender ratio was significantly different between PI and IC groups (P = 0.006. The various histological parameters, including proportion of cellular crescents, tuft necrosis and Bowman?s capsule rupture, were similar in both the groups. Four unusual associations, including idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN, multibacillary leprosy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and C1q nephropathy were detected. Adequate follow-up information was available in 21 (46% of the patients. Of these, 11 (52.4% were dialysis-dependent at the last follow-up. Adult patients required renal replacement therapy more frequently than pediatric cases (P = 0.05. Presence of arteriolar fibrinoid necrosis also showed association with poor clinical outcome (P = 0.05. Conclusions: Crescentic glomerulonephritis remains one of the main causes of acute renal failure with histological diagnosis. Immunohistologic examination is essential for accurate classification into one of the three categories. This condition should be considered in rare causal associations like leprosy or MPGN with renal failure, to allow for timely performed renal biopsy and appropriate aggressive therapy.

  17. Unusual presentation of hairy cell leukemia: a case series of four clinically unsuspected cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, S; Purohit, Abhishek; Aggarwal, Mukul; Manivannan, Prabhu; Tyagi, Seema; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Pati, Hara P; Saxena, Renu

    2014-09-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is characterized by pancytopenia and usually associated with massive splenomegaly, however the same may not be true in the clinical settings. Here we report four cases of HCL and all of them were without the classical clinical feature of splenomegaly. This is an observational study conducted between January 2013 to March 2014 where we could diagnose ten cases of HCL in Department of Hematology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Of these, four cases attracted attention because of absence of classical clinical features of HCL. Of the four cases, three presented with weakness/fatigability while fourth patient presented with recurrent respiratory tract infection. Surprising finding in these cases was absence of splenomegaly, both clinically and on imaging which demerit the suspicion of HCL clinically. All four had bi/pancytopenia and bone marrow examination coupled with immunophenotypic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of HCL. Three patients received chemotherapy with cladribine and achieved complete hematological remission. One patient did not receive chemotherapy due to poor general condition and was subsequently lost to follow up. To conclude, HCL can and do present without splenomegaly and this should not restrain one from suspecting HCL based on histomorphology which needs to be further confirmed by ancillary techniques. This finding in our series could be because these cases were picked early in their natural course of the disease. A high index of suspicion is essential for diagnosing and appropriately managing such cases. PMID:25332634

  18. Eating epilepsy: clinical and neuro image aspects - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eating epilepsy is an uncommon form of reflex epilepsy. The authors present a case report of a patient with clinical diagnosis of eating epilepsy who was submitted to clinical tests, neuroimaging studies (MRI and SPECT) and surface EEG. Multiple intercritical EEGs showed sharp discharges in the posterior left temporal area. The MRI did not show any abnormality. The intercritical brain SPECT showed clear hypoperfusion in the posterior left temporal area; so confirming the epileptogenic focus in producing the partial complex seizures triggered by eating. (author)

  19. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of some Sinai medicinal plant extracts on bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Gamil S. G. Zeedan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis is the most economically important disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide from an economic, diagnostic and public-health point of view. The present study aimed to isolate and identify of bacteria causes mastitis in dairy cows and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of some selected medicinal plants extracts comparing antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 203 milk samples of dairy cows were collected during the period from February to June 2013 at different Governorates in Egypt. The use clinical inspection and California mastitis test examination were provided efficient diagnostic tool for detection of clinical, subclinical mastitis and apparently normal health cattle. The collected milk samples were cultured on Nutrient, Blood agar, Mannitol salt, Edward’s and MacConkey agar plates supporting the growth of various types of bacteria for their biochemical studies and isolation. The antimicrobial activity of plants extracts (Jasonia montana and Artemisia herb albawith different solvent (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetonewere studied in vitro against isolated bacteria from mastitis by paper desk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC. Results: The prevalence of clinical, subclinical mastitis and normal healthy animals were 34.50%, 24.7% and 40.8% respectively. The major pathogens isolated from collected milk samples were Escherichia coli (22.16%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.19%, Streptococcus spp. (13.3%, Streptococcus agalactiae (12.8%, Streptococcus dysgalactia (0.5%, Pasteurella spp. (2.45%, Klebsiella spp. (1.47%and Pseudomonas spp. (0.45%. The highest antibacterial activity of J. montana plant extracted with acetone solvent against S. agalactiae, E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococci with zone of inhibition values ± standard deviation (SD, ranging from 4.33±0.57 to 25.6±0.60 mm. The MIC values for the extracts ranged from 0.01 to 1.56 mg/ml. when comparing antibacterial activity of A. herb alba plant extracted with acetone solvent on the same bacteria with zone of inhibition values ± SD, ranging from 00±00 to 5.6±0.60 mm. Both extracts from J. montana and A. herb alba plant extracts with petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform solvent were less antibacterial activities than acetone solvent extract. Conclusion: The present study spot highlight on isolation and identification of mastitis pathogens that are fundamental aspects of milk quality, udder health control programs and public health and food safety issues associated with food borne pathogens. J. montana and A. herb alba plants have antibacterial effects more than antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis. Finally, the medicinal plant extracts can be used to discover bioactive natural product in the form of antibacterial that may be serve the development of new pharmaceutical products. But still need further research necessary to identify active compounds and research to mechanism and drug interaction.

  20. Hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage. Clinical symptoms and outcomes in 40 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Michio; Hirai, Osamu; Kaneko, Takaaki; Watanabe, Syu; Fukuma, Jun; Handa, Hajime

    1988-12-01

    In the past six years, we have had experience with 40 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhages, as verified by CT scan at our hospital within 24 hours. These patients were classified into the following three groups according to the location of the bleeding point and the size of the hematoma: (1) anteromedial (4 cases), (2) posterolateral (16 cases), and (3) massive (20 cases). The (1) and (2) hematomas were small (less than 3 cm in diameter), while those in (3) were large (more than 3 cm in diameter). Twenty cases (50% of all the thalamic hematomas) were small hematomas. The characteristic clinical symptoms of the anteromedial type were a mild disturbance of consciousness and thalamic dementia, while those of the posterolateral type were motor and sensory disturbance, and thalamic aphasia, respectively. Twenty cases (50%) were large hematomas. The clinical symptoms of these cases were mainly consciousness disturbance; 7 of them expired. Based on this experience, it may be considered that the patients whose hematoma size was larger than 3 cm had a poor prognosis and that the patients with the posterolateral type had a poor functional diagnosis.

  1. Clinical, Laboratory and Prognosis Evaluations of Our Mushroom Poisoning Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K?z?lta?, ?afak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mushroom poisoning may cause diverse clinical presentations ranging from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. It may lead to high mortality if not intervened. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autumn and poisoning by these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate demographics, clinical features and prognosis in a large mushroom poisoning case series.MATERIAL and METHODS: In this study, the demographics, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment methods and prognosis of 84 mushroom poisoning cases were evaluated retrospectively from their medical records.RESULTS: The mean age of the 84 cases (52 women, 32 men was 39.8 ± 13.4 years. The main complaints upon admission were recorded as nausea-vomiting (80%, diarrhea (64%, abdominal pain (40%, and dizziness (20%. Twenty-five patients were applied hemoperfusion due to renal and hepatic failure. A case died of renal and hepatic failure. The mean of hospitalization was 6.3 ± 5.6 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, prothrombin time (PT, INR, and urea values had decreased significantly at the time of hospital discharge compared to baseline values (P 0.05.CONCLUSION: In our study, it was observed that early hemoperfusion provided better prognosis by enhancing the efficacy of the treatment. However, the best method to reduce the mortality is to enlighten the community about the risks of mushroom poisonings.

  2. Whipple's disease. Report of five cases with different clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERRARI Maria de Lourdes de Abreu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Whipple's disease (WD is a rare systemic disease of infectious etiology which involves the small intestine but can virtually affect any organ. We present here five cases (four males and one female ranging in age from 20 to 59 years. All patients had intestinal involvement associated or not with clinical manifestations linked to this organ. Vegetation in the tricuspid valve was observed in one patient, suggesting endocarditis caused by Tropheryma whippelii, with disappearance of the echocardiographic alterations after treatment. In one of the male patients the initial clinical manifestation was serologically negative spondylitis, with no diarrhea occurring at any time during follow-up. Ocular involvement associated with intestinal malabsorption and significant weight loss were observed in one case. In the other two cases, diarrhea was the major clinical manifestation. All patients were diagnosed by histological examination of the jejunal mucosa and, when indicated, of extraintestinal tissues by light and electron microscopy. After antibiotic treatment, full remission of symptoms occurred in all cases. A control examination of the intestinal mucosa performed after twelve months of treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim revealed the disappearance of T. whippelii in four patients. The remaining patient was lost to follow-up.

  3. Viral encephalitis. Analysis of 10 cases based on clinical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We clinically characterized ten cases of limbic encephalitis in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were seen in the limbic system. In nine cases, fever and consciousness disturbance commonly developed and convulsive seizures appeared in seven. Severe amnestic syndrome remained as a sequela in all cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the acute stage revealed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis and an elevated protein level. MRI revealed abnormal signal intensities in both hippocampi and amygdaloid bodies. Regarding etiologies, two cases were positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Serum and CSF antibody titers determined by conventional fractionation (CF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for HSV were within normal range from the acute to convalescent stages except in one case. Neither the HSV type 1 nor 2 DNA genome tested by a sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-hybridization method was detected in CSF taken from the acute stage of nine cases. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is known as a subacute encephalitis predominantly involving the limbic system. In our cases, this type of limbic encephalitis was excluded because of the acute onset and lack of malignancy. Accordingly, eight of our cases were regarded as non-herpetic limbic encephalitis of unknown etiology. Several similar cases have been reported in the Japanese population. Further etiological studies should be performed. (author)

  4. The origin of the volatile metabolites found in mastitis milk

    OpenAIRE

    Hettinga, K.A.; Van Valenberg, H.J.F.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hooijdonk, A.C.M., van

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The possibility to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was previously studied. Because the origin of the metabolites is unknown, the formation of volatile metabolites by 5 mastitis pathogens inoculated in milk of healthy cows was studied. The volatile metabolites from inoculated samples were compared to those of mastitis milk samples from which the inoculated pathogens were isolated. Most metabolites formed in the inoculated samples were similar t...

  5. Mycobacterium chelonei Mastitis in a Quebec Dairy Herd

    OpenAIRE

    Ménard, L; Vanasse, C.; Diaz, C; Rivard, G.

    1983-01-01

    An epizootic of bovine mastitis caused by a nontuberculous mycobacterial agent occurred in a large Quebec dairy herd. This mastitis problem was characterized by the occurrence of a high number of cows with severely inflamed, indurated and therapeutically incurable quarters. Routine diagnostic laboratory methods yielded negative cultural findings. Approximately 40% of the milking cows developed chronic mastitis. Poor sanitation, improper milking procedures and a faulty milking system prevailed...

  6. Triploid pregnancies, genetic and clinical features of 158 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Mette W; Niemann, Isa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between the genetic constitution and the phenotype in triploid pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: 158 triploid pregnancies identified in hospitals in Western Denmark from April 1986 to April 2010. Clinical data and karyotypes were collected retrospectively and archived samples were retrieved. The parental origin of the genome, either double paternal contribution (PPM) or double maternal contribution (MMP) was determined by analyzing methylation levels at imprinted sites. RESULTS: There were significantly more PPM than MMP cases (p<0.01). In MMP cases the possible karyotypes had similar frequencies, whereas in PPM cases 43% had the karyotype 69,XXX, 51% the karyotype 69,XXY, and 6% the karyotype 69,XYY. Molar phenotype was only seen in PPM cases. However, PPM cases with a non-molar phenotype were also seen. For both parental genotypes, various fetal phenotypes were seen at autopsy. Levels of human chorionic gonadotropin in maternal serum (MS-hCG) were low in MMP cases and varying in PPM cases, some being as low as in the MMP cases. CONCLUSIONS: In a triploid pregnancy, suspicion of hydatidiform mole at US, by macroscopic inspection of the evacuated tissue, at histology, or due to a high MS-hCG level each predict the parental type PPM with a very high specificity. In contrast the sensitivity of these observations is less than 100%.

  7. Triploid pregnancies: genetic and clinical features of 158 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Mette Warming; Niemann, I.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between the genetic constitution and the phenotype in triploid pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred fifty-eight triploid pregnancies were identified in hospitals in Western Denmark from April 1986 to April 2010. Clinical data and karyotypes were collected retrospectively, and archived samples were retrieved. The parental origin of the genome, either double paternal contribution (PPM) or double maternal contribution (MMP) was determined by an analysis of methylation levels at imprinted sites. RESULTS: There were significantly more PPM than MMP cases (P <.01). In MMP cases, the possible karyotypes had similar frequencies, whereas, in PPM cases, 43% had the karyotype 69, XXX, 51% had the karyotype 69, XXY, and 6% had the karyotype 69, XYY. Molar phenotype was seen only in PPM cases. However, PPM cases with a nonmolar phenotype were also seen. For both parental genotypes, various fetal phenotypes were seen at autopsy. Levels of human chorionic gonadotropin in maternal serum were low in MMP cases and varying in PPM cases, some being as low as in the MMP cases. CONCLUSION: In a triploid pregnancy, suspicion of hydatidiform mole at ultrasound scanning, by macroscopic inspection of the evacuated tissue, at histology, or because of a high human chorionic gonadotropin in maternal serum level each predict the parental type PPM with a very high specificity. In contrast, the sensitivity of these observations was <100%.

  8. Forensic neuropsychological assessment: clinical case of depression and working incapacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to mental health in relation to court matters have increasingly required the participation of the psychologist. We present the use of forensic neuropsychological assessment in a case of retirement reversal. Incapacity was attested due to disability resulting from depression of a 35-year-old attorney, and the case was forwarded from the courts to the Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Unit at the USP Clinical Hospital. A clinical interview and application of cognitive tests was conducted. Despite the depression, significant cognitive losses that would prevent return to his professional assignments were not detected. The neuropsychological assessment has been shown to be an important tool in the forensic context, as it assists with diagnostic value for clarification of functional aspects in the various psychopathological areas in terms of disabilities or potentialities.

  9. Clinical study of 20 cases of primary pontine hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty cases of primary pontine hemorrhage were classified into four types according to their outcome. Five cases in Type I showed a full recovery or could resume most activities (ADL I or II). The initial clinical picture of this type was characterized by alertness, no disturbance of autonomic function, and mild hemiparesis. CT scan demonstrated a small hematoma which was localized in the unilateral region or midportion of the pontine tegmentum. In four cases, the largest diameter of the hematoma on a transverse section through the pons was less than 20 mm, and its extension was limited to 2 slices, (each 10 mm in width). Three cases of Type II recovered to daily life partially assisted (ADL III). Hematoma was located in the bilateral pontine tegmentum and partially involved the pontine basis. The size of hematoma was less than 30 mm and its extension was 2 to 3 slices. Seven cases of Type III were severely disabled in prolonged coma or the ''locked-in'' syndrome (ADL IV). Hematoma was located in the entire pontine tegmentum and unilateral pontine basis extending to the midbrain. The size of hematoma was less than 30 mm in five patients and more than 31 mm in two. Alpha-pattern coma was present in two cases and beta-coma was observed in two. All five cases of Type IV died within a few days after the onset. The clinical picture was coma, tetraplegia, respiratory failure, hyperthemia, and hypertension in all cases. Hematoma involved the entire tegmentum and basis pontis and extended to the cerebellum and midbrain. The size of hematoma was less than 30 mm in two patients and more than 31 mm in three. The sagittal extension was 3 to 6 slices. (J.P.N.)

  10. Occurrence of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balqees A. Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available California mastitis tests (CMT and white side test (WST were used to determine the occurrence rate of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok province of Iraq. The rate of subclinical mastitis was 40.5% and 37.5% by CMT and WST respectively. The Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolate with 72.38% followed by Klebsiella spp. (29.79% and Escherichia coli (27.65%. This is the first report on subclinical mastitis report in Duhok area of Iraq.

  11. Integrating data to facilitate clinical research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Osborne, Richard H

    2005-01-01

    The integration of routine clinical administrative activities into ongoing rigorous clinical research poses challenges for both clinicians and researchers. This case study describes the development of a responsive database system used to facilitate comprehensive longitudinal research into the outcomes of patients waiting for hip and knee replacement surgery in a large public teaching hospital. The initial research procedure was paper-based, with manual patient matching and data entry. This process was time-consuming and associated with substantial risk of error and omissions, necessitating the design of a better system. An integrated database system was designed to receive daily electronic updates of the orthopaedic waiting-list and scheduled clinic and surgery dates. Using readily available software (Microsoft Access), new patients were identified through specifying inclusion and exclusion criteria which allowed rapid and complete recruitment at time of entry to the waiting-list. The integrated system specified the appropriate timing of multiple follow-up assessments, provided prompt information on recruitment for reporting purposes and integrated multiple linked research projects within one database. Seamless exporting of data to statistical programs for analysis was also enabled. This simple integrated approach facilitated efficient execution of a longitudinal study from recruitment to statistical analysis while maximising confidentiality and minimising resources required. This case study describes the development and design of a simple system which could be easily adapted for database management in hospital or clinic-based settings according to local requirements. PMID:16510023

  12. Basics of case report form designing in clinical research

    OpenAIRE

    Bellary, Shantala; Krishnankutty, Binny; M S Latha

    2014-01-01

    Case report form (CRF) is a specialized document in clinical research. It should be study protocol driven, robust in content and have material to collect the study specific data. Though paper CRFs are still used largely, use of electronic CRFs (eCRFS) are gaining popularity due to the advantages they offer such as improved data quality, online discrepancy management and faster database lock etc. Main objectives behind CRF development are preserving and maintaining quality and integrity of dat...

  13. The neurological symptoms in the Sneddon's syndrome: (clinical case)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sneddon's syndrome affects preponderant the female sex, until or during the middle age (40-50 years), with first cerebrovascular events up to 45 years. 'Livedo racemosa' may precede the onset of the ischemic stroke. The presented clinical case emphasized the importance of early approach of skin manifestations within the Sneddon's Syndrome and avoiding the combination of risk factors such as contraceptives and hypertension. (authors)

  14. Clinical analysis of acute anterior uveitis in 215 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Wei Zhou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the etiology, therapeutic effects,risk of relapse and prognosis of acute anterior uveitis.MEHTODS: Medical history of 215 patients with acute anterior uveitis who underwent treatment in Department of Ophthalmology, People's Hospital of Fenghua was collected, together with results of clinical examinations and auxiliary examinations. The data were studied in terms of therapeutic effects, etiological factors, prognosis and relapse rate. RESULTS: In 85 cases(39.5%, the cause was identified, and among the among the most frequent causes were traumatic or surgical injury, viral infection and glaucomatocyclitic crisis. After treatment, the best corrected visual acuity was no less than 1.0 in 153 cases(71.2%, between 0.5 and 1.0 in 55 cases(25.6%, between 0.3 and 0.5 in 4 cases(1.9%, between 0.05 and 0.3 in 2 cases(0.9%, and less than 0.05 in 1 case(0.5%. During the follow-up of more than 6 months, relapse occurred in 4 cases(1.9%during 4-6 months, in 7 cases(3.2%during 7-12 months, in 10 cases(4.7%during 13-24 months, and in 3 cases(1.4%during 25-60 months. CONCLUSION: The etiology of acute anterior uveitis is complicated and mostly idiopathic. Vision prognosis is good after treatment, but therelapse rate is high and can cause visual impairment, so better understanding should be gained of its relapse and its prevention and early treatment should be emphasized.

  15. Onchomycosis – a clinical and mycological study of 75 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis or fungal infection of the nails is a common disease, especially in older persons. A mycological study of onchomycosis was undertaken in 75 patients. The nails were judged to be infected by their clinical appearance. There were a total of 75 suspected cases of onychomycosis. Of these 75 cases 22.6% were positive by direct microscopy and 33.3% were culture positive. Of these 75 cases, 18 were males (24% and 57 (76 % were females, male to female ratio being. The commonest age group was 31-40 years followed by 21-30 years. The finger nails were more frequently involved. i.e. 45 (60 %, followed by toe nails 30 (40 % and both in 18 (24% cases. Ratio of finger nail to toe nail infection was 1.5:1. Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO was the commonest clinical pattern (76% followed by total dystrophic onychomycosis (18.66% and then superficial white onychomycosis (4% and proximal subungual onychomycosis (1.33%. The most common fungal isolates were dermatophytes of which 44% were Trytophyton rubrum, 4% were Trytophyton mentagrophytes. Non dermatophyte moulds constituted 16% of the fungus isolates. Onychomycosis was found to be the commonest in housewives (52%, followed by serviceman / businessman (32% followed by farmers (8% and labourer and student 4% each.

  16. Biomarkers in differentiating clinical dengue cases: A prospective cohort study

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    Gary Kim Kuan Low

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate five biomarkers (neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, thrombomodulin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and pentraxin 3 in differentiating clinical dengue cases. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted whereby the blood samples were obtained at day of presentation and the final diagnosis were obtained at the end of patients’ follow-up. All patients included in the study were 15 years old or older, not pregnant, not infected by dengue previously and did not have cancer, autoimmune or haematological disorder. Median test was performed to compare the biomarker levels. A subgroup Mann-Whitney U test was analysed between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases. Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the 2-tailed probability (P value for independent variables with unequal number of patients. Results: All biomarkers except thrombomodulin has P value < 0.001 in differentiating among the healthy subjects, non-dengue fever, dengue without warning signs and dengue with warning signs/severe dengue. Subgroup analysis for all the biomarkers between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases was not statistically significant except vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Certain biomarkers were able to differentiate the clinical dengue cases. This could be potentially useful in classifying and determining the severity of dengue infected patients in the hospital.

  17. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis-utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in preventing unnecessary surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mimi Gangopadhyay; De Anuradha; Indranil Chakrabarti; Sailesh Ray; Amita Giri; Rinki Das

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Granulomatous mastitis is a benign disorder which closely mimics malignancy clinico-radiologically. A simple and cost effective modality like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can help in prompt diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgery. Material and Methods: A retrospective study where data were collected for granulomatous lesions of the breast diagnosed by histopathology in a five year period and review of FNAC slides. Cases positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis either on ZN...

  18. Clinical findings in two cases of atypical scrapie in sheep: a case report

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    Chaplin Melanie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical scrapie is a recently recognised form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep that differs from classical scrapie in its neuropathological and biochemical features. Most cases are detected in apparently healthy sheep and information on the clinical presentation is limited. Case presentation This report describes the clinical findings in two sheep notified as scrapie suspects and confirmed as atypical scrapie cases by immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblotting. Although both sheep displayed signs suggestive of a cerebellar dysfunction there was considerable variation in the individual clinical signs, which were similar to classical scrapie. Conclusion Any sheep presenting with neurological gait deficits should be assessed more closely for other behavioural, neurological and physical signs associated with scrapie and their presence should lead to the suspicion of scrapie.

  19. A clinical study of 21 cases of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 129 patients with moderate and severe head injuries, subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) were observed in 21 cases on initial CT scans. These 21 cases were classified into 4 groups as follows according to the CT findings: Type 1. SAH were seen diffusely in basal cisterns (8 cases). Type 2. SAH were seen dominantly in the interhemispheric fissure or along the tentorium cerebelli (8 cases). Type 3. SAH were seen in the unilateral Sylvian cistern (4 cases). Type 4. SAH were seen in the parietal sulci (1 case). A clinical analysis was undertaken based on this classification; the following results were obtained: (1) In Type 1, the prognosis was poor, and it was frequently accompanied by other intracranial lesions, such as cerebral contusions and intracerebral hemorrhages. (2) In the other 3 types, the prognosis was relatively good. (3) In Type 1 of traumatic SAH, it should always be kept in mind that cerebral vasospasm and hydrocephalus can occur after a certain period of time. (author)

  20. Antibiotics mastitis therapy: drug residue in lambs

    OpenAIRE

    G. Calaresu; Leori, G; N. Rubattu; L. Secchi; G. Marogna; Testa, C.

    2007-01-01

    Meat coming from suckling lambs (max 12 Kg BW) is a typical Sardinian taste dish, normally consumed during the religious linked feasts. The aim of this work is to evaluate drug residues in suckling lambs meat as consequence of antibiotics mastitis therapy in their mothers during lactation. The study was performed on twelve Sardinian ewes, that had lambed within two days of one another, with suckling lambs from a single flok of 150 animals. Milk bacteriological screening showed tha...

  1. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: An Autoimmune Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Altintoprak; Engin Karakece; Taner Kivilcim; Enis Dikicier; Guner Cakmak; Fehmi Celebi; Ihsan Hakk? Ciftci

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study aimed to investigate the autoimmune basis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) by determining the anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) levels of patients diagnosed with IGM. Material and Methods. Twenty-six IGM patients were evaluated. Serum samples were analyzed for autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using a substrate kit that induced fluorescein-conjugated goat antibodies to human immunoglobulin G (IgG). IIF patterns we...

  2. Mastitis” => Se solicita ayuda o consejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPara nada la foto que se muestra se corresponde con una Mastitis felina, sino con una muy típica mastopatía, aunque no frecuente cuya denominación más común es Hiperplasia mamaria fibroadenomatosa o fibroepitelial, hipertrofia mamaria, hipertrofia mamaria fibroglandular (no adecuado ya que el común denominador es el estado súper proliferativo y no hipertrófico. Esa hiperplasia está dada por tejido mamario especialmente ductal con el agregado masivo de fibroblastos.

  3. Identification of Prototheca zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    F Zaini; Kanani, A.; Falahati, M; R Fateh; Salimi-Asl, M; N Saemi; Sh Farahyar; A Kargar Kheirabad; M Nazeri

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM) and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by ...

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Gooraninejad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 365 isolates of staphylococci including 209 S. aureus and 156 coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS isolated from subclinical cases of bovine mastitis in Ahvaz (Iran were analyzed for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents by agar disk diffusion method. Out of 209 isolates of S. aureus resistance was detected in 120 (57.42%, 64 (30.62%, 29 (13.88%, 29 (13.88% and 10 (4.78% isolates for penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol, respectively. No resistance was detected for gentamicin. Out of 156 CNS isolates resistance was detected in 48 (30.19%, 24 (15.09%, 20 (12.58%, 24 (15.09% and 9 (5.66% isolates for penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sufamethoxazol, respectively, whereas no resistance was detected for gentamicin. Results indicated that these isolates exhibited the highest degree of resistance to penicillin of all antimicrobial agents tested.

  5. Running a postmortem service - a business case and clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the postmortem examination is to offer answers to explain the cause and manner of death. In the case of perinatal, infant and paediatric postmortem examinations, the goal is to identify unsuspected associated features, to describe pathogenic mechanisms and new conditions, and to evaluate the clinical management and diagnosis. Additionally, the postmortem examination is useful to counsel families regarding the probability of recurrence in future pregnancies and to inform family planning. Worldwide the rate of paediatric autopsy examinations has significantly declined during the last few decades. Religious objections to postmortem dissection and organ retention scandals in the United Kingdom provided some of the impetus for a search for non-invasive alternatives to the traditional autopsy; however, until recently, imaging studies remained an adjunct to, rather than a replacement for, the traditional autopsy. In 2012, Sheffield Children's Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust set up the service provision of minimally invasive fetal, perinatal and neonatal autopsy, while a postmortem imaging service has been running in Melbourne, Australia, since 2008. Here we summarise the essentials of a business case and practical British and Australian experiences in terms of the pathological and radiologic aspects of setting up a minimally invasive clinical service in the United Kingdom and of developing a clinical postmortem imaging service as a complementary tool to the traditional autopsy in Australia. (orig.)

  6. Running a postmortem service - a business case and clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Marta C.; Whitby, Elspeth; Fink, Michelle A.; Collett, Jacquelene M.; Offiah, Amaka C. [Western Bank, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the postmortem examination is to offer answers to explain the cause and manner of death. In the case of perinatal, infant and paediatric postmortem examinations, the goal is to identify unsuspected associated features, to describe pathogenic mechanisms and new conditions, and to evaluate the clinical management and diagnosis. Additionally, the postmortem examination is useful to counsel families regarding the probability of recurrence in future pregnancies and to inform family planning. Worldwide the rate of paediatric autopsy examinations has significantly declined during the last few decades. Religious objections to postmortem dissection and organ retention scandals in the United Kingdom provided some of the impetus for a search for non-invasive alternatives to the traditional autopsy; however, until recently, imaging studies remained an adjunct to, rather than a replacement for, the traditional autopsy. In 2012, Sheffield Children's Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust set up the service provision of minimally invasive fetal, perinatal and neonatal autopsy, while a postmortem imaging service has been running in Melbourne, Australia, since 2008. Here we summarise the essentials of a business case and practical British and Australian experiences in terms of the pathological and radiologic aspects of setting up a minimally invasive clinical service in the United Kingdom and of developing a clinical postmortem imaging service as a complementary tool to the traditional autopsy in Australia. (orig.)

  7. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both CM and MY peaked in the 26 to 40 Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20 targeted region, however, there was indication on differences in the causal factor(s) across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene showed strong association with milk, fat, protein yields. In HOL, the highest peaks for milk yield and susceptibility to mastitis were separated by over 3.5 Mb (3.8 Mb by haplotype analysis, 3.6 Mb by single SNP analysis), suggesting separate genetic variants for the traits. Further analysis yielded 2 candidate mutations for the mastitis QTL, at 33,642,072 bp (rs378947583) in an intronic region of the caspase recruitment domain protein 6 gene (CARD6) and 35,969,994 bp (rs133596506) in an intronic region of the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor gene (LIFR). These findings suggest that it may be possible to separate these beneficial and detrimental genetic factors through targeted selective breeding

  8. The association between mastitis and reproductive performance in seasonally-calved dairy cows managed on a pasture-based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CI Gómez-Cifuentes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess association between clinical, subclinical mastitis, body condition score and the reproductive performance of cows under seasonally calving conditions in a pasture-based management system. Data from 182 cows calved during 2008 were analyzed. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed considering pregnancy at the end of breeding season and number of services as dependent variables, whereas clinical and subclinical mastitis and other variables related to the animal that could have an effect on the dependent variables (e.g. parity, BCS, concurrent diseases were considered as independent variables. Lactation number, calving difficulty, interval from calving to the beginning of breeding season and body condition score had a significant effect on pregnancy at the end of breeding season. Cows with one or two lactations (P = 0.031, those with no difficulty at calving (P = 0.003, those with more days from calving to the beginning of breeding season (P = 0.001, and those with body condition score > 2.5 (P = 0.007 were most likely to become pregnant. Subclinical mastitis affected reproductive performance increasing the number of services (P = 0.03. Also, breeding season influenced number of services, since summer-calving cows needed more services to become pregnant (P = 0.046. Clinical mastitis was not associated with pregnancy as a final measure of reproductive performance (P = 0.863. Although subclinical mastitis influenced reproductive performance, several parameters related to reproductive and nutritional management, significantly affected the outcome variables under experimental conditions of this study. This information can be valuable to improve reproductive performance in similar management systems.

  9. Photonuclear reactions with Zinc: A case for clinical linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Boztosun, I; Karakoç, M; Özmen, S F; Çeçen, Y; Çoban, A; Caner, T; Bayram, E; Saito, T R; Akdo?an, T; Bozkurt, V; Kuçuk, Y; Kaya, D; Harakeh, M N

    2015-01-01

    The use of bremsstrahlung photons produced by a linac to induce photonuclear reactions is wide spread. However, using a clinical linac to produce the photons is a new concept. We aimed to induce photonuclear reactions on zinc isotopes and measure the subsequent transition energies and half-lives. For this purpose, a bremsstrahlung photon beam of 18 MeV endpoint energy produced by the Philips SLI-25 linac has been used. The subsequent decay has been measured with a well-shielded single HPGe detector. The results obtained for transition energies are in good agreement with the literature data and in many cases surpass these in accuracy. For the half-lives, we are in agreement with the literature data, but do not achieve their precision. The obtained accuracy for the transition energies show what is achievable in an experiment such as ours. We demonstrate the usefulness and benefits of employing clinical linacs for nuclear physics experiments.

  10. Secondary acute pancreatitis to hypertriglyceridemia: presentation of two clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute pancreatitis is a reversible inflammatory process. Hypertriglyceridemia as etiology of the acute pancreatitis reaches frequencies between 1,3 to 11% according to literature when the triglycerides levels of reach values over 1000 mg/dl nevertheless hypertriglyceridemia is observed in 12 to 39% of the acute pancreatitis like factor associate. The objective of the medical treatment is to increase the activity of lipoproteinlipasa and to increase the degradation of vhylomicrones; diminishing therefore the serum triglycerides values of a levels smaller to 500 even to less of 200 mg/dl if is possible with different strategies among of them the insulin. In the present article, we presented two clinical cases of severe pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia, handled with therapy of insulin infusion with suitable evolution and clinical answer given by significant diminution of the levels of triglycerides, 48 hours post treatment

  11. Fatores de virulência em linhagens de Escherichia coli isoladas de mastite bovina Virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Ribeiro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fatores de virulência e do sorotipo O157:H7 em 120 linhagens de Escherichia coli, isoladas de 80 casos de mastite clínica bovina e 40 de mastite subclínica. Verificou-se alfa-hemolisina em oito (6,7% linhagens, isoladas de cinco casos de mastite clínica e três de mastite subclínica e em nenhuma das estirpes detectou-se enteroemolisina. A presença de sideróforos foi encontrada em 11 (9,2% linhagens, sete de mastite clínica e quatro de subclínica. Em duas (1,7% estirpes isoladas de mastite subclínica, identificou-se enterotoxina STa. Observou-se efeito citopático em células vero compatível com a produção de verotoxina-VT em cinco (4,2% linhagens, duas de mastite clínica e três subclínicas. Em uma (0,8% linhagem isolada de mastite clínica, detectou-se efeito citopático compatível com o fator necrosante citotóxico. Nenhuma estirpe apresentou-se sorbitol-negativa no MacConkey-sorbitol, tampouco aglutinou com o sorotipo O157:H7. Os antimicrobianos mais efetivos foram polimixina B (97,5% e norfloxacina (95,8%. Observou-se multi-resistência a dois ou mais antimicrobianos em 24 (20% estirpes, principalmente com o uso de ampicilina e ceftiofur.The occurrence of different virulence factors and O157:H7 serotype investigation in 120 Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical (80 cases and subclinical (40 cases bovine mastitis was evaluated. Alpha-haemolysin was detected in 8 (6.7% strains (5 clinical and 3 subclinical cases. None strain showed enterohaemolysin production. E. coli growth under iron restriction conditions (siderophores production was observed in 11 (9.2% strains (7 clinical and 4 subclinical cases. STa enterotoxin was detected in 2 (1.7% strains from subclinical cases. Cytotoxic effect in vero cells compatible with verotoxin-VT production was observed in 5 (4.2% strains (2 clinical and 3 subclinical cases. One strain (0.8% isolated from clinical mastitis showed cytophatic effect in vero cells compatible with cytotoxic-necrotic-factor production. None strain showed non-sorbitol fermenting colonies using sorbitol MacConkey agar and agglutination with specific anti-sera for E. coli O157:H7 serotype investigation. Polymixin B (97.5% and norfloxacin (95.8% were the most effective drugs. Multiple-drug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials was observed in 24 (20.0% strains, mainly with use of ampicillin and ceftiofur.

  12. Fatores de virulência em linhagens de Escherichia coli isoladas de mastite bovina / Virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.G., Ribeiro; E.O., Costa; D.S., Leite; H., Langoni; F., Garino Júnior; C., Victória; F.J.P., Listoni.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fatores de virulência e do sorotipo O157:H7 em 120 linhagens de Escherichia coli, isoladas de 80 casos de mastite clínica bovina e 40 de mastite subclínica. Verificou-se alfa-hemolisina em oito (6,7%) linhagens, isoladas de cinco casos de mastite clínica e três de mastite [...] subclínica e em nenhuma das estirpes detectou-se enteroemolisina. A presença de sideróforos foi encontrada em 11 (9,2%) linhagens, sete de mastite clínica e quatro de subclínica. Em duas (1,7%) estirpes isoladas de mastite subclínica, identificou-se enterotoxina STa. Observou-se efeito citopático em células vero compatível com a produção de verotoxina-VT em cinco (4,2%) linhagens, duas de mastite clínica e três subclínicas. Em uma (0,8%) linhagem isolada de mastite clínica, detectou-se efeito citopático compatível com o fator necrosante citotóxico. Nenhuma estirpe apresentou-se sorbitol-negativa no MacConkey-sorbitol, tampouco aglutinou com o sorotipo O157:H7. Os antimicrobianos mais efetivos foram polimixina B (97,5%) e norfloxacina (95,8%). Observou-se multi-resistência a dois ou mais antimicrobianos em 24 (20%) estirpes, principalmente com o uso de ampicilina e ceftiofur. Abstract in english The occurrence of different virulence factors and O157:H7 serotype investigation in 120 Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical (80 cases) and subclinical (40 cases) bovine mastitis was evaluated. Alpha-haemolysin was detected in 8 (6.7%) strains (5 clinical and 3 subclinical cases). None st [...] rain showed enterohaemolysin production. E. coli growth under iron restriction conditions (siderophores production) was observed in 11 (9.2%) strains (7 clinical and 4 subclinical cases). STa enterotoxin was detected in 2 (1.7%) strains from subclinical cases. Cytotoxic effect in vero cells compatible with verotoxin-VT production was observed in 5 (4.2%) strains (2 clinical and 3 subclinical cases). One strain (0.8%) isolated from clinical mastitis showed cytophatic effect in vero cells compatible with cytotoxic-necrotic-factor production. None strain showed non-sorbitol fermenting colonies using sorbitol MacConkey agar and agglutination with specific anti-sera for E. coli O157:H7 serotype investigation. Polymixin B (97.5%) and norfloxacin (95.8%) were the most effective drugs. Multiple-drug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials was observed in 24 (20.0%) strains, mainly with use of ampicillin and ceftiofur.

  13. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štokovi?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  14. Acute mastitis; a novel presentation of relapsing polychondritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Haigh, R.; Scott-Coombes, D.; Seckl, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A 30 year old female with previous Crohn's disease presented with recurrent cutaneous vasculitis and polyarthritis. She subsequently developed recurrent transient bilateral mastitis with auricular and laryngotracheal chondritis typical of relapsing polychondritis. Acute mastitis is a previously unrecognized association of this disorder.

  15. The Cold man. A clinical case of the cold sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settineri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of correlation between available knowledge and the current approach to Somatoform Disorders is highlighted.. Methods: the study, via the analysis of an unusual clinical case of an anomalous sensation of cold, examines various hypotheses on the physiopathology of somatization. Conclusions: a conceptualization would focus attention on the level of patients’ preoccupation with their symptoms, on the anomalies of the variations of perceptions and on patients’ hyperarousal. It could lead to a more harmonious position in psychiatry, between anthropologically-based understanding and interpretation of psychophysical information.

  16. Demographic Data and Clinical Characteristics of 202 Cerebral Palsy Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Öcal Eriman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP who applied to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinic.Materials and Methods: Data of the 202 cases who had reffered to our outpatient clinic between December 2005 and June 2007 was evaluated retrospectively.Results: Ninety-four of the cases were girls and 108 were boys. Their mean age was 6.98 years (1-33 years. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia 34% (n:69, tetraplegia 32% (n:66, hemiplegia 26% (n:53, monoplegia 4.5% (n:9, dyskinetic %1 (n:2 and mixed type 1.4% (n:3. CP severity, assessed with the Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS, was distributed as follows: level 1 (9.9%, level 2 (17.8%, level 3 (20.8%, level 4 (22.8%, level 5 (8.7%. The most frequently encountered prenatal risk factor was consanguineous marriage - 25% (n=51, perinatal risk factors were low birth weight - 37.1% (n=75 and premature birth - 35% (n=72, natal risk factor was forced birth - 14.9% (n=30, postnatal risk factor was convulsion - 9.9% (n=20, and 14.9% (n=30 were unclassified. 55.4% of the children had speech disorder, 50.4% had mental retardation, 35.6% had visual impairment, 5.9% had epilepsy. Eighty-six of the cases who applied to the clinic were using orthesis. New orthesis were prescribed to 74 patients, botulinum toxin–A injection were performed in 11 cases and 12 of them were referred for surgery.Conclusion: Perinatal risk factors were the most frequently seen when assessing the etiologic factors in CP. Better health conditions will decrease the prevalence of CP by minimizing prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal damage. Prenatal care should be improved, high-risk babies should be followed up closely and the number of neonatal intensive care units should be increased. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2009;55:94-7.

  17. Surgical treatment for progressive prostate cancer: A clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Veliev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its existing standards, the treatment of patients with progressive prostate cancer (PC remains a matter of debate. Ensuring that the patients have good quality of life is also relevant. The paper describes a clinical case of a patient with progressive PC after hormone therapy, brachytherapy, salvage prostatectomy, enucleation of the testicular parenchyma, and salvage lymphadenectomy. A phallic prosthesis and an artificial urinary sphincter have been implanted to improve quality of life. The results of preoperative examination and the technological features of surgical interventions are given.

  18. Report of a clinical case of headphone mixoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the case of a patient who presented syncope and repetitive palpitations that had been previously studied by the neurology section with a simple CT scan and a MRI, showing multiples embolic lesions, for that reason she was referred to the service of cardiology. With clinical triad of palpitations, syncope and embolic lesions, an M mode a two-dimensional and a color Doppler Trans-thoracic echocardiography was performed, showing the presence of a mass in the left atrium attached to the posterior wall. The patient underwent a cardio pulmonary bypass surgery and the mass was removed with no complication during the postoperative period. In the histological study the mass appeared to be a typical mixoma. This case has a great interest not only because the presentation of this tumor is unusual, but also because the use of the m mode and two-dimensional echocardiography has a high sensibility in the detection of the tumor

  19. Wasps are the cause of an increasing mastitis problem in dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Braverman, Y; Schwimmer, A

    1998-07-01

    The German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) has been observed to injure dairy cows teats, causing lesions which can lead to mastitis. The number of dairy herds in Israel reported to be affected in this way has increased from five prior to 1989 to 32 from 1989 to 1993. Likewise, the geographical distribution of the colonies of these wasps has expanded from the Galilee to the northern Negev. Most cases of mastitis appeared during August and September when the wasps were most active; the predominant organism isolated was Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Apparently the wasps served as a vector in spreading S. dysgalactiae infection in the herds. More adult cows than first-calving cows were affected. The teats of the front quarters were more affected than those of the hind quarters. PMID:9684301

  20. Inducing Shifts in Clinical Case Processing by Manipulation of Format and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, P. F.; Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L.; van de Wiel, M. W. J.; Schmidt, H. G.

    The knowledge encapsulation theory (H. Schmidt and H. Boshuizen, 1992) predicts that experts under certain conditions shift from the use of clinical knowledge to elaborated biomedical knowledge. In normal routine cases, experts process cases with their encapsulated clinical knowledge. These differences in processing are reflected in clinical case

  1. A review of the factors affecting the costs of bovine mastitis : review article

    OpenAIRE

    G. Buneski; K.R. Petrovski; M. Trajcev

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent production diseases affecting the dairy cattle industry worldwide. Its occurrence is associated with direct and indirect losses and expenditures. When estimating the cost of mastitis to the dairy industry the cost of the control programmes must be added. The direct losses of mastitis are the only costs obvious to the farmer. The difference between the costs of mastitis on one side and the benefits of mastitis control on the other side will give us a pictu...

  2. Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Ingrid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic farming as well as conventional. Preliminary studies of organic dairy herds have indicated better udder health in such herds, as compared to conventional herds. The aim of this paper was to further study mastitis and management related factors in certified organic dairy herds. Methods An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional and incidence of disorders. Results The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis. The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage. Conclusion Udder health in Swedish organic herds appears to be better than in conventional herds of comparable size and production. The major difference in management between the two types of farms is the proportion of concentrates fed. The mechanisms explaining the association between intensity of feeding and udder health in dairy cows require further research.

  3. Mastite em pequenos ruminantes no Brasil Small ruminant mastitis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo de M. Peixoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou revisar as informações recentes sobre mastite em pequenos ruminantes, abrangendo etiologia, epidemiologia, aspectos de controle e profilaxia. Houve a preocupação em reunir resultados de estudos desenvolvidos no Brasil, uma vez que a mastite tem a interferência de uma série de fatores, como fatores ambientais e outros decorrentes dos sistemas de manejo empregados, condições essas determinantes para etiologia e epidemiologia da enfermidade. A prevalência da mastite em caprinos varia entre 22 e 75%, sendo que os casos de mastite subclínica são os mais frequentes. Existe uma carência de trabalhos voltados para os aspectos epidemiológicos da enfermidade no nosso país. Contudo, observa-se que a mastite vem assumindo importância cada vez maior nos rebanhos voltados para produção de carne, sendo encontrados resultados de pesquisa, principalmente na espécie ovina. A mastite estafilocócica corresponde à maior fração nas infecções intramamárias em pequenos ruminantes. O caráter zoonótico de alguns patógenos, a exemplo do Staphylococcus aureus ressalta a importância da implantação de programas de controle em propriedades leiteiras. Algumas das ferramentas de diagnóstico ainda necessitam de padronização, principalmente para espécie caprina que apresenta uma série de particularidades. Ainda são discutidas as principais estratégias de controle como o manejo de fêmeas e suas crias, os procedimentos de ordenha e a utilização de vacinas.The present reviews mastitis in small ruminants, focusing important aspects of etiology, epidemiology, diagnose, control, and prophylaxis. There was a special concern in review studies developed in Brazil, since mastitis results from a combination of many factors such as environmental and management conditions that concur for the action of etiological agents and for the epidemiology of this relevant disease. The prevalence mastitis in goats varies from 22 to 75%, with higher frequency of subclinical cases. In Brazil there are few studies about epidemiologic aspects of mastitis in small ruminants. In the other hand, the disease has growing in importance in meat producing small ruminants, mainly sheep. The mastitis caused by staphylococci is the most prevalent in small ruminants. The zoonotic importance of some milk pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus emphasizes the importance of the elimination this bacteria by carriers between goat and sheep milk farms. Some diagnostic techniques need more standardization, especially those used in goats that demonstrated some peculiarities. Mastitis control strategies will be discussed include the management of the females and their offspring, milking procedures and vaccination protocols.

  4. Mastite em pequenos ruminantes no Brasil / Small ruminant mastitis in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo de M., Peixoto; Rinaldo Aparecido, Mota; Mateus M. da, Costa.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou revisar as informações recentes sobre mastite em pequenos ruminantes, abrangendo etiologia, epidemiologia, aspectos de controle e profilaxia. Houve a preocupação em reunir resultados de estudos desenvolvidos no Brasil, uma vez que a mastite tem a interferência de uma série de f [...] atores, como fatores ambientais e outros decorrentes dos sistemas de manejo empregados, condições essas determinantes para etiologia e epidemiologia da enfermidade. A prevalência da mastite em caprinos varia entre 22 e 75%, sendo que os casos de mastite subclínica são os mais frequentes. Existe uma carência de trabalhos voltados para os aspectos epidemiológicos da enfermidade no nosso país. Contudo, observa-se que a mastite vem assumindo importância cada vez maior nos rebanhos voltados para produção de carne, sendo encontrados resultados de pesquisa, principalmente na espécie ovina. A mastite estafilocócica corresponde à maior fração nas infecções intramamárias em pequenos ruminantes. O caráter zoonótico de alguns patógenos, a exemplo do Staphylococcus aureus ressalta a importância da implantação de programas de controle em propriedades leiteiras. Algumas das ferramentas de diagnóstico ainda necessitam de padronização, principalmente para espécie caprina que apresenta uma série de particularidades. Ainda são discutidas as principais estratégias de controle como o manejo de fêmeas e suas crias, os procedimentos de ordenha e a utilização de vacinas. Abstract in english The present reviews mastitis in small ruminants, focusing important aspects of etiology, epidemiology, diagnose, control, and prophylaxis. There was a special concern in review studies developed in Brazil, since mastitis results from a combination of many factors such as environmental and management [...] conditions that concur for the action of etiological agents and for the epidemiology of this relevant disease. The prevalence mastitis in goats varies from 22 to 75%, with higher frequency of subclinical cases. In Brazil there are few studies about epidemiologic aspects of mastitis in small ruminants. In the other hand, the disease has growing in importance in meat producing small ruminants, mainly sheep. The mastitis caused by staphylococci is the most prevalent in small ruminants. The zoonotic importance of some milk pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus emphasizes the importance of the elimination this bacteria by carriers between goat and sheep milk farms. Some diagnostic techniques need more standardization, especially those used in goats that demonstrated some peculiarities. Mastitis control strategies will be discussed include the management of the females and their offspring, milking procedures and vaccination protocols.

  5. Treatnebt if Addiction - Clinical and Judicial Perspectives: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Fonseca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sporadic or chronic use of drugs and alcohol is directly related to conduct disorders and to the triggering of psychopathological states of sub-acute or chronic course. The excessive consumption of alcohol and excessive traffic/consumption of illicit drugs by individuals without mental illness or disability are actions of free will; they are therefore criminally responsible for their behaviour, even if they commit a crime during the state of intoxication, which the individual chose voluntarily to experience. In clinical practice, it is widely accepted that the treatment of these disorders is only effective when the patient accepts it voluntarily and that involuntary commitment (compulsive treatment is only carried out when the psychopathological state associated justifies the presuppositions of Article 12 of the Mental Health Law. However, if the compulsive treatment is of a penal character, mandated by a judge, the individual is obligated to accept treatment, independent of whether or not he suffers from mental illness. The authors present two case studies, one of drug addiction, the other of alcoholism, and discuss the clinical and judicial perspectives on the treatment of these clinical entities.

  6. Characterization of Aerococcus viridans isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis and manure samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saishu, Nobukazu; Morimoto, Kazutaka; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2015-10-01

    Thirty-eight Aerococcus viridans isolates were obtained from milk from 478 cows with clinical mastitis in a farm during the periods between November 2011 and February 2012, and between December 2012 and March 2013. Additional isolates were obtained from processed manure (a mixture of composted manure, straw and hydrated lime) and bedding materials. The processed manure was later used to cover the floor of the stalls in barns as bedding materials. The temperatures recorded in the composted and processed manure were not as high as those generally observed during satisfactory composting. To reveal the association of A. viridans in manure-related products with intramammary infection in cows, isolates were characterized by their DNA fragment patterns as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolates obtained from milk, processed manure and bedding materials had identical DNA fragment patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined for 29 isolates from milk, processed manure and bedding materials. Of these, 26 (89.7%) were resistant to clindamycin, whereas virtually all the isolates were susceptible to 12 other antimicrobials including cefalosporins that have been used to treat bovine mastitis in Japan. In vitro, three A. viridans isolates from milk and an isolate from processed manure survived for 3 hr in Good's buffer (pH 9) at high temperature (50°C). The results suggest that the processed manure and bedding materials in this farm were possible sources of A. viridans that caused infection in the cows with mastitis. PMID:25843745

  7. Clinical assessment of 15 cases of pediatric neck abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric neck-abscess incidence has decreased thanks to early treatment using antibiotics, but diagnosis remains difficult due to varied clinical symptoms and a lack of subjective complaints. It must be diagnosed and treated early, due to being potentially life-threatening. We studied 15 such cases- 12 boys and 3 girls, 0 to 11 years old (mean; 3.5)- treated from January 2005 to January 2010. Their chief complaints were 5 high fevers, 4 neck swellings, and 6 neck and throat pain. Neck computed tomography (CT) with contrast medium was useful in diagnosis. Neck abscesses were found in 4 patients in the retropharyngeal space and parapharyngeal space, 2 patients in the submandibular space, retrocervical space, thyroid glands, and peritonsillar space, plus 3 miscellaneous. Antibiotics were used to treat all cases. Eleven required surgery and one puncture. Bacteria detected in 10 cases were 4 of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A), 3 of Staphylococcus aureus, and 1 each of Group F Streptococcus, Peptostreptococcus sp. and Actinomyces. Hospitalization ranged from 7 to 44 days (mean; 17.2). All cases recovered satisfactorily. (author)

  8. Pancreatitis in childhood: Clinical analysis of 20 cases - Original Article

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    Gönül Dinler Çaltepe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pancreatitis rarely occurs in childhood and the underlying causes differ from adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the documentation of characteristics of our cases diagnosed as pancreatitis.Material and Method: Of the 20 patients (19 acute, one chronic who diagnosed as pancreatitis in our clinic during a five year period were analyzed retrospectively, considering clinical and laboratory findings, underlying risk factors and outcome of the illness. Data were analysed with SPSS 16.0 computer package programme.Results: Of the 20 patients 14 were female and 6 were male. The mean age was 11.4±3.62 (2-18 years. The most common risk factors were systemic diseases (15%, drugs (15%, biliary diseases (15% and trauma (10%. Nine of cases (45% were idiopathic. One patient with chronic pancreatitis was defined as cystic fibrosis. Two patients had acute recurrent pancreatitis (one with mumps infection. Twenty-two episodes of 19 patients with acute pancreatitis were documented. The serum amylase and lipase were elevated in 81.8% and 90.9% of patients respectively. Pseudocysts (10%, venous thrombosis (10% and necrotising pancreatitis (5% were the major complications. None of the patients died. Conclusions: Systemic illnesses, drugs, biliary diseases and trauma are the major risk factors in childhood pancreatitis. Although the mortality rate is low in children, the patients should be considered by means of complication such as pseudocyst and venous thrombosis, especially in severe pancreatitis. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 49-54

  9. Prevalencia de mastitis en siete hatos lecheros del oriente antioqueño Prevalência da mastite em sete rebanhos leiteiros na região leste da Antioquia Prevalence of mastitis in dairy herds in Eastern Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Trujillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte, y se hizo un muestreo no probabilístico de conveniencia, en siete fincas de ganado de leche localizadas en el oriente antioqueño. Se evaluó cada cuarto de 290 vacas en producción láctea mediante la realización del California Mastitis Test (CMT con el fin de determinar la prevalencia de mastitis por cuarto y por vaca. A la leche proveniente de los cuartos positivos mayores a trazas, se les realizó recuento de células somáticas (RCS, cultivo y antibiograma. La prevalencia de mastitis subclínica por cuarto fue de 19.9% (228 cuartos y 11 cuartos (0.95% presentaron mastitis clínica. El promedio del RCS para todos los cuartos fue de 1.105.733 céls/ml. En los 226 cultivos, Streptococcus dysgalactiae fue la bacteria más común (29.5%, le siguieron estafilococos coagulasa negativo (ECN (23% y Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%. La frecuencia de patógenos contagiosos fue 37.8%, entre tanto que la de ambientales fue 49.3%.Foi realizado um estudo de corte, e se realizou uma amostragem não probabilística em sete fazendas de gado leiteiro localizado no leste da Antioquia. Foram avaliados trimestralmente 290 vacas em produção de leite mediante a implementação do California Mastitis Test (CMT para determinar a prevalência de mastite subclínica em cada quarto da vaca. Nos quartos positivos foi realizada a contagem de células somáticas (CCS no leite, o cultivo microbiológico e análises de sensibilidade. A prevalência de mastite subclínica por quarto foi de 19.9% (228 quartos e 11 (0.95% apresentaram mastite clínica. A CCS média para todas os quartos foi 1.105.733 células / ml. Em 226 cultivos, o Streptococcus dysgalactiae foi a bacteria mais comum (29.5%, seguido por estafilococus coagulase negativo (ECN (23% e Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%. A reqüência de agentes patogénicos contagiosos foi de 37.8% e patógenos ambientais foi de 49.3%.Seven dairy cattle farms from eastern Antioquia were tested for mastitis in a cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling procedure. Each udder quarter of 290 lactating cows was evaluated through the California Mastitis Test in order to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk from positive quarters underwent somatic cell count (SCC, cell culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis per quarter was 19.9% (228 quarters. Only 11 quarters (0.95% had clinical mastitis. The average SCC for all quarters was 1,105,733 cells/mL. Streptococcus dysgalactiae was the most common bacteria observed (29.5% in the 226 cultures evaluated, followed by coagulasenegative staphylococci (CNS, 23%, and Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%. The frequency of contagiouspathogens and environmental pathogens was 37.8% and 49.3%, respectively. This study confirms that mastitis remains elevated in this region, suggesting a continuous lack of milking hygiene and education of farm personnel.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, Márcia G.; Bexiga, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. The aims of this study were the evaluation of antimicrobial drug resistance patterns, particularly important for streptococcal mastitis control and the identification of strain molecular features. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by disk diffusion against amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefoperazone, pirlimycin-PRL, rifaximin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin-ERY, gentamicin, tetracycline-TET and vancomycin. Genotypic relationships were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), macrolide and/or tetracycline resistance gene profiling, GBS capsular typing, GBS virulence gene profiling and GBS and S. uberis multi locus sequence typing (MLST). The majority of the isolates were susceptible to all drugs except to aminoglycoside, macrolide, lincosamide and tetracycline. Close to half of the TET resistant isolates have tetO and tetK and almost all ERY–PRL resistant isolates have ermB. A high degree of intra-species polymorphism was found for GCS. The GBS belonged to ST-2, -554, -61, -23 lineages and five new molecular serotypes and human GBS insertion sequences in the cpsE gene were found. Also, GBS of serotype V with scpB and lmb seem to be related with GBS isolates of human origin (same ST-2 and similar PFGE). Overall our results suggested that different therapeutic programs may have been implemented in the different farms and that in most cases clones were herd-specific.

  11. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2?g; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30?g; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25?g; enrofloxacin 5?g; sulfonamide 300?g; tetracycline 30?g; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30?g and erythromycin 5?g. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  12. Application of disease-associated differentially expressed genes – Mining for functional candidate genes for mastitis resistance in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwerin Manfred

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the mRNA differential display method was applied to identify mastitis-associated expressed DNA sequences based on different expression patterns in mammary gland samples of non-infected and infected udder quarters of a cow. In total, 704 different cDNA bands were displayed in both udder samples. Five hundred-and-thirty two bands, (75.6% were differentially displayed. Ninety prominent cDNA bands were isolated, re-amplified, cloned and sequenced resulting in 87 different sequences. Amongst the 19 expressed sequence tags showing a similarity with previously described genes, the majority of these sequences exhibited homology to protein kinase encoding genes (26.3%, to genes involved in the regulation of gene expression (26.3%, to growth and differentiation factor encoding genes (21.0% and to immune response or inflammation marker encoding genes (21.0%. These sequences were shown to have mastitis-associated expression in the udder samples of animals with and without clinical mastitis by quantitative RT-PCR. They were mapped physically using a bovine-hamster somatic cell hybrid panel and a 5000 rad bovine whole genome radiation hybrid panel. According to their localization in QTL regions based on an established integrated marker/gene-map and their disease-associated expression, four genes (AHCY, PRKDC, HNRPU, OSTF1 were suggested as potentially involved in mastitis defense.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of proteins expression changes in the mammary tissue of cows infected with Escherichia coli mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-wei; Huang, Dong-wei; Cheng, Guang-long; Zhao, Hui-ling

    2015-01-01

    Cows infected with Escherichia (E.) coli usually experience severe clinical symptoms, including damage to mammary tissues, reduced milk yield, and altered milk composition. In order to investigate the host response to E. coli infection and discover novel markers for mastitis treatment, mammary tissue samples were collected from healthy cows and bovines with naturally occurring severe E. coli mastitis. Changes of mammary tissue proteins were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and label-free proteomic approaches. A total of 95 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of these, 56 proteins were categorized according to molecular function, cellular component, and biological processes. The most frequent biological processes influenced by the proteins were response to stress, transport, and establishment of localization. Furthermore, a network analysis of the proteins with altered expression in mammary tissues demonstrated that these factors are predominantly involved with binding and structural molecule activities. Vimentin and ?-enolase were central "functional hubs" in the network. Based on results from the present study, disease-induced alterations of protein expression in mammary glands and potential markers for the effective treatment of E. coli mastitis were identified. These data have also helped elucidate defense mechanisms that protect the mammary glands and promote the pathogenesis of E. coli mastitis. PMID:25549220

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of proteins expression changes in the mammary tissue of cows infected with Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Yong-Xin; Huang, Dong-Wei; Cheng, Guang-Long; Zhao, Hui-Ling

    2015-09-01

    Cows infected with Escherichia (E.) coli usually experience severe clinical symptoms, including damage to mammary tissues, reduced milk yield, and altered milk composition. In order to investigate the host response to E. coli infection and discover novel markers for mastitis treatment, mammary tissue samples were collected from healthy cows and bovines with naturally occurring severe E. coli mastitis. Changes of mammary tissue proteins were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and label-free proteomic approaches. A total of 95 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of these, 56 proteins were categorized according to molecular function, cellular component, and biological processes. The most frequent biological processes influenced by the proteins were response to stress, transport, and establishment of localization. Furthermore, a network analysis of the proteins with altered expression in mammary tissues demonstrated that these factors are predominantly involved with binding and structural molecule activities. Vimentin and a-enolase were central "functional hubs" in the network. Based on results from the present study, disease-induced alterations of protein expression in mammary glands and potential markers for the effective treatment of E. coli mastitis were identified. These data have also helped elucidate defense mechanisms that protect the mammary glands and promote the pathogenesis of E. coli mastitis. PMID:25549220

  15. Developments in Clinical Practice: Follow up Clinic for BRCA Mutation Carriers: a Case Study Highlighting the "Virtual Clinic"

    OpenAIRE

    Ardern-Jones Audrey; Eeles Rosalind

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This paper highlights the need for carriers to be followed up by health professionals who understand the complexities of the BRCA syndrome. A BRCA carrier clinic has been established in London and regular follow up is an essential part of the care for families. An open door policy has been set up for patients who may meet or telephone the cancer genetic nurse specialist for support and care at any time. An example of the follow up work is discussed in the format of a case of a young ...

  16. Actualización en el manejo de las Mastitis Infecciosas durante la Lactancia Materna / Update on management of infectious mastitis during the breastfeeding period

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rocío, Vayas Abascal; Luis, Carrera Romero.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La interrupción precoz de la lactancia tiene un origen multifactorial, pero dentro de las causas médicas es la mastitis el primer motivo de abandono prematuro e indeseado de la lactancia materna. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido realizar una revisión actualizada acerca de la etiología, diagnóstic [...] o y manejo clínico-terapéutico de esta enfermedad. Hemos constatado la escasez de estudios acerca de la microbiología de la leche humana y una falta de ensayos controlados aleatorizados para evaluar el tratamiento eficaz de la enfermedad. En la práctica clínica habitual el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la mastitis no se sustentan sobre una base científica, lo que conduce a un infradiagnóstico y frecuentemente a un manejo incorrecto que puede acarrear consecuencias relevantes, como el abandono de la lactancia o complicaciones como el absceso mamario o la septicemia. El diagnóstico sigue basándose en la inspección visual de la mama, siendo excepcional la realización de cultivos de leche materna. El tratamiento debería basarse en una extracción efectiva de la leche, sin interrumpir la lactancia, medicación analgésica/antiinflamatoria y antibióticos usados racionalmente. Sin embargo, el tratamiento habitualmente se pauta de forma empírica, siendo el factor que más influye en su elección la preferencia del médico sin pruebas científicas que sustenten la decisión. La conclusión principal de la revisión realizada es que el cultivo de la leche es una herramienta objetiva fundamental, que debería solicitarse en toda mujer lactante con dolor mamario. El cultivo facilita un diagnóstico correcto de la mastitis, nos permite conocer su etiología y es clave para instaurar un tratamiento adecuado basado en la sensibilidad a los antibióticos del agente causal. Abstract in english Premature termination of breastfeeding is of multifactorial origin, but mastitis is the most important medical reason for early, unwanted weaning. The current study is an updated review of etiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of this disease. We found few studies on the microbiology of human milk an [...] d a lack of randomized, controlled trials evaluating effective treatment of mastitis. In routine clinical practice, diagnosis and treatment of this disease are not based on scientific evidence, leading to underdiagnosis and frequent therapeutic mismanagement, with harmful consequences: cessation of breastfeeding, breast abscess or sepsis. Diagnosis of mastitis continues to be based on visual inspection of the breast and breastmilk cultures are rarely performed. Treatment should be based on effective extraction of the milk, with continued breastfeeding, analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs and rational use of antibiotics. However, the drug regimen is usually empirically chosen, based on physician´s preference and without scientific evidence to support the decision. The main conclusion of our review is that breastmilk culture is an essential diagnostic tool that should be used for all breastfeeding women with breast pain. It facilitates correct diagnosis of mastitis, its etiology and is the key to establishing proper treatment based on antibiotic sensitivity of the causative agent.

  17. Developments in Clinical Practice: Follow up Clinic for BRCA Mutation Carriers: a Case Study Highlighting the "Virtual Clinic"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardern-Jones Audrey

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper highlights the need for carriers to be followed up by health professionals who understand the complexities of the BRCA syndrome. A BRCA carrier clinic has been established in London and regular follow up is an essential part of the care for families. An open door policy has been set up for patients who may meet or telephone the cancer genetic nurse specialist for support and care at any time. An example of the follow up work is discussed in the format of a case of a young woman with a BRCA1 alteration who developed a primary peritoneal cancer following prophylactic oophorectomy. This case illustrates the work of the multi-disciplinary team caring for BRCA carriers.

  18. Features of the diagnostic methods to identify the sheep subclinical mastitis in according to infectious etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Vale Tanaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an infection of the mammary gland mainly caused by bacteria. In sheep, besides it causes chemical and physical changes in milk with the loss in quality, mastitis changes the glandular tissue which may lead to premature cull-out from the herd. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic features of the California Mastitis Test (CMT and somatic cell count (SCC to the identification of subclinical mastitis in sheep according to the micro-organisms isolated. The work is at an early stage and CMT was performed in all ewes. It was considered positive results all degrees of reaction, while the negative reaction was considered when there was not viscosity. Subsequently, samples were collected aseptically from milk and were sent for microbiological analysis. A total of 160 milk samples were analyzed from 85 Santa Inês sheep belonging to the Embrapa Southeast Livestock in São Carlos, São Paulo. Samples were plated on sheep blood agar to 5% and incubated for 24h/72h at 35 ° C. In samples with growth, tests to the identification of the microorganisms were performed, macroscopic characteristics of the colonies and the production or absence of hemolysis, Gram staining, catalase test, coagulase test with rabbit plasma and verification of acetoin production. The sensitivity of the diagnostic tests were determined in accordance to the ratio of the positive tests and the presence of the disease, while the specificities were calculated according to the ratio of the negative results and the absence of disease. The efficiency was based on the percentage of true results that the test was able to provide diagnosis. SCC in milk was determined using the somatic cell count Somacount 300 (Bentley and the presence of the disease was given when isolated coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, coliforms and other microorganisms (Corinebacteria, strep and association of two bacteria in a same sample. It was used the limit value of 300 000 cells/ml of milk to the screening of the positive and negative samples. A total of 125 samples were negative in the microbiological examination, of which 102 were presented as CMT-negative and 23 were positive to the CMT. Among the positive samples for microbiological analyzes, 12 were negative to the CMT. Thirty-four samples were positive for mastitis after the SCC, from a total of 118. SCC showed greater sensitivity than the CMT for identifying cases of ovine mastitis to the most classes of micro-organisms (67.0% vs. 50.0% for CPS; 80.0% vs. 71.4 % for CNS; and 87.5% vs. 55.6% for other micro-organisms, except for coliforms (85.7% vs. 90.0%, probably by the least amount of results for SCC when compared to CMT. The CMT was more efficient in the diagnosis of mastitis for all classes of micro-organisms (80.0% vs. 79.9% for CPS, 82.0% vs. 71.5% for CNS, 82.2% vs. 72.0 % for coliforms, and 80.0% vs. 72.2% for other micro-organisms due to greater specificity when compared with SCC (81.6% vs. 71.2%. It is concluded that the test SCC offered so far, better diagnostic sensitivity for detection of ovine mastitis for most micro-organisms, providing greater security for the screening of cases in the herd which, in the future, may facilitate the effectiveness of disease control measures.

  19. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper; Jensen, Maria Anna Bruunsgaard; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøll; Nygaard, Ulrikka; Poulsen, Anja; Sørensen, Jette Led; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Use of video cases in clinical education is rarely used systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical students (n = 127) reported by questionnaire whether they had or had not seen a bedside case of each of 22 specific clinical conditions during their five-week clinical course in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal ...

  20. Optoelectronic and photonic sensors of mastitis in cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Niemiec, T.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Kuczy?ska, B.; Doroz, P.; Urba?ska, K.; Szmidt, M.; Szmidt, J.

    2013-07-01

    Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland in animals under the influence of micro-organisms causing functional disorder of udder. Mastitis causes a variety of qualitative changes in the milk, which classified as mastitis milk, has a reduced value. A number of chemical procedures and lab instruments were developed to test for mastitis, of which the widest used are the California mastitis test and the somatic cell counter. This work presents the progress in development of new photonic sensors of mastitis using a conductometer, a spectrometer and a capillary head with local heating with improved measuring procedures. We showed that the significant increase in mastitis detection sensitivity is achieved by measuring the whey acidic instead of milk. The whey can be obtained from milk in a relatively simple and inexpensive chemical process. We correlated the conductivity measurement and the measurement of the number of somatic cells in the milk. The application of the measurement of optical transmission absorption in whey instead of the classic milk measurement increases the resolution of resistance measuring more than 3 times. However, the application of the method of capillary phase-transition to whey examination increases the resolution of measurement 15 times. The changes in resistance and time of the phase transitions are linearly correlated with the number of somatic cells.

  1. Presence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of contagious mastitis agents (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae) isolated from milks of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    ?K?Z, Serkan; BA?ARAN, Beren; B?NGÖL, Enver Bar??; ÇET?N, Ömer; KA?IKÇI, Güven; ÖZGÜR, Naciye Yakut; UÇMAK, Melih; Özge YILMAZ; GÜNDÜZ, Mehmet Can; SABUNCU, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is recognized as one of the most important diseases affecting the dairy industry. The antibiotic susceptibility test is important to achieve accurate treatment in subclinical mastitis. This study was conducted to determine the presence of contagious mastitis agents (Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus) in 270 bovine milk samples collected from 132 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in 15 different dairy farms located in the Marmara Region of Turkey. A total of 256 ba...

  2. Effect of Mastitis on Milk Fat Content

    OpenAIRE

    Nagwa M. Morsi; Yousry Saleh; Hayam El Gazzar; Ashraf Hanafi

    2000-01-01

    Two different farms were subjected to an investigation for the presence of mastitis. The incidence of the disease was 20.1 and 36.4 per cent in the 1st and 2nd farm respectively. Bacteriological analysis revealed that in the 1st farm Staphylococcus spp and Streptococcus spp were the causative agents of the diseases, these cultures were isolated in a single form. In the 2nd farm, the causative agent was either a single culture of Staphylococcus spp or a mixed cultures of Staphylococci, Strepto...

  3. Production of bacteriocins by coagulase-negative staphylococci involved in bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Nascimento, Janaína; Fagundes, Patricia Carlin; de Paiva Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto; do Carmo de Freire Bastos, Maria

    2005-03-20

    In the present study, 188 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) strains were isolated from bovine mastitis cases from 56 different Brazilian dairy herds, located in the Southeast region of the country, and were tested for antimicrobial substance production. Twelve CNS strains (6.4%) exhibited antagonistic activity against a Corynebacterium fimi indicator strain. Most antimicrobial substances were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes suggesting that they might be bacteriocins (Bac). Amongst the CNS producers, six were identified as S. epidermidis, two as S. simulans, two as S. saprophyticus, one as S. hominis and one as S. arlettae. Plasmid profile analysis of these strains revealed the presence of at least one plasmid. The Bac(+) strains presented either no or few antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Three strains were shown to produce a bacteriocin either identical or similar to aureocin A70, a bacteriocin previously isolated from an S. aureus strain isolated from food. The remaining Bac(+) strains produce antimicrobial peptides that seem to be distinct from the best characterised staphylococcal bacteriocins described so far. Some of them were able to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne pathogen, and several strains of Streptococcus agalactiae associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting a potential use of these bacteriocins either in the prevention or in the treatment of streptococcal mastitis. PMID:15737474

  4. [Mycological and clinical study of 102 cases of dermatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, N C; Wanke, B

    1984-01-01

    With the main purpose to recognize the pathogenic fungi which can be isolated from skin diseases and simultaneously from normal and abnormal toe spaces, the authors studied 102 patients with several dermatoses and a control group with 21 cases of dermatophytosis which were diagnosed by direct examination and culture of infected skin and nails, and by clinical features. All patients were submitted to mycological examination of the skin lesions and interdigital spaces. No pathogenic fungi were isolated from dermatoses but species of candida could be found from skin lesions and nails in the control group and from normal and abnormal toe webs in the dermatoses group. The authors conclude that in these previous skin lesions there was no local predisposition to fungus infection and they seem to be less important than heat, moisture, friction, immunosuppression, lymphoma, a variety of endocrine abnormalities and cachetic states. PMID:6397670

  5. [Post-transplant recurrence of glomerulonephritis: a complex clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonucchi, Decenzio; Leonelli, Marco; Damiano, Francesca; Granito, Maria; Ghiandai, Giulia; De Amicis, Sara; Americo, Claudio; Ligabue, Giulia; Albertazzi, Vittorio; Cappelli, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) seldom recurs in a grafted kidney. By contrast, primary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), which has been included, along with hemolytic uremic syndrome and age-related maculopathy, among the complement dysregulation diseases, has a high recurrence rate and is considered a contraindication to living-donor kidney transplant because of the poor prognosis. We report the case of a young girl with LN-related chronic renal failure who underwent a living donor transplant from her mother. After four months she had a recurrence that did not match the criteria for LN. Graft biopsies and revision of the clinical course pointed to type II MPGN on the basis of a lack of ARA criteria, persistent isolated low C3 levels, and response to plasma therapy. If confirmed by genetic analysis, the patient might benefit from treatment with the monoclonal antibody against the C5-C9 complex, eculizumab. PMID:21132668

  6. Concentric sclerosis: Imaging diagnosis and clinical analysis of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Baló's Concentric sclerosis (BCS is a rare demyelinating disease considered to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS. The typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI changes associated with BCS consist of concentric rings or onions' cross-section on T1-weighted (T1W images. Because MRI reveals pathological changes consistent with autopsy in the focus of BCS, it plays an important role in the before-death diagnosis of BCS. We report three cases of BCS diagnosed antemortem on the basis of the typical concentric rings pattern on MRI and on the basis of clinical findings and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination. BCS often occurs in the prime of life, acutely or subacutely. Then come cerebral multifocal symptoms and signs. We find that BCS is not always an acute and irreversible pathological process as described in the past.

  7. Acute normovolaemic haemodilution - 2 case studies : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute normovolaemic haemodilution (ANH is a technique used to preserve a patient's owns red blood cells and reduce the incidence of heterogeneous blood transfusion. This paper describes the use of the technique in a dog and a kitten. A significant benefit of ANH can be shown in the canine case presented. The dog lost 1800m of blood during surgery but the haematocrit was only reduced to 33% 6 hours after the end of surgery. The kitten, however, did not benefit from ANH. It lost a small volume of blood during surgery and developed complications. This paper also describes some of the potential complications that may occur. To the best of my knowledge, this is the 1st clinical description of ANH in a dog and a cat.

  8. Brazilin plays an anti-inflammatory role with regulating Toll-like receptor 2 and TLR 2 downstream pathways in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue-jiao; Wang, Tian-cheng; Zhang, Ze-cai; Cao, Yong-guo; Zhang, Nai-sheng; Guo, Meng-yao

    2015-07-01

    Mastitis, which commonly occurs during the postpartum period, is caused by the infection of the mammary glands. The most common infectious bacterial pathogen of mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in both human and animals. Brazilin, a compound isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit multiple biological properties. The present study was performed to determine the effect of brazilin on the inflammatory response in the mouse model of S. aureus mastitis and to confirm the mechanism of action involved. Brazilin treatment was applied in both a mouse model and cells. After brazilin treatment of cells, Western blotting and qPCR were performed to detect the protein levels and mRNA levels, respectively. Brazilin treatment significantly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and inhibited the expressions of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of brazilin in mice suppressed S. aureus-induced inflammatory injury and the production of proinflammatory mediators. This suppression was achieved by reducing the increased expression of TLR2 and regulating the NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways in the mammary gland tissues and cells with S. aureus-induced mastitis. These results suggest that brazilin appears to be an effective drug for the treatment of mastitis and may be applied as a clinical therapy. PMID:25939535

  9. A Rare Case of Arteriovenous Hemangioma Clinically Mimicking Pigmented Nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lestari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak   Arteriovenous hemangioma (AH adalah lesi jinak pembuluh darah kulit yang jarang, biasanya muncul pada kulit wajah berupa lesi tunggal, meninggi, papul merah, atau keunguan; kadang-kadang papul coklat. Dilaporkan satu kasus AH dengan gambaran klinis menyerupai nevus pada pasien perempuan yang berusia 19 tahun. Ini adalahkasus pertama di Bagian Ilmu Kesehatan Kulit dan Kelamin RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Pasien datang dengan keluhan bintik hitam di lengan kanan bawah sejak satu bulan lalu. Pada pemeriksaan fisik, terdapat papul hitam soliter, dengan ukuran 0,3 x 0, 4 mm, bentuk bulat, skuama halus,  berbatas tegas, pinggir reguler dengan permukaan tidak rata.Berdasarkan pemeriksaan histopatologi, lesi terdiri dari pembuluh darah yang berdinding tebal dan berdinding tipis yang sangat melebar, penuh dengan eritrosit dan dilapisi oleh selapis endotel yang sesuai untuk AH. Arteriovenous hemangioma adalah tumor yang dijumpai pada usia pertengahan hingga dewasa lanjut dengan puncak insiden pada dekade keempat dan kelima kehidupan. Pada kasus ini, umur pasien tergolong dewasa muda dengan gambaran klinis lesi menyerupai nevus pigmentosus. Kata kunci: arteriovenous hemangioma, kasus jarang, nevus pigmentosus Abstract Arteriovenous hemangioma (AH is a rare benign vascular skin lesion, which typically appears in the skin of the face and extremities and  most commonly occurring on the head and neck region with appearances as single, raised, red, or violaceous papules; sometime tan papule. A case of AH clinically mimicking pigmented nevus in 19year-old womanwas reported. This is the first case in Dermatology Department of Dr.M. Djamil Padang Hospital. She complained about a black pimple on the right lower arm since one month. Physical examination: there is a solitare black papule, with 0,3x0,4 mm, round shape, fine scales, well defined, regular border with irreguler surface.Histopathology findings: the lesions consist of thicked-walled and very dilated thin-walled vessels that full-filled with erythrocytes and are lined by an endothelial layer that suitable for AH. Arteriovenous hemangioma is a tumor of middle-age to elderly adults with a peak incidence in the fourth and fifth decades of life. In this case, the patient was young adult and clinically the lesion mimicking pigmented nevus.Keywords:  arteriovenous hemangioma, rare case, pigmented nevus

  10. Ethical Bargaining and Parental Exclusion: A Clinical Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry-Grimes, Laura; Victor, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been significant attention in clinical ethics to when physicians should follow a parent's wishes, there has been much less discussion of the obligation to solicit viewpoints and decisions from all caregivers who have equal moral and legal standing in relation to a pediatric patient. How should healthcare professionals respond when one caregiver dominates decision making? We present a case that highlights how these problems played out in an ethical bargain. Ethical bargaining occurs when the parties involved choose not to pursue a morally preferable option for the sake of coming to a resolution. This case is not one of parental disagreement; rather, the medical team agreed to exclude the patient's mother from decision making if the patient's father promised to bring their son back to the hospital for necessary medical tests. We argue that there is an obligation to notice and acknowledge power asymmetries in the family unit, which, in this case, was manifested as the marginalization of the female decision maker by the male decision maker. In these scenarios, clinicians should be careful to avoid treating parents as one homogenous unit, and they should take action to enable caregivers' autonomy and voice. While there are moral and practical limits to how and when physicians should intervene in family dynamics, we discuss the steps that the medical team should have taken in this case to avoid undermining the parental authority of the mother. We conclude by offering recommendations to address and enable caregivers' autonomy at an institutional level, and we discuss the importance of tracking and responding to damaging family dynamics to prevent ethically impermissible bargaining. PMID:26399675

  11. [Invasive Pasteurella multocida infections: Two clinical cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smíšková, Dita; Džupová, Olga

    2015-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a common commensal of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of animals, especially cats and dogs. It is transmitted to humans through contact with animals. Bite wound infection is the most common clinical manifestation. Systemic infections are unusual and mainly affect immunocompromised individuals. The article presents two cases of Pasteurella infection. Wound infection in a 75-year-old female following a bite from her pet cat was associated with bacteremia. The disease course was favorable with the initial clindamycin treatment despite in vitro resistance. The other patient was a 62-year-old female diagnosed with acute bacterial meningitis with multiple brain abscesses and transient expressive aphasia. She reported frequent contacts with pets and domestic animals without a recent bite. Hematogenous dissemination of the infection was suspected. Because of poor therapeutic response, cefotaxime was switched to chloramphenicol which was later switched to a combination of cefotaxime with ciprofloxacin due to anemia. Following 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy and another 10 weeks of oral ciprofloxacin therapy, magnetic resonance imaging showed normal results and the neurological defect resolved. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of Pasteurella infection are discussed and literature is reviewed. PMID:26312375

  12. Tuberculosis of the breast: a cytomorphological study of nine cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the role of FNAC with histological confirmation in the diagnosis of tuberculous mastitis, and to highlights its importance by determination of frequency, clinical history, clinical presentation and laboratory investigations in our setup. The data was collected from patients 'files and other record, and the results tabulated. All were married multiparous women, aged 18-42 years, belonging to poor socio-economical class. One was pregnant, while three were lactating mothers. Associated pulmonary tuberculosis was present in three cases. Previous history of tuberculosis was present in one case, though five patients had a family history of tuberculosis. Lump in the breast, with or without ulceration/ abscess/discharging sinus was the clinical presentation of all the cases, as was low grade fever and pain. All patients had anemia and weight loss, though axillary lymphadenopathy was seen in five cases. ESR was raised in all the cases and the Mantoux test was positive. The glutaraldehyde test was positive, though it was performed in three cases only. AFB were seen in one case only. The diagnosis was made on FNAC by the presence of chronic granulomatous inflammation having caseating epithelioid granulomas and Langhan type of giant cells. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological findings of excisional biopsy specimen in all the cases. The present study highlights the importance of tuberculous mastitis; its frequency being 2.3% in breast diseases. FNAC is an important initial diagnostic tool in patients having tuberculous mastitis, specially in the rural areas. It is safe, rapid, simple, cost effective and accurate, the accuracy being 100%. (author)

  13. Advancing medicine one research note at a time: the educational value in clinical case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Cabán-Martinez Alberto J; Beltrán Wilfredo F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A case report—a brief written note that describes unique aspects of a clinical case—provides a significant function in medicine given its rapid, succinct, and educational contributions to scientific literature and clinical practice. Despite the growth of, and emphasis on, randomized clinical trials and evidenced-based medicine, case reports continue to provide novel and exceptional knowledge in medical education. The journal BMC Research Notes introduces a new “case reports” section ...

  14. Bacteriocins: exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reneé, Pieterse; Svetoslav D., Todorov.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to ant [...] ibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  15. Bacteriocins: exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneé Pieterse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  16. A clinical report on three cases of subacute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 20, 1985 a 137Cs gamma-ray source of about 10 curies was taken into a family's bedroom. The son and both his parents were exposed to a nearly continuous irradiation for 150 days with estimated accumulated dose of 8-15 Gy. The father was complicated by skin radiation burn. The essential clinical findings on admission were general malaise, bleeding and pancytopenia (Hb 50g/l; WBC 0.4-0.7 x 109/l; platelets 10 x 109/l). The bone marrow was hypocellular with low colony yield in CFU-GM culture. The immunological examinations were essentially normal except for low E-RFC and lymphocyte transformation in all cases, and low IgA was seen only in the mother. Abnormalities were found in nail-bed microcirculation and thromboelastogram. Aspermia was detected twice in the son. The principal therapeutic measures were complete rest and adequated nutrition. The ward and nursing services were strictly controlled to avoid contamination. The son was transferred to LAFR for 2 weeks when the WBC was as low as 0.4 x 109/l. Combined large doses of stanozolol and anisodamine were prescribed for all cases, while the son and his father received fetal liver transfusions in addition. All of them recovered well, especially the son

  17. Endocrine tumor of the digestive tract - clinical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)

  18. [Chronic cardiac rejection. 20 anatomico-clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loire, R; Tabib, A; Dureau, G; Mann, J

    1992-04-01

    Twenty anatomico-clinical cases of chronic cardiac rejection (accelerated coronary disease in heart transplant) consecutive to heart transplantation were studied with the view of obtaining detailed information on the anatomical features of coronary lesions, such as histopathological alterations, modalities of their diffusion to the 3 epicardial trunks and to distal intramyocardial branches, thrombotic complications and their consequences: massive (infarct) or disseminated myocardial ischaemia. The lesions observed were correlated with the corresponding coronary angiographic images, and an interpretation of the aetiopathological factors was attempted. Within a few months or years, the coronary lesions are found to progress towards very diffuse circumferential atherosclerous alterations where the plaques are clearly less individualized than in common atherosclerosis but thrombosis is frequent and multifocal in 50 percent of the cases. This produces a restrictive type of ischaemic cardiopathy which is painless since the heart is denervated, resulting in cardiac failure (11 cardiectomies for retransplantation, 9 autopsies) with coronary angiography tending to underestimate the importance of coronary damage. The most original aetiopathological factors seem to be arterial inflammation of immune origin, viral infections facilitated by immunosuppression and platelet hyperactivity, but their respective importance could not be accurately determined in this study. PMID:1534605

  19. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26401507

  20. The association between mastitis and reproductive performance in seasonally-calved dairy cows managed on a pasture-based system / Asociación entre la mastitis y el desempeño reproductivo en rodeos lecheros Holstein de base pastoril y servicios estacionados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CI, Gómez-Cifuentes; AI, Molineri; ML, Signorini; D, Scandolo; LF, Calvinho.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar asociación entre mastitis clínicas, subclínicas y condición corporal con la performance reproductiva de vacas en un sistema de partos estacional bajo condiciones de pastoreo. Se analizó información de 182 vacas paridas durante 2008. Se realizó Chi cuadrado [...] y regresión logística con preñez al final de la temporada de servicios y número de servicios como variables dependientes. Las mastitis clínicas, subclínicas y la condición corporal, así como otras posibles variables asociadas fueron analizadas como variables independientes. Número de lactancia, tipo de parto, intervalo entre parto a inicio de temporada de servicio y condición corporal estuvieron asociadas con preñez. Las vacas con una o dos lactancias (P = 0,031), aquellas sin problemas en el parto (P = 0,003) y las que tuvieron mayor cantidad de días entre el parto y el inicio de la temporada de servicios (P = 0.001) y las que tuvieron una condición corporal > 2.5 (P = 0.007) tuvieron más probabilidad de quedar preñadas. Las mastitis subclínicas afectaron la performance reproductiva aumentando el número de servicios (P = 0.03). Además la temporada de servicios influyó sobre el número de servicios recibidos por vaca, ya que aquellas paridas en verano necesitaron más servicios para quedar preñadas (P = 0.046). Las mastitis clínicas no estuvieron asociadas con preñez (P = 0.863). La información obtenida puede ser utilizada para mejorar la performance reproductiva de rodeos bajo condiciones pastoriles y sistemas de servicios estacionados. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to assess association between clinical, subclinical mastitis, body condition score and the reproductive performance of cows under seasonally calving conditions in a pasture-based management system. Data from 182 cows calved during 2008 were analyzed. Chi-square and lo [...] gistic regression were performed considering pregnancy at the end of breeding season and number of services as dependent variables, whereas clinical and subclinical mastitis and other variables related to the animal that could have an effect on the dependent variables (e.g. parity, BCS, concurrent diseases) were considered as independent variables. Lactation number, calving difficulty, interval from calving to the beginning of breeding season and body condition score had a significant effect on pregnancy at the end of breeding season. Cows with one or two lactations (P = 0.031), those with no difficulty at calving (P = 0.003), those with more days from calving to the beginning of breeding season (P = 0.001), and those with body condition score > 2.5 (P = 0.007) were most likely to become pregnant. Subclinical mastitis affected reproductive performance increasing the number of services (P = 0.03). Also, breeding season influenced number of services, since summer-calving cows needed more services to become pregnant (P = 0.046). Clinical mastitis was not associated with pregnancy as a final measure of reproductive performance (P = 0.863). Although subclinical mastitis influenced reproductive performance, several parameters related to reproductive and nutritional management, significantly affected the outcome variables under experimental conditions of this study. This information can be valuable to improve reproductive performance in similar management systems.

  1. Local and systemic effects of endotoxin mastitis on the chemiluminescence of milk and blood neutrophils in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrzad, Jalil; Dosogne, Hilde; Meyer, Evelyne; Burvenich, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The local and systemic effects of intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on the chemiluminescence (CL) of milk and blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated in six healthy early lactation cows. Clinical signs of acute mastitis such as fever, increased heart rate and a decreased milk production were observed in all cows. Before LPS challenge, the CL activity of milk PMN was significantly lower than that of blood PMN ($P < 0.01$). A significant negative correlation was...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis I19, a Strain Isolated from a Cow in Israel with Bovine Mastitis ?

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Artur; Maria Paula C. Schneider; Cerdeira, Louise; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Rommel Thiago J Ramos; Carneiro, Adriana R; Santos, Rodrigo; Lima, Marília; D'Afonseca, Vivian; Almeida, Sintia S.; Santos, Anderson R.; Soares, Siomar C; Anne C Pinto; Ali, Amjad; Dorella, Fernanda A

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the completion and annotation of the genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis I19, isolated from an Israeli dairy cow with severe clinical mastitis. To present the whole-genome sequence, a de novo assembly approach using 33 million short (25-bp) mate-paired SOLiD reads only was applied. Furthermore, the automatic, functional, and manual annotations were attained with the use of several algorithms in a multistep process.

  3. Isolation and identification of main mastitis pathogens in Mexico / Isolação e identificação dos micróbios patogênicos principais da mastite em México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Castañeda Vázquez; S., Jäger; W., Wolter; M., Zschöck; M.A., Castañeda Vazquez; A., El-Sayed.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho atual é um estudo epidemiológico que objetiva detectar a predominância da mastite subclínica e investigar os micróbios patogênicos principais do úbere no México ocidental. Com esta finalidade, foram utilizadas 2205 vacas leiteiras, representando 33 rebanhos de leiteiras mexicanas. Além de [...] ssas 2205 vacas, 752 animais com mastite foram diagnosticados, considerando-se que somente 2979 amostras do leite poderiam ser obtidas para a posterior investigação. Todas as 2979 amostras do leite foram submetidas ao teste da mastite de Califórnia (CMT) para diferenciar casos clínicos dos subclínicos, visto que 1996 amostras (67%) reagiram positivamente. Além dessas, 1087 amostras (54.5%) vieram das vacas que sofrem de casos clínicos de mastite. A identificação bacteriológica dos agentes causais revelou a presença dos Staphylococcus negativos para coagulase (CNS), S. aureus, S. agalactiae, outros spp. Streptococcal, Corynebacterium spp., e as bactérias de coliformes foram detectadas em 464 (15.6%), 175 (5.9%), 200 (6.8%), 109 (3.9%), 417 (14%) e em 123 (4.1%) dos 2927 quartos investigados; em 295 (15.4%), 118 (15.7%), 111 (14.8%), 95 (12.6%), 227 (30.2%) e em 109 (14.5%) das 752 vacas examinadas e, finalmente, em 33 (100%), 22 (66.7%), 19 (57.6%), 30 (90.1%), 30 (90.1%) e em 27 (81.8%) dos 33 rebanhos envolvidos, respectivamente. Abstract in english The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic a [...] nimals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) to differentiate clinical cases from subclinical ones where 1996 samples (67 %) reacted positively. Of these, 1087 samples (54.5%) came from cows suffering from clinical cases of mastitis. Bacteriological identification of the causative agents revealed the presence of a major group of pathogens including the Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), S.aureus, S.agalactiae, Corynebacterium spp. and Coliform bacteria which were detected in 464 (15.6%), 175 (5.9%), 200 (6.8%), 417 (14%) and 123 (4.1%) of the 2927 investigated quarters, 295 (15.4%), 118 (15.7%), 111 (14.8%), 227 (30.2%) and 109 (14.5%) of the 752 examined cows and in 33 (100%), 22 (66.7%), 19 (57.6%), 30 (90.1%) and 27 (81.8%) of the 33 herds involved, respectively. Other pathogens could be detected in the investigated milk samples such as S. dysgalactiae (0.4%), S.uberis (0.37%), Bacillus spp. (1%), Nocardia spp. (0.6%) und Candida spp. (0.1%). Meanwhile, others were present in a negligible ratio; including the Aerococcus viridans, and Enterococcus spp., Lactococcus lactis, S. bovis.

  4. Clinical cases, imaging, and pathology of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Overview and evaluation of our cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is brain damage due to a lack of blood and oxygen supply required for the brain's normal activity for a certain period as a result of systemic circulatory failure or hypoxemia. Its most frequent cause is resuscitation after transient cardiopulmonary arrest (stagnant hypoxia), and the outcome is often poor even after cardiac arrest for a few minutes. In this study, we presented reviews about hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and also the results of a clinicopathological evaluation of 15 autopsy cases and 13 clinical cases encountered over a 20-year period in Sumitomo Hospital. In addition to typical imaging and pathological findings, symmetrical necrosis of the tegmental area of the brain stem, iron deposition in the laminar necrosis area, the fragility and resistance of the PeriRolandic area, resistance of Betz giant cells to ischemia, and various problems such as lesions in the nucleus of the solitary tract in cases of acute cardiac failure are discussed. (author)

  5. JAK INHIBITOR CLINICAL RESPONSE IN POLYARTHRITIS: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipi?-Markovi?, Asja; Fer?ek, Iva; ?ubela, Marta; Artukovi?, Marinko; Radon?i?, Ksenija Maštrovi?; Lugovi?-Mihi?, Liborija

    2015-06-01

    The heterogeneity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) presentation and molecular signature of RA subclasses in patients with early changes of small peripheral joints still remains a challenging problem. In clinical setting, classification of the disease subtypes is not possible and treatment adjustment is based on the continuous Disease Activity Score for disease severity recognition. A new approach in the treatment appears with the novel non biologic targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs from the group of Janus kinase 1 and 3 (JAKI and JAK3), blocking interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21. We report a case of a 48-year-old patient who had suffered from polyarthritis from his age 40. Initial laboratory tests showed low inflammatory parameters and magnetic resonance imaging of both hands indicated an early stage of RA. Methylprednisolone and methotrexate therapy was initiated. The patient underwent additional tests, but there was not sufficient evidence for a precise diagnosis. According to the European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology score-based algorithm, the patient was classified as seronegative RA based on joint involvement, duration of the disease, and synovitis not better explained by another disease. A partial clinical effect of the administered therapy (steroids as monotherapy and in combination, methotrexate and leflunomide) was noticed with the use of systemic steroids, but dramatic improvement was only achieved with a JAK inhibitor targeted therapy. Although the use of anti TNF-? blocker is a proposed procedure and the drug has not yet been registered in Europe, we took the opportunity to apply this new medication option. The patient, a construction worker, was treated for 20 months, which led to complete remission of the disease, without the need of basic or corticosteroid therapy. Full functional capacity necessary in his demanding job was also achieved. This result raised a question of timely introduction of immunomodulators in the polyarthritis treatment steps. PMID:26415324

  6. Bovine Mastitis: A Survey of Ontario Dairy Producers, 1978

    OpenAIRE

    Meek, A. H.; Goodhope, R.G.; Barnum, D A

    1981-01-01

    A survey to assess the knowledge and perception regarding mastitis of 1200 randomly selected Ontario dairy producers was conducted using a mailed questionnaire. Other data were provided by the Ontario Milk Marketing Board and the Dairy Herd Improvement Association.

  7. Lexicographic studies in medicine: Academic Word List for clinical case histories

    OpenAIRE

    Philippa Mungra; Tatiana Canziani

    2013-01-01

    Medical texts are often thought to pertain to a closed community, but how far the language used by that community overlaps with general academic lexis is unknown. We examined a corpus of clinical case histories using the software RANGE to characterise the lexis of clinical case histories quantitatively and present a wordlist for clinical medicine. Only 58% of the general academic wordlists are found in clinical texts but the 85% overlap with an important academic wordlist, the Coxhead 570, fu...

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, Márcia G.; Bexiga, Ricardo; Florindo, Carlos; Cavaco, Lina M.; Vilela, Cristina L.; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. The aims of this study were the evaluation of antimicrobial drug resistance patterns, particularly important for streptococcal mastitis control and the identification of strain molecular features. Antimic...

  9. Characterizing bovine host responses to mastitis pathogens by targeted proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis, som er betændelse i yverkirtlen forårsaget af indtrængende patogener, udgør en betydelig udfordring for dyresundhed- og velfærd i malkekvægsbesætninger. Identifikation af følsomme diagnostiske mastitismarkører vil kunne hjælpe med at stille en tidligere diagnose og gavne effekten af behandling. Patogenspecifikke biomarkører, der kan måles direkte i mælk, er lovende for at diagnosticere mastitis i de tidligste stadier af sygdommen. Dermed kan den korrekte antibiotika behandling påbegynd...

  10. Bacteriocins – Exploring Alternatives to Antibiotics in Mastitis Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Reneé Pieterse; Todorov, Svetoslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on ...

  11. ISMAC: An Intelligent System for Customized Clinical Case Management and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingyu; Chen, Chong; Li, Guo-Zheng; Yan, Shi-Xing; Sun, Sheng; Zeng, Xue-Qiang; Zhao, Qing-Ce; Xu, Liao-Yu; Huang, Su-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Clinical cases are primary and vital evidence for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) clinical research. A great deal of medical knowledge is hidden in the clinical cases of the highly experienced TCM practitioner. With a deep Chinese culture background and years of clinical experience, an experienced TCM specialist usually has his or her unique clinical pattern and diagnosis idea. Preserving huge clinical cases of experienced TCM practitioners as well as exploring the inherent knowledge is then an important but arduous task. The novel system ISMAC (Intelligent System for Management and Analysis of Clinical Cases in TCM) is designed and implemented for customized management and intelligent analysis of TCM clinical data. Customized templates with standard and expert-standard symptoms, diseases, syndromes, and Chinese Medince Formula (CMF) are constructed in ISMAC, according to the clinical diagnosis and treatment characteristic of each TCM specialist. With these templates, clinical cases are archived in order to maintain their original characteristics. Varying data analysis and mining methods, grouped as Basic Analysis, Association Rule, Feature Reduction, Cluster, Pattern Classification, and Pattern Prediction, are implemented in the system. With a flexible dataset retrieval mechanism, ISMAC is a powerful and convenient system for clinical case analysis and clinical knowledge discovery. PMID:26495425

  12. Odontogenic calcificant cystic tumor: A report of two clinical cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel, Reyes; Julio, Villanueva; Sebastián, Espinosa; Marco, Cornejo.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El tumor odontogénico calcificante quístico (TOCQ) es una lesión poco frecuente. Ésta deriva de restos epiteliales odontogénicos presentes en los maxilares, mandíbula o encía. El TOCQ fue descrito por primera vez como una entidad patológica propia por Gorlin y col. en 1962. Clínicamente, el TOCQ cor [...] responde al 1% de las lesiones odontogénicas. Se puede manifestar desde el primer año hasta la octava década de la vida. Afecta por igual los maxilares y la mandíbula, siendo más común en las zonas dentadas, con incidencia algo mayor en las zonas anteriores al primer molar. Se presentan 2 casos clínicos de TOCQ en dos etapas de la vida, ambos en el sexo femenino, uno a los 5 y el otro a los 35 años de edad. El tratamiento fue la enucleación del tumor. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una revisión de la literatura a propósito de dos casos de TOCQ y su tratamiento, atendiendo a la bajísima incidencia de esta lesión, poniendo énfasis en su etiología, comportamiento biológico y tratamiento. Abstract in english Odontogenic Calcificant Cystic Tumor (OCCT) is an infrequent injury. It arises from odontogenic epithelial rests present in the maxilla, jaw or gum. Gorlin and col. described the OCCT for first time as an own pathological entity in 1962. Clinically, the OCCT represents 1% of the odontogenic injuries [...] . It is possible to be found from the first decade to the eighth decade. It affects in same proportion the maxilla and the jaw, being the most common in the dented zones, with greater incidence in the first molar area. Two case reports of OCCT in two different ages, both in female individuals, one at 5 years old and the other at 35 years old are presented. Enucleation of the tumor was the treatment chosen. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the literature related to these two cases of OCCT and its treatment, putting an emphasis on its aetiology, biological behaviour and treatment.

  13. Pediatric Cholecystectomy: Clinical Significance of Cases Unrelated to Hematologic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Soo-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cholecystectomy is rarely performed in the child and adolescent. However, it is associated with several conditions. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of pediatric patient who underwent cholecystectomy unrelated to hematologic disorders, and then to suggest its clinical significance in management by comparing a simple and complicated gallbladder disease. Methods We reviewed cases of cholecystectomy in pediatric patients (under 18 years old) at a single institution between January 2003 and October 2014. There were 143 cases during the study period and 24 were selected as the subject group. Results There were 7 male (29.2%) and 17 female (70.8%) patients. The mean age was 13.1 years old, and 66.6% of patients were older than 12 years. Mean body weight was 52.7 kg, and body mass index was 21.7 kg/m2, with 41.7% of patients being overweight or obese. We could identify a female predominance and high proportion of overweight or obesity in a complicated disease. There were also significantly increased levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin in this group. Most patients (87.5%) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Conclusion Cholecystectomy for diseases unrelated to hematologic disorders is rarely performed in the child and adolescent. In general, female patients who are overweight or obese, and those older than 12 years old, require laparoscopic cholecystectomy owing to multiple gallstones. This condition has a tendency to show a complicated gallbladder disease and significantly increased levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin. PMID:26157697

  14. Using Clinical Case Studies to Teach Biochemistry in a Doctoral Program: A Descriptive Paper

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, Marc P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Biochemistry has traditionally been taught through lectures and rote memorization paying little attention to nurturing key problem solving skills. The literature on clinical case studies utilized in health education indicates that case studies facilitate and promote active learning, help clinical problem solving and encourage the development of critical thinking skills. Methods: This paper describes a method of using clinical case studies to deepen and solidify the students unde...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis in Argentine dairy herds / Sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos de Staphylococcus aureus causantes de mastitis bovina en rodeos lecheros de Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.B., Russi; C., Bantar; L.F., Calvinho.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad in vitro de un grupo seleccionado de antimicrobianos contra 95 aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus obtenidos de casos de mastitis bovina clínica y subclínica, en 61 rodeos lecheros de la cuenca central de Argentina. Fueron estimadas las concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas ( [...] CIM) de penicilina, oxacilina, gentamicina, eritromicina, enrofloxacina y florfenicol. Además se realizó la prueba de difusión en agar. Las CIM50 y CIM90 obtenidas fueron: penicilina 0,05 y 4 µg/ml; oxacilina 0,25 y 0,25 µg/ml; gentamicina 0,25 y 0,5 µg/ml; eritromicina 0,125 y 0,25 µg/ml; enrofloxacina 0,25 y 0,5 µg/ml y florfenicol 4 y 8 µg/ml. Se detectó actividad de b-lactamasa en el 89% de las cepas resistentes a la penicilina. A excepción de lo observado para penicilina, la resistencia a los antimicrobianos en S. aureus causantes de mastitis bovina en Argentina parece ser un fenómeno poco frecuente. Abstract in english We assessed the in vitro activity of selected antimicrobial agents against 95 Staphylococcus aureus strains causing both clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis belonging to 61 dairy farms from the Central dairy area of Argentina. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of penicillin, oxacillin, g [...] entamicin, erythromycin, enrofloxacin and florfenicol were estimated. In addition, the agar diffusion test was performed. MIC50 and MIC90 were as follows: penicillin, 0.05 and 4 µg/ml; oxacillin, 0.25 and 0.25 µg/ml; gentamicin, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml; erythromycin 0.125 and 0.25 µg/ml; enrofloxacin 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml, and florfenicol 4 and 8 µg/ml. b-lactamase activity was detected in 89% of 46 penicillin- resistant strains. Apart from penicillin, antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus causing bovine mastitis remains rare in Argentine dairy farms.

  16. Timolipoma mediastínico: caso clínico Mediastinal thymolipoma: a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Param S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de timolipoma mediastínico en un paciente de 14 años portador de asma bronquial, pesquisado durante el control de una crisis bronquial obstructiva. El diagnóstico de este tumor fue planteado por las imágenes en la Rx de tórax y por la tomografía axial computarizada (TAC previo a su extirpación quirúrgica. No hubo síntomas atribuibles a este tumor, como tampoco disminución en los volúmenes pulmonares a pesar de la gran masa que contenía el tórax. Al extirparlo se comprobó un peso de 1 200 g y el estudio histológico confirmó la sospecha planteada por la característica en la Rx y TAC de tóraxWe present a case of a thymic lipoma in a 14 year old patient with bronchial asthma. The tumor was diagnosed during an obstructive bronchial crisis, in which a chest x-ray and a CT chest scan were performed. The patient did not have symptoms from the tumor, even though it was a large mass weighing 1.200 g. Histological examination of the tumor confirmed the clinical diagnosis

  17. SUBCUTANEOUS PHAEOHYPHOMYCOTIC CYST MIMICKING IMPLANTATION DERMOID CLINICALLY – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Chander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotic cysts are subcutaneous cysts with formation of granulomas caused by either dematiaceous (pigmented fungi or eumycotic (nonpigmented fungi. Phaeohyphomycosis includes a group of fungal infections caused by phaeo id or melanised fungi and is characterized microscopically by the presence of pigmented septate hyphae, pseudohyphae and yeasts. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycotic cysts are uncommonly encountered lesions that are caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi . They usually present as a single lesion and are characterized by subcutaneous asymptomatic nodular lesions that usually develop after traumatic implantation of fungi especially in the extremities. We present a case of phaeohyphomycotic cyst in the subcut aneous tissue of the left elbow in a 42 year old farmer presenting clinically as an implantation dermoid. Microscopic examination revealed a fibrocollagenous cyst wall showing short closely septate hyphae along with chains of budding yeast cells which were positive for Periodic acid Schiff, Gomori's methanamine silver and Masson - Fontana stains. A high index of suspicion is usually needed since they can be easily missed, especially when there are scant fungal elements, thus requiring special stains to detect the presence of these fungi

  18. Deep-neck infection. Clinical analysis of 299 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep-neck infection (DNI) remains potentially fatal. We retrospectively analyzed 299 surgically treated DNI cases between January 1997 and October 2007 by reviewing computed tomography (CT) results and discuss treatment and risk factors. Subjects were divided into two groups by abscess-site; peritonsillar abscess (PTA) (n=251) and deep-neck abscess (DNA) (n=48). Age, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI) and bacteriological histories were collected from clinical records and compared by group. DNI and PTA severity parameters were C-reactive protein (CRP) titer and hospitalization length. Median subject age in DNI was 51.0 years and peak incidence in the 50 s. Median subject age in PTA was 31.0 years and the peak incidence in the 20 s. Smoker prevalence was higher in both groups than in normal healthy subjects. The DNI group had higher BMI and diabetes mellitus. Factors potentially most affecting illness were complications such as obesity and diabetes mellitus in DNI and age in PTA. (author)

  19. Gorham's disease: clinical case / Doença de Gorham: caso clínico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Sá; Pedro, Marques; Carolina, Oliveira; André Sá, Rodrigues; Nelson, Amorim; Rui, Pinto.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Gorham, também conhecida por osteólise maciça idiopática, é uma patologia rara, caraterizada por uma proliferação vascular que resulta na destruição e reabsorção da matriz óssea, de etiologia desconhecida. Foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1838 por Jackson, mas foram Gorham e Stout, em 1 [...] 955, que definiram a doença como uma entidade específica. Com uma apresentação clinica variável, geralmente tem um comportamento progressivo. O tratamento permanece controverso, não há um tratamento padrão. Essa patologia apresenta geralmente um prognóstico favorável. É apresentado um caso de doença de Gorham com envolvimento do quadril esquerdo, num doente do sexo masculino, sem antecedentes de relevo. Abstract in english Gorham's disease, also known as idiopathic massive osteolysis, is a rare pathological condition characterized by vascular proliferation that results in destruction and reabsorption of the bone matrix, of unknown etiology. It was first described by Jackson in 1838, but it was Gorham and Stout, in 195 [...] 5, who defined this disease as a specific entity. It has variable clinical presentation and generally has progressive behavior. Controversy continues regarding the treatment and there is no standard treatment. This pathological condition generally presents a favorable prognosis. Here, a case of Gorham's disease with involvement of the left hip is presented, in a male patient without relevant antecedents.

  20. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7% compared to cloxacillin (62.5%.Conclusion: Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows.Keywords: ionophore, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, solid dispersion, intramammary drug delivery system, superbugs