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1

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antimicrobials are often used for treatment of bovine mastitis and the possibility of selection for resistant bacteria must be considered. The objectives of this study were to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from cases of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis, and to determine the prevalence of multidrug resistance in this population. Milk samples were collected from cows on commercial dairy herds (n=13), including quarters (n=1,574) of cows with subclinical mastitis cases, and cows experiencing clinical mastitis cases (n=608). Selected Staph. aureus isolates, obtained from clinical (n=58) and subclinical (n=58) mastitis cases, were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of 12 selected antimicrobials. Of Staph. aureus isolates tested, 87 (75%) did not exhibit resistance to any antimicrobial, 28 (24.1%) exhibited resistance to 1 (n=21) or 2 (n=7) classes of antimicrobials, and 1 (0.9%) exhibited multidrug resistance. All Staph. aureus (clinical and subclinical cases) were inhibited by the range of concentrations tested for ceftiofur and oxacillin. Moreover, no isolates obtained from clinical mastitis cases exhibited resistance to cephalothin, penicillin-novobiocin, or sulfadimethoxine. Of isolates, 3 exhibited resistance to enrofloxacin. Of isolates exhibiting resistance to more than 1 antimicrobial, independent of antimicrobial class, the combination of erythromycin and tetracycline, and ampicillin and penicillin accounted for the majority of resistance. Of isolates tested, 19% were resistant to tetracycline and 14% were resistant to penicillin. Survival curves of Staph. aureus relative to minimum inhibitory concentration demonstrated heterogeneity among case types for ceftiofur, cephalothin, and erythromycin. Multidrug resistance was identified in only 1 isolate obtained from a single farm.

Oliveira L; Langoni H; Hulland C; Ruegg PL

2012-04-01

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Clinical mastitis in Macedonian dairy herds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the determination of the occurrence and prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk on three dairy farms. A one year study on a total of 1031 black-white breed cows with a total of 1267 lactations was performed. Each dairy farm implemented a different technology of rearing and was of different herd size (farm A - tie-stalls, 162 cows; farm B - loose-housing system with open shed and deep bedding, 357 dairy cows; and farm C - loosehousing system with enclosed shed, 512 cows). Clinical mastitis in cows was detected by clinical examination of the udder and determination of abnormalities in the milk. To distinguish two consecutive cases of clinical mastitis within the same lactation a time period of nine days was used. Annual prevalence rate of clinical mastitis for the entire population of cows was 34.13% on cow level, and 30.07% on lactation level. There was a high prevalence rate of clinical mastitis in primiparous cows, 21.43%, 40.77% and 12.55%, on farms A, B and C, respectively. Lactation incident risk for cows on farm A was 25.00%, farm B 95.58% and farm C 21.49%. The prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk tended to increase with increasing parity. The annual lactation risk for the entire population of cows was 45.86%. All indicators for the determination of the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy farms, which were observed during the research, showed the greatest values on farm B. Most of the cows manifested one (68.24%) or two (18.63%) cases of clinical mastitis during lactation. There was a long period in lactation until the appearance of the first case of clinical mastitis (112.21 ± 92.04 days). Generally, clinical mastitis was registered during the whole period of the survey, with some fluctuations between different seasons. The method of GLM (General Linear Model), univariate procedure, was used to analyze associations between the incidence of clinical mastitis and farm management, parity of cows and season of the year. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was performed for analysis of interdependence on variables in the model. There was statistical significance (p<0,001) between the season and incidence of clinical mastitis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31086

Traj?ev M.; Nakov D.; Hristov S.; Andonov S.; Joksimovi?-Todorovi? Mirjana

2013-01-01

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Outcome of clinical mastitis in dairy heifers assessed by reexamination of cases one month after treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heifers that were treated for clinical mastitis prior to parturition or within 14 d postpartum were reexamined approximately 1 mo after treatment. Clinical examination of the heifers and microbiological examination of quarter milk samples were carried out on both occasions. Of the 1000 heifers included in the study, 10.9% were culled within 28 d after treatment. Udder damage caused by mastitis was the only or main reason for culling in 96% of those heifers. In comparison, 4.5% of nonmastitic heifers from the same herds were culled within 30 d postpartum. Twenty-five percent of those heifers that were not culled at d 28 after treatment had at least one nonfunctional quarter at that time. One thousand one hundred twenty-two quarters that were clinically affected at the time of treatment were reexamined; 22% were nonfunctional, 14% were still affected by clinical mastitis, 12% had subclinical mastitis, 5% had a latent infection with coagulase-positive staphylococci or Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and 46% were bacteriologically negative and had a normal cell count at the time of reexamination. High percentages of nonfunctional quarters were observed among those quarters that were infected with Arcanobacterium pyogenes or with coagulase-positive staphylococci at treatment. When all quarters that were clinically affected at treatment were considered, 40% of quarters were cured and were still in lactation at reexamination. Quarters infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci had a higher cure rate than quarters infected with other organisms. At reexamination, clinical signs of thelitis were observed in many of those quarters that were nonfunctional following the episode of clinical mastitis and also in 25% of lactating quarters in which clinical mastitis persisted.

Waage S; Skei HR; Rise J; Rogdo T; Sviland S; Odegaard SA

2000-01-01

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Tuberculous Mastitis: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Tuberculosis of breast is an uncommon diseaseclinically mimicking breast carcinoma. Wepresent a case of a 22 years old female whocomplained of a breast mass and axillary swell-ing of three months duration. Clinically she wasdiagnosed as having phyllodes tumour. Thebreast mass ultrasonography revealed a benigncystic hypoechoic lesion. Grossly the excisedmass was a cyst containing serous fluid alongwith a small solid yellowish white nodule withfoci of caseation. The axillary lymph nodes alsoshowed caseous necrosis. A definitive diagno-sis of tuberculous mastitis was reached by his-tological demonstration of caseating granulo-mas in the cyst wall and in the ipsilateral axil-lary lymph nodes.

Gopal A. Pandit; Sunita S. Dantkale; Nisha V. Thakare; Smita S. Pudale

2013-01-01

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Identification of risk factors for clinical mastitis in dairy heifers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A nested case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for clinical mastitis in heifers. Cases and controls originated from dairy herds that were enrolled in the Production Recording Scheme. Heifers that had been treated for clinical mastitis prepartum or on the day of parturition were eligible for inclusion as cases. The controls were heifers that had not been treated for clinical mastitis before parturition, during their first lactation, or during the dry period. In the final analysis, 4256 heifers with mastitis and 67,072 control heifers were included. An increase in the incidence of clinical mastitis in the herd, a decrease in the bulk milk somatic cell count, and an increase in the mean milk yield of the herd were associated with an increased risk for clinical mastitis. The risk varied among regions, and, depending on region, significant influences of both herd size and composition of the diet were observed. Heifers kept on pasture in summer were at a decreased risk for clinical mastitis. Calving in late spring or summer was associated with greater risk than was calving at other times of the year. An increase in age at first calving was associated with increased risk of mastitis. Mastitis was also more likely to occur in heifers leaking milk or in heifers that had a low milk flow rate in the subsequent lactation. For purchased heifers, risk factors were identified in both their previous and current herds.

Waage S; Sviland S; Odegaard SA

1998-05-01

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Decision tree analysis of treatment strategies for mild and moderate cases of clinical mastitis occurring in early lactation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to develop a decision tree to evaluate the economic impact of different durations of intramammary treatment for the first case of mild or moderate clinical mastitis (CM) occurring in early lactation with various scenarios of pathogen distributions and use of on-farm culture. The tree included 2 decision and 3 probability events. The first decision evaluated use of on-farm culture (OFC; 2 programs using OFC and 1 not using OFC) and the second decision evaluated treatment strategies (no intramammary antimicrobials or antimicrobials administered for 2, 5, or 8 d). The tree included probabilities for the distribution of etiologies (gram-positive, gram-negative, or no growth), bacteriological cure, and recurrence. The economic consequences of mastitis included costs of diagnosis and initial treatment, additional treatments, labor, discarded milk, milk production losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis, culling, and transmission of infection to other cows (only for CM caused by Staphylococcus aureus). Pathogen-specific estimates for bacteriological cure and milk losses were used. The economically optimal path for several scenarios was determined by comparison of expected monetary values. For most scenarios, the optimal economic strategy was to treat CM caused by gram-positive pathogens for 2 d and to avoid antimicrobials for CM cases caused by gram-negative pathogens or when no pathogen was recovered. Use of extended intramammary antimicrobial therapy (5 or 8 d) resulted in the least expected monetary values.

Pinzón-Sánchez C; Cabrera VE; Ruegg PL

2011-04-01

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Decision tree analysis of treatment strategies for mild and moderate cases of clinical mastitis occurring in early lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to develop a decision tree to evaluate the economic impact of different durations of intramammary treatment for the first case of mild or moderate clinical mastitis (CM) occurring in early lactation with various scenarios of pathogen distributions and use of on-farm culture. The tree included 2 decision and 3 probability events. The first decision evaluated use of on-farm culture (OFC; 2 programs using OFC and 1 not using OFC) and the second decision evaluated treatment strategies (no intramammary antimicrobials or antimicrobials administered for 2, 5, or 8 d). The tree included probabilities for the distribution of etiologies (gram-positive, gram-negative, or no growth), bacteriological cure, and recurrence. The economic consequences of mastitis included costs of diagnosis and initial treatment, additional treatments, labor, discarded milk, milk production losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis, culling, and transmission of infection to other cows (only for CM caused by Staphylococcus aureus). Pathogen-specific estimates for bacteriological cure and milk losses were used. The economically optimal path for several scenarios was determined by comparison of expected monetary values. For most scenarios, the optimal economic strategy was to treat CM caused by gram-positive pathogens for 2 d and to avoid antimicrobials for CM cases caused by gram-negative pathogens or when no pathogen was recovered. Use of extended intramammary antimicrobial therapy (5 or 8 d) resulted in the least expected monetary values. PMID:21426977

Pinzón-Sánchez, C; Cabrera, V E; Ruegg, P L

2011-04-01

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Comparison of J5 vaccinates and controls for incidence, etiologic agent, clinical severity, and survival in the herd following naturally occurring cases of clinical mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Holstein dairy cattle in 3 commercial herds were randomly allocated to J5 vaccination (n = 251) or untreated control (n = 306) groups. There were 221 new cases of clinical mastitis (CM) affecting 120 cows. Coliform mastitis cases had a higher percentage of severe quarter swelling or signs of systemic illness among control cows but not among J5 vaccinates, in comparison to noncoliform cases. Culling or death from CM affected 13 controls (4.3%) and 4 vaccinates (1.6%), with losses occurring earlier in lactation among controls, a higher hazard (probability of a cow dying on each day of lactation) for controls than vaccinates. The J5 vaccination was significantly associated with protection from culling for mastitis among the 15 Klebsiella cases; 2 out of 10 (20%) Klebsiella-infected controls were culled and 0 out of 5 vaccinates were culled. Cows in second lactation were at reduced hazard of culling for mastitis compared with older animals, even when adjusting for effects of J5 vaccination. When all CM cases (including subsequent new cases during the same lactation and multiple quarters or pathogens within the same cow on the same day) were evaluated, for the 221 cases of CM, the rate was significantly higher among vaccinates than controls (0.10 and 0.07 cases/30 d in milk, respectively). This was because J5 vaccinates had more subsequent new cases of CM in the same cow than controls. Pathogens isolated, which included mainly environmental bacteria, were not different among J5 vaccinates and controls. Immunization with J5 was associated with protection against severe clinical coliform mastitis signs, culling, and death loss from CM but not with any reduction in overall CM.

Wilson DJ; Grohn YT; Bennett GJ; González RN; Schukken YH; Spatz J

2007-09-01

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Antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of acute clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate occurrence of acquired antimicrobial resistance in udder pathogens MICs in Staphylococcus aureus (n=211), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (n=56), Streptococcus uberis (n=113), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=152), Streptococcus agalactiae (n=6), Escherichia coli (n=163), and Klebsiella spp. (n=42) were determined using microdilution. Isolates were from a nation wide survey employing strict inclusion criteria. Presence of acquired resistance was evaluated by species-specific epidemiological cut-off values issued by EUCAST. Penicillin or methicillin resistance in staphylococci were however evaluated by beta-lactamase production or presence of the mecA gene, respectively. Staphylococci were mostly susceptible to antimicrobials tested but 7.1% of S. aureus and 12.5% of CNS were resistant to penicillin by beta-lactamase production. Methicillin resistance was not found in S. aureus. All Streptococcus dysgalactiae and S. agalactiae were susceptible to penicillin. Bimodal MIC distributions for tetracycline in S dysgalactiae and S. uberis indicate acquired resistance in some isolates. Among E. coli 12.3% of isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Resistance to streptomycin (11.0%), sulphametoxazole (8.6%), ampicillin (7.4%), or tetracycline (4.9%) were the most common traits. Klebsiella spp. were resistant to ampicillin and some isolates also to tetracycline (7.1%) or sulphonamide (9.5%). The study shows that in Sweden bacteria associated with acute clinical mastitis for the most part are susceptible to antimicrobials used in therapy but resistance to penicillin in S. aureus is not uncommon. Penicillin is recommended for treatment of mastitis caused by gram-positive pathogens and regular monitoring of beta-lactamase production in S. aureus is therefore recommended in herds with udder health problems.

Bengtsson B; Unnerstad HE; Ekman T; Artursson K; Nilsson-Ost M; Waller KP

2009-04-01

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Isolation and antibiogram of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli isolates from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis  

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Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the continuous change in the pattern of drug resistance showed by different mastitogenic organisms, isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using 150 milk samples received from various clinical and subclinical cases, from which the causative organisms were isolated and subjected to in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test.Results: The bacteriological analysis of the samples indicated the presence of both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms followed by isolation of isolates like Staphylococcus, E. coli, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Klebsiella. The in vitro sensitivity of Staphylococcus, E. coli and Streptococcus isolates revealed that they were more sensitive towards newer antimicrobials like Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin.Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus was found to be maximum followed by Streptococcus and E. coli among the isolated organisms. Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin were found to be most effective against the targeted isolates.

Nihar Nalini Mohanty,; Priyaranjan Das,; Shaswati Subhadarsini Pany,; Laxmi Narayan Sarangi,; Siddharth Ranabijuli; Hemant Kumar Panda

2013-01-01

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Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to mastitis were calculated for 2840 cows and heifers. Overall, 19.8% of cows experienced one or more cases of clinical mastitis during location. Teat injuries occurred in 2.1% of lactations. Standard bacteriology was performed on pretreatment milk samples from 834 cows with clinical mastitis. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%), Streptococcus agalactiae (0.7%), other Streptococcus spp. (14.1%), coliforms (17.2%), gram-positive bacilli (5.5%), Corynebacterium bovis (1.7%), and other Staphylococcus spp. (28.7%). There was no growth in 17.7% of samples, and 8.3% of samples were contaminated. Clinical mastitis is a common disease in dairy cows in Ontario; approximately 1 in 5 cow lactations have at lease one episode of clinical mastitis. There is, however, considerable variation in the incidence of clinical mastitis among farms. The majority of 1st cases of clinical mastitis occur early in lactation, and the risk of clinical mastitis increases with increasing parity. Environmental, contagious, and minor pathogens were all associated with cases of clinical mastitis.

Sargeant JM; Scott HM; Leslie KE; Ireland MJ; Bashiri A

1998-01-01

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Association of CXCR2 polymorphisms with subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to identify objectively cows that are more or less susceptible to mastitis has been a long-standing goal. Genetic markers associated with inflammatory responses during mastitis could aid in selection of these cattle. One potential marker is CXCR2, a chemokine receptor required for neutrophil migration to infection sites, which contains single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the gene. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the association of CXCR2 SNP genotypes with subclinical and clinical mastitis. Thirty-seven Holstein and 42 Jersey cows that completed at least 2 full lactations were used. Quarter foremilk samples were collected for bacteriological examination quarterly and when cows exhibited clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was defined as the presence of the same pathogen in the same quarter in at least 2 of 3 consecutive samples. A significant association was detected between CXCR2 SNP +777 genotype and percentages of subclinical mastitis cases in Holsteins. Holsteins expressing genotype GG had decreased percentages of subclinical mastitis, but genotype CC cows had increased percentages of subclinical mastitis. Significant differences in clinical mastitis incidence were not detected between genotypes for either breed. This approach of genetically identifying mastitis resistant cows may represent an effective means of marker-assisted selection for mastitis and other inflammatory diseases involving neutrophils.

Youngerman SM; Saxton AM; Oliver SP; Pighetti GM

2004-08-01

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[Lobular idiopathic granulomatos mastitis. About 10 cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Our retrospective study was performed on 10 cases of granulomatous mastitis registered in Obstetric Gynaecology Department and Pathology Department of CHU F. Hached, Sousse, during 8 years period. The mean age was 36.4 years (range 32-59). Among these 10 cases. 8 were observed in reproductive-age women and 2 were noted in menopausal women. Clinical findings showed unilateral breast nodule associated with inflammatory signs in 4 cases, mammelonary retraction in 2 cases and serous or sero-purulent mamelonnary flow in 4 cases. Mamnmographic examination suggested a malignant tumor in 5 patients. In all cases, the diagnosis is made by histopathology. Surgical treatment consisted in wide excision with drainage or radical mastectomy, eventually with combination with antibiotic therapy and non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Prognostic features showed a good cicatrization in 4 cases, local recurrence and cutaneous fistulization in one patient. Granulomatous mastitis aetiology is still unclear, auto-immune aetio-pathogenesis appears more interesting and should be clarified. PMID:17042208

Hmissa, Sihem; Sahraoui, Wassila; Missaoui, Nabiha; Stita, Wided; Mokni, Moncef; Yacoubi, Mohamed T; Khairi, Hedi; Korbi, Sadok

2006-06-01

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Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.  

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The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinic...

Sargeant, J M; Scott, H M; Leslie, K E; Ireland, M J; Bashiri, A

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Udder quarter risk factors associated with prevalence of bovine clinical mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out to estimate prevalence of clinical mastitis on udder quarters level and to determinate the quarter risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis during lactation.The individual risk factors included assessments of parity, season of year when case of clinical mastitis was occurred, conformation characteristics of udder quarters and teats and distance from front and rear teat end to the floor. Cows with clinical mastitis were detected by clinical examination of the udder quarters and determination of abnormalities in milk.The quarter level prevalence of clinical mastitis was 15.06% per lactation, out of which 3.32% were front left, 3.10% front right, 4.28% rear left and 4.28% were rear right quarters. The prevalence of udder quarters affected with clinical mastitis tended to increased with increasing the parity, from cows in first to the third parity, and then begins to decline slightly. The rear quarters frequently manifested form of clinical mastitis (49.39%) in relation to the front one (33.04%), and in 17.55% of the cases there were affected either, front and rear quarters. In the most cases of clinical mastitis there was affected only one quarter of the mammary gland (74.35%), two quarters in 20.13%, three quarters to 3.61% and four quarters were affected in 1.89% of the cases of clinical mastitis.The method of General Linear Model, unvaried procedure, revealed that prevalence of clinical mastitis on quarter level significantly (p<0.01) differed with the season of year when case of clinical mastitis was occurred and scoring categories for position of rear udder quarters.

Nakov Dimitar; Trajcev Metodija

2012-01-01

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Management of dairy heifers and its relationships with the incidence of clinical mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To describe aspects of management of dairy heifers before calving and determine risk factors for clinical mastitis postpartum in heifers, at the herd level, under pasture-based management systems in the Waikato and Taranaki regions of New Zealand. METHODS: Dairy herdowners (n=578) provided information via a prospective survey about their practices for rearing heifers and management of mastitis. A proportion of herdowners (n=250) subsequently provided data on the cases of clinical mastitis in their herds, including the date, cow identification, age and quarter affected from cases occurring in the 4 months after the planned start of calving (PSC) in the subsequent lactation. The relationship between management factors and the proportion of heifers diagnosed with clinical mastitis within a herd was examined using bivariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The herd average percentage of heifers with clinical mastitis was 13.6 (95% confidence interval (CI)=12.3-14.9)%, and multiparous cows with clinical mastitis was 9.0 (95% CI=8.2-9.8)% in the first 4 months of lactation. There were positive relationships between the proportion of heifers with clinical mastitis and average milk production per cow (kg milksolids/ lactation; p<0.001), number of cows milked per labour unit (p=0.003), stocking rate (<> 3.30 cows/ha; p=0.002), and incidence of clinical mastitis in multiparous cows (%/120 days; p<0.04), in the final multivariate model. The proportion of heifers with clinical mastitis per herd was lower in herds that milked their lactating cows in multiple groups (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of clinical mastitis in heifers was significantly associated with management practices. It may be possible to reduce the incidence of clinical mastitis in heifers by modification of management practices at the herd level, and further studies are required to investigate this.

Parker KI; Compton CW; Anniss FM; Weir AM; McDougal S

2007-10-01

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Influence of dry period bacterial intramammary infection on clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Milk samples were taken from 1920 quarters (480 cows, six herds) on four occasions to examine the relationship between quarter level intramammary infection (IMI) during the dry period and clinical mastitis in the next lactation. All quarters were sampled at drying off and within 1 wk of calving, and two quarters from each cow were sampled both 0 to 7 and 8 to 14 d before calving. Milk samples were collected from all cases of clinical mastitis during the following lactation. Logistic regression models were developed to investigate the associations between IMI present during the sampling period and clinical mastitis. The probability of a quarter succumbing to clinical mastitis increased when Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Enterobacter spp. were cultured at drying off and when Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococcus, Serratia spp., or Streptococcus faecalis were cultured in two out of three late dry and post-calving samples. Quarters from which Corynebacterium spp. were isolated at drying off were at an increased risk of clinical mastitis, whereas the presence of Corynebacterium spp. in the late dry and post-calving samples was associated with a reduction in the risk of clinical mastitis. The risk of mastitis for specific pathogens increased if the same species of bacteria that had caused mastitis was isolated at least twice in the late dry and post-calving samples. Kaplan-Meier survival plots indicated that clinical mastitis associated with dry period infections was more likely to occur earlier in lactation than clinical mastitis not associated with dry period infections. There was evidence of quarter susceptibility to IMI or the possibility that infection with one organism led to clinical mastitis with another.

Green MJ; Green LE; Medley GF; Schukken YH; Bradley AJ

2002-10-01

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Mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii: relato de um caso/ Clinical bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: a case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um caso de mastite clínica causada por Prototheca zopfii em uma vaca de um rebanho leiteiro localizado na Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais foi estudado. O animal apresentou sinais clínicos nos quartos mamárias anteriores e queda acentuada na produção de leite. Após o diagnóstico inicial, o animal foi observado durante onze meses, do início da manifestação da doença até 12 dias após o parto. Exames microbiológicos do leite foram realizadas aos 7, 30, 39 (more) , 49, 65, 326 e 331 dias após o isolamento inicial, sendo os dois últimos exames realizados 7 e 12 dias após o parto. As amostras de P. zopfii isoladas apresentaram resistência in vitro a: ampicilina, canamicina, cefatoridina, enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, neomicina, oxacilina, penicilina, sulfonamidas e trimetoprim x sulfametoxazol. Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade in vitro das amostras de P. zopfii a um produto natural constituído de extrato de sementes de frutas cítricas, obtido comercialmente. A menor concentração que inibiu totalmente a alga foi 1:500. Recomendou-se um tratamento com a diluição a 1:200 do extrato em solução fisiológica estéril contendo timerosal a 1:30.000 como conservante, em doses diárias de 20ml, por via intramamária. O tratamento foi realizado inicialmente durante sete dias. Após este período houve redução, mas não a completa eliminação dos organismos do leite. Foi, então, recomendado mais um período de 15 dias de tratamento, de modo semelhante ao primeiro. Trinta e nove dias após o diagnóstico inicial não foi mais isolado P. zopfii do leite dos quartos afetados e a produção retornou a níveis semelhantes de antes da infecção. Amostras de leite naturalmente infectadas foram congelados a -20°C. Células viáveis de P. zopfii foram recuperadas de amostras mantidas até 38 dias nestas condições. Abstract in english A clinical case of mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in a cow from a dairy herd located in the region of Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, was studied. The cow showed clinical signs of mastitis in both front mammary quarters and marked reduction on milk production. Following the diagnosis the animal was accompanied for 11 months. Milk samples collected at days l, 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 and 331 were cultured. The last two exams were conducted at 7 and 12 days after calv (more) ing. The P. zopfii strains were resistant in vitro to: ampicillin, kanamycin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, streptomycin, gentamycin, neomycin, oxacillin, penicillin G, sulfonamides and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The strains showed sensitivity in vitro to a natural extract made of citrous seed, commercially available. The smallest concentration that completely inhibited the growth of the organisms was 1:500. The infected glands were treated intrammamary, with an extract preparation of a 1:200 dilution in 0.85%(p/v) NaCl containing 1:30,000 thimerosal as preservative. Doses of 20ml were applied daily, during seven days. After this period, P. zopfii was still isolated from milk samples, although in smaller numbers. The treatment was resumed for a period of 15 days. At day 39 after diagnosis the infected quarters were cultured negative and microbiological exams carried out from day 39 onward resulted negative. The milk production returned to levels as before infection. Naturally infected milk samples were kept frozen (-20°C) and viable P. zopfii were recovered until 38 days under this condition.

Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Veiga, Vânia Maria Oliveira

1997-12-01

19

Mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii: relato de um caso Clinical bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um caso de mastite clínica causada por Prototheca zopfii em uma vaca de um rebanho leiteiro localizado na Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais foi estudado. O animal apresentou sinais clínicos nos quartos mamárias anteriores e queda acentuada na produção de leite. Após o diagnóstico inicial, o animal foi observado durante onze meses, do início da manifestação da doença até 12 dias após o parto. Exames microbiológicos do leite foram realizadas aos 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 e 331 dias após o isolamento inicial, sendo os dois últimos exames realizados 7 e 12 dias após o parto. As amostras de P. zopfii isoladas apresentaram resistência in vitro a: ampicilina, canamicina, cefatoridina, enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, neomicina, oxacilina, penicilina, sulfonamidas e trimetoprim x sulfametoxazol. Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade in vitro das amostras de P. zopfii a um produto natural constituído de extrato de sementes de frutas cítricas, obtido comercialmente. A menor concentração que inibiu totalmente a alga foi 1:500. Recomendou-se um tratamento com a diluição a 1:200 do extrato em solução fisiológica estéril contendo timerosal a 1:30.000 como conservante, em doses diárias de 20ml, por via intramamária. O tratamento foi realizado inicialmente durante sete dias. Após este período houve redução, mas não a completa eliminação dos organismos do leite. Foi, então, recomendado mais um período de 15 dias de tratamento, de modo semelhante ao primeiro. Trinta e nove dias após o diagnóstico inicial não foi mais isolado P. zopfii do leite dos quartos afetados e a produção retornou a níveis semelhantes de antes da infecção. Amostras de leite naturalmente infectadas foram congelados a -20°C. Células viáveis de P. zopfii foram recuperadas de amostras mantidas até 38 dias nestas condições.A clinical case of mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in a cow from a dairy herd located in the region of Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, was studied. The cow showed clinical signs of mastitis in both front mammary quarters and marked reduction on milk production. Following the diagnosis the animal was accompanied for 11 months. Milk samples collected at days l, 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 and 331 were cultured. The last two exams were conducted at 7 and 12 days after calving. The P. zopfii strains were resistant in vitro to: ampicillin, kanamycin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, streptomycin, gentamycin, neomycin, oxacillin, penicillin G, sulfonamides and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The strains showed sensitivity in vitro to a natural extract made of citrous seed, commercially available. The smallest concentration that completely inhibited the growth of the organisms was 1:500. The infected glands were treated intrammamary, with an extract preparation of a 1:200 dilution in 0.85%(p/v) NaCl containing 1:30,000 thimerosal as preservative. Doses of 20ml were applied daily, during seven days. After this period, P. zopfii was still isolated from milk samples, although in smaller numbers. The treatment was resumed for a period of 15 days. At day 39 after diagnosis the infected quarters were cultured negative and microbiological exams carried out from day 39 onward resulted negative. The milk production returned to levels as before infection. Naturally infected milk samples were kept frozen (-20°C) and viable P. zopfii were recovered until 38 days under this condition.

Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito; Vânia Maria Oliveira Veiga

1997-01-01

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Incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in England.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The annual incidence of clinical mastitis was measured in 144 Holstein/Friesian dairy herds in England (average size 132 cows) during 1994, 1995 and 1996 by means of carefully defined mastitis indices. The mean annual incidence of the disease over the three-year period was 43.4 quarter-cases per 100 cows, and the disease affected 25.9 per cent of the cows in the herds, with 1.6 quarter-cases per affected cow. In terms of cow-cases, the mean incidence was 39.9 cases per 100 cows in the herd and hence the ratio of quarter-cases to cow-cases was on average 1:1. The proportion of repeat quarter-cases was on average 19.4 per cent, and the recurrence rate was 18.3 per cent. The new infection rate was 28.3 per cent.

Kossaibati MA; Hovi M; Esslemont RJ

1998-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Epidemiological study of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence rate of clinical mastitis in primiparous Swedish Friesian cows was 15%. The risk of mastitis was greater for calving in July and August and increased with age at calving. Calving disorders and ketosis increased the risk of mastitis 1.8 and 2 fold, while tramped teats and udder injuries increased it 6 and 3 fold, respectively. Herds accounted for 13% of the variation in incidence of mastitis and the risk of mastitis was 1.4 and 1.25 fold greater in high and average producing herds relative to low producing herds. High production predisposed cows for mastitis. Cows with clinical mastitis produced 260 kg less milk and were 2.8 fold more likely to be culled.

Oltenacu PA; Ekesbo I

1994-01-01

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Use of physiologic variables to predict milk yield after clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between intramammary infections caused by various bacteria and hepatic damage, as measured by serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, WBC counts, and PCV and the association of clinical variables with milk production after a case of clinical mastitis. DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study. ANIMALS: 82 cows with clinical mastitis. PROCEDURE: Information on milk production, mastitis status, and selected physiologic variables was collected during a 1-year period. Milk samples for bacteriologic evaluation were collected on day 1 of an episode of clinical mastitis. Physical examination was performed and blood samples for laboratory evaluation were collected on days 1, 5, and 9. Primary outcome was mature equivalent 305-day (ME305) milk production. Correlations were assessed using a multiple regression model. RESULTS: Higher WBC counts were associated with higher ME305 values. For cows with coliform mastitis, increases in SDH values were associated with higher ME305 values. For cows with coliform and streptococci/staphylococci mastitis, PCV was associated with ME305 values. Higher PCV values were associated with lower ME305 values for streptococci/ staphylococci and coliform infections. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The association between milk production and WBC count indicated that cows mobilizing WBC were better able to neutralize mammary gland infections, which may result in better milk production. The association between milk production and PCV suggested that maintaining hydration in cows with clinical mastitis may be a critical aspect of treating all cows with mastitis.

Sischo WM; Moore DA; Fedon JC

1997-08-01

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The incidence and aetiology of clinical bovine mastitis on 14 farms in Northland, New Zealand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To estimate the incidence of clinical mastitis and the frequency of isolation of mastitis-causing organisms from clinical cases in one lactation season (July 2005 to May 2006) on 14 dairy farms from the Northland region of New Zealand. METHODS: Cases of clinical mastitis were determined by trained farm personnel who recorded the identity of affected cows. Pooled milk samples from affected quarter(s) were aseptically collected by the farm personnel, for microbiology. Mean numbers of affected cows and quarters were compared at the population and farm level per 305 cow-days-at-risk (DAR). RESULTS: One or more cases of clinical mastitis occurred in 559/3,765 (14.8%) lactating cows. The average incidence of clinical mastitis was 0.19 cases per 305 DAR. The incidence in rear quarters (56.2%) was 1.3 times (p=0.027) that of front quarters (43.8%). The incidence of clinical mastitis and numbers of affected quarters were significantly influenced by the stage of lactation (higher in early lactation), age (higher in older cows) and farm. At the cow level, the most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (23.7%) and Streptococcus uberis (23.3%). No causative organisms were identified in 19.9% of the samples. Each cow had an average of 1.8 quarters affected during a case of clinical mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a higher incidence of staphylococcal clinical mastitis on dairy farms from Northland than has been reported in other regions of New Zealand.

Petrovski KR; Heuer C; Parkinson TJ; Williamson NB

2009-04-01

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Fibrinogen and Ceruloplasmin in Plasma and Milk from Dairy Cows with Subclinical and Clinical Mastitis  

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Full Text Available The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb) and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT) were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0) and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk) or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s). The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p0.05), but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (p<0.05). The concentrations of Fb and Cp in the milk of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (p<0.01). The results indicated that measurement of Fb in plasma and milk and Cp only in milk might be suitable for early diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows.

A. Davasaz Tabrizi; R.A. Batavani; S. Asri Rezaei; M. Ahmadi

2008-01-01

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Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study was conducted to characterize Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. One hundred strains from 100 dairy herds in Denmark, 29 strains from 29 dairy herds in Pennsylvania, USA, 7 reference strains and 18 strains consisting of 9 paired strains from 9 quarters were investigated using biotyping (utilization of tagatose and sorbitol) and HindIII ribotyping. Four different biotypes were observed. Only 34 of the 100 Danish strains utilized either tagatose or sorbitol, 18 utilized tagatose, 15 sorbitol and 1 both tagatose and sorbitol. In contrast, among the American strains one (3.4%) did neither utilize tagatose or sorbitol, twenty (69.0%) utilized tagatose, four (13.8%) sorbitol and four (13.8%) both tagatose and sorbitol. HindIII ribotyping produced 15 different types among all the strains, 9 different types were found among the Danish strains and 8 types among the American strains. Five types were observed among both the Danish and the American strains. The 7 reference strains were assigned to 5 different ribotypes. Three type strains (ATCC 27957, NCTC 4670, NCTC 4335) were assigned to a type that was present among both the Danish and the American strains. Ribotyping was the most discriminatory typing method. Agreement between ribo- and biotyping was observed, and especially pronounced among the Danish strains. The 9 paired strains were in each case found to have identical ribo- and biotype.

Aarestrup, Frank MØller; Jensen, Niels Einar

1996-01-01

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Prevalence and antibiogram profile of bacterial Isolates from clinical bovine mastitis  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the current status of clinical mastitis among dairy cattle in and around Bangalore. The prevalence of mastitis was assessed by the results of bacteriological evaluation of milk samples collected from clinical mastitis cases. A total of seventy five bacterial isolates were recovered from sixty clinical cases of mastitis affected cows. The prevalence of major pathogens isolated was twenty four per cent for Staphylococcus aureus twenty per cent for Escherichia coli followed by sixteen per cent for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus spp and ten per cent for Klebsiella spp. Antibiogram studies were also performed for these isolates and Gentamicin was found to be the most effective drug. It was concluded that microbiological and antibiogram studies are necessary for treatment and control of the disease. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000): 237-238

Sumathi B.R; Veeregowda B.M and Amitha R. Gomes

2008-01-01

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Bacteria associated with clinical mastitis in dairy heifers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 1-yr field investigation of clinical mastitis in heifers was carried out in 24 veterinary districts in Norway. Quarter lacteal secretions from cases that occurred prepartum or within 14 d postpartum were examined bacteriologically. The study included 1040 heifers with clinical mastitis, and the total number of quarters that were clinically affected was 1361. The organisms that were most frequently isolated from samples from these quarters were Staphylococcus aureus (44.3%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (18.2%), Staph. aureus together with Strep. dysgalactiae (1.2%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (12.8%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (3.5%), A. pyogenes together with Strep. dysgalactiae (0.5%) or Staph. aureus (0.4%), and Escherichia coli (6.4%). Of the coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus simulans (53.7%), Staphylococcus hyicus (14.8%), and Staphylococcus chromogenes (14.8%) were the most prevalent species. Except for a higher relative percentage of A. pyogenes in cases that occurred before parturition (8.2%) than in cases that occurred after parturition (2.7%), no significant differences were observed in the distribution of the various organisms among prepartum and postpartum cases. Regional variations were observed in the distribution of organisms. The proportions of Staph. aureus and A. pyogenes were highest, and the proportion of coagulase-negative staphylococci was lowest, in late autumn and early winter. The proportion of E. coli was highest in summer. In heifers in which mastitis was associated with increased rectal temperature or other systemic signs, the proportion of clinically affected quarters that were infected with Staph. aureus was larger than that in heifers without systemic reaction.

Waage S; Mørk T; Røros A; Aasland D; Hunshamar A; Odegaard SA

1999-04-01

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Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania  

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Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest® for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69). Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91). Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91) while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90). Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353), while for bacteria and fungi it was 16 % and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n =67). The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

R.H. Mdegela; R. Ryoba; E.D. Karimuribo; E.J. Phiri; T. Loken; O. Reksen; E. Mtengeti; N.A. Urio

2012-01-01

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Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis  

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Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy control. Antioxidant parameters measured in blood were superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration. Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Results: Significant (P<0.05) decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentration and an increase in erythrocytic lipid peroxides was observed in cows with clinical mastitis. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a compromise in antioxidant defense of the body in dairy cows with clinical mastitis resulting in oxidative damage, therefore, necessitate the use of antioxidants and other protective compounds along with conventional therapy for mastitis control. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000): 271-273

Ricky Jhambh; Umesh Dimri; Vinod Kumar Gupta; Rajesh Rathore

2013-01-01

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A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design was used. Women with mastitis (cases, n = 100) were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (emergency departments, breastfeeding clinics and postnatal wards). Breastfeeding women without mastitis (controls, n = 99) were recruited from maternal and child health (community) centres and the rooms of a private obstetrician. Women completed a questionnaire and nasal specimens were collected from mother and baby and placed in charcoal transport medium. Women also collected a small sample of milk in a sterile jar. Results There was no difference between nasal carriage of S. aureus in breastfeeding women with mastitis (42/98, 43%) and control women (45/98, 46%). However, significantly more infants of mothers with mastitis were nasal carriers of S. aureus (72/88, 82%) than controls (52/93, 56%). The association was strong (adjusted OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.30, 8.27) after adjustment for the following confounding factors: income, private health insurance, difficulty with breastfeeding, nipple damage and tight bra. There was also a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis (adjusted OR 9.34, 95%CI 2.99, 29.20). Conclusion We found no association between maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus and mastitis, but nasal carriage in the infant was associated with breast infections. As in other studies of mastitis, we found a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis. Prevention of nipple damage is likely to reduce the incidence of infectious mastitis. Mothers need good advice about optimal attachment of the baby to the breast and access to skilled help in the early postpartum days and weeks.

Amir Lisa H; Garland Suzanne M; Lumley Judith

2006-01-01

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The persistence of biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical bovine mastitis cases in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this investigation was to determine the persistence of biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance developed by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), of different capsular types, during biofilm formation. Because of superiority of the tissue culture plate (TCP) over the Congo Red Agar (CRA) method for measuring biofilm formation, it was used to determine the persistence of the antibiotic resistance developed by the isolates in biofilms. The antibiotic resistance was found to persist for 3-4 wk post-propagation as planktonic subcultures. Interestingly, some strains even developed resistance to vancomycin and/or teicoplanin. However, no association of either biofilm formation or persistent antibiotic resistance with the major capsular phenotype was observed. These observations highlight the potential significance of (a) determining the antibiograms of S. aureus subcultured from biofilms developed in vitro using the TCP method as well as from planktonic cultures for formulation of an optimal therapeutic strategy, and (b) continuing to identify predominant non-capsular antigens contributing to biofilm formation, regardless of the capsular phenotype for the development of an effective potentially broad-spectrum vaccine for prevention of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. PMID:23446489

Babra, Charlene; Tiwari, Jully G; Pier, Gerald; Thein, Thi Ha; Sunagar, Raju; Sundareshan, Srinivasaiah; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Hegde, Nagendra R; de Wet, Sharon; Deighton, Margaret; Gibson, Justine; Costantino, Paul; Wetherall, John; Mukkur, Trilochan

2013-02-28

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The persistence of biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical bovine mastitis cases in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this investigation was to determine the persistence of biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance developed by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), of different capsular types, during biofilm formation. Because of superiority of the tissue culture plate (TCP) over the Congo Red Agar (CRA) method for measuring biofilm formation, it was used to determine the persistence of the antibiotic resistance developed by the isolates in biofilms. The antibiotic resistance was found to persist for 3-4 wk post-propagation as planktonic subcultures. Interestingly, some strains even developed resistance to vancomycin and/or teicoplanin. However, no association of either biofilm formation or persistent antibiotic resistance with the major capsular phenotype was observed. These observations highlight the potential significance of (a) determining the antibiograms of S. aureus subcultured from biofilms developed in vitro using the TCP method as well as from planktonic cultures for formulation of an optimal therapeutic strategy, and (b) continuing to identify predominant non-capsular antigens contributing to biofilm formation, regardless of the capsular phenotype for the development of an effective potentially broad-spectrum vaccine for prevention of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus.

Babra C; Tiwari JG; Pier G; Thein TH; Sunagar R; Sundareshan S; Isloor S; Hegde NR; de Wet S; Deighton M; Gibson J; Costantino P; Wetherall J; Mukkur T

2013-11-01

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Implementation of strategies for mastitis control in dairy herds in Macedonia: A case report  

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Full Text Available Mastitis is probably the most common and costly disease in modern dairy cow husbandry. The aim of the present paper was to report the results concerning udder health after implementation of a specific strategy using both field and laboratory methods. During the period June 2010-December 2011 a total of 674 dairy cows from four dairy farms were included in the investigation. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed by detection of signs of inflammation in the udder, while subclinical mastitis was diagnosed at the animal level by an increased Somatic Cell Count (SCC) using laboratory tests, and subsequently confirmed at quarter level by California Mastitis Test (CMT).Microbiological analysis of the milk samples was carried out by standard procedures using Gram staining, biochemical tests and automated identification system.The distribution of somatic cell counts on cow level (n=674) was:305 (45.3%) with SCC less than 100,000SCC/mL, 236 (35.0%) 100,001 - 350,000 SCC/mL, and 133 (18.7%) with more than 350,000SCC/mL. From a total of 1684 quarters tested by CMT, 644 quarters (38.2%) were positive and 1040 quarters (61.8%) were negative. In 60 out of 101 quarters that had a positive CMT result and no current treatment and that were sampled for bacteriology, bacteria could be isolated. Main bacteria identified, were coagulase - negative staphylococci (40.0%), Streptococcus agalactiae was present in 25.0%, Escherichia coli in 16.6%, Proteus spp. in 11.7% and Staphylococcus aureus in 6.7% of the bacteriological positive samples. After introducing specific mastitis-control measures, focusing on milking hygiene, dry-off treatment, and antibiotic treatment of both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis cases, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was reduced from 38.2to 10.8%, while the incidence of clinical mastitis decreased from 21.0% to 4.9%.In conclusion, the implementation of a standard mastitis control plan based on a regular assessment of the somatic cell count can reduce the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in dairy herds.

Atanasov Branko; Mickov Ljupco; Angelovski Ljupco; Nikolovski Martin; Ratkova Marija; Jankuloski Dean; Petrovski Kiro; Dovenski Toni

2012-01-01

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Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dense SNP panel was used to predict the genetic merit of an individual for selection in livestock. The accuracy of genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular the number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip. A total of 648,219 SNPs passed the quality control criteria for genotypes from the high density SNP panel. All the 4,200 individuals’ genotypes were imputed to the high density SNP panel using the software Beagle. The associations between the phenotypes and SNPs were estimated by a linear mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis

Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2012-01-01

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Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay  

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Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was deter...

Gianneechini, R; Concha, C; Rivero, R; Delucci, I; López, J Moreno

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Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis w...

Gianneechini R; Concha C; Rivero R; Delucci I; López J Moreno

37

Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%.

Gianneechini R; Concha C; Rivero R; Delucci I; López J Moreno

2002-01-01

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Mastitis granulomatosa idiopática: Diagnóstico y tratamiento en 14 casos Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: Report of 14 cases  

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Full Text Available Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa idiopática es una enfermedad inflamatoria benigna, infrecuente, de etiología desconocida. Puede simular carcinoma mamario, por lo cual su diagnóstico definitivo es histopatológico. No existe consenso respecto a su tratamiento. Realizamos una caracterización clínica de esta patología considerando su forma de presentación, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento con especial énfasis en la efectividad de la corticoterapia. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo realizado mediante protocolo tipo. Se revisaron los registros y fichas clínicas de los pacientes manejados con diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa idiopática en el Hospital Regional Valdivia entre los años 1995-2006. Resultados: La serie corresponde a 14 pacientes de sexo femenino. El promedio de edad fue de 31,6 años. La presentación clínica más frecuente fue absceso mamario en 9/14. Se realizó estudio imagenológico en 11/ 14 casos mediante mamografía en 7/14 y ecotomografía en 10/14. Las muestras para estudio histopatológico fueron obtenidas por biopsia percutánea en 8/14 y quirúrgica en 6/14. Se realizó tratamiento corticoidal con prednisona en 12/14 pacientes logrando buena respuesta en todos los casos. Se presentaron 2 recidivas durante el seguimiento que comprende un promedio de 28 meses. Conclusiones: La presentación clínica de las mastitis fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. La respuesta al tratamiento corticoesteroidal logró el control de la enfermedad en todos los casos. Las reacciones adversas al tratamiento fueron menores y las 2 recidivas fueron de menor magnitud y duración respecto al cuadro inicialBackground: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a benign and uncommon inflammatory disease of the breast, of unknown etiology. It can resemble a carcinoma, therefore the diagnosis is pathological. Aim: To perform a clinical characterization of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of 14 female patients aged 21 to 47 years with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, treated in a regional hospital between 1995 and 2006. Results: The most common clinical presentation was a breast abscess in nine patients. A mammography was done in seven patients an breast ultrasound in 10. Samples for pathological studies were obtained percutaneously in eight and surgically in six. Twelve patients were treated with prednisone, with good results in all. In a mean follow up of 28 months, two patients had a relapse. Conclusions: Steroid treatment was effective for the treatment of granulomatous mastitis. The two relapses observed in this series were mild

JUAN ANTONIO PÉREZ P; JOHN BOHLE O; GONZALO SÁNCHEZ C; CRISTIAN CARRASCO L; PABLO MARIÁNGEL P

2007-01-01

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Increasing Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci in Bovine Clinical Mastitis  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and other bacteria for their resistance to antimicrobial agents approved for the control of pathogens involved in clinical bovine mastitis. This descriptive study was done on 106 milk samples obtained from clinical mastitis in dairy cattle husbandry from April 2006 through August 2006 in Kashan, Iran. From the total of 106 milk samples collected from clinical mastitis, 96 (90.6%) lead to positive culture. Coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated in 51 out of 96 samples (53.1%), Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 21 out of 96 (21.9%), gram negative bacilli isolated in 14 out of 96 (14.6%) and Enterococci isolated in 4 (4.2%). The highest rate of resistant CNS observed to penicillin (56.6%) and the highest rate of sensitivity to enrofloxacin 100%, followed by kanamycin, streptomycin and neomycin, 92.2, 82.3 and 82.3%, respectively. The highest rate of resistance S. aureus exhibited to penicillin (66.6%); while the highest rate of sensitivity showed to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxasole (81%), followed by kanamycin and enrofloxacin both at 76.2%. The highest rate of resistance gram negative bacilli exhibited to ampicillin and erythromycin at 71.4%. Their highest rate of sensitivity observed to enrofloxacin (78.6%), followed by kanamycin, (71.4%). In recent years, CNS is emerging as important minor mastitis pathogens and can be the cause of substantial economic losses. The high resistance rate to penicillin and other antibiotics found in this study emphasize the importance of identification of CNS when a bovine clinical mastitis is present.

R. Moniri; K. Dastehgoli; A. Akramian

2007-01-01

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Parity-dependent association between TNF-? and LTF gene polymorphisms and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: One major problem in dairy cattle husbandry is the prevalence of udder infections. In today's breeding programmes, top priority is being given to making animal evaluation more cost-effective and reliable and less time-consuming. We proposed tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), lactoferrin (LTF) and macrophage-expressed lysozyme (mLYZ) genes as potential DNA markers in the improvement of immunity to mastitis.This study included 588 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows kept on one farm located in the north-western region of Poland. All clinical cases of mastitis in the herd under study were recorded by a qualified veterinarian employed by the farm. The following indicators were applied to determine udder immunity to mastitis in the cows under study: morbidity rate (MR), duration of mastitis (DM) and extent of mastitis (EM). TNF-?, mLYZ and LTF genotypes were identified by real-time PCR method, using SimpleProbe technology. Due to the very low frequency of mLYZ allele T, the gene was excluded from further analysis.A statistical analysis of associations between TNF-? and LTF genes and immunity to mastitis were performed using three models: 1) a parity-averaged model including only additive effects of the genes; 2) a parity-averaged model including both additive and epistatic effects of the genes; and 3) a parity-specific model including only additive effects of the genes. RESULTS: With the first and second models it was revealed that the genes effects on the applied indicators of immunity to mastitis were non-significant whereas with the third one the effects were found to be statistically significant. Particularly noteworthy was the finding that the effects of TNF-? and LTF varied depending on age (parity). The alleles which were linked to high immunity to mastitis in lower parities appeared to be less favourable in higher parities. CONCLUSIONS: These interactions might be related to inflamm-ageing, that is an increased susceptibility to infection due to immune system deregulation that progresses with age. Such pattern of interactions makes it impossible to use the genes in question in marker-assisted selection aimed at reducing heritable susceptibility to mastitis. This is because the immune mechanisms behind resistance to infections proved to be too complex.

Wojdak-Maksymiec K; Szyda J; Strabel T

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Efficacy of extended cefquinome treatment of clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is difficult to cure. Extended antimicrobial treatment is often advocated as a practical approach to improve cure rates; however, scientific evidence of this hypothesis is lacking. A multi-centered, nonblinded, randomized, positive-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 5 European countries-France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom-to study the efficacy of an extended intramammary cefquinome treatment (5 d) compared with a standard intramammary cefquinome treatment (1.5 d) of Staph. aureus clinical mastitis. Least squares means estimates of bacteriological cure during lactation were 34% [standard error (SE)=9.9%] for the standard treatment group and 27% (SE=8.4%) for the extended treatment group. In the final model, extended therapy was not significantly better. The only factor predicting bacteriological cure was pretreatment cow somatic cell count (SCC). Cows with >250,000 cells/mL in milk before treatment were less likely to cure. Least squares means of clinical cure during lactation was 60% (SE=19%) for the standard treatment group and 82% (SE=12%) for the extended treatment group. In the final model, clinical cure after extended treatment was significantly better. Pretreatment cow udder firmness predicted clinical cure. Firm udders were less likely to cure clinically. Irrespective of treatment regimen, new infection rates with pathogens other than Staph. aureus were higher (42%) after bacteriological cure than after nonbacteriological cure (22%) and cured cows had a significantly lower SCC. In conclusion, independent of the treatment protocol, cows with an SCC <250,000 cells/mL before treatment showed a higher probability of bacteriological cure. It appears that successful treatment of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis with cefquinome is associated with an increased number of new infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Extended treatment improved clinical, but not bacteriological, cure rates compared with the standard treatment. These results indicate that extending treatment of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis with cefquinome should not be recommended.

Swinkels JM; Cox P; Schukken YH; Lam TJ

2013-08-01

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Immunoprophylaxis of bovine mastitis  

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Full Text Available Mastitis poses a major economic and health problem in herds of dairy cows. The many years of taking different approaches to treating mastitis have not resulted in an adequate solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. The treatment of mastitis using antibiotics yields satisfactory results, but it implies substantial costs for treatment and losses in rejecting milk. Due to the above reasons, a new area of scientific research offers possibilities for finding new solutions to the ever present problem of mastitis - immunoprophylaxis. Vaccines against mastitis available at this time are still not sufficiently effective in general practice, and they are at the level of experimental vaccines. All barn vaccines which have been worked on so far have been significantly experimentally successful. The success is in a significant increase in the antibody titer in serum (but not in milk), as well as in reducing the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases among experimental and control animals. Nevertheless, it is still believed that immunoprophylaxis, as a method for preventing inflammation of the udder and the occurrence of mastitis, is still an insufficiently investigated field of scientific research. Many scientists are engaged on the problem of finding a vaccine against mastitis, but the coplexity of the mammary gland and the specific permeability of the blood-milk barrier do not permit these efforts to be as successful as they might be if this were not the case.

Pavlovi? Vojislav; Vakanjac Slobodanka

2003-01-01

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Genetic analysis of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) in Norwegian Red cows. In Norway, breeding values for mastitis are predicted based on records of veterinary treatments of clinical mastitis. Bacteriological milk sample results from the mastitis laboratories have been recorded routinely into the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System since 2000, but have so far not been used in genetic analyses. This additional source of data may provide valuable information on pathogen-specific CM. Records from 234,088 first-lactation Norwegian Red cows, daughters of 1,656 sires, were used for genetic analyses of unspecific, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli CM. The 4 CM traits were defined as binary and scored as 1 if the cow had at least 1 case of the CM in question and 0 otherwise. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was applied, and a multivariate threshold liability model was used for the analyses. The posterior mean (SD ? 0.01) of the heritabilities were 0.06 for liability of unspecific CM, 0.04 for Staph. aureus CM, 0.02 for Strep. dysgalactiae CM, and 0.03 for E. coli CM. The posterior mean (SD) of the genetic correlations were all high, ranging from 0.75 (0.14) to 0.87 (0.07). The highest genetic correlation was found between unspecific CM and Strep. dysgalactiae CM, whereas the lowest was found for E. coli CM and Staph. aureus CM. Genetic correlations lower than 1 indicate that mastitis caused by different pathogens can be considered as partly different traits. In spite of high rank correlations (0.95-0.98), some re-ranking of sires was observed.

Haugaard K; Heringstad B; Whist AC

2012-03-01

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Cytodiagnosis of herpes simplex mastitis: Report of a rare case  

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Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rare cause of breast infection. Few cases of maternal-infant transmission of the virus during breastfeeding resulting in nipple lesions have been documented. Only three cases have been reported in nonlactating women. We report an additional case of HSV mastitis in a 36-year-old nonlactating female who was diagnosed on scrape cytology smears.

Mardi Kavita; Gupta Neelam; Sharma Sudershan; Gupta Saurabh

2009-01-01

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Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001) for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%), Streptococcus uberis (19.1%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%). In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%). Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition.

Kalmus Piret; Viltrop Arvo; Aasmäe Birgit; Kask Kalle

2006-01-01

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Managerial and environmental determinants of clinical mastitis in Danish dairy herds  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete) management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area) were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.

Sato Kenji; Bartlett Paul C; Alban Lis; Agger Jens F; Houe Hans

2008-01-01

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Intramammary application of ozone therapy to acute clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The infusion of ozone into the inflamed quarter of cows with clinical mastitis was performed and the efficacy of ozone therapy was evaluated. Ozone was infused into the inflamed quarter via a teat canal using ozone gas generating equipment. Nineteen Holstein cows with acute clinical mastitis were divided into two groups: 15 cows treated with ozone therapy, and 4 cows treated with antibiotic therapy. Systemic and local clinical signs, California Mastitis Test scores, the mastitis causing pathogens, electronic conductivity of milk, and somatic cell counts in milk from ozone- and antibiotic-treated quarters, were compared between the groups. Sixty percent (9/15) of cows with acute clinical mastitis treated with ozone therapy, did not require any antibiotics for recovery. This newly developed ozone therapy method was proven to be effective, safe, and cost effective, and carries no risk of drug residues in milk.

Ogata A; Nagahata H

2000-07-01

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Efficacy of systemic ceftiofur as a therapy for severe clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of intramuscular administration of ceftiofur to reduce the incidence of case-related death and culling following severe clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cattle. A total of 104 cows with severe clinical mastitis (systemic signs) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. Immediately after detection of the case, one group was administered 2.2 mg/kg of ceftiofur intramuscularly, and the dose repeated at 24-h intervals for a total of five doses. The second group of cows did not receive systemic antibacterial therapy. Additionally, all cows in both treatment groups received intramammary pirlimycin (Pirsue) in the affected quarter every 24 h for a total of up to three doses. Also at the onset of the case, all cows on the trial were administered a supportive therapeutic regimen of fluids and anti-inflammatory agents that varied from farm to farm, but was standard within each herd at the discretion of the herd manager and veterinarian. Of all cases 14/104 (13.5%) resulted in a lost cow (died or culled). The proportion of cases that resulted in a lost cow and were treated with ceftiofur (4/51; 7.8%) did not statistically differ from cows that were not treated with ceftiofur (10/53; 18.9%). However, the proportion of cases that resulted in lost cows was higher for those cases that yielded a coliform organism on culture (14/56; 25.0%) than cases that did not yield coliforms (0/48; 0.0%; P < 0.001). Thus, among coliform cases, cows that were not treated with ceftiofur were more likely to be culled or die (10/27, 37.0%; P < 0.05) than cows treated with ceftiofur (4/29, 13.8%). We conclude that intramuscular administration of ceftiofur did not affect the outcome of severe clinical mastitis when all etiologic agents are included in the analysis. However, for severe clinical mastitis cases caused by coliform organisms, ceftiofur therapy reduced the proportion of cases that resulted in cow death or culling. This benefit may be realized because of the amelioration of bacteremic-related pathogenesis.

Erskine RJ; Bartlett PC; VanLente JL; Phipps CR

2002-10-01

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Loss in milk yield and related composition changes resulting from clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Relationships between clinical mastitis and milk yield and composition in dairy cows were reviewed. Requirements for inclusion were: data had to be collected after 1975; dependent variables for milk yield and milk composition had to be defined at the cow level; mastitis cases had to be defined by clinical signs, and at least 250 lactations had to be considered. Twenty studies dealing with milk-yield loss and, for four of them, also with related composition changes were selected. Study populations, design of data collection, and analysis methods differed widely between studies. As expected from these differences--but also due to structural-variation factors such as type of pathogen, animal and production level--estimates for milk-yield losses differed in average magnitude and pattern. Literature data regarding changes in milk-fat % and total-protein % changes were contradictory. Critiques of materials and methods allowed us to propose some final recommendations for values to be used as basic inputs in economic calculations of losses caused by mastitis.

Hortet P; Seegers H

1998-12-01

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Occurrence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffaloes in the State of Haryana (India)  

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Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to determine the occurrence and etiology of mastitis in traditionally managed buffaloes. A total of 5707 quarter milk samples from 2057 buffaloes were examined. Of these, 2948 (51.65%) samples were found culturally positive. Among these, 1070 cases were from clinical mastitis and rest 1878 cases were positive for subclinical mastitis. As many as 3447 isolates were obtained from infected quarters. Out of these, 38.81% were Staphylococcus spp., 32.4% Streptococcus spp., 11.80% E. coli, 5.2% Corynebacterium spp., 1.36% Bacillus spp., 2.03% Klebsiella spp., 0.78% Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 0.14% Proteus , 0.14% yeast. Staphylococcus spp. was predominant mastitogenic organisms followed by Streptococcus spp. Of the staphylococcal organisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most prevalent being present in the 63.15% of the isolates. Among streptococci, Streptococcus agalactiae were the predominant organisms followed by Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. The mixed infections were detected in 7.33% quarters in different combinations. Most common combination was of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. followed by Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Results of Antibiotic sensitivity were variable.

A. Sharma; N. Sindhu

2010-01-01

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Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a 5-day ceftiofur hydrochloride intramammary treatment on nonsevere gram-negative clinical mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramammary treatment with ceftiofur hydrochloride of nonsevere, clinical coliform mastitis. One hundred four cases on 5 farms met the enrollment criteria for the study. Escherichia coli was the most common coliform species identified in milk samples from cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis, followed by Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. At enrollment, a milk sample from the affected quarter was taken and used for on-farm culture or submitted to the laboratory. For cows in the treatment group, treatment was initiated with ceftiofur hydrochloride via intramammary infusion at 24-h intervals for 5 d according to label standards. Cows in the control group did not receive treatment. Culture results were available on the day after enrollment and only cows with coliform mastitis continued in the treatment and untreated control groups. Bacteriological cure was defined based on 2 posttreatment milk samples. Molecular typing was used for final definition of bacteriological cure. Treatment of nonsevere clinical gram-negative mastitis with ceftiofur hydrochloride resulted in a significant increase in bacteriological cure compared with nontreated controls in animals infected with E. coli or Klebsiella spp. Treated animals clinically improved significantly more compared with control cows. No significant differences were observed between treated and control animals in milk production or linear score before or after clinical mastitis. Treated animals left the study less frequently compared with control animals. PMID:22118109

Schukken, Y H; Bennett, G J; Zurakowski, M J; Sharkey, H L; Rauch, B J; Thomas, M J; Ceglowski, B; Saltman, R L; Belomestnykh, N; Zadoks, R N

2011-12-01

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Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a 5-day ceftiofur hydrochloride intramammary treatment on nonsevere gram-negative clinical mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramammary treatment with ceftiofur hydrochloride of nonsevere, clinical coliform mastitis. One hundred four cases on 5 farms met the enrollment criteria for the study. Escherichia coli was the most common coliform species identified in milk samples from cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis, followed by Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. At enrollment, a milk sample from the affected quarter was taken and used for on-farm culture or submitted to the laboratory. For cows in the treatment group, treatment was initiated with ceftiofur hydrochloride via intramammary infusion at 24-h intervals for 5 d according to label standards. Cows in the control group did not receive treatment. Culture results were available on the day after enrollment and only cows with coliform mastitis continued in the treatment and untreated control groups. Bacteriological cure was defined based on 2 posttreatment milk samples. Molecular typing was used for final definition of bacteriological cure. Treatment of nonsevere clinical gram-negative mastitis with ceftiofur hydrochloride resulted in a significant increase in bacteriological cure compared with nontreated controls in animals infected with E. coli or Klebsiella spp. Treated animals clinically improved significantly more compared with control cows. No significant differences were observed between treated and control animals in milk production or linear score before or after clinical mastitis. Treated animals left the study less frequently compared with control animals.

Schukken YH; Bennett GJ; Zurakowski MJ; Sharkey HL; Rauch BJ; Thomas MJ; Ceglowski B; Saltman RL; Belomestnykh N; Zadoks RN

2011-12-01

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Association of Escherichia coli J5-specific serum antibody responses with clinical mastitis outcome for J5 vaccinate and control dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dairy cattle in two commercial Holstein herds were randomly selected to be vaccinated twice with J5, at approximately 60 days and 28 days before the expected calving date, or to be untreated controls. Based on whether milk production changed following clinical mastitis or whether cows were culled or died within 30 days after onset, 51 mastitis cases were classified as severe or mild. J5-specific antibody responses were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of all 32 severe and 19 mild cases. The amounts of J5-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies in sera from the 27 J5 vaccinates were compared with those of the 24 controls. At drying off (before J5 vaccination), all cows had similar amounts of J5-specific antibody. Immediately after calving (approximately 28 days after the second vaccination), J5 vaccinates had significantly higher production of J5-specific IgG1 and IgG2 than controls. When cows were tested following clinical mastitis, none of the three antibody classes differed significantly between the controls and the vaccinates. Vaccinates that contracted Escherichia coli mastitis had 75% less milk loss than controls. The cows that contracted clinical mastitis later in lactation, the unvaccinated controls, and those infected with E. coli had more milk loss following mastitis. The hazards of being culled for all reasons and of being culled for mastitis were significantly lower for J5 vaccinates. Vaccination with J5 was associated with protection against milk production loss and culling following clinical mastitis, and it was also significantly associated with changes in J5-specific IgM, IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies in sera of vaccinated cows.

Wilson DJ; Mallard BA; Burton JL; Schukken YH; Grohn YT

2009-02-01

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Mastite clinica caprina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes Clinical mastitis in goat due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes  

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Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State - Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. Amastectomywasperformedasclinical treatment.

F. Garino Jr; R.A.T. Matos; E.G. Miranda Neto; J.N.N. Bernardino; E.D. Santos; G.M.N. Aguiar

2012-01-01

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Fator necrosante citotóxico em Escherichia coli isolada de mastite clínica bovina Cytotoxic necrotizing factor in Escherichia coli strain isolated from clinical bovine mastitis  

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Full Text Available This report describes the production of cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF) by an Escherichia coli strain isolated from clinical bovine mastitis with clinical signs of toxemia The animal had hemorrhages and necrosis of the mammary glands, and died within 24 hours after the onset of clinical signs. In addition to CNF identification, alpha-haemolysin and siderophores production were also characterized in this strain. This report reinforce the association of CNF and alpha-haemolysin production in E. coli virulence associated with clinical cases of severe bovine mastitis.

M.G. Ribeiro; E.O. Costa; D.S. Leite; A.J.P. Ferreira; A.S. Silva; H.H.M. Della Colleta

2002-01-01

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Comparison between linear models and survival analysis for genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical mastitis was analyzed with mixed linear models (LM) and survival analysis (SA) using data from the first 3 lactations of >200,000 Swedish Holstein cows having their first calving between 1995 and 2000. The model for both methods included fixed effects of year-month and age at calving, fixed regressions of proportions of heterosis and North American Holstein genes, and random effects of herd-year at calving and sire. For the LM, clinical mastitis was defined as a binary trait measured from 10 d before to 150 d after calving. For the SA, clinical mastitis was defined either as the time period from 10 d before calving to the day of first treatment or culling because of mastitis (uncensored record) or from 10 d before to the day of next calving, culling for reasons other than mastitis, movement to a new herd, or to lactation d 240 (censored record). The heritability estimates from SA (0.03 to 0.04) were higher than those obtained with the LM (0.01 to 0.03). Consequently, the accuracies of estimated transmitting abilities were also higher for the trait analyzed with SA. The difference between estimates from the 2 methods was greater for later lactations. This study reveals the potential of analyzing clinical mastitis data with SA.

Carlén E; Schneider Mdel P; Strandberg E

2005-02-01

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A lactating woman presenting with puerperal pneumococcal mastitis: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an uncommon etiologic agent in soft-tissue infections. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 35-year-old Caucasian woman who presented to our facility with puerperal pneumococcal mastitis, and review the only other three cases of pneumococcal mastitis described in the medical literature. CONCLUSIONS: The roles of the various pneumococcal vaccines in preventing this disease are discussed.

Miedzybrodzki B; Miller M

2013-01-01

58

Mastite granulomatosa idiopática: aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e ultra-sonográficos Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as características clínicas, mamográficas e ultra-sonográficas de três casos de mastite granulomatosa idiopática. Esta afecção pode simular câncer de mama nos exames clínico e mamográfico, porém os achados ultra-sonográficos de múltiplas imagens tubulares hipoecóicas, contíguas e confluentes em mulheres jovens com história de lactação recente sugerem o diagnóstico de mastite granulomatosa idiopática.The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, mammography and ultrasound findings of three cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. This disease can mimic breast carcinoma on clinical and mammographic examinations. However, ultrasound examinations showing multiple clustered and often contiguous tubular hypoechoic lesions in young women with history of recent lactation suggest the diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

Cristina Caetano Stefanon; Adriana F. Gonçalves; Roberto Lima; Karin Rossi

2005-01-01

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Effect of pre-milking teat dipping on clinical mastitis on dairy farms in England.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of pre-milking teat dipping (PMTD) on mastitis caused by environmentally associated pathogens. The first trial showed considerable variation in effect between herds, so a second, larger trial was conducted. In this second trial a comparison of the rate of clinical mastitis was made between nine matched pairs of dairy herds over 24 weeks of the winter housed period. All herds were near the national average incidence of mastitis before the trial. One member of each pair used their normal method of udder preparation throughout the trial and disinfected all teats after milking with an iodophor disinfectant. In the other nine herds the preparation of all teats, at all milkings, included dipping in a 0.25% available iodine disinfectant, which was left on the teat for 30 s. Every teat was then wiped with a paper towel before cluster attachment. There was no difference in the overall rate of mastitis or the incidence of mastitis caused by any particular type or group of pathogens between the trial groups of herds. Both groups showed a reduction in mastitis compared with the previous winter. Although there were apparent benefits in some pairs of herds there was no overall benefit. In comparison with the previous winter the control herds reported a greater reduction in mastitis than the PMTD herds. The effect of trial supervision on normal practice gave a benefit which overwhelmed any effect of PMTD. There appeared to be no effect of PMTD on the total bacterial count, cell count or iodine content of bulk tank milk. There appears to be no justification for wholesale use of PMTD although most farms and risk groups could benefit from better attention to conventional mastitis control.

Hillerton JE; Shearn MF; Teverson RM; Langridge S; Booth JM

1993-02-01

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Effect of pre-milking teat dipping on clinical mastitis on dairy farms in England.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of pre-milking teat dipping (PMTD) on mastitis caused by environmentally associated pathogens. The first trial showed considerable variation in effect between herds, so a second, larger trial was conducted. In this second trial a comparison of the rate of clinical mastitis was made between nine matched pairs of dairy herds over 24 weeks of the winter housed period. All herds were near the national average incidence of mastitis before the trial. One member of each pair used their normal method of udder preparation throughout the trial and disinfected all teats after milking with an iodophor disinfectant. In the other nine herds the preparation of all teats, at all milkings, included dipping in a 0.25% available iodine disinfectant, which was left on the teat for 30 s. Every teat was then wiped with a paper towel before cluster attachment. There was no difference in the overall rate of mastitis or the incidence of mastitis caused by any particular type or group of pathogens between the trial groups of herds. Both groups showed a reduction in mastitis compared with the previous winter. Although there were apparent benefits in some pairs of herds there was no overall benefit. In comparison with the previous winter the control herds reported a greater reduction in mastitis than the PMTD herds. The effect of trial supervision on normal practice gave a benefit which overwhelmed any effect of PMTD. There appeared to be no effect of PMTD on the total bacterial count, cell count or iodine content of bulk tank milk. There appears to be no justification for wholesale use of PMTD although most farms and risk groups could benefit from better attention to conventional mastitis control. PMID:8436665

Hillerton, J E; Shearn, M F; Teverson, R M; Langridge, S; Booth, J M

1993-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SOME INDIRECT DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS AND BUFFALOES  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare five laboratory diagnostic tests for sub-clinical mastitis in cattle and buffaloes and to compute cost, time taken by each test and its ranking for availability, adoptability, interpretability and sensitivity. There were 352 cases with each test type viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT), White Side Test (WST), White Side + Dye (WSTD), Surf Test and Surf + Dye, and 880 cases with each species type (cattle and buffaloes). Result scores (1760 ) for sub-clinical mastitis in each category of negative, trace, single positive, double positive and triple positive by species, and laboratory tests, were analyzed using nonparametric tests. Chi-square statistics showed that CMT was equally effective at both locations (farm vs. laboratory). Correlation further suggested that the association was highly significant. Moreover, cases in category of negative, trace and single positive strongly differed (P0.05). The study further suggested that CMT was the most sensitive test, followed by WST/WSTD and Surf/Surf + Dye. Although, the five tests showed slight discrepancy in the trace category reaction, a strong relationship of Surf Test to CMT, its low cost, easy availability and readily adoptable qualities should spur the relevant authorities to recommend the use of Surf test as a routine practice in dairy farming and add this test in the curriculum of diploma and degree programmes.

M. IQBAL, M. AMJED1, M. A. KHAN, M. S. QURESHI1 AND U. SADIQUE1

2006-01-01

62

Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Pathogens from Sub-Clinical and Clinical Mastitis in Eastern China  

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Full Text Available Prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical coliform mastitis with antimicrobial sensitivity profile of various mastitis-causing organisms was investigated. Milk samples collected from 299 cows infected with clinical mastitis to evaluate the prevalence of coliform mastitis and 1660 quarters milk samples randomly collected from 415 lactating cows for detection of subclinical mastitis (SCM) by Hangzhou Mastitis Test (HMT). SCM at quarters and cow level was recorded to be 20.2 and 52.3%, respectively. Occurrence of SCM in left rear quarter was high (26.7%). Statistical analysis of risk factors showed, cows with 6-9 years of age (P=0.046; Odds ratio (OR), +1.414; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.006-1.988 and 60.7%), cows with 4-7 calves (P=0.028; OR, +1.502; 95% CI=1.044-2.160 and 62.2%), and cows in late stage of lactation (P=0.039; OR, +1.947; 95% CI=1.023-3.702 and 68%), were more susceptible to SCM. All the 115 organisms from SCM milk samples and 103 Escherichia coli from CM samples were confirmed by PCR techniques. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that E. coli isolates were resistant to penicillin group (93-99%), fluoroquinolones (40-74%), cephalosporins (54-66%), oxytetracycline (91%), gentamycin (82%), SUL-TRM (88%) and were sensitive to florfenicol. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to ampicillin (91%), oxytetracycline (59%) and methicillin (29%). Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were 8 to 15% resistant to used antimicrobials. In conclusion, cows with SCM were reservoir of various bacterial pathogens and high prevalence of E. coli in clinical mastitis milk could be major complications for mastitis treatment due to their multidrug resistance profile.

Javed Memon, Jam Kashif, Muhammad Yaqoob, Wang Liping, Yongchun Yang and Fan Hongjie*

2013-01-01

63

Lymphocytic mastitis mimicking breast carcinoma, radiology and pathology correlation: review of two cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lymphocytic mastitis, or diabetic mastopathy, is an unusual finding in early-onset and long-standing diabetes. It can presents as a non-tender or tender palpable breast mass. Mammogram and ultrasound frequently demonstrate findings suspicious of malignancy, thus biopsy and histological confirmation is usually required. We reviewed two cases of lymphocytic mastitis with characteristics findings on mammogram, ultrasound, and histopathology. Diagnoses were confirmed with excision biopsy.

Alhabshi SM; Rahmat K; Westerhout CJ; Md Latar NH; Chandran PA; Aziz S

2013-05-01

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Unusual Outbreak of Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Sheep Caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work describes an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 13 of 58 lactating ewes due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates had identical biochemical profiles and antimicrobial susce...

Las Heras, Alfonso; Vela, Ana I.; Fernández, Elena; Legaz, Emilio; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F.

65

Assessment of sub-clinical mastitis and its associated risk factors in dairy livestock of Lamjung, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mastitis is one among the top three threats faced by dairy farmers. The study was carried out to assess sub-clinical mastitis, management practices and associated risk factors for mastitis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Chandreshwor and Archalbot VDCs of Lamjung district taking 63 dairy livestock randomly each from a herd along with questionnaire survey to respective owner. Tem ml of milk sample from each quarter was taken in a sterilized syringe for further laboratory investigation. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was performed at farmer’s shed. Organisms were identified based on colony characteristics, Gram's staining and various biochemical tests. RESULTS: On CMT, subclinical mastitis was 46.1% (n=29) and 30.15% (n=76) on animal and quarter basis respectively, however, culture showed, 28.6% and 24.2%. Streptococcal mastitis was the commonest (11.1%) followed by coliform (9.5%) and staphylococcal (7.9%). Mastitis was highest in left fore quarter (34.92%) followed by left hind (31.76%), right hind (28.57%) and right fore (25.39%). Coliform & Staphylococcal mastitis was highest in left fore and right hind quarter respectively. Most of dairy animals (86%) were on zero grazing, 30% (n=19) of the farmers had forage trees and only 29% (n=18) had known about subclinical mastitis. The average milk production was 3.5 ±1.47 liters. Subclinical mastitis was associated significantly (p<0.01) with livestock yielding more than 3 lt per lactation.CONCLUSIONS: There was high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy livestock at Lamjung due to poor management, unhygienic shed, and little knowledge on subclinical mastitis.

Khanal T; Pandit A

2013-01-01

66

Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A) in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound) and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A) in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT) test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood samples were collected after confirmation of clinical and subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count and bacterial identification. Serum haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LBSA) and protein bound sialic acid (PBSA) were measured by validated standard methods. Haptoglobin and SAA increased significantly in both types of mastitis compared with control group (P<0.001). However, the ratio of HP/SAA was significantly different from the control group only in clinical mastitis. The results showed that TSA and LBSA were significantly different in control group compared with clinical and subclinical mastitis (P<0.001). Protein bound sialic acid did not change in subclinical mastitis in comparison with control group (P=0.86). There was positive correlation between LBSA and PBSA in clinical mastitis (r=0.72, P=0.02) whereas significant negative correlation was observed between LBSA and PBSA in subclinical mastitis (r=-0.62, P<0.001). Results also showed no correlation between Hp and SAA with each other or with any other parameters in study groups.

S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

2011-01-01

67

Acute phase proteins in milk in naturally acquired bovine mastitis caused by different pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and the activity of N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in milk from 234 cows with spontaneous mastitis caused by different pathogens were measured to assess whether they corresponded with the clinical signs of mastitis and whether there were any differences between pathogens. Ninety-eight of the cows had clinical mastitis and 136 had subclinical mastitis. There were statistically significant positive correlations between the concentrations of SAA and Hp and the activity of NAGase. Significant differences in the concentrations of acute phase proteins and NAGase activity were found in milk from cows with mastitis caused by different pathogens. The highest concentrations of Hp and NAGase were found in cases of mastitis caused by Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and the lowest concentrations were from cases of mastitis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. Very low SAA concentrations were found in milk from the cases caused by A pyogenes, in contrast to cases caused by other major mastitis pathogens. The median concentration of SAA was over 10 times higher in cases of mastitis caused by E coli than in mastitis caused by other pathogens. There were significant differences in the mean Hp concentration and NAGase activity between clinical and subclinical mastitis. In approximately one-third of the samples, the Hp concentration was below the detection limit, potentially compromising the use of Hp as a mastitis marker.

Pyörälä S; Hovinen M; Simojoki H; Fitzpatrick J; Eckersall PD; Orro T

2011-05-01

68

Characterization of Staphylococcus simulans strains isolated from cases of bovine mastitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study was conducted to characterize Staphylococcus simulans isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. A total of 134 isolates of S. simulans selected from 80 quarters from 61 cows or heifers in 37 different herds were characterized by EcoRI ribotyping. From 22 quarters two to seven consecutive isolates taken at weekly intervals were selected. Furthermore, three isolates from clinical infections in humans and two reference strains were included. A total of 16 different ribotypes were found, however, two types predominated. In most herds more than one type was found. From the 22 different quarters, where 76 paired or multiple isolates were at disposal, the same ribotype was constantly found in the same quarter. This study showed that S. simulans causing bovine mastitis could be divided into relatively large number of different types, but that two types predominated. More than one type could be found in the same herd and within different quarters of the same cow, but ribotyping confirmed that S. simulans could be the cause of persistent and stable infections.

Aarestrup, Frank MØller; Larsen, H. D.

1999-01-01

69

Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in the United Kingdom.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis (CM) during lactation were investigated during a 12-mo longitudinal study on 8 commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy farms in the southwest of England. The individual risk factors studied on 1,677 cows included assessments of udder and leg hygiene, teat-end callosity, and hyperkeratosis; body condition score; and measurements of monthly milk quality and yield. Several outcome variables for CM were used for statistical analysis, which included use of generalized linear mixed models. Significant covariates associated with an increased risk of CM were increasing parity, decreasing month of lactation, cows with very dirty udders, and quarters with only very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end. Thin and moderate smooth teat-end callosity scores were not associated with an increased risk for CM. Cows that recorded a somatic cell count >199,000 cells/mL and a milk protein percentage <3.2 at the first milk recording after calving were significantly more likely to develop CM after the first 30 d of lactation. There was no association between cow body condition score and incidence of CM. Of the cases of CM available for culture, 171 (26.7%) were confirmed as being caused by Escherichia coli and 121 (18.9%) confirmed as being caused by Streptococcus uberis. Quarters with moderate and very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end were at significantly increased risk of clinical E. coli mastitis before the next visit. Quarters with very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end were significantly more likely to develop clinical Strep. uberis mastitis before the next visit. There were strong trends within the data to suggest an association between very dirty udders (an increased risk of clinical E. coli mastitis) and teat-ends with no callosity ring present (an increased risk of clinical Strep. uberis mastitis). These results highlight the importance of individual quarter- and cow-level risk factors in determining the risk of CM associated with environmental pathogens during lactation.

Breen JE; Green MJ; Bradley AJ

2009-06-01

70

The influence of cow factors on the incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis (CM) are known. Other studies have analyzed these risk factors separately or only analyzed a limited number of risk factors simultaneously. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of cow factors on the incidence rate of CM (IRCM) wit...

Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Barkema, H.W.; Broek, J., van den; Huirne, R.B.M.

71

Short- and long-term production losses and repeatability of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Between 1985 and 1990, a study of 5313 lactations of 2477 Black and White cows was carried out. A stepwise least squares method was used to obtain unbiased estimates of milk, fat, and protein losses that were due to clinical mastitis and the carry-over effect from the previous lactation. Logistic re...

Houben, E.H.P.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Arendonk, J.A.M., van; Huirne, R.B.M.

72

Severity variation of clinical E.coli mastitis in cows: where do we stand?  

Science.gov (United States)

Neutrophils are key effector cells that underpin both defence and severity of clinical coliform mastitis. Increased turnover and viability of neutrophils in the lumen of the bovine mammary gland facilitate the physiological response and acute inflammation that fuel this effective mammary defence mec...

73

Short communication: Efficacy of parenteral ceftiofur for treatment of systemically mild clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intramuscular (i.m.) ceftiofur (2.2 mg/kg) on important outcomes of systemically mild clinical mastitis episodes in lactating dairy cattle. Cows with clinical mastitis were randomly assigned to a treatment group: pirlimycin intramammary (i.m.m.) (n = 35), pirlimycin i.m.m. and ceftiofur i.m.m. (n = 36), cephapirin i.m.m. (n = 40), cephapirin i.m. and ceftiofur i.m. (n = 33). Sixty-nine, 22, and 9% of initial cultures were gram-negative, gram-positive, and mixed, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant associations between treatment groups and loss of quarter, recurrence, or culling. Mixed infections, positive milk culture at 7 d after leaving hospital pen, decreased rumen motility, and absence of udder firmness were associated with increased odds of mastitis recurrence. The results suggest that i.m. ceftiofur treatment has no beneficial effects on the outcome of systemically mild clinical mastitis.

Wenz JR; Garry FB; Lombard JE; Elia R; Prentice D; Dinsmore RP

2005-10-01

74

Milk loss and treatment costs associated with two treatment protocols for clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to compare milk loss and treatment costs for cows with clinical mastitis that were given antibiotics in addition to supportive treatment or supportive treatment alone. Between January 1994 and January 1996, 116,876 daily milk records on 676 lactations were taken at the University of Illinois Dairy Research Farm. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed during 124 lactations with 25,047 daily milk records, and 1417 of the daily milk records were on days when clinical mastitis was present. Cows with clinical mastitis were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment groups: N (supportive treatment only) or A (antibiotics in addition to supportive treatment). Extent of antibiotic and supportive treatment varied according to twice daily severity scores. Projected and actual daily milk yields were estimated utilizing a random regression test-day model, and the differences were summed over 305 d of lactation to estimate lactational milk yield loss. The actual amount of discarded milk was added to milk yield loss to determine total milk loss per lactation. A cost analysis that included milk loss and treatment costs was then performed. Cows with clinical mastitis that were given only supportive treatment lost 230 +/- 172 kg (mean +/- standard error of mean [SEM]) more milk and incurred 94 +/- 51 dollars (SEM) more cost per lactation than cows given antibiotics and supportive treatment. Cows given only supportive treatment showed a response pattern of 305-d milk yield loss and economic loss per lactation that varied 2 to 3 times as much as cows treated with antibiotics. Based on reduced milk loss, better reliability (less variable response), and lower economic loss, the addition of antibiotics to supportive treatment was more efficacious and cost effective than supportive treatment alone.

Shim EH; Shanks RD; Morin DE

2004-08-01

75

Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and an environmental spread of Escherichia coli IMI in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were calculated into the total annual net costs of IMI during lactation per scenario and compared with a default scenario. Input parameter values were based on the scientific literature. The scenarios were 3-d intramammary lactational treatment (default), 5-d intramammary treatment, 5-d intramammary treatment and 3-d systemic treatment, 3-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows, and 5-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on parameter input values. The results showed that interventions including antibiotic treatment combined with culling unrecovered clinical IMI cows resulted in the lowest transmission, number of IMI cases, and persistent subclinical IMI cases. Nonetheless, the high associated costs of culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows made the other scenarios with a long and intensive antibiotic treatment, but without culling, the most cost effective. The model was sensitive to changes to the cure rate of clinical IMI following treatment, but the ranking of the intervention scenarios did not change. The model was most sensitive to the changes to the transmission rate of Staph. aureus. The ranking of the intervention scenarios changed at low transmission rate of this pathogen, in which the default scenario became the most cost-effective scenario. In case of high transmission of contagious IMI pathogens, long and intensive treatment of clinical IMI should be preceded by strategies that lower the transmission.

Halasa T

2012-10-01

76

Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and an environmental spread of Escherichia coli IMI in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were calculated into the total annual net costs of IMI during lactation per scenario and compared with a default scenario. Input parameter values were based on the scientific literature. The scenarios were 3-d intramammary lactational treatment (default), 5-d intramammary treatment, 5-d intramammary treatment and 3-d systemic treatment, 3-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows, and 5-d intramammary treatment and culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on parameter input values. The results showed that interventions including antibiotic treatment combined with culling unrecovered clinical IMI cows resulted in the lowest transmission, number of IMI cases, and persistent subclinical IMI cases. Nonetheless, the high associated costs of culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows made the other scenarios with a long and intensive antibiotic treatment, but without culling, the most cost effective. The model was sensitive to changes to the cure rate of clinical IMI following treatment, but the ranking of the intervention scenarios did not change. The model was most sensitive to the changes to the transmission rate of Staph. aureus. The ranking of the intervention scenarios changed at low transmission rate of this pathogen, in which the default scenario became the most cost-effective scenario. In case of high transmission of contagious IMI pathogens, long and intensive treatment of clinical IMI should be preceded by strategies that lower the transmission.

Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

2012-01-01

77

A case of bovine mastitis caused by Campylobacter jejuni.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Campylobacter jejuni mastitis in a Holstein cow, 60 days into the first lactation, is reported. This was characterized by a sudden onset, a pyrexia, painful quarter and pink milk with a few small clots present. There was good response to a treatment protocol of: parenteral oxytetracycline, frequent stripping and intramammary infusions of erythromycin. This organism has a zoonotic property. PMID:8237203

Gudmundson, J; Chirino-Trejo, J M

1993-07-01

78

A case of bovine mastitis caused by Campylobacter jejuni.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Campylobacter jejuni mastitis in a Holstein cow, 60 days into the first lactation, is reported. This was characterized by a sudden onset, a pyrexia, painful quarter and pink milk with a few small clots present. There was good response to a treatment protocol of: parenteral oxytetracycline, frequent stripping and intramammary infusions of erythromycin. This organism has a zoonotic property.

Gudmundson J; Chirino-Trejo JM

1993-07-01

79

The use of an internal teat sealant in combination with cloxacillin dry cow therapy for the prevention of clinical and subclinical mastitis in seasonal calving dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cows (n=2,053) from 6 seasonally calving dairy herds were enrolled in a trial to compare the efficacy of 2 dry cow treatments. Cows received either a combination dry cow therapy of 600 mg of cloxacillin (CL) followed by an internal teat sealant (ITS) containing 2.6 g of bismuth subnitrate in all 4 quarters immediately following their final milking for the season, or only an intramammary infusion of 600 mg of CL. All cases of clinical mastitis were recorded and cultured during the first 150 d of lactation in each herd, and cow somatic cell count (SCC) was measured between 7 and 50 d postcalving. A large difference was found between treatment groups in the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis over the first 21 d of lactation, after which time the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis was similar between treatment groups. Analysis of the relative proportions of cows with clinical mastitis was performed at both the gland and cow levels. The relative risk (RR) of clinical mastitis diagnosed within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving in a gland treated with the ITS-CL combination was, respectively, 0.30 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.21-0.44], 0.39 (0.28-0.53), and 0.58 (0.46-0.75) that of the CL group. An interaction between treatment and previous SCC was found when clinical mastitis was analyzed at the cow level. In a subset of cows that had low SCC in their previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in cows with the ITS-CL combination within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.54 (95% CI=0.33-0.87), 0.57 (0.37-0.88), and 0.69 (0.50-0.99) that of cows that received only CL at drying off. In the subset of cows that had at least 1 high SCC in the previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in the ITS-CL combination group within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI=0.16-0.44), 0.37 (0.24-0.57), and 0.72 (0.55-0.96) that of the CL-only group. The ITS-CL combination of dry cow treatments was associated with a reduction in subclinical mastitis [SCC ?250,000 cells/mL; RR=0.80 (95% CI=0.65-0.98)] when compared with treatment with CL alone. The use of an ITS in combination with CL dry cow treatment was associated with significantly lower clinical and subclinical mastitis in the following lactation, with a greater difference found in cows that had a history of subclinical mastitis in the previous lactation.

Runciman DJ; Malmo J; Deighton M

2010-10-01

80

Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: II. Cow health and performance in early lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this randomized noninferiority clinical trial was to compare the effect of treatment with 3 different dry cow therapy formulations at dry-off on cow-level health and production parameters in the first 100d in milk (DIM) in the subsequent lactation, including 305-d mature-equivalent (305ME) milk production, linear score (LS), risk for the cow experiencing a clinical mastitis event, risk for culling or death, and risk for pregnancy by 100 DIM. A total of 1,091 cows from 6 commercial dairy herds in 4 states (California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) were randomly assigned at dry-off to receive treatment with 1 of 3 commercial products: Quartermaster (QT; Zoetis Animal Health, Madison, NJ), Spectramast DC (SP; Zoetis Animal Health) or ToMorrow Dry Cow (TM; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St Joseph, MO). All clinical mastitis, pregnancy, culling, and death events occurring in the first 100 DIM were recorded by farm staff using an on-farm electronic record-keeping system. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day records of milk production and milk component testing were retrieved electronically. Mixed linear regression analysis was used to describe the effect of treatment on 305ME milk production and LS recorded on the last Dairy Herd Improvement Association test day before 100 DIM. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to describe the effect of treatment on risk for experiencing a case of clinical mastitis, risk for leaving the herd, and risk for pregnancy between calving and 100 DIM. Results showed no effect of treatment on adjusted mean 305ME milk production (QT=11,759kg, SP=11,574kg, and TM=11,761kg) or adjusted mean LS (QT=1.8, SP=1.9, and TM=1.6) on the last test day before 100 DIM. Similarly, no effect of treatment was observed on risk for a clinical mastitis event (QT=14.8%, SP=12.7%, and TM=15.0%), risk for leaving the herd (QT=7.5%, SP=9.2%, and TM=10.3%), or risk for pregnancy (QT=31.5%, SP=26.1%, and TM=26.9%) between calving and 100 DIM. PMID:23958025

Arruda, A G; Godden, S; Rapnicki, P; Gorden, P; Timms, L; Aly, S S; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J

2013-08-16

 
 
 
 
81

Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: II. Cow health and performance in early lactation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this randomized noninferiority clinical trial was to compare the effect of treatment with 3 different dry cow therapy formulations at dry-off on cow-level health and production parameters in the first 100d in milk (DIM) in the subsequent lactation, including 305-d mature-equivalent (305ME) milk production, linear score (LS), risk for the cow experiencing a clinical mastitis event, risk for culling or death, and risk for pregnancy by 100 DIM. A total of 1,091 cows from 6 commercial dairy herds in 4 states (California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) were randomly assigned at dry-off to receive treatment with 1 of 3 commercial products: Quartermaster (QT; Zoetis Animal Health, Madison, NJ), Spectramast DC (SP; Zoetis Animal Health) or ToMorrow Dry Cow (TM; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St Joseph, MO). All clinical mastitis, pregnancy, culling, and death events occurring in the first 100 DIM were recorded by farm staff using an on-farm electronic record-keeping system. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day records of milk production and milk component testing were retrieved electronically. Mixed linear regression analysis was used to describe the effect of treatment on 305ME milk production and LS recorded on the last Dairy Herd Improvement Association test day before 100 DIM. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to describe the effect of treatment on risk for experiencing a case of clinical mastitis, risk for leaving the herd, and risk for pregnancy between calving and 100 DIM. Results showed no effect of treatment on adjusted mean 305ME milk production (QT=11,759kg, SP=11,574kg, and TM=11,761kg) or adjusted mean LS (QT=1.8, SP=1.9, and TM=1.6) on the last test day before 100 DIM. Similarly, no effect of treatment was observed on risk for a clinical mastitis event (QT=14.8%, SP=12.7%, and TM=15.0%), risk for leaving the herd (QT=7.5%, SP=9.2%, and TM=10.3%), or risk for pregnancy (QT=31.5%, SP=26.1%, and TM=26.9%) between calving and 100 DIM.

Arruda AG; Godden S; Rapnicki P; Gorden P; Timms L; Aly SS; Lehenbauer TW; Champagne J

2013-10-01

82

A comparison between multivariate Slash, Student's t and probit threshold models for analysis of clinical mastitis in first lactation cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Robust threshold models with multivariate Student's t or multivariate Slash link functions were employed to infer genetic parameters of clinical mastitis at different stages of lactation, with each cow defining a cluster of records. The robust fits were compared with that from a multivariate probit model via a pseudo-Bayes factor and an analysis of residuals. Clinical mastitis records on 36 178 first-lactation Norwegian Red cows from 5286 herds, daughters of 245 sires, were analysed. The opportunity for infection interval, going from 30 days pre-calving to 300 days postpartum, was divided into four periods: (i) -30 to 0 days pre-calving; (ii) 1-30 days; (iii) 31-120 days; and (iv) 121-300 days of lactation. Within each period, absence or presence of clinical mastitis was scored as 0 or 1 respectively. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to draw samples from posterior distributions of interest. Pseudo-Bayes factors strongly favoured the multivariate Slash and Student's t models over the probit model. The posterior mean of the degrees of freedom parameter for the Slash model was 2.2, indicating heavy tails of the liability distribution. The posterior mean of the degrees of freedom for the Student's t model was 8.5, also pointing away from a normal liability for clinical mastitis. A residual was the observed phenotype (0 or 1) minus the posterior mean of the probability of mastitis. The Slash and Student's t models tended to have smaller residuals than the probit model in cows that contracted mastitis. Heritability of liability to clinical mastitis was 0.13-0.14 before calving, and ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 after calving in the robust models. Genetic correlations were between 0.50 and 0.73, suggesting that clinical mastitis resistance is not the same trait across periods, corroborating earlier findings with probit models.

Chang YM; Gianola D; Heringstad B; Klemetsdal G

2006-10-01

83

A comparison between multivariate Slash, Student's t and probit threshold models for analysis of clinical mastitis in first lactation cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Robust threshold models with multivariate Student's t or multivariate Slash link functions were employed to infer genetic parameters of clinical mastitis at different stages of lactation, with each cow defining a cluster of records. The robust fits were compared with that from a multivariate probit model via a pseudo-Bayes factor and an analysis of residuals. Clinical mastitis records on 36 178 first-lactation Norwegian Red cows from 5286 herds, daughters of 245 sires, were analysed. The opportunity for infection interval, going from 30 days pre-calving to 300 days postpartum, was divided into four periods: (i) -30 to 0 days pre-calving; (ii) 1-30 days; (iii) 31-120 days; and (iv) 121-300 days of lactation. Within each period, absence or presence of clinical mastitis was scored as 0 or 1 respectively. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to draw samples from posterior distributions of interest. Pseudo-Bayes factors strongly favoured the multivariate Slash and Student's t models over the probit model. The posterior mean of the degrees of freedom parameter for the Slash model was 2.2, indicating heavy tails of the liability distribution. The posterior mean of the degrees of freedom for the Student's t model was 8.5, also pointing away from a normal liability for clinical mastitis. A residual was the observed phenotype (0 or 1) minus the posterior mean of the probability of mastitis. The Slash and Student's t models tended to have smaller residuals than the probit model in cows that contracted mastitis. Heritability of liability to clinical mastitis was 0.13-0.14 before calving, and ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 after calving in the robust models. Genetic correlations were between 0.50 and 0.73, suggesting that clinical mastitis resistance is not the same trait across periods, corroborating earlier findings with probit models. PMID:16965401

Chang, Y-M; Gianola, D; Heringstad, B; Klemetsdal, G

2006-10-01

84

Lack of efficacy of homeopathic therapy against post-calving clinical mastitis in dairy herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To compare clinical and bacteriological cure rates of clinical mastitis following treatment with either antimicrobials or homeopathic preparations. METHODS: Seven spring-calving herds from the Waikato region of New Zealand were used to source cases of clinical mastitis (n?=?263 glands) during the first 90?days following calving. Duplicate milk samples were collected for bacteriology from each clinically infected gland at diagnosis and 25 (SD 5.3) days after initial treatment. Affected glands were treated with either an antimicrobial formulation or a homeopathic remedy. Generalised linear models with binomial error distribution and logit link were used to analyse the proportion of cows that were clinical treatment cures and the proportion of glands that were classified as bacteriological cures, based on initial and post-treatment milk samples. RESULTS: Mean cumulative incidence of clinical mastitis was 7% (range 2-13% across herds) of cows. Streptococcus uberis was the most common pathogen isolated from culture-positive samples from affected glands (140/209; 67%). The clinical cure rate was higher for cows treated with antimicrobials (107/113; 95%) than for cows treated with homeopathic remedies (72/114; 63%) (p?clinical signs following initial treatment. Across all pathogen types bacteriological cure rate at gland level was higher for those cows treated with antimicrobials (75/102; 74%) than for those treated with a homeopathic preparation (39/107; 36%) (p?CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Using herds located in the Waikato region of New Zealand, homeopathic remedies had significantly lower clinical and bacteriological cure rates compared with antimicrobials when used to treat post-calving clinical mastitis where S. uberis was the most common pathogen. The proportion of cows that needed retreatment was significantly higher for the homeopathic treated cows. This, combined with lower bacteriological cure rates, has implications for duration of infection, individual cow somatic cell count, costs associated with treatment and animal welfare.

Williamson JH; Lacy-Hulbert SJ

2013-04-01

85

Effects of an Escherichia coli J5 vaccine on mild clinical coliform mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Efficacy of an Escherichia coli (O111:B4) J5 bacterin was tested in an experimental challenge trial. Nineteen cows were vaccinated with an E. coli J5 bacterin, and 10 cows were injected with a placebo containing adjuvant only. Vaccine and placebo were administered at drying off, 30 d after drying off, and within 48 h after calving. Cows were challenged approximately 30 d after calving by intramammary infusion with a smooth heterologous strain of E. coli previously shown to cause mild clinical mastitis. Vaccination with the J5 bacterin reduced duration of IMI and local signs of clinical mastitis. Concentrations of BSA in milk 24 h after challenge were greater in control cows than in cows vaccinated with J5. The SCC at 7 d postchallenge were greater for cows vaccinated with the placebo than for cows vaccinated with J5. Bacterial counts were lower for cows vaccinated with the placebo than for cows vaccinated with J5 at 3, 6, and 9 h postchallenge. In contrast, cows vaccinated with J5 had lower bacterial counts at 2, 3, and 4 d postchallenge than did cows vaccinated with placebo. Systemic signs of clinical mastitis were relatively mild and similar between treatment groups. Rectal temperature, DMI, and milk production did not differ between control and cows vaccinated with J5 following challenge.

Hogan JS; Weiss WP; Smith KL; Todhunter DA; Schoenberger PS; Sordillo LM

1995-02-01

86

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a mimicking disease in a pregnant woman: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, benign, inflammatory chronic condition of unclear etiology.This case is reported because it illustrates how idiopathic granulomatous mastitis can mimic other diseases, making it difficult to associate the presenting symptoms and the correct diagnosis; This disease is a challenge for clinicians to diagnose, manage and avoid iatrogenic complications, and requires consultation with experts in several specialties. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was 30 years old, South-American, eleven weeks pregnant, and with an apparent infectious mastitis. She presented with progressive worsening of her breast symptoms and multiple negative laboratory tests. She suffered different side effects from several prescribed treatments and endured a prolonged recovery. The article emphasizes the need for ruling out common pathologies to arrive at the correct diagnosis such as bacterial and fungal infections; granulomatous conditions like tuberculosis and sarcoidosis; and inflammatory breast carcinoma. It also describes frequently used pharmacological and supplementary forms of treatment for patients with this condition. CONCLUSION: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare unusual condition of unknown etiology. Pathological confirmation is required for its diagnosis and optimal management is still unclear. The presentation and management of this case is intended to advance its awareness to physicians from different specialties.

Garcia-Rodiguez JA; Pattullo A

2013-01-01

87

Genetic parameters of pathogen-specific incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows  

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The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalacti...

Haas, Y., de; Barkema, H.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.

88

Clinical characteristics and persistence of bovine mastitis caused by different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci identified with API or AFLP  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP-typing of CNS was compared with the phenotypic identification. A total of 133 clinical or subclinical quarter cases of intramammary infection caused by CNS from the practice area of the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Helsinki were studied. Bacteriological diagnosis was based on biochemical (API) testing. Staphylococcus simulans (43.6%) followed by S. chromogenes (23.3%) were the most common CNS species isolated from the milk samples. Ninety-nine isolates were genotyped using AFLP-analysis. Only 75.0% of S. chromogenes and S. simulans isolates identified with API test were clustered with the type strains of these species. Approximately half of the mastitis cases were clinical, and in the majority clinical signs were mild. The severity and persistence of intramammary infection were unaffected by CNS species. Fifty-nine percent of the quarter cases were treated with antimicrobials, and the rest were left without treatment. Mastitis due to P-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were P-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as opposed to only 45.5% for untreated quarters. Bacterial cure rates for the most common CNS species or AFLP clusters were not statistically different. Further studies on identification of CNS species are needed.

Taponen, S.; Simojoki, H.

2006-01-01

89

Efficacy of Targeted 5-day Combined Parenteral and Intramammary Treatment of Clinical Mastitis Caused by Penicillin-Susceptible or Penicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was compared to parenteral treatment only. Cows with clinical mastitis (166 mastitic quarters) caused by S. aureus treated by veterinarians of the Ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine during routine farm calls were included. Treatment was based on in vitro susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolate. Procaine penicillin G (86 cases due to ?-lactamase negative strains) or amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (24 cases due to ?-lactamase positive strains) was administered parenterally and intramammarily for 5 days. Efficacy of treatments was assessed 2 and 4 weeks later by physical examination, bacteriological culture, determination of CMT, somatic cell count and NAGase activity in milk. Quarters with growth of S. aureus in at least one post-treatment sample were classified as non-cured. As controls we used 41 clinical mastitis cases caused by penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates treated with procaine penicillin G parenterally for 5 days and 15 cases due to penicillin-resistant isolates treated with spiramycin parenterally for 5 days from the same practice area. Bacteriological cure rate after the combination treatment was 75.6% for quarters infected with penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, and 29.2% for quarters infected with penicillin-resistant isolates. Cure rate for quarters treated only parenterally with procaine penicillin G was 56.1% and that for quarters treated with spiramycin 33.3%. The difference in cure rates between mastitis due to penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. aureus was highly significant. Combined treatment was superior over systemic treatment only in the ?-lactamase negative group.

Taponen S; Jantunen A; Pyörälä E; Pyörälä S

2003-01-01

90

Efficacy of enrofloxacin in the treatment of naturally occurring acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy of the combination of systemic enrofloxacin (5mg/kg twice with a 24-h interval, first dose i.v., second dose s.c.) and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent ketoprofen (3mg/kg i.m. or 4 mg/kg per os daily for 1 to 3 d) treatment was compared with antiinflammatory treatment only in dairy cows with naturally occurring acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. A total of 132 cows with acute clinical mastitis and with confirmed growth of E. coli in a pretreatment milk sample were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Response to treatment was evaluated clinically and by bacteriological culturing and determination of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity on d 2 and 21 posttreatment. Enrofloxacin treatment did not increase bacteriological (90.5% of treated vs. 86.8% of nontreated cured) or clinical cure (46.7% of treated vs. 57.1% of nontreated cured), cow survival (95.3% of treated vs. 92.7% of nontreated), or quarter milk production assessed 21 d posttreatment (21.8 vs. 29.3% return to preinfection level for nontreated cows), nor did it decrease mammary gland tissue damage estimated using determination of milk NAGase activity (24.0+/-0.3 vs. 18.3+/-1.3 pmol of 4-methylumbelliferone per min per microL for nontreated cows). Treatment did not influence the number of study cows remaining in the herd after 6 mo (71.9% of treated vs. 80.6% of nontreated). The only significant effects of enrofloxacin were enhancing the bacteriological cure (odds ratio=3.32 for treated cows) and decreasing the clinical cure (odds ratio=0.05 for treated cows) on d 2 posttreatment. Our results did not support the use of enrofloxacin to treat acute clinical E. coli mastitis.

Suojala L; Simojoki H; Mustonen K; Kaartinen L; Pyörälä S

2010-05-01

91

The cost and management of different types of clinical mastitis in dairy cows estimated by dynamic programming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of 3 different types of clinical mastitis (CM) (caused by gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and other organisms) at the individual cow level and thereby identify the economically optimal management decision for each type of mastitis. We made modifications to an existing dynamic optimization and simulation model, studying the effects of various factors (incidence of CM, milk loss, pregnancy rate, and treatment cost) on the cost of different types of CM. The average costs per case (US$) of gram-positive, gram-negative, and other CM were $133.73, $211.03, and $95.31, respectively. This model provided a more informed decision-making process in CM management for optimal economic profitability and determined that 93.1% of gram-positive CM cases, 93.1% of gram-negative CM cases, and 94.6% of other CM cases should be treated. The main contributor to the total cost per case was treatment cost for gram-positive CM (51.5% of the total cost per case), milk loss for gram-negative CM (72.4%), and treatment cost for other CM (49.2%). The model affords versatility as it allows for parameters such as production costs, economic values, and disease frequencies to be altered. Therefore, cost estimates are the direct outcome of the farm-specific parameters entered into the model. Thus, this model can provide farmers economically optimal guidelines specific to their individual cows suffering from different types of CM.

Cha E; Bar D; Hertl JA; Tauer LW; Bennett G; González RN; Schukken YH; Welcome FL; Gröhn YT

2011-09-01

92

Growth and Development Symposium: Inflammation: Role in the etiology and pathophysiology of clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic selection for increased milk production in dairy cattle was not associated with an attenuated inflammatory response. The systemic and local inflammatory responses contribute to altered metabolism, reduced production performance, and increased cull rate of lactating dairy cows with clinical mastitis. More aggressive inflammatory responses were observed during the peripartum period when compared with cows in late lactation after an intramammary challenge with purified lipopolysaccharide. The epidemiology of clinical mastitis indicates that the greatest incidence is observed during the peripartum period; therefore, an enhanced inflammatory response with concomitant suppression in other immune responses may be involved in the etiology and severity of the clinical mastitis observed in peripartum cows. Milk production losses and compositional changes are observed among all mammary quarters from a cow with clinical mastitis, but the responses are more severe and sustained among infected quarters. The infected mammary quarters reflect both the systemic and local reactions, whereas uninfected quarters represent only the systemic response. The systemic effects of the inflammatory response include reduced DMI, hyperthermia, and changes in whole-body nutrient partitioning affecting mammary epithelial substrate availability, whereas local inflammatory effects include energetic requirements of the increased inflammatory leukocyte pool, decreased synthetic capacity of mammary epithelium independent of substrate availability, and paracellular leakage of milk components from the alveolar lumen into the extracellular fluid. Research has focused on improving host immunological defenses, attenuating the inflammatory response, or improving the resolution of the disease state to limit the deleterious effects during clinical mastitis. This paper highlights the role inflammation plays in the etiology and pathophysiology of clinical mastitis as well as potential management strategies to reduce or prevent those losses.

Ballou MA

2012-05-01

93

Haemorrhagic Mastitis in a Gir Cow Due to Leptospira - A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Gircowaged 5 years was referred for the treatment with a history of anorexia. On investigation, it was reported that the animal was not taking feed since 10 days of its last calving. The animal was reported to be treated with various antibiotics and fluids without positive response. On clinical examination, the temperature was slightly elevated; tachycardia was noticed and sluggish in respiration. On examination of the udder, the left hind quarter was swollen and the milk was reddish in colour and blood mixed creamy in nature. All the other quarters were apparently normal and the milk was normal in colour and consistency. Samples such as blood smear, blood serum, milk were collected and sent to Central University Laboratory for bacteriological and parasitological examination. Among the samples screened the serum was found positive for Leptospira serovar: Tarassovi. Accordingly, the animal was treated with Amoxycillin for 5 days and the animal has recovered uneventfully. The incidence of rare case of Leptospira species affected mastitis was discussed in detail.

Sivaraman. S; Basheer Ahamad.D; Krishnakumar. K; Velavan. A; Venagadabady. N

2013-01-01

94

Short communication: The effects of experimentally induced Escherichia coli clinical mastitis on lying behavior of dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical mastitis is a commonly occurring and economically important problem in the dairy industry. Researchers have suggested that changes in lying behavior could be useful as early indicators of cow discomfort and poor welfare. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between the onset of illness resulting from experimentally induced clinical mastitis and measures of lying behavior. Clinical mastitis was induced in 21 lactating dairy cows (parity=2.0±1.0, range=1 to 4; days in milk=61±18) by intramammary infusion of 25 or 100 ?g of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into 1 uninfected mammary quarter. Lying behavior was monitored from 2 d before through 3 d after the LPS challenge by fitting each cow with a data logger. Calculated outcome measures were total lying time, lying time on the side of the intramammary infusion, number of lying bouts, and average lying bout duration. Cows spent less time lying down on the day of the challenge compared with the 2 d before (633.3 vs. 707.0 min/d; SE=29.6), particularly during the 4 to 7h following LPS infusion. However, no significant relationship was found between the mammary quarter challenged and cow preference for lying side throughout the episode of induced clinical mastitis. Given that lying is a high-priority behavior in dairy cows and that increased lying time is an adaptive sickness behavior to facilitate recovery, we infer that this reduction in lying time may present a concern for cows with clinical mastitis. Although additional studies with larger numbers of animals are needed, automated monitoring of lying behavior could be an important component of the on-farm early detection of health problems, such as mastitis, in the future.

Cyples JA; Fitzpatrick CE; Leslie KE; DeVries TJ; Haley DB; Chapinal N

2012-05-01

95

[Mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most important characteristics of Mycoplasma mastitis on dairy farms are described, based on two case studies. Clinical symptoms, diagnostics, epidemiology, and a plan of action are presented. In the herds investigated, Mycoplasma mastitis was characterized by multiple affected quarters unresponsive to treatment with antibiotic and/or anti-inflammatory agents. Most striking were a sandy sediment, brown colouring, and rice-like structure of the milk of affected animals. Clinical symptoms differed in the two affected herds. Diagnosis was based on bacteriological investigation of samples of milk and synovial fluid taken from infected cows. Affected animals were culled immediately, and the herds were monitored by repeated testing of bulk milk samples. It was concluded that a consequence of the increasing size of cattle herds in the Netherlands is that subclinical/clinical Mycoplasma mastitis may be diagnosed more frequently than in the past. In the case of Mycoplasma mastitis, farmers and veterinary practitioners are advised to draw up a plan of action together, incorporating aspects such as diagnostics at cow level, direct culling of affected animals, hygiene during milking, including post-milking teat disinfection, and routine monitoring of bulk milk. Unpasteurized milk should not be given to calves.

Tolboom RK; Snoep JJ; Sampimon OC; Sol J; Lam TJ

2008-02-01

96

Mastitis and toxic shock syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) secondary to mastitis or breast abscess is only seldom described. We report a case of definite TSS due to postpartum staphylococcal mastitis which evolved over a period of 3 weeks to a breast abscess, recurring after 2 months. Only the episode of acute mastitis was complicated with TSS, while Staph. aureus could be isolated during the period of mastitis from milk and during drainage of the second breast abscess.

Demey HE; Hautekeete ML; Buytaert P; Bossaert LL

1989-01-01

97

Detection of bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 alleles as candidate markers for clinical mastitis resistance in Holstein x Zebu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 alleles from Holstein x Zebu crossbred dairy cows (n = 409) were analyzed using the PCR-RFLP technique. Exon II of DRB3 was amplified using locus-specific primers (HLO30/HLO32), followed by digestion with 3 restriction enzymes (RsaI, BstyI, and HaeIII). Forty alleles were found with frequency ranging from 0.005 to 0.139. The most frequently detected alleles of Holstein x Zebu were DRB3*16, *51, *23, *11, *8, and *1, accounting for 61.12% of the alleles in the population. Detection of candidate alleles for clinical mastitis occurrence was performed by logistic regression. It was found that percentage of Holstein fraction in crossbred cows had a nonsignificant effect (P > 0.05). However, parity had a significant effect on mastitis occurrence. In addition, DRB3*1 and *52 were the most associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis, whereas *15, *51, and *22 were associated with resistance in crossbred populations. This is the first report of association of DRB3*15 and *51 with mastitis resistance. The association was validated by examining the candidate alleles in another commercial population. Highly susceptible (n = 43) and resistant (n = 42) groups of Holstein x Zebu cows were investigated. The result confirmed that DRB3*1 and *52 could be considered as susceptibility alleles, whereas *15, *51, and *22 could be considered as resistant alleles in Holstein x Zebu raised under tropical conditions. In addition, allele effects on 305-d milk production were estimated by BLUP. It was shown that most alleles associated with high clinical mastitis occurrence were related to increased milk yield. This study revealed that allele DRB3*10 had the greatest effect on increasing milk yield with moderate resistance to clinical mastitis, which could be used as a potential marker for selection in dairy genetic evaluation. PMID:18820165

Duangjinda, M; Buayai, D; Pattarajinda, V; Phasuk, Y; Katawatin, S; Vongpralub, T; Chaiyotvittayakul, A

2008-09-26

98

Epidemiological investigation of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus involved in clinical mastitis in dairy goats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An outbreak of clinical mastitis was observed in dairy goats due to the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus. Affected goats were culled to prevent transmission of infection to other animals or humans. The objective of the study was to determine whether horses on the same farm were the source of the pathogen. Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus was obtained from milk of 10% of goats in the herd and from feces of 3 of 7 healthy horses that shared pasture and housing with the goats. Isolates of caprine and equine origin had identical biochemical profiles, including the ability to ferment sorbitol and lactose, which distinguishes S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus from S. equi ssp. equi. Sequencing of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and results from sodA-seeI multiplex PCR supported identification of isolates as S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus. Based on random amplified polymorphic DNA typing and rpoB and sodA sequencing, caprine isolates were indistinguishable from each other, but distinct from equine isolates. Further analysis of equine fecal samples showed that multiple strains of S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus can be present in a single sample or in sequential samples obtained from a single horse. Failure to detect the mastitis-causing strain in equine feces may indicate that horses were not the source of the mastitis outbreak in goats. Alternatively, the outbreak may be due to presence of multiple S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus strains in equine feces and a failure to detect all strains when analyzing a limited number of isolates per sample.

Pisoni G; Zadoks RN; Vimercati C; Locatelli C; Zanoni MG; Moroni P

2009-03-01

99

Epidemiological investigation of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus involved in clinical mastitis in dairy goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

An outbreak of clinical mastitis was observed in dairy goats due to the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus. Affected goats were culled to prevent transmission of infection to other animals or humans. The objective of the study was to determine whether horses on the same farm were the source of the pathogen. Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus was obtained from milk of 10% of goats in the herd and from feces of 3 of 7 healthy horses that shared pasture and housing with the goats. Isolates of caprine and equine origin had identical biochemical profiles, including the ability to ferment sorbitol and lactose, which distinguishes S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus from S. equi ssp. equi. Sequencing of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and results from sodA-seeI multiplex PCR supported identification of isolates as S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus. Based on random amplified polymorphic DNA typing and rpoB and sodA sequencing, caprine isolates were indistinguishable from each other, but distinct from equine isolates. Further analysis of equine fecal samples showed that multiple strains of S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus can be present in a single sample or in sequential samples obtained from a single horse. Failure to detect the mastitis-causing strain in equine feces may indicate that horses were not the source of the mastitis outbreak in goats. Alternatively, the outbreak may be due to presence of multiple S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus strains in equine feces and a failure to detect all strains when analyzing a limited number of isolates per sample. PMID:19233787

Pisoni, G; Zadoks, R N; Vimercati, C; Locatelli, C; Zanoni, M G; Moroni, P

2009-03-01

100

Clinical cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation is about clinical cases and the contribution of the PET - CT Fag application in the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer. The cases presented were: neck diseases, epidermoid carcinoma, liver damage and metastasize, lymphoma, thrombosis, colonic cancer and lung disease

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Noninferiority trial comparing a first-generation cephalosporin with a third-generation cephalosporin in the treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the noninferiority of 2 intramammary treatments for nonsevere clinical mastitis. The 2 treatments were a first-generation cephalosporin (cephapirin sodium, 2 treatments 12h apart) and a third-generation cephalosporin (ceftiofur hydrochloride, treatments once a day for 5d). A total of 296 cases on 7 farms met the enrollment criteria for the study. Streptococcus dysgalactiae was the most common bacterial species identified in milk samples from cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis, followed by Escherichia coli, other esculin-positive cocci, Streptococcus uberis, and Klebsiella spp. Treatment was randomly allocated as either cephapirin sodium or ceftiofur hydrochloride via intramammary infusion according to label standards. Bacteriological cure was defined based on 2 posttreatment milk samples taken at 10 and 17d after enrollment. Noninferiority of cephapirin relative to ceftiofur was shown for bacteriological cure of gram-positive cases and for clinical cure of all cases. Ceftiofur showed a significantly higher bacteriological cure in gram-negative cases. Treatments showed no significant difference in bacteriological cure of all cases and in time to exit from the study, where the absence of a difference does not imply noninferiority. Based on the findings from this study, farm-specific treatment protocols that differ for gram-positive and gram-negative cased may be developed.

Schukken YH; Zurakowski MJ; Rauch BJ; Gross B; Tikofsky LL; Welcome FL

2013-10-01

102

Noninferiority trial comparing a first-generation cephalosporin with a third-generation cephalosporin in the treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the noninferiority of 2 intramammary treatments for nonsevere clinical mastitis. The 2 treatments were a first-generation cephalosporin (cephapirin sodium, 2 treatments 12h apart) and a third-generation cephalosporin (ceftiofur hydrochloride, treatments once a day for 5d). A total of 296 cases on 7 farms met the enrollment criteria for the study. Streptococcus dysgalactiae was the most common bacterial species identified in milk samples from cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis, followed by Escherichia coli, other esculin-positive cocci, Streptococcus uberis, and Klebsiella spp. Treatment was randomly allocated as either cephapirin sodium or ceftiofur hydrochloride via intramammary infusion according to label standards. Bacteriological cure was defined based on 2 posttreatment milk samples taken at 10 and 17d after enrollment. Noninferiority of cephapirin relative to ceftiofur was shown for bacteriological cure of gram-positive cases and for clinical cure of all cases. Ceftiofur showed a significantly higher bacteriological cure in gram-negative cases. Treatments showed no significant difference in bacteriological cure of all cases and in time to exit from the study, where the absence of a difference does not imply noninferiority. Based on the findings from this study, farm-specific treatment protocols that differ for gram-positive and gram-negative cased may be developed. PMID:23958017

Schukken, Y H; Zurakowski, M J; Rauch, B J; Gross, B; Tikofsky, L L; Welcome, F L

2013-08-16

103

Risk factors for clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia in dairy cattle on organic and small conventional farms in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The US regulations for production of organic milk include a strict prohibition against the use of antimicrobials and other synthetic substances. The effect of these regulations on dairy animal health has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to characterize disease detection and identify risk factors for selected diseases on organic (ORG) and similarly sized conventional (CON) farms. Dairy herds (n=292) were enrolled across 3 states (New York, Oregon, Wisconsin) with CON herds matched to ORG herds based on location and herd size. During a single herd visit, information was collected about herd management practices and animal disease occurring in the previous 60 d, and paperwork was left for recording disease occurrences during 60 d after the visit. For analysis, CON herds were further divided into grazing and nongrazing. Poisson regression models were used to assess risk factors for rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis was associated with use of CON management, use of forestripping, presence of contagious pathogens in the bulk tank culture, proactive detection of mastitis in postpartum cows, and stall barn housing. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of ketosis was associated with having a more sensitive definition of ketosis, using stall barn housing, and feeding a greater amount of concentrates. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of pneumonia was associated with a lack of grazing, small or medium herd size, and Jersey as the predominant breed. Overall, disease definitions and perceptions were similar among grazing systems and were associated with the rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of disease.

Richert RM; Cicconi KM; Gamroth MJ; Schukken YH; Stiglbauer KE; Ruegg PL

2013-07-01

104

Frequency, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Iran. Listeria spp. were detected in 21/207 bovine mastitic milk samples from dairy farms in Iran, comprising L. monocytogenes (n=17), L. innocua (n=3) and L. ivanovii (n=1). L. monocytogenes isolates were grouped into serogroups '4b, 4d, 4e', '1/2a, 3a', '1/2b, 3b, 7' and '1/2c, 3c'; all harboured inlA, inlC and inlJ virulence genes. Listeria spp. were most frequently resistant to penicillin G (14/21 isolates, 66.7%) and tetracyclines (11/21 isolates, 52.4%).

Jamali H; Radmehr B

2013-07-01

105

Milk production change following clinical mastitis and reproductive performance compared among J5 vaccinated and control dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Naturally occurring cases of bovine clinical mastitis (CM) were studied among J5 vaccinates and controls on 3 commercial dairy farms. Milk production change and reproductive performance following CM were compared between the 2 groups. Among 306 controls and 251 vaccinates, there were 221 new cases of CM affecting 120 cows; 437 lactations never had a case of CM. Environmental pathogens made up 90% (159/176) of etiologic agents isolated. Change in daily milk production following CM was associated with J5 vaccination, days in milk (DIM) at onset of CM, and herd effect as well as each 2-way interaction between the 3 factors. The adjusted daily milk for 21 d following CM was 7.6 kg greater among J5 vaccinates than controls; however, this protective effect of vaccination waned with increasing DIM at onset of CM. A mixed linear model with autoregressive order 1 [AR(1)] correlation structure estimated the daily milk production of any cow (whether or not she had CM) on a given DIM. Cows with CM caused by nonagalactiae streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella lost significant daily milk production for the entire lactation relative to nonmastitic cows. Another mixed linear model for only coliform CM cases (E. coli, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter) within the first 50 DIM showed milk loss for 21 d following coliform CM to be significantly less for J5 vaccinates than for controls, by 6 to 15 kg per day. Cows were significantly less likely to become pregnant if they had CM caused by E. coli (42% pregnant) or Streptococcus spp. (38% pregnant), whereas 78% (342/437) of cows with no mastitis conceived. Days open (number of days from calving until pregnancy) averaged 131 d for cows with no CM and 162 d for cows that had at least one case of CM. Days until conception, days until last breeding, days open, times bred, and percentage of cows pregnant by 200 DIM were not changed with J5 vaccination. Nonetheless, an important benefit of the use of J5 bacterin appears to be reduction of the loss of daily milk production following CM, whether all cases or only those caused by coliform bacteria were considered.

Wilson DJ; Grohn YT; Bennett GJ; González RN; Schukken YH; Spatz J

2008-10-01

106

CNS SPECIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN CLINICAL AND SUBCLINICAL BOVINE MASTITIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are often associated with bovine mastitis. Knowledge about the relative importance of specific CNS species in different types of mastitis, and differences in antimicrobial resistance among CNS species is, however, scarce. Therefore, the aims of...

107

Observations of an idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a very rare benign breast disease, which mimics breast cancer both clinically and mammographically. Most cases have an unknown aetiology, however, we found an alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. A literature review is presented and the controversies in diagnosis and management are discussed. PMID:11451563

Schelfout, K; Tjalma, W A; Cooremans, I D; Coeman, D C; Colpaert, C G; Buytaert, P M

2001-08-01

108

Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A nationwide survey on the microbial etiology of cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was carried out on dairy farms in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the microbial panorama and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, differences between ...

Persson Ylva; Nyman Ann-Kristin J; Grönlund-Andersson Ulrika

109

PCR-based detection of genes encoding virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out to genotypically characterize Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from bovine mastitis cases. A total of 37 strains of S. aureus were isolated during processing of 552 milk samples from 140 cows. The S. aureus strains were characterized phenotypically, and we...

Kalorey, Dewanand Rajaram; Shanmugam, Yuvaraj; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao; Chousalkar, Kapil Kamalakarrao; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo Baliram

110

Breast ductal carcinoma in situ presenting as recurrent non-puerperal mastitis: case report and literature review  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a preinvasive form of breast cancer. It typically presents as microcalcifications which are picked up on screening mammogram. We report an atypical case of breast DCIS presenting with recurrent non-puerperal mastitis with a normal mammogram and perform a literature review.

2013-01-01

111

Breast ductal carcinoma in situ presenting as recurrent non-puerperal mastitis: case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a preinvasive form of breast cancer. It typically presents as microcalcifications which are picked up on screening mammogram. We report an atypical case of breast DCIS presenting with recurrent non-puerperal mastitis with a normal mammogram and perform a literature review. PMID:23924035

Liong, Yee Vonne; Hong, Ga Sze; Teo, Jennifer Gek Choo; Lim, Geok Hoon

2013-08-07

112

Breast ductal carcinoma in situ presenting as recurrent non-puerperal mastitis: case report and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a preinvasive form of breast cancer. It typically presents as microcalcifications which are picked up on screening mammogram. We report an atypical case of breast DCIS presenting with recurrent non-puerperal mastitis with a normal mammogram and perform a literature review.

Liong YV; Hong GS; Teo JG; Lim GH

2013-01-01

113

Lifetime risk and cost of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in relation to heifer rearing conditions in southwest Sweden.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Relationships between heifer rearing conditions and the risk of veterinary-reported clinical mastitis (VRCM) during productive life were studied by generalized linear mixed modeling at the lactation level. Data consisted of 5,693 lactations in 2,126 Swedish Reds, Swedish Holsteins, or dairy cows of other or mixed breeds, representing all female animals born in 110 herds in southwest Sweden in 1998. During a lactation, a cow was defined as affected by VRCM if one or more cases were reported by a veterinarian, starting from 7 d precalving. The applied model of VRCM included effects of breed, parity, diarrhea between 3 and 7 mo of age, increase in body weight from weaning to first breeding, increase in daily concentrate ration before first calving, herd-level median age at first calving, cow housing, and random effects of cow and herd. The VRCM incidence was 14% in a given lactation, or 0.11 cases/cow annually; 31% of the cows had VRCM at least once during their productive life. Ninety percent of the variation in mastitis risk was due to factors at the lactation level such as parity, milk yield, cow diseases, and other disturbances, instead of cow or herd factors. Severe diarrhea between 3 and 7 mo of age was associated with 2.8-fold higher odds of VRCM compared with mild diarrhea during the same period, whereas the VRCM odds of calves with mild diarrhea were half that without diarrhea. The odds of VRCM had a predicted maximum at an estimated prepubertal growth rate of 859 g/d and increased with 10% for every 1-kg increase in concentrate ration during the last 2 mo before first calving. Costs of VRCM were estimated based on assumptions regarding veterinary service, extra labor, culling and herd replacement, discarded milk, and production loss depending on parity and lactation stage when VRCM was diagnosed. The total mean costs of VRCM were estimated to be $735 per lactation with a diagnosis of CM, $103 per lactation across all cows, or $95 per cow annually during lifetime.

Hultgren J; Svensson C

2009-07-01

114

Genetics of resistance to mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established in dairy cattle. Many studies focused on polygenic variation of the trait, by estimating heritabilities and genetic correlation among phenotypic traits related to mastitis such as somatic cell counts and clinical cases. The role of Major Histocompatibility Complex in the susceptibility or resistance to intrammamary infection is also well documented. Finally, development from molecular genome mapping led to accumulating information of quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to mastitis resistance and better understanding of the genetic determinism of the trait. From economic and genetic analyses, and according to welfare and food safety considerations and to breeders and consumer's concern, there is more and more evidence that mastitis should be included in breeding objective of dairy cattle breeds. Many countries have implemented selection for mastitis resistance based on linear decrease of somatic cell counts. Given biological questioning, potential unfavourable consequences for very low cell counts cows are regularly investigated. Improvement of selection accuracy for mastitis resistance is ongoing and includes: advances in modelling, optimal combination of mastitis related traits and associated predictors, such as udder morphology, definition of global breeding objective including production and functional traits, and inclusion of molecular information that is now available from QTL experiments.

Rupp R; Boichard D

2003-09-01

115

Genetic correlations between pathogen-specific mastitis and somatic cell count in Danish Holsteins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations (ra) between 2 lactation average somatic cell count (LASCC) traits and 6 different mastitis traits in 226,482 first-parity Danish Holstein cows that calved between 1998 and 2008. The LASCC traits were defined from 5 to either 170 d (LASCC_170) or 300 d (LASCC_300) after calving, and the mastitis traits were unspecific mastitis (all mastitis treatments, both clinical and subclinical, regardless of the causative pathogen) and mastitis caused by either Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus uberis. Variance components were estimated using bivariate threshold-Gaussian models via Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of ra between LASCC_170 and the mastitis traits were greatest for unspecific mastitis (ra = 0.71), followed by CNS, Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and E. coli (ra = 0.54 to 0.69) and were lowest for Staph. aureus mastitis (ra = 0.44). The genetic correlation between LASCC_300 and the mastitis traits were generally smaller (ra = 0.47 to 0.69). Caution should be taken when interpreting the results, however, because some posterior density intervals for ra were large (between 0.14 and 0.47 units). Phenotypically, Staph. aureus is known to be associated with high SCC and especially with subclinical mastitis through chronic infections, so the low ra between Staph. aureus mastitis and LASCC, compared with ra for the other pathogens, was not expected. Subclinical cases are usually submitted to dry cow therapy (not included in the present study), not treated at all, or wrongly recorded as clinical cases. Thus, the incidence of Staph. aureus mastitis is likely too low, and the genetic correlation between Staph. aureus mastitis and LASCC may therefore be underestimated in the present study. The results for the remaining pathogens were as expected, smallest for E. coli and larger but similar for Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and CNS. Selection for lower LASCC is expected to decrease the incidence of pathogen-specific mastitis, especially for Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and CNS and, to a lesser extent, for Staph. aureus and E. coli. Data recording should preferably be improved, and economic weights for the pathogen-specific mastitis traits should be estimated before implementing an udder health index that includes pathogen-specific mastitis traits

SØrensen, L P; Mark, T

2009-01-01

116

Difference in virulence between Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing gangrenous mastitis versus subclinical mastitis in a dairy sheep flock.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy sheep ranges from subclinical mastitis to lethal gangrenous mastitis. Neither the S. aureus virulence factors nor the host-factors or the epidemiological events contributing to the different outcomes are known. In a field study in a dairy sheep farm over 21 months, 16 natural isolates of S. aureus were collected from six subclinical mastitis cases, one lethal gangrenous mastitis case, nasal carriage from eight ewes and one isolate from ambient air in the milking room. A genomic comparison of two strains, one responsible for subclinical mastitis and one for lethal gangrenous mastitis, was performed using multi-strain DNA microarrays. Multiple typing techniques (pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis, multiple-locus variable-number, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, spa typing and sas typing) were used to characterise the remaining isolates and to follow the persistence of the gangrenous isolate in ewes' nares. Our results showed that the two strains were genetically closely related and they shared 3 615 identical predicted open reading frames. However, the gangrenous mastitis isolate carried variant versions of several genes (sdrD, clfA-B, sasA, sasB, sasD, sasI and splE) and was missing fibrinogen binding protein B (fnbB) and a prophage. The typing results showed that this gangrenous strain emerged after the initial subclinical mastitis screening, but then persisted in the flock in the nares of four ewes. Although we cannot dismiss the role of host susceptibility in the clinical events in this flock, our data support the hypothesis that S. aureus populations had evolved in the sheep flock and that S. aureus genetic variations could have contributed to enhanced virulence.

Vautor E; Cockfield J; Le Marechal C; Le Loir Y; Chevalier M; Robinson DA; Thiery R; Lindsay J

2009-11-01

117

Pathogen-Specific Effects of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Clinical Mastitis and Somatic Cell Count in Danish Holstein Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mastitis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second parity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL affecting SCS. The 5 most common mastitis pathogens in the Danish dairy population were analyzed: Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis. Data were analyzed using 2 approaches: an independence test and a generalized linear mixed model. Three different data sets were used to investigate the effect of data sampling: all samples, only samples that were followed by antibiotic treatment, and samples from first-crop daughters only. The results showed with high certainty that 2 QTL affecting SCS exhibited pathogen specificity against Staph. aureus and E. coli, respectively. The latter result might be explained by a pleiotropic QTL that also affects CM2 and CM3. Less certain results were found for QTL affecting CM. A QTL affecting CM1 was found to be specific against Strep. dysgalactiae and Staph. aureus, a QTL affecting CM2 was found to be specific against E. coli, and finally a QTL affecting CM3 was found to be specific against Staph. aureus. None of the QTL analyzed was found to be specific against coagulase-negative staphylococci and Strep. uberis. Our results show that particular mastitis QTL are highly likely to exhibit pathogen-specificity. However, the results should be interpreted carefully because the results are sensitive to the sampling method and method of analysis. Field data were used in this study. These kind of data may be heavily biased because there is no standard procedure for collecting milk samples for bacteriological analysis in Denmark. Furthermore, using only the mean SCS from d 10to 180 after parturition may lead to truncated effects of SCS-QTL when samples collected after d 180 are used. Additionally, repeated samples were used, which could boost the difference in incidence of pathogens between daughters of sires inheriting the positive and negative QTL allele, respectively. However, the magnitude of these effects in this study is unclear

SØrensen, Lars Peter; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2008-01-01

118

Revisiting QTL Affecting Clinical Mastitis by High-Density GWAS and Resequencing in the Finnish Ayrshire Dairy Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cattle, causing high economic losses each year. Studies to locate QTL affecting clinical mastitis and milk somatic cell counts have been carried out to increase our understanding of the disease. As part of the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we have used most recent genomic tools to characterize QTL affecting mastitis incidence in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Clinical mastitis diagnoses from -15 to 50 days and 51 to 300 days of first lactation and SCC (geometric mean of SCS observations between 5 to 170 days of first lactation) were included. In total, 1920 progeny tested bulls were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 chip. After quality control, 38473 SNPs were analyzed using a mixed linear model (software package DMU). Associations (5% Bonferroni threshold) were detected in 9 peaks on 5 chromosomes. A set of 238 of the bulls were re-genotyped with the BovineHD chip, and the remaining bulls imputed to high density genotypes using Beagle software. GWAS was repeated with the imputed HD-data with GRAMMAS (GenABEL in R). Thereby 17 peaks on 12 chromosomes were identified. Eight high priority peaks were defined based on both 50K and imputed HD results, and overlap with previous QTL findings. Eighteen ancestral Finnish Ayrshire bulls were sequenced to over 20X coverage, and this data was used to identify sequence variations in regions flanking 2.5 Mb each side of the high priority peaks. The variations were ranked according to estimated effect by a pipeline developed within the Quantomics project

Vilkki, Johanna; Iso-Touru, Terhi

119

Mastite por Paracoccidioidomicose: Relato de Caso Mastitis due to Paracoccidioidomycosis: a Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paracoccidioidomicose é uma importante micose sistêmica, endêmica na América Latina. A infecção é usualmente adquirida por inalação das partículas do micélio. Na sua maioria são infecções assintomáticas e estão associadas a vários fatores do hospedeiro, como sexo, idade, fatores genéticos, bem como às características do agente infeccioso e sua virulência. Apresentamos um caso de mastite por paracoccidioidomicose, com o objetivo de demonstrar que pacientes idosas e com abcessos na mama devem ser submetidas à biópsia.Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important systemic endemic mycosis in Latin America. This infection is usually acquired via inhalation of mycelial particles. Most infected subjects develop an asymptomatic infection, which is associated with various host-related factors such as sex, age, genetic, as well as characteristics of the infecting agent, mainly its virulence. It is a systemic pathology. A case of mastitis due to paracoccidioidomycosis is presented with the objective to demonstrate that elderly patients with a breast abscess should be submitted to biopsy.

Antônio Chambô Filho; Fabio Leal Laignier Borges; Luiz Cálice Cintra; Rubia Mara Martins

2000-01-01

120

The management and treatment of environmental streptococcal mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Environmental streptococci are responsible for at least one third of all cases of clinical mastitis, with the proportion varying widely between herds. Each dairy farmer should know the etiology of mastitis in the herd to allow for appropriate management. Control requires lowering the prevalence of infection, and includes shortening the duration of and preventing new infections. Prompt and aggressive treatment of clinical cases may achieve a high clinical and bactriologic rate of cure. Dry-cow treatment remains highly effective in eliminating infection. Prophylactic dry-cow treatment remains of substantial benefit in preventing new intramammary infections and clinical mastitis. An internal teat sealant has shown a comparable effect in uninfected cows in field studies. Management of exposure to environmental streptococci is essential and requires assessment of the risk of exposure (especially in bedding and other lying areas), reduction of teat-end contamination, and good hygienic milking practices. The key is in the quality of application of management.

Hillerton JE; Berry EA

2003-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

Wellenberg GJ; van der Poel WH; Van Oirschot JT

2002-08-01

122

Increased detection of mastitis pathogens by real-time PCR compared to bacterial culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid and accurate identification of mastitis pathogens is important for disease control. Bacterial culture and isolate identification is considered the gold standard in mastitis diagnosis but is time consuming and results in many culture-negative samples. Identification of mastitis pathogens by PCR has been proposed as a fast and sensitive alternative to bacterial culture. The results of bacterial culture and PCR for the identification of the aetiological agent of clinical mastitis were compared. The pathogen identified by traditional culture methods was also detected by PCR in 98 per cent of cases indicating good agreement between the positive results of bacterial culture and PCR. A mastitis pathogen could not be recovered from approximately 30 per cent of samples by bacterial culture, however, an aetiological agent was identified by PCR in 79 per cent of these samples. Therefore, a mastitis pathogen was detected in significantly more milk samples by PCR than by bacterial culture (92 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively) although the clinical relevance of PCR-positive culture-negative results remains controversial. A mixed infection of two or more mastitis pathogens was also detected more commonly by PCR. Culture-negative samples due to undetected Staphylococcus aureus infections were rare. The use of PCR technology may assist in rapid mastitis diagnosis, however, accurate interpretation of PCR results in the absence of bacterial culture remains problematic.

Keane OM; Budd KE; Flynn J; McCoy F

2013-09-01

123

Clinical case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This presentation is about a case of a patient with liver tumor. The ultrasound scan and Tc technique were used for the diagnosis and treatment. The application of PET - CT FDG contributed to detect peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, the lymph node distance to guide the therapeutic and the recurrence in case of a negative morphological methods.

2012-01-01

124

Milk haptoglobin, milk amyloid A, and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase activity in bovines with naturally occurring clinical mastitis diagnosed with a quantitative PCR test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The associations between quantitative bacteriological results from a real-time PCR test and concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APP) and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity in milk in naturally occurring clinical mastitis were investigated. Milk APP concentrations and NAGase activity in clinical mastitis caused by different udder pathogens were studied. The associations between the severity of the clinical signs and concentrations of APP and NAGase activity were estimated. Milk samples from 281 cases of clinical mastitis were collected from 3 Estonian dairy farms and analyzed by PCR to identify pathogens. Twenty-seven samples out of 281 (9.6%) were PCR negative. Milk samples containing 4 or more bacterial species (n=28) were considered possibly contaminated and excluded from all further analyses. In total, 443 bacterial identifications were made from the remaining 226 milk samples. A single bacterial species was detected in 68 samples (30.1%), 2 species were detected in 99 samples (43.8%), and 3 species were detected in 59 (26.1%) samples. To determine the inflammatory response in the udder, the concentrations of milk amyloid A (MAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) and NAGase activity in the milk were analyzed. A significant positive association was found between the severity of the clinical signs and inflammatory markers in the milk. Milk amyloid A and Hp concentrations and NAGase activity were significantly higher in samples with large quantities of bacterial DNA from Escherichia coli or Streptococcus dysgalactiae compared with milk samples not containing those species. Large quantities of bacterial DNA from Trueperella pyogenes or Streptococcus uberis in the milk were associated with elevated concentrations of Hp and high NAGase activity, but not with increased MAA concentrations. Milk samples containing Corynebacterium bovis and coagulase-negative staphylococci had significantly lower concentrations of MAA and Hp and lower NAGase activity compared with samples where these species were not detected. It can be concluded that concentrations of APP and NAGase activity in the milk were associated with the quantity of bacterial DNA in the milk samples. PMID:23548292

Kalmus, P; Simojoki, H; Pyörälä, S; Taponen, S; Holopainen, J; Orro, T

2013-03-30

125

Milk haptoglobin, milk amyloid A, and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase activity in bovines with naturally occurring clinical mastitis diagnosed with a quantitative PCR test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The associations between quantitative bacteriological results from a real-time PCR test and concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APP) and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity in milk in naturally occurring clinical mastitis were investigated. Milk APP concentrations and NAGase activity in clinical mastitis caused by different udder pathogens were studied. The associations between the severity of the clinical signs and concentrations of APP and NAGase activity were estimated. Milk samples from 281 cases of clinical mastitis were collected from 3 Estonian dairy farms and analyzed by PCR to identify pathogens. Twenty-seven samples out of 281 (9.6%) were PCR negative. Milk samples containing 4 or more bacterial species (n=28) were considered possibly contaminated and excluded from all further analyses. In total, 443 bacterial identifications were made from the remaining 226 milk samples. A single bacterial species was detected in 68 samples (30.1%), 2 species were detected in 99 samples (43.8%), and 3 species were detected in 59 (26.1%) samples. To determine the inflammatory response in the udder, the concentrations of milk amyloid A (MAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) and NAGase activity in the milk were analyzed. A significant positive association was found between the severity of the clinical signs and inflammatory markers in the milk. Milk amyloid A and Hp concentrations and NAGase activity were significantly higher in samples with large quantities of bacterial DNA from Escherichia coli or Streptococcus dysgalactiae compared with milk samples not containing those species. Large quantities of bacterial DNA from Trueperella pyogenes or Streptococcus uberis in the milk were associated with elevated concentrations of Hp and high NAGase activity, but not with increased MAA concentrations. Milk samples containing Corynebacterium bovis and coagulase-negative staphylococci had significantly lower concentrations of MAA and Hp and lower NAGase activity compared with samples where these species were not detected. It can be concluded that concentrations of APP and NAGase activity in the milk were associated with the quantity of bacterial DNA in the milk samples.

Kalmus P; Simojoki H; Pyörälä S; Taponen S; Holopainen J; Orro T

2013-06-01

126

A peptidomic approach to biomarker discovery for bovine mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Bovine mastitis is usually caused by either Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria, reducing the quantity and quality of milk produced. This investigation using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy, studied peptides in milk from cows with clinical mastitis in comparison to milk from healthy cows to identify biomarkers for mastitis. In addition, the milk peptidome from udders infected with Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) or with Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), was examined to assess differential diagnosis between the causative agent. Comparison of the peptidome between healthy (n=10) and mastitic milk (n=27) identified 154 peptides for a biomarker panel which in a model for diagnosis of mastitis showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. ?-casein and ?(s1) casein provided the majority of peptides identified in this model. The peptidome comparison of milk from mastitis cases caused by S. aureus (n=8) or E. coli (n=11) revealed a biomarker panel of 47 peptides which discriminated between cause of infection with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100%. ?-casein fragments were the most common of the peptides in this model. Peptide biomarkers of milk could be used in the diagnosis of mastitis and can discriminate between these two bacterial causes. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The paper describes an innovative approach to the use of gel free proteomics to identify the peptides that are present in milk during clinical mastitis, which is a major cause of loss of production to dairy farmers worldwide. The use of capillary electrophoresis, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry has been able to identify panels of peptides which can be used for disease diagnosis and for differential diagnosis of the causative bacteria of the infections of the mammary gland. As well as contributing to our knowledge of the pathophysiology of bovine mastitis the results could be the basis of improved detection and differential diagnosis of the disease.

Mansor R; Mullen W; Albalat A; Zerefos P; Mischak H; Barrett DC; Biggs A; Eckersall PD

2013-06-01

127

Estimating the proportion of clinical mastitis attributable to subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle using two multivariable statistical approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of first bovine CM cases attributable to high composite somatic cell counts (CSCC). Cows were followed from the first CSCC measurement postpartum until CM or censoring, using survival analysis. A conditional logistic regression model was also fitt...

Borne, B.H.P., van den; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Lupindu, A.M.; Schaik, G., van; Frankena, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Nielen, M.

128

Random regression models for genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A genetic analysis of longitudinal binary clinical mastitis (CM) data recorded on about 90 000 first-lactation Swedish Holstein cows was carried out using linear random regression models (RRM). This method for genetic evaluation of CM has theoretical advantages compared to the method of linear cross-sectional models (CSM), which is currently being used. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and suitability of estimating genetic parameters and predicting breeding values for CM with a linear sire RRM. For validation purposes, the estimates and predictions from the RRM were compared to those from linear sire longitudinal multivariate models (LMVM) and CSM. For each cow, the period from 10 days before to 241 days after calving was divided into four 1-week intervals followed by eight 4-week intervals. Within each interval, presence or absence of CM was scored as '1' or '0'. The linear RRM used to explain the trajectory of CM over time included a set of explanatory variables plus a third-order Legendre polynomial function of time for the sire effect. The time-dependent heritabilities and genetic correlations from the chosen RRM corresponded fairly well with estimates obtained from the linear LMVM for the separate intervals. Some discrepancy between the two methods was observed, with the more unstable results being obtained from the linear LMVM. Both methods indicated clearly that CM was not genetically the same trait throughout lactation. The correlations between predicted sire breeding values from the RRM, summarized over different time periods, and from linear CSM were rather high. They were, however, less than unity (0.74 to 0.96), which indicated some re-ranking of sires. Sire curves based on the time-specific breeding values from the RRM illustrated differences in intercept and slope among the best and the worst sires. To conclude, a linear sire RRM seemed to work well for genetic evaluation purposes, but was sensitive for estimation of genetic parameters.

Carlén E; Grandinson K; Emanuelson U; Strandberg E

2009-08-01

129

Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

Barlow J

2011-12-01

130

Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium bovis DSM 20582, Which Causes Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bovine mastitis represents the most economically important disease in dairy cows and can be caused by Corynebacterium bovis, a commensal in the bovine udder. The draft genome sequence provides insights into the adaptation of this bacterium to the bovine habitat and its lipolytic capabilities to util...

Schröder, Jasmin; Glaub, Alina; Schneider, Jessica; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas

131

Draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium bovis DSM 20582, which causes clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine mastitis represents the most economically important disease in dairy cows and can be caused by Corynebacterium bovis, a commensal in the bovine udder. The draft genome sequence provides insights into the adaptation of this bacterium to the bovine habitat and its lipolytic capabilities to utilize components of cow's milk.

Schröder J; Glaub A; Schneider J; Trost E; Tauch A

2012-08-01

132

Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL

Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2013-01-01

133

Norwegian mastitis control programme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

Østerås O; Sølverød L

2009-01-01

134

Norwegian mastitis control programme.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

Osterås O; Sølverød L

2009-01-01

135

EFFECT OF SEVERITY OF SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS ON SOMATIC CELL COUNT AND LACTOSE CONTENTS OF BUFFALO MILK  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of severity of sub-clinical mastitis on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose contents of milk in 100 apparently healthy dairy buffaloes. Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) was used to determine the severity of sub-clinical mastitis which was graded as Negative (N), Traces (T), mild clumping (P1), moderate clumping (P2) and heavy clumping (P3). Mean milk SCC (x 105) at SFMT scores N, T, P1, P2 and P3 were 2.06 + 1.09, 3.73 + 0.96, 9.69 + 4.05, 31.97 + 10.26 and 121.01 + 23.71 per ml, respectively. Using the same scoring, mean values of milk lactose were 5.10 + 0.09, 4.81 + 0.10, 4.66 + 0.08, 3.92 + 0.05 and 2.66 + 0.37 percent, respectively. Percent increases of mean SCC in T, P1, P2 and P3 groups with respect to N (control) were 81.47, 370.51, 1451.71 and 5773.41, respectively. Percent decreases of mean lactose in T, P1, P2 and P3 groups with respect to N (control) were 5.54, 8.52, 22.98 and 47.81, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated non-significant difference of mean SCC in N and T groups, while there was highly significant (P<0.01) difference in mean SCC among P1, P2 and P3 groups and also with respect to N. Similarly, there was a significant (P<0.05) difference of mean lactose among T, P1, P2 and P3 groups and also with respect to control/ negative group.

A. SHARIF, T. AHMAD, M. Q. BILAL1, A. YOUSAF AND G. MUHAMMAD

2007-01-01

136

Incidence of Enterotoxin-Producing MRSA in Bovine Mastitis Cases, Bulk Milk Tanks and Processing Plants in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are virulent strains of S. aureus which have become resistant to most antibiotics. The emergence of MRSA is a serious public health concern worldwide. The present study sought to determine the distribution of enterotoxin-producing MRSA in Thailand using multiplex PCR. A total of 375 S. aureus isolates obtained from 598 mastitis cases, 376 bulk tank milk samples and 46 pasteurized milk samples were investigated for phenotypic methicillin resistance. Of these 375 isolates, 74 were found to be methicillin resistant. Variation in the SE encoding genes was detected. A total of 61 isolates harbored at least one classical SE gene, 30 isolates possessed only one type of enterotoxin gene and the remaining 31 were found to be positive for more than one toxin gene. The genes most frequently detected were seb and sed. Isolates obtained from mastitis cases had the highest incidence of enterotoxin genes followed by bulk milk isolates. On comparing the data relative to the different dairy locations, the isolates from Khon Kaen province harbored most detected enterotoxin genes. This was the only location where MRSA isolates from both mastitis milk and bulk milk were found harboring enterotoxin genes. Among the 5 S. aureus strains isolated from pasteurized milk only one isolate was MRSA. The strain which was isolated in Mahasarakham was positive for the sed gene. The current study has detected enterotoxigenic MRSA in mastitis milk, bulk milk and also pasteurized milk from Thailand. Further detailed analysis of functional genomics is now warranted to gain a better understanding of enterotoxin activity and virulence.

Manakant Intrakamhaeng; Tanaya Komutarin; Komkrich Pimpukdee; Worapol Aengwanich

2012-01-01

137

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from milkmen and cows with clinical mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Identification of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis is helpful in treatment and management decisions. However, such data from sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Here we describe the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from cows with clinical mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Due to high concern of zoonotic infections, isolates from milkmen are also described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety seven milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis and 31 nasal swabs from milkmen were collected (one sample per cow/human). Fifty eight (60%) Gram-positive isolates namely Staphylococci (21), Enterococci (16), Streptococci (13), Lactococci (5), Micrococci (2) and Arcanobacteria (1) were detected in cows; only one grew Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 24 (25%) coliforms namely Escherichia coli (12), Klebsiella oxytoca (5), Proteus vulgaris (2), Serratia (2), Citrobacter (1), Cedecea (1) and Leclercia (1) were identified. From humans, 24 Gram-positive bacteria grew, of which 11 were Staphylococci (35%) including four Staphylococcus aureus. Upon susceptibility testing, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were prevalent; 57%, 12/21 in cows and 64%, 7/11 in humans. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not detected. Furthermore, methicillin and vancomycin resistant CoNS were detected in cows (Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis) and humans (Staphylococcus scuiri). Also, vancomycin and daptomycin resistant Enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively) were detected in cows. Coliforms were less resistant with three pan-susceptible isolates. However, multidrug resistant Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Cedecea, and Citrobacter were detected. Lastly, similar species grew from human and bovine samples but on genotyping, the isolates were found to be different. Interestingly, human and bovine Staphylococcus aureus were genetically similar (spa-CC435, spa-type t645 corresponding to ST121) but with different susceptibility patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CoNS, Enterococci, Streptococci, and Escherichia coli are the predominant pathogens associated with clinical bovine-mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Multidrug resistant bacteria are also prevalent. While similar species occurred in humans and cows, transmission was not detected.

Kateete DP; Kabugo U; Baluku H; Nyakarahuka L; Kyobe S; Okee M; Najjuka CF; Joloba ML

2013-01-01

138

Mammographic features of isolated tuberculous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To present the mammography findings in 8 patients with tuberculosis (TB) of the breast, with a review of the literature. This study is a retrospective data collection. Each chart with confirmed breast TB based on bacteriology or pathologic findings was analyzed for clinical presentation, gender, nationality, demographic data, prior history of TB, investigation, management, mammographic findings and ultrasound, when available. Mammograms were reviewed by 2 consultant radiologists without knowing the previous diagnosis or the nature of the study. The study was carried out at The State Tuberculosis Registry and Radiology Department, Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar, from 1990 to 2002. Out of 13 females with TB mastitis, only 8 cases had mammograms preoperatively. The incidence of breast TB in Qatar is rare (1/1000 mammograms per year). Three types of TB mastitis were identified in our study; the nodular (50%), the diffuse (37.5%) of which 77% were limited to one sector of the breast and the sclerosing (12.5%) mastitis. Three patients (43%) were reported as carcinoma. Although mammography identified 3 types of TB, it was not helpful in differentiating TB from carcinoma of the breast. However, the careful evaluation of the degree of density and trabecular thickening of the mass in relation to it size might reduce the number of false positive cases of carcinoma diagnosed with mammograms. Biopsy specimen remains the best diagnostic tool in TB mastitis. (author)

2005-01-01

139

The effect of meloxicam on pain sensitivity, rumination time, and clinical signs in dairy cows with endotoxin-induced clinical mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the use of a pressure algometer and an automated rumination monitoring system to assess changes in pain sensitivity and rumination time in response to endotoxin-induced clinical mastitis and (2) evaluate the effect of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug meloxicam on pain sensitivity and rumination time, as well as other clinical signs, in dairy cattle with endotoxin-induced clinical mastitis. Clinical mastitis was induced in 12 primiparous and 12 multiparous lactating dairy cows by intramammary infusion of 25 µg of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into 1 uninfected quarter. Immediately after, half the cows were injected subcutaneously with meloxicam (treated group) and half with the same volume of a placebo solution (control group). Pain sensitivity was assessed by measuring the difference in pressure required to elicit a response on the control and challenged quarter using an algometer 3 d before, immediately before, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24h after LPS infusion and either meloxicam or placebo injection. Rumination was continuously monitored from 2 d before to 3 d after LPS infusion using rumination loggers. Udder edema, body temperature, somatic cell score, and dry matter intake were also monitored to evaluate the occurrence and the duration of the inflammation after LPS infusion. In control animals, the difference in the pressure applied to the control and challenged quarters (control - challenged quarter) increased by 1.1 ± 0.4 kg of force 6h after LPS infusion compared with the baseline, suggesting an increase in pain sensitivity in the challenged quarter. Neither the LPS infusion nor the meloxicam treatment had an effect on daily rumination time. However, the rumination diurnal pattern on the day of LPS infusion showed an overall deviation from the baseline pattern. Cows spent less time ruminating in the hours following LPS infusion and more time ruminating later in the day. Meloxicam did not alter somatic cell score or dry matter intake. However, meloxicam-treated animals had less udder edema and a lower body temperature in the hours following LPS infusion compared with control animals. In conclusion, pressure algometers and rumination loggers show promise as tools to detect mastitis and monitor recovery on farm. Further, meloxicam has a beneficial effect in relieving pain and decreasing udder edema and body temperature in LPS-induced clinical mastitis. PMID:23522672

Fitzpatrick, C E; Chapinal, N; Petersson-Wolfe, C S; DeVries, T J; Kelton, D F; Duffield, T F; Leslie, K E

2013-03-21

140

Supplementation to prevent subclinical mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of supplementation of Zinc, Copper and Levamisole on incidence of subclinical mastitis was studied. The level of zinc increases significantly after supplementation and 75% animals was recovered. However in copper supplemented animals (12) only two animals showed complete recovery. None of the animals in Zinc and Copper supplemented group developed clinical mastitis. In levamisole supplemented group, 50% cows remained in subclinical state while 50% converted in clinical mastitis. So, the zinc supplementation is better over other two supplementation [Veterinary World 2008; 1(2.000): 40-41

A.K.Upadhayay; Pritee Gangwar and Mahesh Kumar

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Mastite por Paracoccidioidomicose: Relato de Caso/ Mastitis due to Paracoccidioidomycosis: a Case Report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A paracoccidioidomicose é uma importante micose sistêmica, endêmica na América Latina. A infecção é usualmente adquirida por inalação das partículas do micélio. Na sua maioria são infecções assintomáticas e estão associadas a vários fatores do hospedeiro, como sexo, idade, fatores genéticos, bem como às características do agente infeccioso e sua virulência. Apresentamos um caso de mastite por paracoccidioidomicose, com o objetivo de demonstrar que pacientes idosas e com abcessos na mama devem ser submetidas à biópsia. Abstract in english Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important systemic endemic mycosis in Latin America. This infection is usually acquired via inhalation of mycelial particles. Most infected subjects develop an asymptomatic infection, which is associated with various host-related factors such as sex, age, genetic, as well as characteristics of the infecting agent, mainly its virulence. It is a systemic pathology. A case of mastitis due to paracoccidioidomycosis is presented with the objective to demonstrate that elderly patients with a breast abscess should be submitted to biopsy.

Chambô Filho, Antônio; Borges, Fabio Leal Laignier; Cintra, Luiz Cálice; Martins, Rubia Mara

2000-10-01

142

Identification and Antibiotic Sensitivity of the Causative Organisms of Sub-clinical Mastitis in Sheep and Goats  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to isolate and identify organisms responsible for sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) in goats and sheep for the determination of point prevalence of SCM and antibiotic sensitivity of the identified organisms. For this purpose 50 each of lactating sheep and goats were examined with the commercially available Leucocytest® SCM detection kit. It was found that 4 and 36% sheep and goats suffered from SCM, respective. The prevalence of clinical mastitis (CM) was 4 and 6% in sheep and goats, respectively. Milk samples were collected individually from sheep and goats with SCM and were cultured in different media including nutrient agar, blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar. The bacteria were further characterized by biochemical tests. In both goats and sheep, the organisms responsible for SCM were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The organisms were found most sensitive to gentamicin (Gn). After Gn treatment to goats and sheep with SCM, total bacterial counts decreased and milk production significantly increased compared to levels prior to treatment. It is suggested from the study that early detection of SCM and treatment with proper antibiotics can control SCM in goats and sheep.

Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1,5, Md. Sabbir Ahamed2, Md. Shahin Alam1, Md. Masudur Rahman3, Tazminaz Sultana4, Yoon-Seok Roh5 and Bumseok Kim

2012-01-01

143

The effect of repeated episodes of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis on mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a first and repeated cases of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis (CM) on the risk of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. The pathogens studied were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Trueperella pyogenes, others, and no growth on aerobic culture. A total of 50,166 lactations were analyzed from 5 large, high-milk-producing dairy herds in New York State from 2003/2004 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of parity, month of lactation, CM, calving diseases, pregnancy status, current season, and economic values on the risk of mortality and culling. Among first-lactation cows, the presence of a first CM case generally exposed cows to a greater risk of mortality in the current month (compared with the absence of a first case). This was especially acute with a first case of Klebsiella spp., where cows were 4.5 times more at risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-7.6] of mortality, and with a first case of E. coli were 3.3 times more at risk (95% CI: 2.5-4.5). In first-parity cows, the risk of culling generally increased with a case of bacteria-specific CM. This was observed among cows with a first case of T. pyogenes [relative risk=10.4 (95% CI: 8.4-12.8)], a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=6.7 (95% CI: 5.5-8.1)], a first case of Staph. aureus [relative risk=4.8 (95% CI: 2.7-8.4)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.6)], and a third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=5.0 (95% CI: 3.1-8.0)]. In general, the presence of a first or second/third case resulted in cows in parity ?2 with a greater risk of mortality. This was greatest for cows with a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.3)], followed by a second/third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.2 (95% CI: 2.5-4.0)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.0 (95% CI: 2.7-3.3)], and a first case of other CM [relative risk=1.8 (95% CI: 1.6-2.0)]. Among cows of parity ?2, the risk of culling was greater for cows as they progressed through lactations [i.e., cows in parity 4+ were 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0-2.2) times more likely to be culled compared with cows in lactation 2 (the baseline)]. The risk of culling dependent on the cow's characteristics can be easily calculated from the parameter estimates in the provided tables.

Cha E; Hertl JA; Schukken YH; Tauer LW; Welcome FL; Gröhn YT

2013-08-01

144

Nordic veterinarians' threshold for medical treatment of dairy cows, influence on disease recording and medicine use: Mild clinical mastitis as an example.  

Science.gov (United States)

National databases for dairy cows in the four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have been found to capture varying proportions of disease events on farm. A variation in the thresholds of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment may be a reason for this. Studying these thresholds may increase the understanding of prudent use of antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic veterinarians, on a between country-level, vary in their intention to start medical treatment of a dairy cow with mild clinical mastitis, on the same day as making the diagnosis. The threshold for initiating treatment was quantified as an intention score. Secondary, underlying behavioural components of the intention score was studied within each country. A social psychology model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), was used to design a questionnaire that was distributed to 1047 veterinarians in cattle practice in the four countries during autumn 2010. The response rate was around 50% in all the countries, and 543 observations were retained for analysis. The between-country differences in intention were tested with one-way analysis of variance. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the proportion of variability in intention explained by the three behavioural components, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The Spearman rank correlations between specific beliefs about the behaviour and intention scores were estimated to find beliefs of high influence on the decision to treat or not. Intention scores differed between all countries (pTPB explained 0.37, 0.41, 0.40 and 0.48 of the variation in intention scores in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. Attitude was the most important predictor in DK, NO and SE, but perceived behavioural control was most important in FI. In all countries the specific attitude belief of highest influence was that starting treatment the same day as diagnosing a case of mild clinical mastitis gives the best result, compared to delaying treatment. The varying intentions of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment are likely to influence centrally registered mastitis incidence. This study has given an improved understanding of this behaviour, which may be useful in intervention studies or campaigns aiming at prudent use of antibiotics on dairy farms. PMID:23948145

Espetvedt, Mari N; Rintakoski, Simo; Wolff, Cecilia; Lind, Ann-Kristina; Lindberg, Ann; Virtala, Anna-Maija K

2013-08-12

145

Nordic veterinarians' threshold for medical treatment of dairy cows, influence on disease recording and medicine use: Mild clinical mastitis as an example.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

National databases for dairy cows in the four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have been found to capture varying proportions of disease events on farm. A variation in the thresholds of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment may be a reason for this. Studying these thresholds may increase the understanding of prudent use of antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether Nordic veterinarians, on a between country-level, vary in their intention to start medical treatment of a dairy cow with mild clinical mastitis, on the same day as making the diagnosis. The threshold for initiating treatment was quantified as an intention score. Secondary, underlying behavioural components of the intention score was studied within each country. A social psychology model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), was used to design a questionnaire that was distributed to 1047 veterinarians in cattle practice in the four countries during autumn 2010. The response rate was around 50% in all the countries, and 543 observations were retained for analysis. The between-country differences in intention were tested with one-way analysis of variance. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the proportion of variability in intention explained by the three behavioural components, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The Spearman rank correlations between specific beliefs about the behaviour and intention scores were estimated to find beliefs of high influence on the decision to treat or not. Intention scores differed between all countries (p<0.05) except between NO and SE (p=0.06). The mean intention scores were 0.71, 0.42, 0.58 and 0.50 in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. As measured by the adjusted R(2) in linear regression models, the underlying behavioural components of the TPB explained 0.37, 0.41, 0.40 and 0.48 of the variation in intention scores in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. Attitude was the most important predictor in DK, NO and SE, but perceived behavioural control was most important in FI. In all countries the specific attitude belief of highest influence was that starting treatment the same day as diagnosing a case of mild clinical mastitis gives the best result, compared to delaying treatment. The varying intentions of veterinarians to initiate medical treatment are likely to influence centrally registered mastitis incidence. This study has given an improved understanding of this behaviour, which may be useful in intervention studies or campaigns aiming at prudent use of antibiotics on dairy farms.

Espetvedt MN; Rintakoski S; Wolff C; Lind AK; Lindberg A; Virtala AM

2013-10-01

146

PREVALENCE OF SUB CLINICAL MASTITIS IN DAIRY BUFFALOES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Six hundred lactating dairy buffaloes from four districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Narowal and Okara) of Punjab, Pakistan were screened for subclinical mastitis using White Side Test and subsequent bacterial isolation. Overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 44% (264/600). It was the highest (58%) in animals kept as individual holding at backyards followed by small holdings in periurban area (42%) and the lowest at organized farms with reasonable good managemental conditions (32%). Two hundred thirty four bacterial isolates of nine genera i.e. Staphylococci, Escherichia, Streptococci, Pseudomonas, Salmonellae, Bacillus, Klebsiella, Enterococci and Corynebacterium species were identified. The highest prevalence was of Staphylococci (28.32%) followed by Escherichia coli (16.18%), Pseudomonas (13.29%), Bacillus (12.42%), Streptococci (7.51%), Salmonellae (7.22%), Corynebacterium (6.64%), Klebsiella (5.20%) and Enterococci (3.17%).

M. A. Ali, *M. D. Ahmad, K. Muhammad and A. A. Anjum

2011-01-01

147

Screening of bovine milk samples for sub-clinical mastitis and antibiogram of bacterial isolates  

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Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (58%) and Escherichia coli (23.5%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8%), Streptococcus sp. (5.5%), Klebsiella sp. (3%) and Bacillus sp. (2%). The in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity for ciprofloxacin (89%), ofloxacin (85%), enrofloxacin (82%), gentamicin (80%) and chloramphenicol (75%), resistant to colistin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000): 358-359

Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.

2011-01-01

148

Enfermidades digitais em vacas de aptidão leiteira: associação com mastite clínica, metrites e aspectos epidemiológicos Foot diseases in dairy cows: association with clinical mastitis, metrites and predisposed factors  

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Full Text Available Utilizaram-se nesse estudo 5300 vacas de aptidão leiteira, provenientes de 80 propriedades rurais, que adotavam manejo intensivo ou semi-extensivo, com o objetivo de averiguar a existência de possível associação entre enfermidades digitais, mastite clínica e/ou metrite e identificar possíveis fatores de risco das enfermidades digitais. Em 325 (6,13%) vacas foram diagnosticados apenas enfermidades digitais, em 35 (0,66%) enfermidades digitais e mastite clínica, em 52 (0,98%) enfermidades digitais e metrite, em 28 (0,53%) enfermidades digitais, mastite clínica e metrite, em 128 (2,42%) apenas metrite, em 165 (3,11%) somente mastite clínica, e em 89 (1,68%) vacas metrite e mastite clínica. As mudanças bruscas na alimentação, o excesso de sujidades nas instalações, os pisos irregulares e abrasivos, a não utilização ou uso incorreto de pedilúvio, a falta de casqueamento preventivo, a ausência de quarentena, e a aquisição de animais sem a preocupação com o aspecto sanitário foram considerados os fatores de risco de maior ocorrência. Foi constatada diferença significativa entre a ocorrência de enfermidades digitais, mastite clínica e metrite, além de associação fraca entre tais enfermidades, concluindo-se que não houve relação expressiva entre enfermidades podais, mastite clínica e metrite em vacas lactantes.With the objective to investigate a possible association between foot diseases, clinical mastitis and/or metritis and predisposing factors for foot diseases, 5300 dairy cows from 80 intensive and semi-intensive farms were used. In 325 (6.13%) cows only foot disease was diagnosed, in 35 (0.66%) foot disease and clinical mastitis, in 52 (0.98%) foot disease and metritis, in 28 (0.53%) foot disease, clinical mastitis and metritis, in 128 (2.42%) only metritis, in 165 (3.11%) only clinical mastitis, and in 89 (1.68%) cows metritis and clinical mastitis. Rapid changes in the diet, high exposure time of hoof horn to slurry and wet conditions, concrete floors, use of footbaths, low frequency of claw trimming, irregular quarantine, and no attention to health aspects during acquisition of the animals were considered as major risk factors for the occurrence of those diseases. The McNemar test for dependent samples showed significant statistical differences between the occurrence of foot disease, clinical mastitis and metritis, in spite of the poor association between those diseases. It was concluded that there was no expressive relationship between foot diseases, clinical mastitis and metritis in lactent cows.

Luiz Antônio Franco da Silva; Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti; Bruno Rodrigues Trindade; Olízio Claudino da Silva; Duvaldo Eurides; Paulo Henrique Jorge da Cunha; Leonardo Marçal da Silva; Maria Ivete de Moura

2004-01-01

149

Enfermidades digitais em vacas de aptidão leiteira: associação com mastite clínica, metrites e aspectos epidemiológicos/ Foot diseases in dairy cows: association with clinical mastitis, metrites and predisposed factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Utilizaram-se nesse estudo 5300 vacas de aptidão leiteira, provenientes de 80 propriedades rurais, que adotavam manejo intensivo ou semi-extensivo, com o objetivo de averiguar a existência de possível associação entre enfermidades digitais, mastite clínica e/ou metrite e identificar possíveis fatores de risco das enfermidades digitais. Em 325 (6,13%) vacas foram diagnosticados apenas enfermidades digitais, em 35 (0,66%) enfermidades digitais e mastite clínica, em (more) 52 (0,98%) enfermidades digitais e metrite, em 28 (0,53%) enfermidades digitais, mastite clínica e metrite, em 128 (2,42%) apenas metrite, em 165 (3,11%) somente mastite clínica, e em 89 (1,68%) vacas metrite e mastite clínica. As mudanças bruscas na alimentação, o excesso de sujidades nas instalações, os pisos irregulares e abrasivos, a não utilização ou uso incorreto de pedilúvio, a falta de casqueamento preventivo, a ausência de quarentena, e a aquisição de animais sem a preocupação com o aspecto sanitário foram considerados os fatores de risco de maior ocorrência. Foi constatada diferença significativa entre a ocorrência de enfermidades digitais, mastite clínica e metrite, além de associação fraca entre tais enfermidades, concluindo-se que não houve relação expressiva entre enfermidades podais, mastite clínica e metrite em vacas lactantes. Abstract in english With the objective to investigate a possible association between foot diseases, clinical mastitis and/or metritis and predisposing factors for foot diseases, 5300 dairy cows from 80 intensive and semi-intensive farms were used. In 325 (6.13%) cows only foot disease was diagnosed, in 35 (0.66%) foot disease and clinical mastitis, in 52 (0.98%) foot disease and metritis, in 28 (0.53%) foot disease, clinical mastitis and metritis, in 128 (2.42%) only metritis, in 165 (3.11%) (more) only clinical mastitis, and in 89 (1.68%) cows metritis and clinical mastitis. Rapid changes in the diet, high exposure time of hoof horn to slurry and wet conditions, concrete floors, use of footbaths, low frequency of claw trimming, irregular quarantine, and no attention to health aspects during acquisition of the animals were considered as major risk factors for the occurrence of those diseases. The McNemar test for dependent samples showed significant statistical differences between the occurrence of foot disease, clinical mastitis and metritis, in spite of the poor association between those diseases. It was concluded that there was no expressive relationship between foot diseases, clinical mastitis and metritis in lactent cows.

Silva, Luiz Antônio Franco da; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Trindade, Bruno Rodrigues; Silva, Olízio Claudino da; Eurides, Duvaldo; Cunha, Paulo Henrique Jorge da; Silva, Leonardo Marçal da; Moura, Maria Ivete de

2004-12-01

150

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and streptococci from bovine subclinical mastitis cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococci and Streptococci were assessed from subclinical mastitis cases. One hundred Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and 34 Streptococci were identified. The most frequently isolated species were Staphylococcus haemolyticus (27%) and Staphylococcus simulans (24%). Susceptible CNS species revealed the highest resistance to penicillin G (58%), ampicillin (48%), neomycin (20%), and oleandomycin (14%). CNS methicillin resistance rates within 82 isolates were 21.95% and 1.22% by disk diffusion and PCR methods, respectively. These results suggested the disk diffusion method was more prone to yield false positives. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA region from the mecA carrying isolate (S. haemolyticus) was homologous with S. haemolyticus sequences/accessions obtained from GenBank. However, the mecA gene sequence from this isolate was more closely allied with the S. aureus mecA gene of human origins. Identical sequence data was acquired from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, suggesting horizontal gene transfer between the two species. CNS beta-lactamase activity within 81 isolates was 29.63%. The most frequently isolated Streptococcus species were S. uberis (52%) and S. agalactiae (15%). Oleandomycin was the least effective antimicrobial agent on these isolates with 59% susceptibility. Results indicated that CNS and Streptococci exhibited various antimicrobial resistance responses. Consequently, isolation and identification of udder pathogens in herds suffering from subclinical agents is essential to select the most effective antimicrobial agent. Moreover, multiple resistance features of methicillin resistant (MR) isolates should be considered during antimicrobial susceptibility tests. PMID:20571942

Bal, Emel Banu Buyukunal; Bayar, Suleyman; Bal, Mehmet Ali

2010-06-23

151

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and streptococci from bovine subclinical mastitis cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococci and Streptococci were assessed from subclinical mastitis cases. One hundred Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and 34 Streptococci were identified. The most frequently isolated species were Staphylococcus haemolyticus (27%) and Staphylococcus simulans (24%). Susceptible CNS species revealed the highest resistance to penicillin G (58%), ampicillin (48%), neomycin (20%), and oleandomycin (14%). CNS methicillin resistance rates within 82 isolates were 21.95% and 1.22% by disk diffusion and PCR methods, respectively. These results suggested the disk diffusion method was more prone to yield false positives. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA region from the mecA carrying isolate (S. haemolyticus) was homologous with S. haemolyticus sequences/accessions obtained from GenBank. However, the mecA gene sequence from this isolate was more closely allied with the S. aureus mecA gene of human origins. Identical sequence data was acquired from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, suggesting horizontal gene transfer between the two species. CNS beta-lactamase activity within 81 isolates was 29.63%. The most frequently isolated Streptococcus species were S. uberis (52%) and S. agalactiae (15%). Oleandomycin was the least effective antimicrobial agent on these isolates with 59% susceptibility. Results indicated that CNS and Streptococci exhibited various antimicrobial resistance responses. Consequently, isolation and identification of udder pathogens in herds suffering from subclinical agents is essential to select the most effective antimicrobial agent. Moreover, multiple resistance features of methicillin resistant (MR) isolates should be considered during antimicrobial susceptibility tests.

Bal EB; Bayar S; Bal MA

2010-06-01

152

Mastitis de Verano en terneras (Summer Mastitis in veals).  

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Full Text Available ResumenEn el presente trabajo se brindan algunas consideraciones clínicas, anatomopatológicas y epizootiológicas sobre un brote de Mastitis de Verano Arcanobacterium pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes) sensible a la Penicilina, Cloranfenicol, Kanamicina y Propóleo en solución oleosa.Abstract The present paper gives some clinical, anatomopathological and epizootiological considerations on an outbreak of Summer Mastitis Arcanobectarium pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes) sensitive to Penicillin, Chloramphenicol, Kanamycin and Propolis in oily solution.

García Lara. Tomás José; Hernández Ferro Sergio C; Silva Lugo Luís

2012-01-01

153

Identification of potential markers in blood for the development of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle at parturition and during early lactation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Our objective was to identify specific blood markers as risk factors for the development of mastitis during early lactation. We used a subset of cows from a larger experiment that consisted of a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows. Cows were of 3 breeds and ranged from parity 1 to 4. Blood samples were collected weekly from 56 d before expected calving date through 90 d in milk (DIM). Blood was analyzed for several hormones, metabolites, and enzymes, and energy intake and energy balance were calculated. Veterinary treatment records and daily composite milk somatic cell counts were analyzed and used to determine incidence and severity of mastitis in early lactation. Cows were separated into 2 groups: 1) WK0, consisting of cows that developed clinical mastitis (CM), cows that developed subclinical mastitis (SM), or cows that were healthy (H) during the first 7 DIM; and 2) EL, consisting of CM, SM, or H cows during wk 2 through 13 of lactation. Data were adjusted for numerous fixed effects (e.g., parity, breed, season, and DIM) before statistical analysis. The time of mastitis (TOM) was recorded as the DIM in which the first rise in somatic cell count was observed and was recorded as TOM = 0. The time before and after TOM was distinguished as ± n wk relative to TOM = 0. Healthy cows were paired with either a SM or CM cow and the TOM for each H cow was equal to the TOM for its paired SM or CM cow. Data from wk -1 and -2 relative to TOM were analyzed for group WK0 and EL, respectively. For all parameters, SM cows did not differ from H cows from either group. The CM cows had higher nonesterified fatty acid levels and a tendency toward higher ?-hydroxybutyrate levels than H cows before mastitis for both groups. For group WK0, glucose was higher -1 wk relative to calving in CM than H cows. For group EL, aspartate aminotransferase was higher -2 wk relative to mastitis in CM than H cows during 8 to 90 DIM. All other variables were similar among CM, SM, and H cows for both groups. Our results indicate that substances in blood, especially nonesterified fatty acids and aspartate aminotransferase, may be potential markers for the risk of mastitis in early lactation.

Moyes, Kasey; Larsen, Torben

2009-01-01

154

Identification of potential markers in blood for the development of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle at parturition and during early lactation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our objective was to identify specific blood markers as risk factors for the development of mastitis during early lactation. We used a subset of cows from a larger experiment that consisted of a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows. Cows were of 3 breeds and ranged from parity 1 to 4. Blood samples were collected weekly from 56 d before expected calving date through 90 d in milk (DIM). Blood was analyzed for several hormones, metabolites, and enzymes, and energy intake and energy balance were calculated. Veterinary treatment records and daily composite milk somatic cell counts were analyzed and used to determine incidence and severity of mastitis in early lactation. Cows were separated into 2 groups: 1) WK0, consisting of cows that developed clinical mastitis (CM), cows that developed subclinical mastitis (SM), or cows that were healthy (H) during the first 7 DIM; and 2) EL, consisting of CM, SM, or H cows during wk 2 through 13 of lactation. Data were adjusted for numerous fixed effects (e.g., parity, breed, season, and DIM) before statistical analysis. The time of mastitis (TOM) was recorded as the DIM in which the first rise in somatic cell count was observed and was recorded as TOM = 0. The time before and after TOM was distinguished as +/- n wk relative to TOM = 0. Healthy cows were paired with either a SM or CM cow and the TOM for each H cow was equal to the TOM for its paired SM or CM cow. Data from wk -1 and -2 relative to TOM were analyzed for group WK0 and EL, respectively. For all parameters, SM cows did not differ from H cows from either group. The CM cows had higher nonesterified fatty acid levels and a tendency toward higher beta-hydroxybutyrate levels than H cows before mastitis for both groups. For group WK0, glucose was higher -1 wk relative to calving in CM than H cows. For group EL, aspartate aminotransferase was higher -2 wk relative to mastitis in CM than H cows during 8 to 90 DIM. All other variables were similar among CM, SM, and H cows for both groups. Our results indicate that substances in blood, especially nonesterified fatty acids and aspartate aminotransferase, may be potential markers for the risk of mastitis in early lactation.

Moyes KM; Larsen T; Friggens NC; Drackley JK; Ingvartsen KL

2009-11-01

155

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus species isolated from clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for 50 Streptococcus uberis, 42 S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and eight S. agalactiae strains isolated from cow mastitis. Only 27% of the strains were susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. Resistance to tetracycline was most frequent (particularly for S. dysgalactiae strains), then macrolide and/or lincomycin resistance. High level resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was detected. All S. dysgalactiae and S. agalactiae strains were susceptible to beta-lactams but 44% of the S. uberis strains showed an elevated penicillin G MIC. All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and rifampicin.

Guérin-Faublée V; Tardy F; Bouveron C; Carret G

2002-03-01

156

Fatal mastitis of dairy cows: a retrospective study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The necropsy records of dairy cows with mastitis were reviewed from the provincial veterinary laboratory in Guelph (44 cases of mastitis in nine years) and from the Ontario Veterinary College (168 cases in 14 years). Mastitis was considered to be the primary cause of death in 167 of 212 cows (79%). ...

Hazlett, M J; Little, P B; Maxie, M G; Barnum, D A

157

Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep.

Martins RF; do Prado Paim T; de Abreu Cardoso C; Stéfano Lima Dallago B; de Melo CB; Louvandini H; McManus C

2013-06-01

158

Bovine mastitis therapy and why it fails : continuing education  

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Full Text Available Treatment of bovine mastitis depends on the cause, the clinical manifestation and the antibiotic susceptibility of the agent. Mastitis therapy is commonly unsuccessful owing to pathological changes that occur in the udder parenchyma as a result of the inflammatory reaction to mastitogenic bacteria, pharmacokinetic properties of antimicrobial mastitis drugs, mastitogenic bacterial and related factors, and poor animal husbandry and veterinary interventions.

J.H. Du Preez

2012-01-01

159

Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was estimat...

Borne, B.H.P. van den

160

STUDIES ON MASTITIS AMONG DAIRY BUFFALOES  

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Full Text Available A total of 2340 mammary glands of 585 primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffaloes in different stages of lactation were examined with California Mastitis Test ( CMT) and laboratory examination was carried out to identify the most prevalent micro-organisms in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. The physical examination revealed 2.61 per cent blind teats and CMT revealed 6.71 per cent positive quarters for mastitis. Microbiological examination of 157 sub-clinical mastitis milk samples and 46 clinical mastitis milk samples was carried out. There was high occurrence of streptococci (35.46%) followed by staphylococci (33.99%), E. coli (27.09%), pseudomonas spp. ( 1.97%) and Corynaebacterium pyogenes (1.48%). The in vitro sensitivity revealed kanamyciin (82.6%), highly effective against various isolates followed by gentamycin (53.0%).

Rashid Ahmad

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

PCR-based detection of genes encoding virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was carried out to genotypically characterize Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from bovine mastitis cases. A total of 37 strains of S. aureus were isolated during processing of 552 milk samples from 140 cows. The S. aureus strains were characterized phenotypically, and were further characterized genotypically by polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers that amplified genes encoding coagulase (coa), clumping factor (clfA), thermonuclease (nuc), enterotoxin A (entA), and the gene segments encoding the immunoglobulin G binding region and the X region of protein A gene spa. All of the isolates yielded an amplicon with a size of approximately 1,042 bp of the clfA gene. The amplification of the polymorphic spa gene segment encoding the immunoglobulin G binding region was observed in 34 isolates and X-region binding was detected in 26 isolates. Amplification of the coa gene yielded three different products in 20, 10, and 7 isolates. The amplification of the thermonuclease gene, nuc, was observed in 36 out of 37 isolates. All of the samples were negative for the entA gene. The phenotypic and genotypic findings of the present strategies might provide an understanding of the distribution of the prevalent S. aureus clones among bovine mastitis isolates, and might aid in the development of steps to control S. aureus infections in dairy herds.

Kalorey DR; Shanmugam Y; Kurkure NV; Chousalkar KK; Barbuddhe SB

2007-06-01

162

PCR-based detection of genes encoding virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was carried out to genotypically characterize Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from bovine mastitis cases. A total of 37 strains of S. aureus were isolated during processing of 552 milk samples from 140 cows. The S. aureus strains were characterized phenotypically, and were further characterized genotypically by polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers that amplified genes encoding coagulase (coa), clumping factor (clfA), thermonuclease (nuc), enterotoxin A (entA), and the gene segments encoding the immunoglobulin G binding region and the X region of protein A gene spa. All of the isolates yielded an amplicon with a size of approximately 1,042 bp of the clfA gene. The amplification of the polymorphic spa gene segment encoding the immunoglobulin G binding region was observed in 34 isolates and X-region binding was detected in 26 isolates. Amplification of the coa gene yielded three different products in 20, 10, and 7 isolates. The amplification of the thermonuclease gene, nuc, was observed in 36 out of 37 isolates. All of the samples were negative for the entA gene. The phenotypic and genotypic findings of the present strategies might provide an understanding of the distribution of the prevalent S. aureus clones among bovine mastitis isolates, and might aid in the development of steps to control S. aureus infections in dairy herds. PMID:17519568

Kalorey, Dewanand Rajaram; Shanmugam, Yuvaraj; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao; Chousalkar, Kapil Kamalakarrao; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo Baliram

2007-06-01

163

Tubercular Mastitis - A Great Masquerader  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tubercular mastitis is a rare clinical entity as mammary gland tissue, like spleen and skeletal muscle, offers resistance to the survival and multiplication of the tubercle bacillus. Tuberculosis of the breast can mimic carcinoma, whereas in young patients it can be mistaken for a pyogenic breast abscess, thus labeled a “great masquerader” in recognition of its multifaceted presentation. Breast tuberculosis commonly affects women in the reproductive age group, between 21 and 30 years, and is rare in prepubescent females and elderly women. Fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful and it is a promising technique in expert hands. In tuberculosis-endemic countries, the finding of granuloma on fine needle aspiration cytology warrants empirical treatment for tuberculosis even in the absence of positive acid-fast bacilli and without culture results. We hereby report a case of tubercular mastitis in a post-menopausal seronegative female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology with a positive acid-fast bacilli and a review of the recent literature.

Sonia GON; Aditi BHATTACHARYYA; Bipasa MAJUMDAR; Soumya KUNDU

2013-01-01

164

[The role of bacterial contamination of milking utensils and disinfecting solutions as a possible cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various instruments and utensils used during milking as well as teat dip solutions were examined for contamination with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between contaminated fomites and udder infection in dairy cows. A total of 344 cows from ten dairy farms with the highest rate of clinical mastitis among the farms serviced by the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Zurich were included in the study. Each farm was visited five times. All lactating cows, with the exception of those undergoing antibiotic treatment, were examined immediately before milking using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A milk sample was collected from positive quarters. Items used to clean the udder, which included wood wool, paper towels and disinfecting towels as well as the milker's hands and the teat dip cup were swabbed for bacteriological examination. Water samples, samples of teat dip and cleaning solutions were also collected and cultured. Our results demonstrate that cleaning and disinfecting solutions have the potential to transmit udder pathogens and cause clinical mastitis. The most common CNS isolated from quarter samples were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri and S. chromogenes, and the most common CNS isolated from utensils, cleaning and disinfecting solutions were S. fleuretii, S. vitulus, S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. succinus and S. saprophyticus.

Hässig M; Sigrist SM; Corti S; Giezendanner N; Stephan R

2011-06-01

165

Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy herds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mycoplasmal bovine mastitis is potentially a highly contagious disease that can cause severe economic problems in affected herds. The purchase of replacement heifers and cows are frequently the origin of mycoplasmal mastitis outbreaks in previously Mycoplasma-free herds. Purchased cows and heifers should be quarantined and tested for mycoplasmal mastitis before admission to the regular herd. Detection of Mycoplasma-infected cows by culture of milk is straightforward, although there are problems of sensitivity for its detection in milk samples that are inherent to the nature of the disease and laboratory procedures. After detection of infected cows, the best way to protect the herd is to culture all cows in the herd, cows with clinical mastitis, and all heifers and cows after calving and before entering the milking herd. Control of mycoplasmal mastitis requires test and culling from the herd of Mycoplasma-positive cows if possible. When a large number of cows are infected, strict segregation with adequate management is an option; however, animals in this group should never re-enter the Mycoplama-free herd. The functioning of the milking equipment and milking procedures should be evaluated carefully and any flaws corrected. There is no treatment for mycoplasmal mastitis, and vaccination has not proven to be efficacious to prevent, decrease the incidence, or ameliorate the clinical signs of mycoplasmal mastitis. Waste milk should not be fed to calves without pasteurization. M bovis may cause several other pathologies in animals of different ages on a farm, including pneumonia, arthritis, and ear infections. The survival of mycoplasmas in different farm microenvironments needs to be further investigated for its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

González RN; Wilson DJ

2003-03-01

166

Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %), followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 %) and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1 %), whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2 %) and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2 %) the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 % of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95 % of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9 %), S. epidermidis (7.4 %) and S. hominis (5.9 %). They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90 %of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6 %), followed by lincomycin (13.7 %). About 8 % of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.

T. Kudinha; C. Simango

2012-01-01

167

Foot and Mouth Disease-Mastitis Cascade in Dairy Cattle: A Field Study  

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Full Text Available A field study was conducted in 6 cross bred dairy cows suffering from acute clinical mastitis preceded by FMD in all animals. After thorough clinical and laboratory examination of the affected animals were confirmed as the cases of clinical mastitis. Cows were diagnosed for mastitis by clinical examination and Modified California mastitis test, somatic cell count and cultural examination of milk. After confirmation of disease and antibiotic sensitivity test all cows were subjected to precise and supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 2 quarters were positive to + and one quarter to trace reaction by MCMT after the completion of treatment (on 5th day) with enrofloxacin and melonex along with supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 3 quarters showed 2.5x105 cells mL-1 to 3.25x105 somatic cells mL-1 of milk and remaining quarters showed 5 somatic cells mL-1 of milk. It is concluded that the result of enrofloxacin and mammitel are considerable in the treatment of clinical mastitis.

Neelesh Sharma

2008-01-01

168

Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A nationwide survey on the microbial etiology of cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was carried out on dairy farms in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the microbial panorama and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were investigated. Methods In total, 583 quarter milk samples were collected from 583 dairy cows at 226 dairy farms from February 2008 to February 2009. The quarter milk samples were bacteriological investigated and scored using the California Mastitis Test. Staphylococci were tested for betalactamase production and presence of resistance was evaluated in all specific udder pathogens. Differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were statistically investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results The most common isolates of 590 bacteriological diagnoses were Staphylococcus (S) aureus (19%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; 16%) followed by Streptococcus (Str) dysgalactiae (9%), Str. uberis (8%), Escherichia (E.) coli (2.9%), and Streptococcus spp. (1.9%). Samples with no growth or contamination constituted 22% and 18% of the diagnoses, respectively. The distribution of the most commonly isolated bacteria considering only bacteriological positive samples were: S. aureus - 31%, CNS - 27%, Str. dysgalactiae - 15%, Str. uberis - 14%, E. coli - 4.8%, and Streptococcus spp. - 3.1%. There was an increased risk of finding S. aureus, Str. uberis or Str. dysgalactiae in milk samples from chronically infected cows compared to findings in milk samples from newly infected cows. Four percent of the S. aureus isolates and 35% of the CNS isolates were resistant to penicillin G. Overall, resistance to other antimicrobials than penicillin G was uncommon. Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus and CNS were the most frequently isolated pathogens and resistance to antimicrobials was rare.

Persson Ylva; Nyman Ann-Kristin J; Grönlund-Andersson Ulrika

2011-01-01

169

Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A nationwide survey on the microbial etiology of cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was carried out on dairy farms in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the microbial panorama and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were investigated. METHODS: In total, 583 quarter milk samples were collected from 583 dairy cows at 226 dairy farms from February 2008 to February 2009. The quarter milk samples were bacteriological investigated and scored using the California Mastitis Test. Staphylococci were tested for betalactamase production and presence of resistance was evaluated in all specific udder pathogens. Differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were statistically investigated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The most common isolates of 590 bacteriological diagnoses were Staphylococcus (S) aureus (19%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; 16%) followed by Streptococcus (Str) dysgalactiae (9%), Str. uberis (8%), Escherichia (E.) coli (2.9%), and Streptococcus spp. (1.9%). Samples with no growth or contamination constituted 22% and 18% of the diagnoses, respectively. The distribution of the most commonly isolated bacteria considering only bacteriological positive samples were: S. aureus--31%, CNS--27%, Str. dysgalactiae--15%, Str. uberis--14%, E. coli--4.8%, and Streptococcus spp.--3.1%. There was an increased risk of finding S. aureus, Str. uberis or Str. dysgalactiae in milk samples from chronically infected cows compared to findings in milk samples from newly infected cows. Four percent of the S. aureus isolates and 35% of the CNS isolates were resistant to penicillin G. Overall, resistance to other antimicrobials than penicillin G was uncommon. CONCLUSIONS: Staphylococcus aureus and CNS were the most frequently isolated pathogens and resistance to antimicrobials was rare.

Persson Y; Nyman AK; Grönlund-Andersson U

2011-01-01

170

Test-day somatic cell score, fat-to-protein ratio and milk yield as indicator traits for sub-clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Test-day (TD) records of milk, fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) and somatic cell score (SCS) of first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows were analysed by a three-trait finite mixture random regression model, with the purpose of revealing hidden structures in the data owing to putative, sub-clinical mastitis. Different distributions of the data were allowed in 30 intervals of days in milk (DIM), covering the lactation from 5 to 305 days. Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling was used for model inferences. Estimated proportion of TD records originated from cows infected with mastitis was 0.66 in DIM from 5 to 15 and averaged 0.2 in the remaining part of lactation. Data from healthy and mastitic cows exhibited markedly different distributions, with respect to both average value and the variance, across all parts of lactation. Heterogeneity of distributions for infected cows was also apparent in different DIM intervals. Cows with mastitis were characterized by smaller milk yield (down to -5 kg) and larger F:P (up to 0.13) and SCS (up to 1.3) compared with healthy contemporaries. Differences in averages between healthy and infected cows for F:P were the most profound at the beginning of lactation, when a dairy cow suffers the strongest energy deficit and is therefore more prone to mammary infection. Residual variances for data from infected cows were substantially larger than for the other mixture components. Fat-to-protein ratio had a significant genetic component, with estimates of heritability that were larger or comparable with milk yield, and was not strongly correlated with milk and SCS on both genetic and environmental scales. Daily milk, F:P and SCS are easily available from milk-recording data for most breeding schemes in dairy cattle. Fat-to-protein ratio can potentially be a valuable addition to SCS and milk yield as an indicator trait for selection against mastitis.

Jamrozik J; Schaeffer LR

2012-02-01

171

Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted bulk tank SCC exceeded 220 000, 200 000 or 180 000 cells/ml, and on cow-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted SCC in an individual cow's milk exceeded 1 000 000, 750 000 or 500 000 cells/ml. The accuracy with which SCC was measured and predicted was assumed to affect the profitability of withdrawing milk with high SCC and this was investigated by applying high, low or no uncertainty to true SCC. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis was estimated at €8235, assuming that the initial incidence of mastitis could be reduced by 50%. This cost corresponded to 5% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk withdrawal that was not offset by a sufficient increase in the average price per delivered kg milk. It had the most negative impact on net return when high incidence of mastitis was simulated. Withdrawing milk with high SCC based on low-uncertainty information reduced the amount of withdrawn milk and thus resulted in less negative effect on net return. It was concluded that the current milk-pricing system makes it more profitable for farmers to sell a larger amount of milk with higher SCC than to withdraw milk with high SCC to obtain payment premiums, at least in herds with mastitis incidences within the simulated ranges. Udgivelsesdato: 21. May 2010

Nielsen, C; Østergaard, SØren

2010-01-01

172

Completeness of the disease recording systems for dairy cows in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with special reference to clinical mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the majority of dairy herds are covered by disease recording systems, in general based on veterinary registration of diagnoses and treatments. Disease data are submitted to the national cattle databases where they are combined with, e.g., production data at cow level, and used for breeding programmes, advisory work and herd health management. Previous studies have raised questions about the quality of the disease data. The main aim of this study was to examine the country-specific completeness of the disease data, regarding clinical mastitis (CM) diagnosis, in each of the national cattle databases. A second aim was to estimate country-specific CM incidence rates (IRs). Results Over 4 months in 2008, farmers in the four Nordic countries recorded clinical diseases in their dairy cows. Their registrations were matched to registrations in the central cattle databases. The country-specific completeness of disease registrations was calculated as the proportion of farmer-recorded cases that could be found in the central database. The completeness (95% confidence interval) for veterinary-supervised cases of CM was 0.94 (0.92, 0.97), 0.56 (0.48, 0.64), 0.82 (0.75, 0.90) and 0.78 (0.70, 0.85) in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. The completeness of registration of all CM cases, which includes all cases noted by farmers, regardless of whether the cows were seen or treated by a veterinarian or not, was 0.90 (0.87, 0.93), 0.51 (0.43, 0.59), 0.75 (0.67, 0.83) and 0.67 (0.60, 0.75), respectively, in the same countries. The IRs, estimated by Poisson regression in cases per 100 cow-years, based on the farmers’ recordings, were 46.9 (41.7, 52.7), 38.6 (34.2, 43.5), 31.3 (27.2, 35.9) and 26.2 (23.2, 26.9), respectively, which was between 20% (DK) and 100% (FI) higher than the IRs based on recordings in the central cattle databases. Conclusions The completeness for veterinary-supervised cases of CM was considerably less than 100% in all four Nordic countries and differed between countries. Hence, the number of CM cases in dairy cows is underestimated. This has an impact on all areas where the disease data are used.

Wolff Cecilia; Espetvedt Mari; Lind Ann-Kristina; Rintakoski Simo; Egenvall Agneta; Lindberg Ann; Emanuelson Ulf

2012-01-01

173

Comparative efficacy of homeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine in the management of clinical mastitis of Indian dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mastitis is the major problem of dairy animals despite a number of preventive and therapeutic approaches. Treatment is costly and out of reach of farmers of developing countries like India. The treatment cost of bovine mastitis with conventional treatment has been calculated. Good results have been claimed with homeopathic treatment however, treatment costs are not available. This article reports the treatment economics of homeopathic drugs conventional drugs for the management of bovine mastitis. Ninety-six mastitic quarters (non-fibrosed 67 and fibrosed 29) were treated with a homeopathic combination medicine. Another 96 quarters with acute mastitis (non-fibrosed) treated with different antibiotics were included in the study. The animals were selected from dairy farm of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute and from private dairy farms. The overall effectiveness of homeopathic combination medicine in the treatment of acute non-fibrosed mastitis was 86.6% with a mean recovery period of 7.7 days (range 3-28), and total cost of therapy as Indian Rupees 21.4 (0.39 Euros, US$ 0.47). The corresponding cure rate for the antibiotic group was 59.2% with a mean recovery period of 4.5 days (range 2-15) and an average treatment cost of Rs.149.20 (2.69 Euros, US$ 3.28). We conclude that the combination of Phytolacca, Calcarea fluorica., Silica, Belladonna, Bryonia, Arnica, Conium and Ipecacuanha (Healwell VT-6) was effective and economical in the management of mastitis in lactating dairy cows.

Varshney JP; Naresh R

2005-04-01

174

Comparative efficacy of homeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine in the management of clinical mastitis of Indian dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis is the major problem of dairy animals despite a number of preventive and therapeutic approaches. Treatment is costly and out of reach of farmers of developing countries like India. The treatment cost of bovine mastitis with conventional treatment has been calculated. Good results have been claimed with homeopathic treatment however, treatment costs are not available. This article reports the treatment economics of homeopathic drugs conventional drugs for the management of bovine mastitis. Ninety-six mastitic quarters (non-fibrosed 67 and fibrosed 29) were treated with a homeopathic combination medicine. Another 96 quarters with acute mastitis (non-fibrosed) treated with different antibiotics were included in the study. The animals were selected from dairy farm of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute and from private dairy farms. The overall effectiveness of homeopathic combination medicine in the treatment of acute non-fibrosed mastitis was 86.6% with a mean recovery period of 7.7 days (range 3-28), and total cost of therapy as Indian Rupees 21.4 (0.39 Euros, US$ 0.47). The corresponding cure rate for the antibiotic group was 59.2% with a mean recovery period of 4.5 days (range 2-15) and an average treatment cost of Rs.149.20 (2.69 Euros, US$ 3.28). We conclude that the combination of Phytolacca, Calcarea fluorica., Silica, Belladonna, Bryonia, Arnica, Conium and Ipecacuanha (Healwell VT-6) was effective and economical in the management of mastitis in lactating dairy cows. PMID:15892487

Varshney, J P; Naresh, R

2005-04-01

175

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in Belgian cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is infrequently reported in mastitis. Yet, as in many other countries, the prevalence of methicillin resistance among S. aureus from mastitis is currently unknown in Belgium. To elucidate this, the presence of mecA was investigated in 118 S. aureus strains originating from diagnostic mastitis milk samples from 118 different farms experiencing S. aureus mastitis. MRSA strains were characterized by disk diffusion susceptibility testing, spa-typing, MLST and SCCmec-typing. In an additional study, four MRSA-positive farms were selected to assess the in-herd prevalence of MRSA, by sampling all cows in lactation. Isolated MRSA strains were similarly characterized. The mecA gene was detected in 11 (9.3%) of the 118 S. aureus isolates, indicating that nearly 10% of the Belgian farms suffering from S. aureus mastitis have an MRSA problem. The in-herd prevalence varied between 0% and 7.4%. Characterization of the MRSA strains showed that they were all resistant to tetracycline. Additional resistances to macrolides, lincosamides and aminoglycosides were frequently detected. The strains were ST398, spa-types t011 or t567 and had SCCmec-type IVa or V, proving that they belong to the emerging livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) strains of CC398. Our study shows that after detection in Belgian pigs, horses and poultry, LA-MRSA has also attained Belgian cattle. It is the first report on frequent isolation of LA-MRSA from bovine infections. As the in-herd isolation rate resembles that of regular S. aureus in farms experiencing S. aureus mastitis, the multi-resistance of LA-MRSA strains may cause future treatment problems. PMID:20092969

Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Cerpentier, Tineke; Adriaensen, Connie; Vicca, Jo; Hermans, Katleen; Butaye, Patrick

2010-01-11

176

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in Belgian cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is infrequently reported in mastitis. Yet, as in many other countries, the prevalence of methicillin resistance among S. aureus from mastitis is currently unknown in Belgium. To elucidate this, the presence of mecA was investigated in 118 S. aureus strains originating from diagnostic mastitis milk samples from 118 different farms experiencing S. aureus mastitis. MRSA strains were characterized by disk diffusion susceptibility testing, spa-typing, MLST and SCCmec-typing. In an additional study, four MRSA-positive farms were selected to assess the in-herd prevalence of MRSA, by sampling all cows in lactation. Isolated MRSA strains were similarly characterized. The mecA gene was detected in 11 (9.3%) of the 118 S. aureus isolates, indicating that nearly 10% of the Belgian farms suffering from S. aureus mastitis have an MRSA problem. The in-herd prevalence varied between 0% and 7.4%. Characterization of the MRSA strains showed that they were all resistant to tetracycline. Additional resistances to macrolides, lincosamides and aminoglycosides were frequently detected. The strains were ST398, spa-types t011 or t567 and had SCCmec-type IVa or V, proving that they belong to the emerging livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) strains of CC398. Our study shows that after detection in Belgian pigs, horses and poultry, LA-MRSA has also attained Belgian cattle. It is the first report on frequent isolation of LA-MRSA from bovine infections. As the in-herd isolation rate resembles that of regular S. aureus in farms experiencing S. aureus mastitis, the multi-resistance of LA-MRSA strains may cause future treatment problems.

Vanderhaeghen W; Cerpentier T; Adriaensen C; Vicca J; Hermans K; Butaye P

2010-07-01

177

[Occurrence of Prototheca mastitis in dairy farms in Hesse  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During January 1994 and August 1996 from dairy farms in Hessia a total of 305,609 milk samples were investigated. Prototheca sp. as etiological agent of a mastitis was isolated from milk samples of seven dairy herds. According to our experiences and to several reports from various countries dealing with Prototheca infections in dairy herds, mastitis control programs should include Prototheca algae as potential pathogens. Mastitis due to this organism usually occurs in different semeiologies, one with clinical symptoms, and the other, more common type, as subclinical mastitis. In both cases, Prototheca organisms use to persist in the tissue of the mammary gland also during the dry period and antimicrobial treatment proves to be ineffective. Considering the wide distribution of these algae as saprophytes in the environment and in feces of several domestic animals, predisposing factors like a humid aerobic milieu and unsanitary milking conditions are necessary for Prototheca infections becoming manifest in the udder of dairy cows. Control measures should preferably stress the identification and removal of infected animals, in particular when the disease is sporadic in the herd. Due to the more questionable occurrence of spontaneous healing and the lack of an efficient drug, slaughtering of infected cows appears as a suitable method to eliminate the disease from the herd. Additionally, improvement of the hygiene status concerning feeding and milking management within a herd is as essential as in the control of other opportunistic udder pathogens.

Schlenstedt R; Zschöck M; Kloppert B; Wolter W

1997-08-01

178

Detection of quantitative trait loci in Danish Holstein cattle affecting clinical mastitis, somatic cell score, udder conformation traits, and assessment of associated effects on milk yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to 1) detect QTL across the cattle genome that influence the incidence of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS) in Danish Holsteins, and 2) characterize these QTL for pleiotropy versus multiple linked quantitative trait loci (QTL) when chromosomal regions affecting clinical mastitis were also affecting other traits in the Danish udder health index or milk production traits. The chromosomes were scanned using a granddaughter design where markers were typed for 19 to 34 grandsire families and 1,373 to 2,042 sons. A total of 356 microsatellites covering all 29 autosomes were used in the scan. Among the across-family regression analyses, 16 showed chromosome-wide significance for the primary traits incidence of clinical mastitis in first (CM1), second (CM2), and third (CM3) lactations, and SCS. Regions of chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 11, 15, and 26 were found to affect CM and regions of chromosomes 5, 6, 8, 13, 22, 23, 24, and 25 affected SCS. Markers on chromosomes 6, 11, 15, and 26 can be used to perform marker-assisted selection on CM without a direct negative selection on milk yield, because no effects were detected on the milk traits. Comparing multi-trait models assuming either a pleiotropic QTL affecting 2 traits or 2 QTL each affecting 1 trait gave some evidence to distinguish between these models. For Bos taurus autosome 5, the most likely models were a pleiotropic QTL affecting CM2, CM3, and SCS, and a linked QTL affecting fat yield index. For Bos taurus autosome 9, the most likely model is a pleiotropic QTL affecting CM1 and CM2 at approximately 8 cM

Lund, M S; Guldbrandtsen, B

2008-01-01

179

Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms were very low. Farmers had no knowledge on sub-clinical mastitis. Staphylococcus species were the most common isolates and more than 50% of the isolates were resistant to the commonly used antibiotics penicillin and tetracycline.

Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.

2008-01-01

180

Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL.

Sahana G; Guldbrandtsen B; Thomsen B; Lund MS

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina (Methods of detection of the bovine mastitis)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre los métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina que se utilizan más comúnmente en el mundo. La mastitis bovina es la inflamación de la glándula mamaria causada por una infección por patógenos. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la producción que afecta a la industria lechera en todo el mundo. Puede presentarse de manera clínica y subclínica. La mastitis subclínica es de larga duración y es mucho más frecuente que la mastitis clínica. Dentro de los métodos que se usan con mayor frecuencia a nivel de campo para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas, se encuentran el método de observación y palpación de la ubre y las pruebas físicas, como la prueba de escudilla de ordeño, prueba del paño negro y taza probadora. Las pruebas químicas, como la prueba de conductividad eléctrica de la leche, papel indicador de mastitis y prueba de whiteside que sirven también para diagnosticar mastitis clínicas y subclínicas. Las pruebas biológicas, como son la prueba de California para mastitis, la prueba de Wisconsin, el diagnóstico bacteriológico por los métodos de aislamiento, cultivo, tinción, pruebas bioquímicas e identificación y el conteo de células somáticas por microscopia directa y el somaticell. Otros métodos utilizados actualmente por su rapidez y efectividad son los electrónicos como el fossomatic y el counter coulter, los cuales tienen una aplicación universal sobre todo en laboratorios de control lechero o dedicados al diagnóstico e investigación de la mastitis y el DeLaval cell counter. Los métodos de detección de mastitis son una herramienta que permite identificar el tipo de infección clínica o subclínica que puede presentarse dentro de un hato lechero, por lo que el método que se elija para determinar las pruebas será esencial para tener un diagnóstico más preciso.AbstractThis article is a bibliographical revision on the methods of detection of the bovine mastitis that is used more commonly in the world. The bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland caused by an infection by pathogens. Is one of the most frequent diseases of the production that affects the milk industry anywhere in the world. It can appear of clinical and subclinical way. The subclinical mastitis is long play and is much more frequent that the clinical mastitis. Within the methods that are used most frequently at field level to diagnose clinical mastitis, are the method of observation and palpation of udder and the physical tests, as the container of milking test, the black cloth test and cup test. The chemical tests, like the electrical conductivity of milk test, paper test of mastitis and whiteside test that they also serve to diagnose clinical and subclinical mastitis. The biological tests, as they are the California mastitis test, the Wisconsin test, the bacteriological diagnosis by the methods of isolation, culture, biochemical stain, tests and identification, the count of somatic cells by direct microscope and somaticell. Other methods used at the moment by their rapidity and effectiveness are the electronic ones like the fossomatic, the counter coulter and the, which mainly have a universal application in laboratories of control milk or dedicated to the diagnosis and investigation of the mastitis and the DeLaval cell counter. The methods of detection of mastitis are a tool that allows to identify the type of clinical infection or subclinical that can appear within a milk cattle ranch, reason why the method that is chosen to determine the tests will be essential to have a more precise diagnosis.

Bedolla, CC; Castañeda, VH; Wolter, W

2007-01-01

182

Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy cows in the Moghan region of Ardabil State, Iran : short communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma bovis were diagnosed in Ardabil State, Iran. An investigation was carried out with the aim of establishing the extent of mycoplasma infections in dairy cows in Ardabil State. Milk samples obtained from 80 cows with clinical mastitis were cultured in the laboratory for the presence of mycoplasmas. Similarly, 48 bulk-tank milk samples were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. A modified Hayflick broth was used to isolate the mycoplasmas and an immunoperoxidase test used for the species identification of the isolates. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 39 (48.75 %) of the clinical mastitis samples and from 48 of the bulk-tank milk samples tested. This indicated that mycoplasma udder infections were more prevalent in dairy cows in Ardabil State than previously thought.

C. Ghazaei

2012-01-01

183

Prognostic indicators for toxic mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During a three-year study, 54 cows with toxic mastitis were examined and a number of clinical and laboratory measurements were taken. Twenty-five (46.3 per cent) of the cows died, and in comparison with those which survived, they had a significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) (P < 0.01), longer eyelid skin tent time (P < 0.01) and lower rectal temperature (P < 0.01). In a model designed to predict the probability of survival, these variables correctly predicted survival in 84 per cent of cases and death in 73 per cent of cases. The cows with toxic mastitis had a significantly higher PCV than a normal cohort of cows sampled at the end of the study.

Green MJ; Cripps PJ; Green LE

1998-08-01

184

Trends in Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Mastitis: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin (IL) 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1) are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition.

Rajib Deb; Amit Kumar; Sandip Chakraborty; Amit Kumar Verma; Ruchi Tiwari; Kuldeep Dhama; Umesh Singh; Sushil Kumar

2013-01-01

185

The effect of internal teat sealant products (Teatseal and Orbeseal) on intramammary infection, clinical mastitis, and somatic cell counts in lactating dairy cows: A meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of internal teat sealant products containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal and Orbeseal; Pfizer Animal Health, West Ryde, Australia) when used alone, or in the presence of antibiotic dry cow therapy (ADCT), before or at drying off on the incidence of new intramammary infections (IMI), clinical mastitis, and milk somatic cell count (SCC) during lactation. The literature search identified 18 English-language publications on the use of Teatseal in dairy cattle. A total of 12 studies with 17 subtrials or comparisons including 13 positive control subtrials (internal teat sealant and ADCT vs. ADCT) and 4 negative control subtrials (internal teat sealant vs. untreated) examining IMI were included in the analysis. Internal teat sealants, alone or in the presence of ADCT, reduced the risk of acquiring new IMI after calving by 25% [risk ratio (RR) = 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67 to 0.83]. Internal teat sealants reduced the risk of IMI by 73% compared with untreated cows (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.55). The results of both meta-analyses of IMI, with positive and negative controls, were heterogeneous [I(2) (a statistic that describes the proportion of total variation in study effect estimates that is due to heterogeneity) = 65.4 and 92.1%]. No farm or cow factors studied significantly contributed to the heterogeneity of the results. A total of 16 studies (21 subtrials), including 14 positive control subtrials and 7 negative control subtrials, examining clinical mastitis were included in the analysis. Internal teat sealants alone and in the presence of ADCT reduced the risk of clinical mastitis after calving in lactating cows by 29% (RR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82), and 48% (RR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.75), respectively. The results of the meta-analysis on clinical mastitis with positive controls were homogenous (I(2) = 33.6%), whereas the results of studies with negative controls were heterogeneous (I(2) = 60.4%). No farm or cow factors studied that had sufficient data to evaluate significantly contributed to the heterogeneity of the results. The estimated linear score (LS) of milk SCC after calving in published studies (n = 3) and for studies that provided raw data (n = 2), was significantly lower for cattle treated with internal teat sealants and ADCT in 3 studies than for cattle treated with internal teat sealants only. The estimated LS of pooled raw data of 3 studies from 32 herds showed that the LS of cows treated with internal teat sealant and ADCT was not significantly different than those treated with ADCT only. This study found that the application of internal teat sealants in the presence of ADCT or the use of internal teat sealants alone at dry off significantly reduced the incidence of IMI and clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows compared with respective control groups. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of internal teat sealants on postpartum milk SCC in lactating dairy cows.

Rabiee AR; Lean IJ

2013-09-01

186

Prevalence of mastitis pathogens and their resistance against antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Brandenburg, Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The primary objective of this study was to determine management practices concerning mastitis in Brandenburg, Germany, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows, and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. A further objective was to study the potential effect of parity and stage of lactation on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates against ampicillin. Milk samples for microbiological culture were collected from 4 groups of clinically healthy cows (first lactation, >1 lactation, >50 d in milk, and >250 d in milk; 8 cows/group) in 80 dairy herds. Resistance of gram-positive pathogens against 6 antimicrobial agents was tested using the broth microdilution method. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 26.4% of the milk samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 9.1% of quarters) and Corynebacterium bovis (7.3%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Among the major pathogens, Staph. aureus (5.7%) and Streptococcus uberis (1.0%) had the highest prevalence. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in samples from 29% of the herds. Although the prevalence of most pathogens was higher in older cows, the prevalence of CNS was higher in primiparous cows. Results of the mastitis control questionnaire showed that cows with clinical mastitis were transferred to a sick cow pen in 70% of the herds. Cephalosporins were the drug of first choice for treatment of clinical mastitis cases followed by fixed combinations of antimicrobial agents, beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins, and penicillin. Most farmers treated cows 3 to 4 times per case. Cloxacillin, alone or in combination, and penicillin were most often used for dry-cow therapy. Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens was within the range of other reports. Resistance of Staph. aureus to ampicillin increased significantly during the first lactation. Further research is required to determine the factors that lead to the selection of Staph. aureus strains that are resistant to ampicillin during the first lactation.

Tenhagen BA; Köster G; Wallmann J; Heuwieser W

2006-07-01

187

Prevalence of mastitis pathogens and their resistance against antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Brandenburg, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this study was to determine management practices concerning mastitis in Brandenburg, Germany, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows, and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. A further objective was to study the potential effect of parity and stage of lactation on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates against ampicillin. Milk samples for microbiological culture were collected from 4 groups of clinically healthy cows (first lactation, >1 lactation, >50 d in milk, and >250 d in milk; 8 cows/group) in 80 dairy herds. Resistance of gram-positive pathogens against 6 antimicrobial agents was tested using the broth microdilution method. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 26.4% of the milk samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 9.1% of quarters) and Corynebacterium bovis (7.3%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Among the major pathogens, Staph. aureus (5.7%) and Streptococcus uberis (1.0%) had the highest prevalence. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in samples from 29% of the herds. Although the prevalence of most pathogens was higher in older cows, the prevalence of CNS was higher in primiparous cows. Results of the mastitis control questionnaire showed that cows with clinical mastitis were transferred to a sick cow pen in 70% of the herds. Cephalosporins were the drug of first choice for treatment of clinical mastitis cases followed by fixed combinations of antimicrobial agents, beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins, and penicillin. Most farmers treated cows 3 to 4 times per case. Cloxacillin, alone or in combination, and penicillin were most often used for dry-cow therapy. Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens was within the range of other reports. Resistance of Staph. aureus to ampicillin increased significantly during the first lactation. Further research is required to determine the factors that lead to the selection of Staph. aureus strains that are resistant to ampicillin during the first lactation. PMID:16772573

Tenhagen, B-A; Köster, G; Wallmann, J; Heuwieser, W

2006-07-01

188

PERINATAL LEUKODYSTROPHY CLINICAL CASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the authors want to present a case of a premature newborn who presented an extremely rare disease for medical practice. Low prevalence of the perinatal leukodystrophy, the difficulty of the clinical diagnosis and the echography resemblance with other diseases of the periventricular white matter is the subjects of this presentation.

Marioara Boia; V Botiu; ES Boia; Daniela Iacob; Aniko Manea; Dana Mihut

2004-01-01

189

[Tungiasis. A clinical case].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tungiasis is a cutaneous infestation by the female sand flea, Tunga penetrans. Because of the increase in international travel, the disease is reported in Europe, in spite of it being formerly restricted to the equatorial zones. This report describes a case of tungiasis and discusses clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.

D'Antuono A; Gatti M; Negosanti M; Passarini B; Pauluzzi P; Reggiani M

1990-06-01

190

Heritability estimates associated with alternative definitions of mastitis and correlations with somatic cell score and yield.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to compare alternative mastitis definitions and to estimate genetic correlations of producer-recorded mastitis with somatic cell score (SCS) and yield. Cow health events and lactation records from June 2002 through October 2007 were provided by Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC). First- through fifth-lactation records from cows calving between 20 and 120 mo of age and that calved in a herd-year with at least 1% of cows with a clinical mastitis event were retained. The edited data contained 118,516 lactation records and 1,072,741 test-day records of 64,893 cows. Mastitis occurrence (1 = at least one mastitis event during lactation or test-day interval, 0 = no mastitis events), number of mastitis events during lactation, SCS, and yield were analyzed with animal models (single trait) or sire-maternal grandsire models (multiple trait) in ASREML. Comparisons were made among models assuming a normal distribution, a binary distribution, or Poisson distribution (for total episodes). The overall incidence of clinical mastitis was 15.4%; and heritability estimates ranged from 0.73% (test-day interval mastitis with a linear model) to 11.07% (number of mastitis episodes with a Poisson model). Increased mastitis incidence was genetically correlated with higher SCS (range 0.66 to 0.88) and was generally correlated with higher yield (range -0.03 to 0.40), particularly during first lactation (0.04 to 0.40). Significant genetic variation exists for clinical mastitis; and health events recorded by producers could be used to generate genetic evaluations for cow health. Sires ranked similarly for daughter mastitis susceptibility regardless of how mastitis was defined; however, test-day interval mastitis and a total count of mastitis episodes per lactation allow a higher proportion of mastitis treatments to be included in the genetic analysis. PMID:19528618

Vallimont, J E; Dechow, C D; Sattler, C G; Clay, J S

2009-07-01

191

Heritability estimates associated with alternative definitions of mastitis and correlations with somatic cell score and yield.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to compare alternative mastitis definitions and to estimate genetic correlations of producer-recorded mastitis with somatic cell score (SCS) and yield. Cow health events and lactation records from June 2002 through October 2007 were provided by Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC). First- through fifth-lactation records from cows calving between 20 and 120 mo of age and that calved in a herd-year with at least 1% of cows with a clinical mastitis event were retained. The edited data contained 118,516 lactation records and 1,072,741 test-day records of 64,893 cows. Mastitis occurrence (1 = at least one mastitis event during lactation or test-day interval, 0 = no mastitis events), number of mastitis events during lactation, SCS, and yield were analyzed with animal models (single trait) or sire-maternal grandsire models (multiple trait) in ASREML. Comparisons were made among models assuming a normal distribution, a binary distribution, or Poisson distribution (for total episodes). The overall incidence of clinical mastitis was 15.4%; and heritability estimates ranged from 0.73% (test-day interval mastitis with a linear model) to 11.07% (number of mastitis episodes with a Poisson model). Increased mastitis incidence was genetically correlated with higher SCS (range 0.66 to 0.88) and was generally correlated with higher yield (range -0.03 to 0.40), particularly during first lactation (0.04 to 0.40). Significant genetic variation exists for clinical mastitis; and health events recorded by producers could be used to generate genetic evaluations for cow health. Sires ranked similarly for daughter mastitis susceptibility regardless of how mastitis was defined; however, test-day interval mastitis and a total count of mastitis episodes per lactation allow a higher proportion of mastitis treatments to be included in the genetic analysis.

Vallimont JE; Dechow CD; Sattler CG; Clay JS

2009-07-01

192

Dynamic programming to investigate financial impacts of mastitis control decisions in milk production systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An adaptive stochastic dynamic programming model was used to solve the optimum replacement decision problem for the dairy cow under a range of alternative mastitis control procedures. The model predicted that reducing milk yield losses and somatic cell count penalties by, using milking machine test, post-milking teat disinfection and dry cow therapy added approximately pounds sterling 4, pounds sterling 10 and pounds sterling 13 respectively to an original annuity equivalent net present value for the replacement heifer of pounds sterling 286. Assuming that these procedures also reduced involuntary culling due to mastitis by 50% added pounds sterling 8.90 to the annuity. This latter figure indicated that an important part of the benefit of mastitis control procedures might come from a reduction in the culling risk of persistent clinical cases. We concluded that the strength of the dynamic programming model in this context was that it provided an integrated evaluation of the various impacts of each alternative mastitis procedure in the long term, which is essential for correct economic evaluation of mastitis.

Yalcin C; Stott AW

2000-11-01

193

Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective antimicrobial treatment in mastitis cases caused by gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23141826

Langerhuus, S N; Ingvartsen, K L; Bennedsgaard, T W; Røntved, C M

2012-11-08

194

Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF- ? genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p < 0.05). It was also higher in BW Holstein animals with clinical mastitis (p < 0.001), but it was not significant when Gyr cows with and without mastitis were compared (0.05 < p < 0.10). Among healthy cows, BW Holstein animals tended to present a higher expression of all genes studied, with a significant difference for the IL-2 and IFN- ? genes (p < 0.001). For animals with mastitis no significant difference in gene expression was observed between the two breeds. These findings suggest that animals with mastitis develop a preferentially cell-mediated immune response. Further studies including larger samples are necessary to better characterize the gene expression profile in cows with mastitis.

Fonseca I; Silva PV; Lange CC; Guimarães MF; Weller MM; Sousa KR; Lopes PS; Guimarães JD; Guimarães SE

2009-10-01

195

Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF-? genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p < 0.05). It was also higher in BW Holstein animals with clinical mastitis (p < 0.001), but it was not significant when Gyr cows with and without mastitis were compared (0.05 < p < 0.10). Among healthy cows, BW Holstein animals tended to present a higher expression of all genes studied, with a significant difference for the IL-2 and IFN-? genes (p < 0.001). For animals with mastitis no significant difference in gene expression was observed between the two breeds. These findings suggest that animals with mastitis develop a preferentially cell-mediated immune response. Further studies including larger samples are necessary to better characterize the gene expression profile in cows with mastitis.

Isabela Fonseca; Priscila Vendramini Silva; Carla Christine Lange; Marta F.M. Guimarães; Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller; Katiene Régia Silva Sousa; Paulo Sávio Lopes; José Domingos Guimarães; Simone E.F. Guimarães

2009-01-01

196

Prevalence, risk factors, and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR?=?3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR?=?3.4, 95 % CI?=?1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR?=?2.6, 95 % CI?=?1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR?=?2.3, 95 % CI?=?1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR?=?13.7, 95 % CI?=?1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in Southern Ethiopia.

Regassa A; Golicha G; Tesfaye D; Abunna F; Megersa B

2013-10-01

197

Prevalence, risk factors, and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR?=?3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR?=?3.4, 95 % CI?=?1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR?=?2.6, 95 % CI?=?1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR?=?2.3, 95 % CI?=?1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR?=?13.7, 95 % CI?=?1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in Southern Ethiopia. PMID:23563738

Regassa, Alemayehu; Golicha, Gelma; Tesfaye, Dawit; Abunna, Fufa; Megersa, Bekele

2013-04-06

198

Hygiene-related and feed-related hoof diseases show different patterns of genetic correlations to clinical mastitis and female fertility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hoof diseases are a problem in many dairy herds. To study one aspect of the problem, genetic correlations between 4 hoof diseases, protein yield, clinical mastitis, number of inseminations, and days from calving to first insemination were estimated in first-parity Swedish Red cows using trivariate linear animal models. Occurrence of dermatitis, heel horn erosion, sole hemorrhage, and sole ulcer were reported by hoof trimmers. The data set contained about 314,000 animals with records on at least one of the traits; among these, about 64,000 animals had records on hoof diseases. Heritabilities were low for all hoof diseases (0.03 to 0.05). The hoof diseases fell into 2 groups: (1) dermatitis and heel horn erosion (i.e., diseases related to hygiene) and (2) sole hemorrhage and sole ulcer (i.e., diseases related to feeding). The genetic correlations between traits within the 2 groups were high (0.87 and 0.73, respectively), whereas the genetic correlations between traits in different groups were low (?0.23). Theseresults indicate that the 2 groups of hoof diseases are partly influenced by the same genes. All genetic correlations between hoof diseases and protein yield were low to moderate and unfavorable. Moderate and favorable genetic correlations were found between the feed-related hoof diseases and clinical mastitis (0.35 and 0.32), whereas the genetic correlations between the hygiene-related hoof diseases and clinical mastitis were low and not significantly different from zero. The genetic correlations between the hygiene-related hoof diseases and number of inseminations were low to moderate and favorable (0.32 and 0.22), and the genetic correlations between the feed-related hoof diseases and number of inseminations were low and not significantly different from zero. A moderate genetic correlation was found between sole ulcer and days from calving to first insemination (0.33), whereas the genetic correlations between days from calving to first insemination and sole hemorrhage and the hygiene-related hoof diseaseswere low and not significantly different from zero. In general, the 2 groups of hoof diseases showed different patterns of genetic correlations to the other functional traits, but both were unfavorably correlated to protein yield. A simulation study showed that inclusion of hoof diseases in the selection index will not only reduce the genetic decline in resistance to hoof diseases but also be favorable for other functional traits and improve overall genetic merit

Buch, Line HjortØ; SØrensen, Anders Christian

2011-01-01

199

Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy cows in the Moghan region of Ardabil State, Iran : short communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplas...

C. Ghazaei

200

Changing trends in mastitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control.

Zadoks RN; Fitzpatrick JL

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Changing trends in mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control.

Zadoks R; Fitzpatrick J

2009-01-01

202

Changing trends in mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control. PMID:22082032

Zadoks, Rn; Fitzpatrick, Jl

2009-04-01

203

Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF- ? genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk...

Fonseca, Isabela; Silva, Priscila Vendramini; Lange, Carla Christine; Guimarães, Marta F. M.; Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral

204

Prototheca zopfii mastitis in dairy herds under continental climatic conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last 2 years 223 cases of bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii infection were identified in 32 large-scale dairy herds. All of these farms were in Hungary, which has a continental type, temperate zone climate. Both the sporadic and epidemic forms of P. zopfii mastitis were observed. All the herds affected by the epidemic form had poor hygienic conditions and suffered from several managerial faults, but no specific predisposing factors could be identified. In almost all of the cases, the type II variant of this pathogen was isolated; however, the type III variant was isolated from three cows. The cows had a higher chance of new infection in the early weeks of lactation and in the summer. The P. zopfii infection usually resulted in a chronic subclinical, or mild clinical, inflammatory process in the udder, and was followed by a dramatic loss in milk production and a permanent increase in somatic cell count. The histopathological findings could be characterized as a progressive interstitial mastitis associated with alveolar atrophy. The self-recovery rate was very low.

Jánosi S; Szigeti G; Rátz F; Laukó T; Kerényi J; Tenk M; Katona F; Huszenicza A; Kulcsár M; Huszenicza G

2001-04-01

205

Mastite clínica em vacas leiteiras suplementadas com selênio e vitamina E Clinical mastitis in dairy cows supplemented with selenium and vitamin E  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a prevalência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça Holandesa. Oitenta vacas foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: controle e suplementação com 2,5 mg selênio dia-1 , com 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 e com 2,5 mg selênio + 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 . A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas, quinzenalmente, para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de selênio. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, no parto, 30 e 60 dias após o parto, para determinação dos níveis de selênio. O teste de Tamis e a análise clínica do úbere foram realizados semanalmente, para detecção de mastite até a décima segunda semana de lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos superiores (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selenium and vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Eighty cows were allocated into four treatments: control, supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1, supplementation with 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 , and supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1 + 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 . The supplementation started 30 days prior to probable parturition date until parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical and selenium analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, right after parturition, 30 and 60 days after it to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test and udder analysis were weekly performed to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration compared with control group (P<0.05). Vitamin E and selenium did not decrease the prevalence of clinical mastitis up to 12th week and there was no interaction between those elements.

Juliana Jorge Paschoal; Marcus Antonio Zanetti; José Aparecido Cunha

2005-01-01

206

Lupus mastitis: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lupus mastitis (LM) is a rare benign inflammatory condition characterized by inflammation of the deep subcutaneous adipose tissues of the breast. It can be seen in patients with a known history of systemic lupus erythematous or discoid lupus or rarely can be the initial presentation of these diseases. Histologically, the most common findings are the presence of a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of lobules and hyaline fat necrosis. Radiologic characteristics of LM can mimic a malignant lesion. However, because histologic features of this lesion have been well defined, correlation with clinical history is important to arrive at an accurate diagnosis and, therefore, deliver appropriate patient management. Herein, we present a review of LM with emphasis on clinicopathologic findings and differential diagnosis.

Rosa M; Mohammadi A

2013-04-01

207

Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aureus and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer mastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable. The magnitude of the effect of heifer mastitis on an individual animal is influenced by the form of mastitis (clinical versus subclinical), the virulence of the causative pathogen(s) (major versus minor pathogens), the time of onset of infection relative to calving, cure or persistence of the infection when milk production has started, and the host's immunity. Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity. At the herd level, the impact will depend on the prevalence and incidence of the disease, the nature of the problem (clinical, subclinical, nonfunctional quarters), the causative pathogens involved (major versus minor pathogens), the ability of the animals to cope with the disease, and the response of the dairy manager to control the disease through management changes. Specific recommendations to prevent and control mastitis in late gestation in periparturient heifers are not part of the current National Mastitis Council mastitis and prevention program. Control and prevention is currently based on avoidance of inter-sucking among young stock, fly control, optimal nutrition, and implementation of hygiene control and comfort measures, especially around calving. More risk factors for subclinical and clinical heifer mastitis have been identified (e.g., season, location of herd, stage of pregnancy) although they do not lend themselves to the development of specific intervention strategies designed to prevent the disease. Pathogen-specific risk factors and associated control measures need to be identified due to the pathogen-related variation in epidemiology and effect on future performance. Prepartum intramammary treatment with antibiotics has been proposed as a simple and effective way of controlling heifer mastitis but positive long-lasting effects on somatic cell count and milk yield do not always occur, ruling out universal recommendation of this practice. Moreover, use of antibiotics in this manner is off-label and results in an increased risk of antibiotic residues in milk. Prepartum treatment can be implemented only as a short-term measure to assist in the control of a significant heifer mastitis problem under supervision of the herd veterinarian. When CNS are the major cause of intramammary infection in heifers, productivity is not affected, making prepartum treatment redundant and even unwanted. In conclusion, heifer mastitis can affect the profitability of dairy farming because of a potential long-term negative effect on udder health and milk production and an associated culling risk, specifically when major pathogens are involved. Prevention and control is not easy but is possible through changes in young stock and heifer management. However, the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease remain largely unknown and more pathogen-specific risk factors should be identified to optimize current prevention programs.

De Vliegher S; Fox LK; Piepers S; McDougall S; Barkema HW

2012-03-01

208

The role of bacteria in lactational mastitis and some considerations of the use of antibiotic treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of bacterial pathogens in lactational mastitis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare bacterial species in breast milk of women with mastitis and of healthy breast milk donors and to evaluate the use of antibiotic therapy, the symptoms of mastitis, number of health care contacts, occurrence of breast abscess, damaged nipples and recurrent symptoms in relation to bacterial counts. Methods In this descriptive study, breast milk from 192 women with mastitis (referred to as cases) and 466 breast milk donors (referred to as controls) was examined bacteriologically and compared using analytical statistics. Statistical analyses were also carried out to test for relationships between bacteriological content and clinical symptoms as measured on scales, prescription of antibiotics, the number of care contacts, occurrence of breast abscess and recurring symptoms. Results Five main bacterial species were found in both cases and controls: coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), viridans streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Group B streptococci (GBS) and Enterococcus faecalis. More women with mastitis had S. aureus and GBS in their breast milk than those without symptoms, although 31% of healthy women harboured S. aureus and 10% had GBS. There were no significant correlations between bacterial counts and the symptoms of mastitis as measured on scales. There were no differences in bacterial counts between those prescribed and not prescribed antibiotics or those with and without breast abscess. GBS in breast milk was associated with increased health care contacts (p = 0.02). Women with ? 107 cfu/L CNS or viridans streptococci in their breast milk had increased odds for damaged nipples (p = 0.003). Conclusion Many healthy breastfeeding women have potentially pathogenic bacteria in their breast milk. Increasing bacterial counts did not affect the clinical manifestation of mastitis; thus bacterial counts in breast milk may be of limited value in the decision to treat with antibiotics as results from bacterial culture of breast milk may be difficult to interpret. These results suggest that the division of mastitis into infective or non-infective forms may not be practically feasible. Daily follow-up to measure the subsidence of symptoms can help detect those in need of antibiotics.

Kvist Linda J; Larsson Bodil; Hall-Lord Marie; Steen Anita; Schalén Claes

2008-01-01

209

Enzyme activity and acute phase proteins in milk utilized as indicators of acute clinical E. coli LPS-induced mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The importance of non-visual and on-line monitoring of udder health increases as the contact between humans and animals decreases, for example, in robotic milking systems. Several indicator systems have been introduced commercially, and a number of techniques are currently in use. This study describes the kinetics of seven indigenous milk parameters for monitoring udder inflammation in an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin)-induced mastitis model. Proportional milk from LPS-infused quarters was compared with milk from parallel quarters, which were placebo-treated with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. Somatic cell counts (SCCs), the acute phase proteins (APP), that is, milk amyloid A (MAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), and the enzymes N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were measured at fixed intervals during the period from -2 to +5 days after LPS and NaCl infusions. All parameters responded significantly faster and were more pronounced to the LPS infusions compared with the NaCl infusions. All parameters were elevated in the proportional milk collected at the first milking 7 h after infusion and developed a monophasic response, except Hp and MAA that developed biphasic response. SCC, LDH, NAGase and Hp peaked at 21 h followed by AP, AcP and MAA peaking at 31 h with the highest fold changes seen for MAA (23 780×), LDH (126×), NAGase (50×) and Hp (16×). In the recovery phase, AP, AcP and Hp reached base levels first, at 117 h, whereas LDH, NAGase and MAA remained elevated following the pattern of SCC. Minor increases of the milk parameters were also seen in the neighboring (healthy) quarters. Distinction between inflamed and healthy quarters was possible for all the parameters, but only for a limited time frame for AP and AcP. Hence, when tested in an LPS mastitis model, the enzymes LDH, NAGase and AP in several aspects performed equally with SCC and APP as inflammatory milk indicators of mastitis. Furthermore, these enzymes appear potent in the assessment of a valuable time sequence of inflammation, a necessary ingredient in modeling of programs in in-line surveillance systems.

Larsen T; Røntved CM; Ingvartsen KL; Vels L; Bjerring M

2010-10-01

210

Mastite clínica em vacas leiteiras suplementadas com selênio e vitamina E/ Clinical mastitis in dairy cows supplemented with selenium and vitamin E  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a prevalência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça Holandesa. Oitenta vacas foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: controle e suplementação com 2,5 mg selênio dia-1 , com 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 e com 2,5 mg selênio + 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 . A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do conce (more) ntrado foram colhidas, quinzenalmente, para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de selênio. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, no parto, 30 e 60 dias após o parto, para determinação dos níveis de selênio. O teste de Tamis e a análise clínica do úbere foram realizados semanalmente, para detecção de mastite até a décima segunda semana de lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos superiores (p Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selenium and vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Eighty cows were allocated into four treatments: control, supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1, supplementation with 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 , and supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1 + 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 . The supplementation started 30 days prior to probable parturition date until parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days (more) for chemical and selenium analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, right after parturition, 30 and 60 days after it to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test and udder analysis were weekly performed to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration compared with control group (P

Paschoal, Juliana Jorge; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Cunha, José Aparecido

2005-10-01

211

Distribution of superantigenic toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk samples of bovine subclinical mastitis cases in two major diary production regions of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the distribution of most known staphylococcal superantigen (SAg) genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis cases, a genetic analysis of 15 SAg genes and genotypes was performed in a total of 283 S. aureus isolates collected from milk samples of cows with subclinical mastitis in two major diary production regions of China. Almost 65% of the isolates possessed at least one toxin gene. The most frequently found genes were sea (36.0%) followed by sei (31.8%), seg (31.4%) and selm (26.9%). The genes see, selk, or selo were not found in any of the isolates tested. Overall, 28 SAg genotypes were observed, among which the genotypes sea-seg-sei-selm, seg-sei-selm-seln, and sea-sed-selj predominated at the rate of 8.8%, 7.4%, and 6.7%, respectively. Marked geographical variations were noticed in the distribution of individual SAg genes and genotypes among S. aureus isolates from the two different regions. The relationship between toxin genotypes and toxin genes encoding profiles of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) was analyzed, revealing that majority of SAg genes were present in certain MGEs, which were in accordance with current knowledge about MGEs carrying those genes. However, some gene combinations suggest the possibility of the existence of variants or new types of MGEs. PMID:19217725

Wang, Shao-Chen; Wu, Cong-Ming; Xia, Sheng-Chao; Qi, Yong-Hua; Xia, Li-Ning; Shen, Jian-Zhong

2009-01-07

212

Distribution of superantigenic toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk samples of bovine subclinical mastitis cases in two major diary production regions of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To evaluate the distribution of most known staphylococcal superantigen (SAg) genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis cases, a genetic analysis of 15 SAg genes and genotypes was performed in a total of 283 S. aureus isolates collected from milk samples of cows with subclinical mastitis in two major diary production regions of China. Almost 65% of the isolates possessed at least one toxin gene. The most frequently found genes were sea (36.0%) followed by sei (31.8%), seg (31.4%) and selm (26.9%). The genes see, selk, or selo were not found in any of the isolates tested. Overall, 28 SAg genotypes were observed, among which the genotypes sea-seg-sei-selm, seg-sei-selm-seln, and sea-sed-selj predominated at the rate of 8.8%, 7.4%, and 6.7%, respectively. Marked geographical variations were noticed in the distribution of individual SAg genes and genotypes among S. aureus isolates from the two different regions. The relationship between toxin genotypes and toxin genes encoding profiles of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) was analyzed, revealing that majority of SAg genes were present in certain MGEs, which were in accordance with current knowledge about MGEs carrying those genes. However, some gene combinations suggest the possibility of the existence of variants or new types of MGEs.

Wang SC; Wu CM; Xia SC; Qi YH; Xia LN; Shen JZ

2009-06-01

213

Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits and lactation average somatic cell count from 5 to 170 d after first calving (LASCC170) with another index consisting of 1 unspecific mastitis trait and LASCC170. Economic values were estimated for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from 149 euro to 570 euro per mastitis case and were highest for contagious pathogens such as Staph. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci and lowest for Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. The value for unspecific mastitis was 231 euro per case. Selection differentials (in euro) were estimated for 4 different selection indices, including 1) unspecific mastitis, 2) unspecific mastitis and LASCC170, 3) 5 pathogen-specific mastitis traits and unspecific residual mastitis (unspecific mastitis treatments minus mastitis treatments caused by the 5 pathogens), and 4) as index 3 including LASCC170. The breeding goal was identical to selection index 3. Mastitis data from primiparous cows calving from 1998 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic parameters of the mastitis traits using linear models and AI-REML algorithm. These parameters were used for construction of the selection index equations. For the selection indices, information sources were measurements of mastitis treatments and LASCC170 from 50, 80, or 130 daughters of a bull as well as measurements of mastitis treatments from 1,000 progeny of the bull's sire and 1,000 daughters of hismaternal grandsire. Differences in selection differentials were marginal among the 4 indices. Without considering LASCC170, the selection differential of an unspecific mastitis index was 0.4 euro (

SØrensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas

2010-01-01

214

SUSCEPTIBILITIES/RESISTANCE OF Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVE AND Streptococcus sp. ISOLATED FROM THE MILK OF COWS PRESENTING CLINICAL MASTITIS IN MILK BASIN OF GOIÂNIA RESISTÊNCIA DE Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVA E Streptococcus sp. ISOLADOS DO LEITE DE VACAS COM MASTITE CLÍNICA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA  

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Full Text Available It was verified the spectrum of susceptibilities/resistance of 76 samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive and 51 samples of Streptococcus sp., isolated from milk of 231 cows presenting clinical mastitis. The diffusion method was used in plate of Kirby-Bauer, being tested ten active principles used in cases of clinical mastitis. Natural penicillin, chloranphenicol, tetraciclyne, kanamicyn, gentamicyn, nitrofurantoin, trimetopryn + sulfametoxazol, enrofloxacyn, perlimicyn and ceftiofur were tested. The samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive presented a spectrum of larger resistance for the penicillin (78.9%), followed by trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (59.2%) and nitrofurantoin (57.8%). The largest susceptibility frequency was found in enrofloxacyn (96%), in perlimicyn (94%) and in ceftiofur (94%). For the samples of Streptococcus sp. there was a profile resistance for penicillin (92%), chloranphenicol (74.5%) and trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (52%). A sensibility profile was also verified for enrofloxacyn (96%), ceftiofur (92%) and perlimicyn (92%). KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; resistance; susceptibilities. Verificou-se o espectro de sensibilidade/resistência de 76 cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e 51 cepas de Streptococcus sp., isolados do leite proveniente de 231 vacas que apresentaram mastite clínica. Utilizou-se o método de difusão em placa, segundo Kirby-Bauer, testando-se 10 princípios ativos: penicilina natural, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, kanamicina, gentamicina, nitrofurantoína, trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol, enrofloxacina, perlimicina e ceftiofur. As cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva apresentaram um espectro de resistência maior para a penicilina (78,9%), vindo a seguir trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (59,2%) e nitrofurantoína (57,8%). A maior freqüência de sensibilidade foi encontrada frente à enrofloxacina (96%), secundada pela perlimicina (94%) e ceftiofur (94%). Já para as cepas de Streptococcus sp. encontrou-se um perfil de resistência para a penicilina de 92%, para o cloranfenicol de 74,5% e para o trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol de 52%, enquanto o perfil de sensibilidade para enrofloxacina foi de 96%, para ceftiofur, de 92%, e para perlimicina, de 92%. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite bovina; sensibilidade; resistência.

Paulo César Moreira; Luiz Antônio Franco da Silva; Albenones José de Mesquita

2007-01-01

215

Experimental Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inoculation of 2000 colony-forming units of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis into one teat canal of each of three cows resulted in severe, chronic, pyogranulomatous mastitis. Within three days the cows had a reduced haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and red cell count. The anaemia was initially normocytic, normochromic and non-regenerative, and was associated with a brief peak of neutrophilia; a regenerative response became evident two to three weeks later. Clinical signs of mastitis appeared seven to 14 days after the inoculation, with a peak of high fever, more severe anaemia, a second peak of neutrophilia and the complete cessation of milk production from all quarters; extensive and severe pyogranulomatous mastitis developed in the inoculated quarters. No other lesions were detected postmortem, and C pseudotuberculosis was cultured from the affected quarters but not from the supramammary lymph nodes and viscera.

Aroch I; Harmelin A; Saran A; Levin D; Shpigel NY

2003-12-01

216

Identification of Nonlipophilic Corynebacteria Isolated from Dairy Cows with Mastitis  

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Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However...

Hommez, Jozef; Devriese, Luc A.; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Riegel, Philippe; Butaye, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy

217

Mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

No disease in dairy cattle is affected more by total management than is the level of mastitis. The maintenance of a sanitary, comfortable environment and the execution of proper milking procedures used with properly functioning milking machines are all important in reducing and maintaining a low level of new infection in a herd. When these items are executed properly, along with a successful dry-cow treatment program, mastitis can be maintained at a level that is no longer of economic importance.

Jarrett JA

1981-11-01

218

[Meningiomas. Clinical case examples].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using four case reports as examples the best treatment is discussed by considering the specific history and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. In many cases different therapeutic alternatives are possible for treatment of meningiomas.

Wilhelm H; Batra M; Honegger J; Paulsen F

2013-05-01

219

Molecular epidemiology of two Klebsiella pneumoniae mastitis outbreaks on a dairy farm in New York State.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing.

Munoz MA; Welcome FL; Schukken YH; Zadoks RN

2007-12-01

220

Molecular epidemiology of two Klebsiella pneumoniae mastitis outbreaks on a dairy farm in New York State.  

Science.gov (United States)

Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing. PMID:17928424

Munoz, Marcos A; Welcome, Francis L; Schukken, Ynte H; Zadoks, Ruth N

2007-10-10

 
 
 
 
221

Molecular Epidemiology of Two Klebsiella pneumoniae Mastitis Outbreaks on a Dairy Farm in New York State?  

Science.gov (United States)

Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing.

Munoz, Marcos A.; Welcome, Francis L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.

2007-01-01

222

Correlating the immune response with the clinical-pathological course of persistent mastitis experimentally induced by Mycoplasma agalactiae in dairy goats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To correlate the clinical course of mycoplasma mastitis with its immune response, right mammary glands of 15 lactating goats were inoculating with 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma). Before sacrificing the animals at 5, 15 or 45 days post-inoculation (dpi), blood Ma antibody titres and milk mycoplasma colony and somatic cell counts were monitored. Ma colonised the mammary gland and milk counts increased to over 10(12)cfu/ml within 5 dpi. During this period, an innate immune response involving neutrophils and macrophages was observed, and Ma antigen appeared in the degenerated acinar epithelium. From 7 dpi, a specific antibody response coincided with reduced viable mycoplasmas in milk. The humoral immune response was limited; by 37 dpi, all animals scored negative for anti-Ma antibodies, and around 10(8)cfu/ml were shed. Results indicate an early immune response to Ma inoculation unable to control mycoplasmal invasion. An ensuing humoral response, despite reducing the mycoplasma burden, leads to chronic, persistent infection.

Castro-Alonso A; Rodríguez F; De la Fé C; Espinosa de Los Monteros A; Poveda JB; Andrada M; Herráez P

2009-04-01

223

Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan  

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Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7%) had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pathological lesions and change in udder secretion, in addition to that 276 quarters (31.4%) showed subclinical mastitis. The incidence of mastitis was found to be increased in older cows. Staphylococcus aurous was considered to be the most common cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis and followed by coli forms, streptococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., proteus spp. and pseudomonas spp. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains using tertracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim.

Azmi D. Hawari; Fawzi Al-Dabbas

2008-01-01

224

Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to ?-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants. PMID:21984431

Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

2011-10-08

225

Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to ?-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

Holmes MA; Zadoks RN

2011-12-01

226

Mastitis in dairy cows associated with an aerotolerant campylobacter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the course of a study of an outbreak of mastitis in a dairy herd, an aerotolerant campylobacter was isolated from a milk sample. This organism was cultured and the right front quarters of four young Friesian cows were infected by intramammary inoculation. Each infected quarter developed an acute clinical mastitis which resolved spontaneously after 120 hours. The challenge organism was reisolated from one of the quarters.

Logan EF; Neill SD; Mackie DP

1982-03-01

227

Questionnaire-based study to assess the association between management practices and mastitis within tie-stall and free-stall dairy housing systems in Switzerland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic measures are key components of dairy herd mastitis control programs, but some are only relevant in specific housing systems. To assess the association between management practices and mastitis incidence, data collected in 2011 by a survey among 979 randomly selected Swiss dairy farms, and information from the regular test day recordings from 680 of these farms was analyzed. RESULTS: The median incidence of farmer-reported clinical mastitis (ICM) was 11.6 (mean 14.7) cases per 100 cows per year. The median annual proportion of milk samples with a composite somatic cell count (PSCC) above 200,000 cells/ml was 16.1 (mean 17.3) %. A multivariable negative binomial regression model was fitted for each of the mastitis indicators for farms with tie-stall and free-stall housing systems separately to study the effect of other (than housing system) management practices on the ICM and PSCC events (above 200,000 cells/ml). The results differed substantially by housing system and outcome. In tie-stall systems, clinical mastitis incidence was mainly affected by region (mountainous production zone; incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.73), the dairy herd replacement system (1.27) and farmers age (0.81). The proportion of high SCC was mainly associated with dry cow udder controls (IRR = 0.67), clean bedding material at calving (IRR = 1.72), using total merit values to select bulls (IRR = 1.57) and body condition scoring (IRR = 0.74). In free-stall systems, the IRR for clinical mastitis was mainly associated with stall climate / temperature (IRR = 1.65), comfort mats as resting surface (IRR = 0.75) and when no feed analysis was carried out (IRR = 1.18). The proportion of high SSC was only associated with hand and arm cleaning after calving (IRR = 0.81) and beef producing value to select bulls (IRR = 0.66). CONCLUSIONS: There were substantial differences in identified risk factors in the four models. Some of the factors were in agreement with the reported literature while others were not. This highlights the multifactorial nature of the disease and the differences in the risks for both mastitis manifestations. Attempting to understand these multifactorial associations for mastitis within larger management groups continues to play an important role in mastitis control programs.

Gordon PF; van den Borne BH; Reist M; Kohler S; Doherr MG

2013-10-01

228

Identification of Prototheca zopfii from Bovine Mastitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran. Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM) and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR. Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07%) were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp) was detected in four isolates. Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

Zaini, F; Kanani, A; Falahati, M; Fateh, R; Salimi-Asl, M; Saemi, N; Farahyar, Sh; Kheirabad, A Kargar; Nazeri, M

2012-01-01

229

Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM) and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07%) were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp) was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

F Zaini; A Kanani; M Falahati; R Fateh; M Salimi-Asl; N Saemi; Sh Farahyar; A Kargar Kheirabad; M Nazeri

2012-01-01

230

Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF-? genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by r (more) eal-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p

Fonseca, Isabela; Silva, Priscila Vendramini; Lange, Carla Christine; Guimarães, Marta F.M.; Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral; Sousa, Katiene Régia Silva; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; Guimarães, José Domingos; Guimarães, Simone E.F.

2009-01-01

231

Mastitis tuberculosa/ Tuberculosis of the breast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se informa un caso de mastitis granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis en una paciente inmunocompetente con lesiones inflamatorias crónicas de la mama, diagnosticada por la detección de ADN de la micobacteria mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de la secuencia de inserción IS6110 presente en el complejo M. tuberculosis , en una biopsia de mama embebida en parafina. La tuberculosis primaria de la mama es rara, incluso en países con (more) alta prevalencia de tuberculosis, y debe sospecharse en pacientes con mastitis granulomatosa crónica de causa no clara. El pilar del tratamiento es la quimioterapia antituberculosa y, ocasionalmente, la cirugía. Abstract in english We report a case of granulomatous mastitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an immunocompetent woman with chronic inflammatory lesions of the breast. It was diagnosed by detection of mycobacteria DNA using polymerase chain reaction technique targeting IS6110 insertion element of M. tuberculosis complex in a paraffin-embedded histological specimen. The primary breast tuberculosis is rare, even in countries where the incidence and prevalence of pulmonary and extra pu (more) lmonary tuberculosis are high. It should be suspected in female patients with chronic granulomatous mastitis with no apparent cause. The cornerstone of treatment is antituberculous chemotherapy, and surgery is rarely required.

Cuervo, Sonia Isabel; Bonilla, Diego Andrés; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Hernández, Johana; Gómez, Julio César

2013-03-01

232

Veterinary field test as screening tool for mastitis and HIV-1 viral load in breast milk from HIV-infected Zambian women  

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Both clinical and subclinical mastitis are believed to increase the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 through breastfeeding, perhaps due to increased viral load. We hypothesized that a veterinary screening test for mastitis, the California Mastitis (CMT), would be a reliable indic...

233

Mastitis in dairy buffalo and cattle in Egypt due to Clostridium perfringens: prevalence, incidence, risk factors and costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although Clostridium perfringens is recognised as an important cause of clostridial enteric diseases, there is only limited knowledge about the association of particular C. perfringens toxinotypes (types A to E) with mastitis in domestic animals. In this study, mastitis was detected in 213/623 (34.12%) and 8/83 (9.64%) of the quarter milk samples collected from cases of clinical mastitis in cows and buffalo, respectively. The micro-organism was isolated in an incidence of 16/357 (4.48%) of milk samples from cows and 1/25 (4.0%) of samples from buffalo. Infection in one quarter was the most typical situation found (83% in cows and 87% in buffalo). Clostridium perfringens infection was also correlated to the season, with the highest proportion of isolates being found during spring (10.71%) and winter (7.07%). Using the classical toxin neutralisation typing method, 17 strains, isolated from cow and buffalo milk, were identified as C. perfringens type A, and selected for molecular analysis. Polymerase chain reaction detected the oecpa gene while the P/cpb and e/etx genes went undetected. The authors believe that C. perfringens has the potential to produce disease on its own or to predispose the udder to disease caused by major mastitis and environmental pathogens.

Osman KM; El-Enbaawy MI; Ezzeldeen NA; Hussein HM

2009-12-01

234

Mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática: una patología vigente Chronic idiopathic lobular granulomatous mastitis: a current pathology  

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Full Text Available Introducción: La mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es una patología benigna del seno, de carácter inflamatorio y de etiología desconocida. Sus principales manifestaciones clínicas se semejan a las del cáncer mamario. Dado que los hallazgos clínicos y de imágenes diagnósticas no son específicas, el diagnóstico inequívoco recae en el estudio histopatológico de 0 lesión. Objetivos: Describir las principales manifestaciones clínicas, los resultados de los métodos diagnósticos y hallazgos importantes de patología en los casos de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Materiales y métodos: Desde enero del año 2004 los autores establecieron el registro personal de tumores benignos, mastitis no lactacional y enfermedad inflamatoria ductal. Hasta septiembre de 2006, este registro recolectó información clínica, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento en 77 pacientes, 20 de los cuales correspondieron al diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo por las siguientes variables: 1. Edad. 2. Cuadro clínico. 3. Enfermedades asociadas. 4. Métodos diagnósticos utilizados. 5. Hallazgos histopatológicos. 6. Curso clínico. Resultados: El diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular se hizo inicialmente en 30 pacientes. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática en 20 pacientes, dado que en 10, se identificó la causa específica de la inflamación granulomatosa del seno. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue de 36 años; la más joven tenía 22 años. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue la aparición de masa inflamatoria en el seno. El hallazgo principal del estudio fue la asociación de mastitis granulomatosa crónica lobular idiopática con cáncer del seno contralateral y la infección con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, asociación no descrita en la literatura mundial. Conclusión: El diagnóstico de mastitis granu-lomatosa crónica lobular idiopática es un reto clínico formidable. Debido a que sus manifestaciones clínicas son yerras y se observa resolución espontánea de la enfermedad, esta patología posiblemente es dejada sin diagnosticar en una proporción importante de casos. La identificación de la causa subyacente de la inflamación granulomatosa en más de un tercio de los pacientes, hace que el estudio histopatológico sea considerado por nosotros como el método diagnóstico de escogencia para el diagnóstico incuestionable de esta patología.Background: Chronic idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (ICGM) is a benign disease of the breast, of inflammatory nature and unknown etiology. The main clinical features of this entity resemble those of mammary cancer. Given that the clinical and diagnostic imaging findings are not specific, the correct diagnosis falls in the histopathologic study. Objectives: To describe the main clinical manifestations, the results of the diagnostic studies, and the most important findings in the pathlogical study of ICGM. Materials and methods: Beginning in January 2004, the authors implemented the personal registry of benign breast tumors, nonlactational mastitis, and ductal inflammatory disease; 77 patients were registered until September 2006, with data including clinical information, diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities. In this group of 77 patients, 20 had the diagnosis of ICGM. A descriptive statistical analysis based on the following variables was carried out: 1. Age; 2. Clinical presentation; 3. Associated illnesses; 4. Diagnostic methods employed; 5. histopathologic findings; 6. Clinical course. Results: The diagnosis of ICGM was initially made in 30 patient, and the diagnosis was confirmed in 20, while in the other 10 a specific inflammatory cause was identified. The average age of this group patients was 36 years, the youngest being 22.The most frequent clinical presentation was an inflammatory mass in the breast, while the outstanding finding was the association of ICGM

Eduardo Torregroza-Diazgranados; María Constanza Gómez Cruz; Luis Fernando Viaña; Juan David Figueroa

2007-01-01

235

Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584) had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%),  Escherichia coli (25.2%),  Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken. PMID:23718150

Katsande, Simbarashe; Matope, Gift; Ndengu, Masimba; Pfukenyi, Davies M

2013-03-28

236

Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584) had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%),  Escherichia coli (25.2%),  Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

Katsande S; Matope G; Ndengu M; Pfukenyi DM

2013-01-01

237

Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584) had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%), Escherichia coli (25.2%), Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

Simbarashe Katsande; Gift Matope; Masimba Ndengu; Davies M. Pfukenyi

2013-01-01

238

Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of (more) mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 10³ cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal-and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1% (123/584) had mastitis, 16.3% (95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%), Escherichia coli (25.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were I: associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

Katsande, Simbarashe; Matope, Gift; Ndengu, Masimba; Pfukenyi, Davies M

2013-01-01

239

Bovine Mastitis: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Major Pathogens in Dairy Farms of Holeta Town, Central Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2008 to April 2009 to estimate prevalence of mastitis and to see associated bacterial pathogens in lactating dairy cows in Holeta town. A total of 107 cross bred milking cows were tested using California Mastitis Test (CMT). Prevalence of mastitis at cow level was 71.0% (76/107), out of which 22.4% (24/107) and 48.6% (52/107) were clinical and subclinical, respectively. The quarter level prevalence was 44.9% (192/428); from this the clinical and subclinical forms were 10.0% (43/428) and 34.8% (149/428), respectively. Out of the 43 quarters with clinical cases, 31 had blind teats while 12 of them revealed active cases of mastitis. Samples from all 12 active clinical cases and 90.0% (134/149) of the CMT positive subclinical quarters were found to be culture positive. From 146 culture positive samples, a total of 153 bacteria were isolated, the most prevalent being S. aureus (47.1%) followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) (30.1%). Other bacterial isolates included Streptococcus (7.2%), E.coli (4.6%), Micrococcus species (3.3%), Klebsella pneumonae (3.3%), Enterobater aerogen (1.3%), Corynebacterium species (2.0%) and Bacillus (1.3%). Risk factors analysis revealed that prevalence significantly differed with the age (P < 0.05), parity (P < 0.05) and udder hygiene condition (P < 0.03). Thus, prevalence was relatively higher in adult cows (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.15, 3.64), cows with moderate calves (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.6), cows with injured teat (OR = 7.7, 95%CI = 0.9, 64.1) and cows with unwashed udder (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 0.8, 6.4) than those corresponding animals. In conclusion, this study revealed the importance of mastitis and associated bacterial pathogen in the study area. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000): 397-403

Mekibib; B.; Furgasa; M.; Abunna; F.; Megersa; B. and Regassa; A.

2010-01-01

240

Behavioral changes in dairy cows with mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mastitis is a frequent and painful disease in dairy cows. However, pain detection and alleviation in mastitic cows has been overlooked. The objectives of this study were to measure behavioral changes in dairy cows with clinical mastitis and to investigate the effect of intramammary infusion of an antibiotic on lying behavior and behavior during milking. In experiment 1, 42 lactating cows were used: 14 mastitic cows and 28 control cows. Mastitic and control cows were subjected to an evaluation of pain responses on d 1 (mastitis detection day), and 2, 3, and 7d after the last antibiotic treatment (d 10+). The antibiotic treatment was administered to mastitic cows twice a day, starting on d 1, for at least 3 consecutive days. Behavioral changes were evaluated by measuring lying behavior, reactivity during milking (stepping, lifting, and kicking), weight distribution, and hock-to-hock distance. Overall, mastitic cows spent less time lying down on d 2 compared with control cows. The percentage of time lying on the mastitic quarter side did not differ significantly between mastitic and control cows. No differences were observed between control and mastitic cows on the number of steps per 24h on each day. Restless behavior during milking did not differ between treatments. Restless behaviors differed significantly within mastitic cows between days. Frequency of kicks per minute was higher on d 1 compared with d 2, frequency of lifts was higher on d 1 and 2 compared with d 10+, and frequency of steps was higher on d 2 compared with d 10+. The variability of weight that mastitic cows applied to the leg on the mastitic quarter side was higher on d 1 than on d 10+. For control cows, the variability in weight applied to the homologous leg of the mastitic quarter side leg was higher on d 1 compared with d 2 and 3. The hock-to-hock distance did not differ between treatments. Mild clinical mastitis might not cause sufficient pain to observe marked changes in behaviors. However, cows showed differences in lying time and reactivity during milking and slight differences in the laterality of lying. To further develop methodologies for assessing pain in mastitic cows, it is worth applying the methodologies used in this study to cows with moderate to severe mastitis, followed by their validation using analgesic treatment, to ensure that any change is a pain-specific behavior rather than a simple reflex. In experiment 2, no effect of intramammary infusion of the antibiotic was observed on lying behavior or behavior during milking. Cows with mild clinical mastitis present behavioral changes in lying behavior and at milking time, which could be associated with discomfort.

Medrano-Galarza C; Gibbons J; Wagner S; de Passillé AM; Rushen J

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Molecular Epidemiology of Two Klebsiella pneumoniae Mastitis Outbreaks on a Dairy Farm in New York State?  

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Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphi...

Munoz, Marcos A.; Welcome, Francis L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.

242

Bovine Mastitis in Subtropical Dairy Farms, 2005-2009  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of Clinical Mastitis (CM) and Subclinical Mastitis (SCM), isolation and identification of the major pathogens and test the antimicrobial resistance of milk bacterial isolates in subtropical dairy farms in Guangxi region (south of China) between 2005 and 2009. The average percentages of blind quarter(s) at cow and quarter level were 11.5 and 3.7%, respectively. The incidence of CM at cow and quarter level were 8.7 and 3.7%, respectively while that of SCM at cow and quarter level were 48.8 and 19%, respectively. A total of 105 and 56 microorganisms were isolated from the 109 CM and 67 SCM samples, respectively. The most common bacterial isolates from CM cases were S. aureus (29.5%), E. coli (25.7%) and C. neoformans (16.2%), however in SCM they were S. aureus (32.1%), CNS (19.7%) and St. agalactiae (17.9%). The antimicrobial sensitivity test indicated that all the antimicrobial agents (except for ampicillin) showed lower proportion of resistant isolates of all the isolated bacteria (except for C. neoformans), among the employed antimicrobials, Ruyanxiao showed the lowest proportion of resistant isolates.

Feng-Li Yang; Xiao-Shan Li; Bao-Xiang He; Yu-Lan Du; Gong-He Li; Bin-Bin Yang; Huang Qin-Hua

2011-01-01

243

Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance and milk somatic cell score in French Lacaune dairy sheep  

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Full Text Available Abstract Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance was studied from two data sets. Firstly, risk factors for different mastitis traits, i.e. culling due to clinical or chronic mastitis and subclinical mastitis predicted from somatic cell count (SCC), were explored using data from 957 first lactation Lacaune ewes of an experimental INRA flock composed of two divergent lines for milk yield. Secondly, genetic parameters for SCC were estimated from 5 272 first lactation Lacaune ewes recorded among 38 flocks, using an animal model. In the experimental flock, the frequency of culling due to clinical mastitis (5%) was lower than that of subclinical mastitis (10%) predicted from SCC. Predicted subclinical mastitis was unfavourably associated with the milk yield level. Such an antagonism was not detected for clinical mastitis, which could result, to some extent, from its low frequency or from the limited amount of data. In practice, however, selection for mastitis resistance could be limited in a first approach to selection against subclinical mastitis using SCC. The heritability estimate of SCC was 0.15 for the lactation mean trait and varied from 0.04 to 0.12 from the first to the fifth test-day. The genetic correlation between lactation SCC and milk yield was slightly positive (0.15) but showed a strong evolution during lactation, i.e. from favourable (-0.48) to antagonistic (0.27). On a lactation basis, our results suggest that selection for mastitis resistance based on SCC is feasible. Patterns for genetic parameters within first lactation, however, require further confirmation and investigation.

Barillet Francis; Rupp Rachel; Mignon-Grasteau Sandrine; Astruc Jean-Michel; Jacquin Michèle

2001-01-01

244

Epidemiology of Subclinical Mastitis and Their Antibacterial Susceptibility in Smallholder Dairy Farms, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis at the beginning of the rainy season to define the factors associated with subclinical mastitis caused by various pathogens and to identify antibiotic susceptibility and resistance. About 42 farms from the Mae-On Dairy Cooperative participating in the Herd Health Management Program (HHPM), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University were included in the study. The study was conducted in June, 2008. From the protocol of HHPM, all farms had to collect a milk sample from each milking cow for measurement of Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) once a month. At the cut-off point of SCC = 200,000 cells mL-1 the cows were deemed to haveintramammary infection. Cows in 3 groups were checked for subclinical mastitis in quarter levels using the California mastitis test within 2 weeks after SCC measurement. A cow with CMT score ?+1 for at least one quarter was identified as a subclinical mastitis cow and was included into the study. Milk samples from subclinical mastitis quarters were collected with aseptic techniques. The fisher exact ?2-tests were used to evaluate the association of pathogens with antibiotic resistant and the associated factors. The significant levels were defined at pC. bovis (28%) and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) (28%) were the main bacteria isolated in this study. Stap. aureus (8%) and St. agalactiae (2%) as contagious pathogens were at low levels. An occurrence of subclinical mastitis from S. aureus was significantly associated with subclinical mastitis status in which most S. aureus subclinical mastitis showed chronic status of subclinical mastitis. Most subclinical cases occurred during late lactation (54%). Occurrences of subclinical mastitis from Stap. aureus and C. bovis were associated with period of lactation (pSt. uberis, S. aureus and S. dysgalactaie. Subclinical mastitis with St. uberis was resistant to most antibiotics (pStap. aureus and CNS wassusceptible for most antibiotics.

Witaya Suriyasathaporn

2011-01-01

245

Mouse model of plasma cell mastitis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma cell mastitis is distinct from the common form of mastitis and clinically resembles breast carcinoma. The lesion occurs in non-lactating young women, and the incidence rate is rising. Surgical resection is the main treatment, but cannot prevent recurrence of the disease. Disfigurement or removal of breast after the operations can cause marked physical and psychological distress. The etiology of plasma cell mastitis is unclear up till now. It is therefore necessary to investigate further the underlying immunological changes of the disease. Methods The lesions of plasma cell mastitis removed from patients through aseptic operation were mixed with normal saline into homogenate tube machine (homogenate tubes were disinfected and sterilized prior to treatment). The mixture was homogenized at medium speed and grinded in ultrasonic cell disruptor. The homogenate obtained was made into oil emulsion with Freund's adjuvant. Thirty female BALB/c mice (6 weeks after sexual maturity) were divided into five groups A-E: group A was blank control; group B was normal saline control; group C was inoculated with 0.02 ml water-in-oil emulsion; group D was inoculated with 0.04 ml water-in-oil emulsion; group E was complete Freund's adjuvant control. Results Pathology results showed that mouse mammary gland acinar cells remained integral without any abnormal changes observed in control groups A and B. Experimental groups C and D showed dilation of mouse mammary ductal tissue with a large number of epithelial cells and debris in the lumen, and fibrosis around ducts accompanied by large duct cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and especially plasma cell infiltration. Pathological changes were observed in 3 (50%) mice and 5 (83.3%) mice in group C and D respectively. In group E, neutrophil infiltration in mammary gland was observed in 5 mice, but neither infiltration of plasma cells nor other abnormal pathological changes were observed. Conclusions The lesions of patient with plasma cell mastitis could make the female BALB/c mice experience the similar clinical and pathological manifestation. High-dose group can successfully establish a mouse model of plasma cell mastitis.

Yu Jian-jun; Bao Shan-lin; Yu Sheng-lin; Zhang Da-Qing; Loo Wings TY; Chow Louis WC; Su Li; Cui Zhen; Chen Kai; Ma Li-Qiong; Zhang Ning; Yu Hui; Yang Yun-Zhen; Dong Yu; Yip Adrian YS; Ng Elizabeth LY

2012-01-01

246

Feline gangrenous mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 3.7-kg, 3-year-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with the chief complaint of anorexia and lethargy of 3 days duration with a noticeable decrease in body condition and a large open wound on her ventral caudal abdomen. A diagnosis of acute mastitis with gland abscessation was made. The patient was successfully treated with oral antibiotics and open wound management using surgical debridement and lavage followed by wound dressings using honey. PMID:23997269

Wilson, Courtney R

2013-03-01

247

Feline gangrenous mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 3.7-kg, 3-year-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with the chief complaint of anorexia and lethargy of 3 days duration with a noticeable decrease in body condition and a large open wound on her ventral caudal abdomen. A diagnosis of acute mastitis with gland abscessation was made. The patient was successfully treated with oral antibiotics and open wound management using surgical debridement and lavage followed by wound dressings using honey.

Wilson CR

2013-03-01

248

Inferring relationships between clinical mastitis, productivity and fertility: A recursive model application including genetics, farm associated herd management, and cow-specific antibiotic treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dataset of test-day records, fertility traits, and one health trait including 1275 Brown Swiss cows kept in 46 small-scale organic farms was used to infer relationships among these traits based on recursive Gaussian-threshold models. Test-day records included milk yield (MY), protein percentage (PROT-%), fat percentage (FAT-%), somatic cell score (SCS), the ratio of FAT-% to PROT-% (FPR), lactose percentage (LAC-%), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Female fertility traits were defined as the interval from calving to first insemination (CTFS) and success of a first insemination (SFI), and the health trait was clinical mastitis (CM). First, a tri-trait model was used which postulated the recursive effect of a test-day observation in the early period of lactation on liability to CM (LCM), and further the recursive effect of LCM on the following test-day observation. For CM and female fertility traits, a bi-trait recursive Gaussian-threshold model was employed to estimate the effects from CM to CTFS and from CM on SFI. The recursive effects from CTFS and SFI onto CM were not relevant, because CM was recorded prior to the measurements for CTFS and SFI. Results show that the posterior heritability for LCM was 0.05, and for all other traits, heritability estimates were in reasonable ranges, each with a small posterior SD. Lowest heritability estimates were obtained for female reproduction traits, i.e. h(2)=0.02 for SFI, and h(2)?0 for CTFS. Posterior estimates of genetic correlations between LCM and production traits (MY and MUN), and between LCM and somatic cell score (SCS), were large and positive (0.56-0.68). Results confirm the genetic antagonism between MY and LCM, and the suitability of SCS as an indicator trait for CM. Structural equation coefficients describe the impact of one trait on a second trait on the phenotypic pathway. Higher values for FAT-% and FPR were associated with a higher LCM. The rate of change in FAT-% and in FPR in the ongoing lactation with respect to the previous LCM was close to zero. Estimated recursive effects between SCS and CM were positive, implying strong phenotypic impacts between both traits. Structural equation coefficients explained a detrimental impact of CM on female fertility traits CTFS and SFI. The cow-specific CM treatment had no significant impact on performance traits in the ongoing lactation. For most treatments, beta-lactam-antibiotics were used, but test-day SCS and production traits after the beta-lactam-treatment were comparable to those after other antibiotic as well as homeopathic treatments. PMID:23859301

Rehbein, Pia; Brügemann, Kerstin; Yin, Tong; V Borstel, U König; Wu, Xiao-Lin; König, Sven

2013-07-13

249

Immunotherapy of mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine an alternative, immunologically based treatment for mastitis. A microbead carrying specific anti-mastitis bacteria antibodies and an enhancer of phagocytosis, termed Y-complex, was tested in two experiments. In experiment 1, 21 cows were challenged with Streptococcus dysgalactiae and treated with Y-complex, Cobactan LC(®) or saline. Y-complex cleared the bacteria by day 4 and by day 10 only one cow was positive and remained positive up to day 28. No bacteria were isolated from any of the seven cows treated with Cobactan LC after day 4; however, in two out of the seven cows, the bacteria were re-isolated on day 24. On day 28, cows treated with placebo had still not cleared the bacteria. Experiment 2 was a field study in which cows, naturally infected with Escherichia coli, S. dysgalactiae or coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), were treated with Y-complex (32 cows), sulfadiazine+trimethoprim or procaine penicillin+streptomycin (BA) (8 cows), or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (19 cows). Y-complex was as effective as antibiotics, and superior to NSAID, in eliminating bacteria. Milk quantity and quality following infection and treatment were similar for all treatments, but significantly less milk was discarded from cows treated with Y-complex as compared to antibiotics. Y-complex was proven to be safe and effective, and may serve as a new approach for the treatment of mastitis. PMID:23523288

Leitner, Gabriel; Pinchasov, Yosef; Morag, Eli; Spanier, Yossi; Jacoby, Samy; Eliau, Dorit; Pitcovski, Jacob

2013-03-07

250

Corynebacterium accolens isolated from breast abscess: possible association with granulomatous mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Corynebacterium accolens is rarely isolated as a human pathogen. We describe here a case of C. accolens isolated from a breast abscess in a patient previously diagnosed with granulomatous mastitis. The possible association of Corynebacterium accolens and granulomatous mastitis in this patient is discussed.

Ang LM; Brown H

2007-05-01

251

Corynebacterium accolens Isolated from Breast Abscess: Possible Association with Granulomatous Mastitis?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Corynebacterium accolens is rarely isolated as a human pathogen. We describe here a case of C. accolens isolated from a breast abscess in a patient previously diagnosed with granulomatous mastitis. The possible association of Corynebacterium accolens and granulomatous mastitis in this patient is dis...

Ang, Lei M. N.; Brown, Hamish

252

Corynebacterium accolens Isolated from Breast Abscess: Possible Association with Granulomatous Mastitis?  

Science.gov (United States)

Corynebacterium accolens is rarely isolated as a human pathogen. We describe here a case of C. accolens isolated from a breast abscess in a patient previously diagnosed with granulomatous mastitis. The possible association of Corynebacterium accolens and granulomatous mastitis in this patient is discussed.

Ang, Lei M. N.; Brown, Hamish

2007-01-01

253

Corynebacterium accolens isolated from breast abscess: possible association with granulomatous mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corynebacterium accolens is rarely isolated as a human pathogen. We describe here a case of C. accolens isolated from a breast abscess in a patient previously diagnosed with granulomatous mastitis. The possible association of Corynebacterium accolens and granulomatous mastitis in this patient is discussed. PMID:17344355

Ang, Lei M N; Brown, Hamish

2007-03-07

254

Cutaneous actinomycosis presenting as chronic mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous suppurative infection caused by anaerobic actinomyces. Primary cutaneous involvement is uncommon because of the exclusively endogenous habitat of the organism. We describe a very unusual presentation mimicking chronic mastitis. A 35-year-old woman presented 7 months post-partum with tenderness and induration in the right breast. She was pyrexial and felt systemically unwell. An initial diagnosis of mastitis was made. Treatment with penicillin, imipenem, co-amoxiclav and metronidazole had no effect. Skin biopsy revealed the characteristic 'sulphur granules' of actinomycoses in the deep dermis. Long term oral clindamycin (> 12 months) has produced a very good response clinically, with a concomitant decrease in inflammatory markers. Cutaneous actinomycosis has been described by haematogenous spread from visceral organs or after trauma. The organism is difficult to culture and is often diagnosed histologically by the presence of 'sulphur granules'. It is very sensitive to penicillin but prolonged treatment is needed.

Al-Niaimi F; Patel A; Blessing K; Fox R; Burden AD

2010-03-01

255

Frequência de Staphylococcus aureus em casos de mastite bovina subclínica, na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul/ Frequency of staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis cases, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A mastite bovina é uma doença importante na exploração leiteira, não apenas pelas perdas econômicas diretas que promove, mas também pelas perdas indiretas e o potencial risco à saúde pública. Dentre as principais causas de infecções intramamárias, destacam-se as bactérias do gênero Staphylococcus spp., sendo que Staphylococcus aureus é o agente etiológico predominante em mastite subclínica. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar a frequência de mastite (more) subclínica em oito rebanhos localizados na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) e a relação da enfermidade com a presença de S. aureus. Adicionalmente, pesquisou-se a presença de S. intermedius e S. hyicus nas amostras de leite obtidas. Para identificação da doença, utilizou-se o California Mastitis Test (CMT). A identificação da espécie de Staphylococcus spp. foi feita em meio de cultura ágar Baird-Parker, com posterior confirmação das colônias suspeitas em coloração de gram, prova de catalase, pesquisa de coagulase livre e pesquisa de termonuclease. A mastite subclínica foi constatada em 53,6% dos animais testados. A presença de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva foi identificada em 12,6% dos animais com mastite subclínica. Nesses mesmos animais, a bactéria identificada como S. aureus foi o agente etiológico presente em 17,6% dos casos. Adicionalmente, pode-se perceber que, dentre o grupo identificado como coagulase positiva, 85,7% corresponderam a S. aureus, enquanto 8,5% mostraram características bioquímicas compatíveis com S. intermedius e 5,8% foram consideradas S. hyicus. Abstract in english Bovine mastitis is an important disease in dairy farming, not only by promoting direct economic losses, but also for indirect losses and the potential risk to public health. The main causes of intramammary infections include the bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus being the predominant etiologic agent in subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of subclinical mastitis in eight herds from southern Rio Grande do (more) Sul (Brazil) and the relationship of the disease with the presence of S. aureus. In addition, we checked for the presence of S. intermedius and S. hyicus in the milk samples obtained. For identification of the disease, we used the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Identification of Staphylococcus spp. species was made in Barid-Parker agar culture medium, with subsequent confirmation of suspected colonies by way of Gram stain and catalase test along with free-coagulase and thermonuclease research. Subclinical mastitis was identified in 53.6% of animals tested. The presence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was identified in 12.6% of animals with subclinical mastitis. In these same animals, bacteria identified as S. aureus were the etiologic agent present in 17.6% of cases. Additionally, it was revealed that among the group identified as coagulase positive, 85.7% corresponded to S. aureus, while 8.5% had biochemical characteristics consistent with S. intermedius and 5.8% were considered S. hyicus.

Bandeira, F.S.; Picoli, T.; Zani, J.L.; Silva, W.P. da; Fischer, G.

2013-03-01

256

Treatment of mastitis during lactation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials.

Pyörälä S

2009-01-01

257

Integration of epidemiology into the genetic analysis of mastitis in Swedish Holstein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heritability of mastitis (and diseases in general) tends to be low. One possible cause is that no clear distinction can be made between resistant and nonresistant animals, because healthy animals include animals that have not been exposed to pathogens and resistant animals. To account for this, we quantified the prevalence of clinical mastitis (CM) and subclinical mastitis (SCM) in 2,069 Swedish Holstein herds as a measure of exposure. Herd prevalence averaged 26.5% for SCM and 6.4% for CM; 61% of the first lactations of 177,309 cows were classified as having at least one case of SCM and 10% as having CM. In a reaction norm approach, heritability of (S)CM was quantified as a function of herd prevalence of (S)CM. The best-fitting model was a second-order polynomial of first-lactation cow SCM as a function of herd prevalence SCM, and a first-order (linear) polynomial of first-lactation cow CM as a function of CM herd prevalence. Heritability for SCM ranged from 0.069 to 0.105 and for CM from 0.016 to 0.032. For both, we found no clear effect of herd prevalence on their heritability. Genetic correlations within traits across herd prevalences were all greater than 0.92. Whether relationships among prevalence, exposure, disease, and genetics were as expected is a matter of discussion, but reaction norm analyses may be a valuable tool for epidemiological genetics.

Windig JJ; Urioste JI; Strandberg E

2013-04-01

258

Clinical characteristics of amblyopic cases  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics of amblyopic cases Material and Methods: The records of 254 amblyopic cases followed in our orthoptic clinic were reviewed retrospectively. Age, visual acuity, type of strabismus, age at diagnosis of patients were analysed in details. Results: The mean age of the patients was 10.2±3.4 years. 149 (%58.6) of them were female, 105 (%41.4) were male. The underlying amblyogenic causes were anisometropia (%37.8), strabismus (%30.7), mixed strabismus and anisometropia (%27.1), visual deprivation (%4.4). Anisometropia was the most common cause in both unilateral and bilateral amblyopic cases. The most frequent pattern of strabismus was esotropia (%34.2), whereas hypermetropia (%45.2) was the most frequent refractive error in amblyopic eyes. The mean age at diagnosis was earlier for strabismic (6.7 years) amblyopia than anisometropic (8.5 years) amblyopia (p=0.245). Conclusion: Amblyopia is the most common cause of visual impairment in children. Anisometropia is the most common cause and may not be detected as early as treatment to be effective. Therefore preschool vision screening is necessary for early treatment of amblyopia.

Betül Tu?cu; Ceren Gürez; Erdal Yüzba??o?lu; F?rat Helvac?o?lu; Ahmet A?açhan

2008-01-01

259

Short communication: experimentally induced mastitis reduces weight shifting between the rear legs while standing in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate changes in weight shifting between legs while standing on a weighing platform in response to endotoxin-induced clinical mastitis, and to evaluate the effect of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug flunixin meglumine on weight distribution between legs while standing in dairy cattle with endotoxin-induced clinical mastitis. Clinical mastitis was induced in 10 primiparous and 9 multiparous lactating dairy cows (days in milk=55 ± 12; mean ± standard deviation) by intramammary infusion of 100 µg of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the right rear quarter. Four hours later, 10 animals were randomly assigned to receive flunixin meglumine intravenously (2.2mg/kg of body weight; treated group) and 9 received an equivalent volume of sterile isotonic saline solution (control group). Body temperature was monitored rectally 3d before LPS infusion, immediately before LPS infusion, and 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 28 h after LPS infusion. The weight applied to each leg was recorded while cows were standing on a weighing platform on the day before the challenge and 7, 10, 13, 16, and 28 h after LPS infusion. Two measures of weight shifting between the rear legs were calculated for each recording session: the standard deviation of the weight applied to the legs over time and the frequency of steps. The LPS infusion resulted in a consistent case of clinical mastitis approximately 4h after the LPS infusion, as assessed by the presence of visible swelling and elevated rectal temperature in all cows. However, control animals had a higher temperature 7h after LPS infusion compared with treated animals (40.8 vs. 39.0°C; standard error of the difference=0.2). Overall, weight shifting between the rear legs was decreased 7h after the LPS infusion compared with baseline, and this decrease was not affected by treatment with flunixin meglumine. It is likely that weight shifting increases friction between the swollen udder and the legs, increasing the pain experienced by the cow. Thus, cows with endotoxin-induced mastitis avoided shifting weight, particularly at the times when the most severe signs of inflammation occurred. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy of flunixin meglumine in mitigating udder pain and the accuracy of behavioral measures such as weight shifting in assessing analgesia in cows with mastitis.

Chapinal N; Fitzpatrick CE; Leslie KE; Wagner SA

2013-05-01

260

MÉTODOS DE ESTIMACIÓN DEL NIVEL DE MASTITIS EN VACAS LECHERAS A PARTIR DE LA DETERMINACIÓN DEL TEST DE CALIFORNIA PARA MASTITIS (CMT) DE SUS CUARTOS INDIVIDUALES Estimation methods for mastitis level in dairy cows using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) in each quarter  

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Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estimar el nivel de mastitis subclínica de vacas lecheras, definido en términos del recuento de células somáticas de la leche (RCS), a partir de la determinación del Test de California para Mastitis (CMT) a través de correlación y regresión, y un modelo logit. Se utilizó la información existente en la base de datos generada por cinco rebaños lecheros de la zona central del país, con una masa de 1200 vacas principalmente de raza Holstein Friesian Americana. La información se sistematizó calculando la suma de los CMT de los cuartos (SCMT), transformando RCS en rangos celulares RC, y agregando, además, el CMT del recipiente graduado de ordeña (CMTM). Se calcularon correlaciones lineales entre estas variables, regresiones de CMTM y RC y el modelo logit que expresa la relación en términos probabilísticos: p = 1 / (1 + EXP(b SCMT - c k)). Las correlaciones fueron significativas al 1%, con valores situados entre 0,37 y 0,78. Las regresiones lineales estimadas fueron RC = 0,74 SCMT en los dos tipos de animales. La función logit dio estimaciones del parámetro b de 0,335 y R² = 0,83 para vaquillas y de b = 0,30 y R² = 0,63 para vacas. El modelo logit se muestra como un instrumento muy certero para la estimación del RCS en casos extremos, que no exista mastitis o que la mastitis esté muy cerca de un nivel abiertamente clínicoThe objective of this study was to estimate the sub-clinical incidence of mastitis on dairy cows, defined as the count of somatic cells in milk (RCS) based on the California Mastitis Test (CMT) using correlation, linear regression and logit models. A database of five dairy herds from central Chile composed of 1200 mainly Holstein Friesian dairy cows was used. Information was systematized for each cow calculating the sum of CMT for individual quarters (SCMT), and transforming RCS in cellular ranges (RC), adding the average CMT value of the graduated milking recipient (CMTM). Linear correlations were calculated among these variables, linear regression CMTM and RC and the logit model that indicates the relationship in probabilistic terms: p j = 1 / (1 + EXP(b SCMT - c k)). Correlations were significant (P < 0.01) with values between 0.37 and 0.78. Estimated linear regressions were RC = 0.74 SCMT for both kinds of animals. The logit function estimated a parameter b of 0.335 and R² = 0.83 for heifers and b = 0.30 and R² =0.63 for cows. The logit model proves to be a very accurate instrument for RCS estimation in extreme cases, with no mastitis presence, or mastitis close to clinical levels.

Alberto Mansilla M.; Carlos Pedraza G.; Paola Fajardo R.; Hernán Aguero E.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Mastitis bovina por Prototheca zopfii: primer aislamiento en Chile Bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: first isolation in Chile  

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Full Text Available El género Prototheca está formado por microalgas unicelulares sin clorofila, ampliamente distribuidas en el medio ambiente, algunas de las cuales pueden ser patógenas para el hombre y animales. Sin embargo, no existen antecedentes bibliográficos previos sobre la existencia de estas algas patógenas para el hombre y animales en Chile. Se examinó bacteriológicamente un total de 200 muestras de leche provenientes de 150 vacas lecheras con mastitis clínica, las cuales fueron sembradas en medio PIM modificado, selectivo para Prototheca. Se aisló Prototheca spp. en dos ocasiones consecutivas de una misma vaca muestreada con un intervalo de dos meses. El examen microscópico directo de las muestras de leche en fresco reveló la presencia células características de Prototheca spp. Mediante asimilación de fuentes de carbono se identificó la especie como P. zopfii, constituyendo el primer aislamiento de este agente a partir de un cuadro de mastitis clínica bovina en Chile. Este hallazgo es relevante para los programas de control de mastitis bovina en los rebaños lecheros ya que es un organismo poco frecuente y desconocido que no responde a los tratamientos antibióticos convencionales.The genus Prototheca includes unicellular achlorophyllous microalgae widely distributed in the environment, some of which could be pathogenic for human and animals. However, there is no previous report regarding these pathogenic microalgae causing infections in man or animals in Chile. Two-hundred milk samples collected from 150 dairy cows with clinical mastitis were inoculated onto PIM modified medium. Prototheca spp was isolated on two consecutive occasions from one cow sampled two months apart. Direct microscopic examination of wet smears made from milk samples revealed typical Prototheca cells. Biochemical tests based on carbon source assimilation identified the organism as Prototheca zopfii. This finding represents the first isolation of this environmental alga from bovine mastitis in Chile. This could be of great importance for mastitis control programs in dairy herds as Prototheca is an uncommon mastitis pathogen that does not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

L Zaror; K Valenzuela; J Kruze

2011-01-01

262

Use of serum amyloid A and milk amyloid A in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mastitis is the most frequent and costly disease in dairy herds, as it negatively affects yield and milk quality. The presence of clinical mastitis is quite easy to asses, whereas the diagnosis of the subclinical form can be more difficult and requires laboratory assays. Somatic cell count (SCC) is widely used as a rapid and low-cost indicator of mastitis, even if is not useful in discriminating between the clinical and subclinical form. As amyloid A has been investigated as a marker of mastitis, the aim of this study was to assess the potential value of measuring amyloid A in serum and milk and the correlation with SCC in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. The reliability of two different ELISA kits for the measurement of amyloid A in milk was also tested. During a 1-month trial period, 21 cows were assigned to three experimental groups according to their health status: 6 cows with clinical mastitis (CM), 10 cows with subclinical mastitis (SM) and 5 healthy cows (HE). Amyloid A was measured both in serum (SAA) and in quarter milk samples (mAA) with a serum ELISA kit, and in quarter milk samples (MAA) with a milk ELISA kit. SCC, total microbial count (TMC) and bacterial examination of the milk were also carried out. After a log transformation, the data were submitted to ANOVA and linear regression. TMC was significantly higher in cows with clinical mastitis, while no differences were observed between the other two experimental groups. SCC and MAA levels were significantly different among the three groups. mAA concentrations were similar between cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, and SAA was not affected by mastitis. A significant correlation between SCC and MAA or mAA was detected, while no correlation was recorded between SAA and mAA. A close relationship between MAA and mAA was noticeable even at low concentrations, suggesting MAA as a potential physiological marker of subclinical mastitis.

Gerardi G; Bernardini D; Azzurra Elia C; Ferrari V; Iob L; Segato S

2009-11-01

263

Efeito da suplementação de selênio e vitamina E sobre a incidência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça holandesa Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on incidence of clinical mastitis in Holstein cows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oitenta e quatro vacas da raça holandesa foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos (grupos): o grupo A recebeu 5mg Se/dia, o B recebeu 1000 UI vit. E/dia, o C 5mg Se + 1000 UI vit. E/dia e o D foi usado como controle. A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas quinzenalmente para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de Se e de vit. E. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, ao parto, aos 30 e aos 60 dias após o parto para determinação dos níveis de Se no soro sangüíneo das vacas. O teste de Tamis foi realizado semanalmente para detecção dos casos clínicos de mastite e iniciado logo após o parto, prolongando-se até a 12ª semana da lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos de Se superiores (PEighty four Holstein cows were randomly allotted to four groups: group A was supplemented with 5mg Se/day, group B with 1000 IU vitamin E/day, group C with 5mg Se/day+1000 IU vitamin E/day and D was used as a control. The supplementation period started 30 days prior to probable parturition date and ended at parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical, selenium and vitamin E analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, at parturition, and at 30 and 60 days after parturition to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test was weekly done to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration in comparison to the control group (P<0.05). The vitamin E (P<0.05) as well as selenium supplementation (P<0.08) decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis during the first 12 weeks of the lactation period.

J.J. Paschoal; M.A. Zanetti; J.A. Cunha

2003-01-01

264

Quantifying degree of mastitis from common trends in a panel of indicators for mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper has 2 objectives. First, it argues that it is beneficial to regard degree of infection with respect to mastitis as a latent quantity varying continuously from 0 (truly healthy) to 1 (full-blown clinical mastitis). This quantity is denoted as degree of infection (DOI). The DOI is based on extracting common characteristics from a panel of indicators measured repeatedly over time. The indicators used in this paper are electrical conductivity (EC), somatic cell count (SCC), and the immune response related enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Second, this paper presents a statistical model for such data and a corresponding method for estimating the DOI from a panel of indicators. An empirical proof of concept is provided. Using DOI, there was a significant difference between the DOI of mastitic and healthy control cows beginning 5 d before the mastitic cows were treated for mastitis.

Højsgaard S; Friggens NC

2010-02-01

265

Quantifying Degree of Mastitis from Common Trends in a Panel of Indicators for Mastitis in Dairy Cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper has 2 objectives. First, it argues that it is beneficial to regard degree of infection with respect to mastitis as a latent quantity varying continuously from 0 (truly healthy) to 1 (full-blown clinical mastitis). This quantity is denoted as degree of infection (DOI). The DOI is based on extracting common characteristics from a panel of indicators measured repeatedly over time. The indicators used in this paper are electrical conductivity (EC), somatic cell count (SCC), and the immune response related enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Second, this paper presents a statistical model for such data and a corresponding method for estimating the DOI from a panel of indicators. An empirical proof of concept is provided. Using DOI, there was a significant difference between the DOI of mastitic and healthy control cows beginning 5 d before the mastitic cows were treated for mastitis. Udgivelsesdato: February

HØjsgaard, S; Friggens, N C

2010-01-01

266

Criptococose mamária manifesta após corticoterapia Cryptococcal mastitis after corticosteroid therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Descrevemos caso de criptococose mamária em paciente de 46 anos em uso de corticoterapia. A micose foi diagnosticada por histopatologia e detecção de antígenos criptocócicos. Destacamos o dilema diagnóstico do granuloma sarcóide e a rara manifestação de mastite criptocócica.We described a case of cryptococcal mastitis in a 46 years old female patient receiving corticosteroids for sarcoidosis. There was radiological pulmonary deterioration and a cystic lesion was found in the left breast.The mycosis was diagnosed by histopathology and cryptococcal antigens. We emphasized the sarcoid granuloma diagnostic's dilemma an the rare manifestation of cryptococcal infection as mastitis.

Sória Ramos-Barbosa; Luciana Silva Guazzelli; Luiz Carlos Severo

2004-01-01

267

Criptococose mamária manifesta após corticoterapia/ Cryptococcal mastitis after corticosteroid therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Descrevemos caso de criptococose mamária em paciente de 46 anos em uso de corticoterapia. A micose foi diagnosticada por histopatologia e detecção de antígenos criptocócicos. Destacamos o dilema diagnóstico do granuloma sarcóide e a rara manifestação de mastite criptocócica. Abstract in english We described a case of cryptococcal mastitis in a 46 years old female patient receiving corticosteroids for sarcoidosis. There was radiological pulmonary deterioration and a cystic lesion was found in the left breast.The mycosis was diagnosed by histopathology and cryptococcal antigens. We emphasized the sarcoid granuloma diagnostic's dilemma an the rare manifestation of cryptococcal infection as mastitis.

Ramos-Barbosa, Sória; Guazzelli, Luciana Silva; Severo, Luiz Carlos

2004-02-01

268

Enzyme activity and acute phase proteins in milk utilized as indicators of acute clinical E. coli LPS-induced mastitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of non-visual and on-line monitoring of udder health increases as the contact between humans and animals decreases, for example, in robotic milking systems. Several indicator systems have been introduced commercially, and a number of techniques are currently in use. This study describes the kinetics of seven indigenous milk parameters for monitoring udder inflammation in an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin)-induced mastitis model. Proportional milk from LPS-infused quarters was compared with milk from parallel quarters, which were placebo-treated with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. Somatic cell counts (SCCs), the acute phase proteins (APP), that is, milk amyloid A (MAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), and the enzymes N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were measured at fixed intervals during the period from -2 to +5 days after LPS and NaCl infusions. All parameters responded significantly faster and were more pronounced to the LPS infusions compared with the NaCl infusions. All parameters were elevated in the proportional milk collected at the first milking 7 h after infusion and developed a monophasic response, except Hp and MAA that developed biphasic response. SCC, LDH, NAGase and Hp peaked at 21 h followed by AP, AcP and MAA peaking at 31 h with the highest fold changes seen for MAA (23 780×), LDH (126×), NAGase (50×) and Hp (16×). In the recovery phase, AP, AcP and Hp reached base levels first, at 117 h, whereas LDH, NAGase and MAA remained elevated following the pattern of SCC. Minor increases of the milk parameters were also seen in the neighboring (healthy) quarters. Distinction between inflamed and healthy quarters was possible for all the parameters, but only for a limited time frame for AP and AcP. Hence, when tested in an LPS mastitis model, the enzymes LDH, NAGase and AP in several aspects performed equally with SCC and APP as inflammatory milk indicators of mastitis. Furthermore, these enzymes appear potent in the assessment of a valuable time sequence of inflammation, a necessary ingredient in modeling of programs in in-line surveillance systems.

Larsen, Torben; RØntved, Christine M.

2010-01-01

269

Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

"Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this study we sacrificed 2 groups of lactating mink females with a total of 78 mammary glands at day 19-30 after giving birth. The first group had raised normal mink kits while the other group had suffered severe attacks of greasy kits. We found no clinical or histopathological evidence of mastitis but isolated streptococci and staphylococci from 2 mammary glands in females raising greasy kits. These glands showed no clinical or histological signs of inflammation attributable to bacteria and we conclude that mastitis is not necessary for the generation of greasy kits.

Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

2000-01-01

270

Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"Greasy kits" is the result of a multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink females. In this study we sacrificed 2 groups of lactating mink females with a total of 78 mammary glands at day 19-30 after giving birth. The first group had raised normal mink kits while the other group had suffered severe attacks of greasy kits. We found no clinical or histopathological evidence of mastitis but isolated streptococci and staphylococci from 2 mammary glands in females raising greasy kits. These glands showed no clinical or histological signs of inflammation attributable to bacteria and we conclude that mastitis is not necessary for the generation of greasy kits.

Clausen TN; Dietz HH

2000-01-01

271

Proteomics of mastitis causing Escherichia coli  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis remains the most prevalent disease in dairy cattle. The economic impact of mastitis on the dairy industry is estimated to be $2 billion per year. Mastitis involves a complex set of interactions between an invading pathogen and the host’s immune systems. Proteomics is a new tool used to s...

272

An Outbreak of Pseudomonas Mastitis in Dairy Cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An outbreak of mastitis in a dairy herd is described in which the causative organism was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cases occurred either in dry cows or in animals which had very recently calved. The fact that all four quarters were involved is a very strong indication that the bacteria had been introd...

Osborne, A. D.; Armstrong, K.; Catrysse, N. H.; Butler, G.; Versavel, L.

273

An outbreak of Pseudomonas mastitis in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An outbreak of mastitis in a dairy herd is described in which the causative organism was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cases occurred either in dry cows or in animals which had very recently calved. The fact that all four quarters were involved is a very strong indication that the bacteria had been introduced in the dry cow therapy.

Osborne AD; Armstrong K; Catrysse NH; Butler G; Versavel L

1981-07-01

274

Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 365 isolates of staphylococci including 209 S. aureus and 156 coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from subclinical cases of bovine mastitis in Ahvaz (Iran) were analyzed for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents by agar disk diffusion method. Out of 209 i...

Saad Gooraninejad; Masoud Ghorbanpoor; Amir Parviz Salati

275

Herd-level association between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates on Canadian dairy farms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance is needed to manage antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. In this study, data were collected on antimicrobial use and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (n=562), isolated from intramammary infections and (sub)clinical mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Dairy producers were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles, and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify antimicrobial use. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate system (TREK Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH), containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level risk factors of penicillin, ampicillin, pirlimycin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine resistance in Staph. aureus isolates. Intramammary administration of the penicillin-novobiocin combination for dry cow therapy was associated with penicillin and ampicillin resistance [odds ratio (OR): 2.17 and 3.10, respectively]. Systemic administration of penicillin was associated with penicillin resistance (OR: 1.63). Intramammary administration of pirlimycin for lactating cow mastitis treatment was associated with pirlimycin resistance as well (OR: 2.07). Average herd parity was associated with ampicillin and tetracycline resistance (OR: 3.88 and 0.02, respectively). Average herd size was also associated with tetracycline resistance (OR: 1.02). Dairy herds in the Maritime region had higher odds of penicillin and lower odds of ampicillin resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 2.18 and 0.19, respectively). Alberta dairy herds had lower odds of ampicillin and sulfadimethoxine resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 0.04 and 0.08, respectively). Ontario dairy herds had lower odds of tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 0.05 and 0.33, respectively). Herd-level use of certain antimicrobials administered for mastitis treatment and control, such as intramammary penicillin and pirlimycin as well as systemically administered penicillin and florfenicol, was positively associated with antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis pathogens in the field conditions. Differences in antimicrobial resistance outcomes across 4 regions of Canada were observed.

Saini V; McClure JT; Scholl DT; DeVries TJ; Barkema HW

2012-04-01

276

[Metastatic choroidal carcinoma. Two clinical cases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Presented clinical cases show significance of up-to-date diagnostic techniques (fluorescence angiography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography) in confirmation of metastatic choroidal carcinoma diagnosis in one case and in contradiction in another and appropriate treatment prescription.

Saakian SV; Miakoshina EB; Iurovskaia NN; Riabina MV

2013-03-01

277

[Radicular cysts. Apropos of a clinical case  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a clinic case of radicular cyst, that were growing progressively, since seven years ago, and destroying the floor of the maxillary sinus. We made the diagnosis, treatment and discussion of this case.

Guisado Moya B; López Moya J

1990-02-01

278

Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Also groups of pathogens were investigated, Gram-negative v. Gram-positive and contagious v. environmental pathogens. Data from 168 158 Danish Holstein cows calving first time between 1998 and 2006 were used in the analyses. Variances and covariances were estimated using uni- and bivariate treshold models via Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of heritabilities of pathogen-specific mastitis were lower than the heritability of unspecific mastitis, ranging from 0.035 to 0.076 for S. aureus and S. uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations amongthe pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteritics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study should be considered as different traits. Genetic evaluation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance may be beneficial despite lower heritabilities than unspecific mastitis because a pathogen-specific mastitis trait is a direct measure of an udder infection, and because the cost of a mastitis case caused by different pathogens has been shown to differ greatly. Sampling bias may be present because there were not pathogen information on all mastitis treatments and because some farms do not record pathogen information. Therefore, improved recording of pathogen information and mastitis treatment sin general is critical for a successful genetic evaluation of udder health. Also, economic values have to be specified for each pathogen-specific trait separately.

SØrensen, Lars Peter; Madsen, P.

2009-01-01

279

Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

 The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Also groups of pathogens were investigated, Gram-negative v. Gram-positive and contagious v. environmental pathogens. Data from 168 158 Danish Holstein cows calving first time between 1998 and 2006 were used in the analyses. Variances and covariances were estimated using uni- and bivariate threshold models via Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of heritabilities of pathogen-specific mastitis were lower than the heritability of unspecific mastitis, ranging from 0.035 to 0.076 for S. aureus and S. uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations among the pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteristics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study should be considered as different traits. Genetic evaluation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance may be beneficial despite lower heritabilities than unspecific mastitis because a pathogen-specific mastitis trait is a direct measure of an udder infection, and because the cost of a mastitis case caused by different pathogens has been shown to differ greatly. Sampling bias may be present because there were not pathogen information on all mastitis treatments and because some farms do not record pathogen information. Therefore, improved recording of pathogen information and mastitis treatments in general is critical for a successful genetic evaluation of udder health. Also, economic values have to be specified for each pathogen-specific trait separately

SØrensen, L P; Madsen, P

2009-01-01

280

[Proposals of the working group "Antibiotic resistance" for the configuration of microtitre plates to be used in routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens from infections of large food-producing animals and mastitis cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two layouts for microtitre plates, which should serve for in-vitro susceptibility testing in routine diagnostics, have been set up by the working group "Antibiotic resistance" of the German Society for Veterinary Medicine. One of these layouts was designed for the testing of bacteria from cases of mastitis and the other for bacteria from infections in large food-producing animals. The choice of the antimicrobial agents and their concentrations to be included in these layouts were based on (1) the bacteria frequently associated with the respective diseases/animals, (2) the antimicrobial agents licensed for therapeutic use in these diseases/animals, (3) the currently available breakpoints, and (4) cross-resistances between the antimicrobial agerts so far known to occur in the respective bacteria. PMID:15298050

Luhofer, Gabriele; Böttner, Alexander; Hafez, H Mohamed; Kaske, Martin; Kehrenberg, Corinna; Kietzmann, Manfred; Klarmann, Dieter; Klein, Günter; Krabisch, Peter; Kühn, Tilman; Richter, Angelika; Sigge, Claudia; Traeder, Wolfgang; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Wallmann, Jürgen; Werckenthin, Christiane; Schwarz, Stefan

 
 
 
 
281

[Proposals of the working group "Antibiotic resistance" for the configuration of microtitre plates to be used in routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens from infections of large food-producing animals and mastitis cases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two layouts for microtitre plates, which should serve for in-vitro susceptibility testing in routine diagnostics, have been set up by the working group "Antibiotic resistance" of the German Society for Veterinary Medicine. One of these layouts was designed for the testing of bacteria from cases of mastitis and the other for bacteria from infections in large food-producing animals. The choice of the antimicrobial agents and their concentrations to be included in these layouts were based on (1) the bacteria frequently associated with the respective diseases/animals, (2) the antimicrobial agents licensed for therapeutic use in these diseases/animals, (3) the currently available breakpoints, and (4) cross-resistances between the antimicrobial agerts so far known to occur in the respective bacteria.

Luhofer G; Böttner A; Hafez HM; Kaske M; Kehrenberg C; Kietzmann M; Klarmann D; Klein G; Krabisch P; Kühn T; Richter A; Sigge C; Traeder W; Waldmann KH; Wallmann J; Werckenthin C; Schwarz S

2004-07-01

282

Proteomic analyses of host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pursuit of biomarkers for use as clinical screening tools, measures for early detection, disease monitoring, and as a means for assessing therapeutic responses has steadily evolved in human and veterinary medicine over the past two decades. Concurrently, advances in mass spectrometry have markedly expanded proteomic capabilities for biomarker discovery. While initial mass spectrometric biomarker discovery endeavors focused primarily on the detection of modulated proteins in human tissues and fluids, recent efforts have shifted to include proteomic analyses of biological samples from food animal species. Mastitis continues to garner attention in veterinary research due mainly to affiliated financial losses and food safety concerns over antimicrobial use, but also because there are only a limited number of efficacious mastitis treatment options. Accordingly, comparative proteomic analyses of bovine milk have emerged in recent years. Efforts to prevent agricultural-related food-borne illness have likewise fueled an interest in the proteomic evaluation of several prominent strains of bacteria, including common mastitis pathogens. The interest in establishing biomarkers of the host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis stems largely from the need to better characterize mechanisms of the disease, to identify reliable biomarkers for use as measures of early detection and drug efficacy, and to uncover potentially novel targets for the development of alternative therapeutics. The following review focuses primarily on comparative proteomic analyses conducted on healthy versus mastitic bovine milk. However, a comparison of the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk and the proteomic analysis of common veterinary pathogens are likewise introduced. PMID:21892748

Boehmer, Jamie L

2011-09-04

283

Proteomic analyses of host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pursuit of biomarkers for use as clinical screening tools, measures for early detection, disease monitoring, and as a means for assessing therapeutic responses has steadily evolved in human and veterinary medicine over the past two decades. Concurrently, advances in mass spectrometry have markedly expanded proteomic capabilities for biomarker discovery. While initial mass spectrometric biomarker discovery endeavors focused primarily on the detection of modulated proteins in human tissues and fluids, recent efforts have shifted to include proteomic analyses of biological samples from food animal species. Mastitis continues to garner attention in veterinary research due mainly to affiliated financial losses and food safety concerns over antimicrobial use, but also because there are only a limited number of efficacious mastitis treatment options. Accordingly, comparative proteomic analyses of bovine milk have emerged in recent years. Efforts to prevent agricultural-related food-borne illness have likewise fueled an interest in the proteomic evaluation of several prominent strains of bacteria, including common mastitis pathogens. The interest in establishing biomarkers of the host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis stems largely from the need to better characterize mechanisms of the disease, to identify reliable biomarkers for use as measures of early detection and drug efficacy, and to uncover potentially novel targets for the development of alternative therapeutics. The following review focuses primarily on comparative proteomic analyses conducted on healthy versus mastitic bovine milk. However, a comparison of the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk and the proteomic analysis of common veterinary pathogens are likewise introduced.

Boehmer JL

2011-12-01

284

Natural variation in biomarkers indicating mastitis in healthy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dairy herds are expanding and, with increasing numbers of animals in each herd, there is a need for automatic recording of indicators in milk in order to detect mastitis, inflammation of the udder. A number of biomarkers for mastitis have been suggested over the years. Mastitis usually occurs in one of the four udder quarters and since it is now possible to milk each udder quarter separately in automated milking systems, it is important to evaluate the normal variation in the biomarkers at udder quarter level. This study evaluated the normal variations between milkings for some biomarkers in clinically healthy cows, determined by repeated somatic cell count and bacteriological analysis. The biomarkers studied were serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), parameters that have been suggested as markers for mastitis. Ten cows were monitored on 42 consecutive milking occasions through collection of udder quarter milk samples and representative cow composite milk samples, giving a total of 2100 individual milk samples. Each cow had its individual profile for the concentrations and variations in the parameters analysed. Although there was relatively large variation between cows for the biomarkers analysed, the variation between milkings in clinically healthy quarters within cows was often below 10%. The biomarker with the lowest variation in this study was LDH. The results suggest that comparing quarters within an individual cow can identify deviations from the natural variations between milkings. This could be a valuable tool instead of, or in combination with, a cut-off value for each parameter in order to detect changes in the milk indicating mastitis.

Akerstedt M; Forsbäck L; Larsen T; Svennersten-Sjaunja K

2011-02-01

285

Natural variation in biomarkers indicating mastitis in healthy cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dairy herds are expanding and, with increasing numbers of animals in each herd, there is a need for automatic recording of indicators in milk in order to detect mastitis, inflammation of the udder. A number of biomarkers for mastitis have been suggested over the years. Mastitis usually occurs in one of the four udder quarters and since it is now possible to milk each udder quarter separately in automated milking systems, it is important to evaluate the normal variation in the biomarkers at udder quarter level. This study evaluated the normal variations between milkings for some biomarkers in clinically healthy cows, determined by repeated somatic cell count and bacteriological analysis. The biomarkers studied were serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), parameters that have been suggested as markers for mastitis. Ten cows were monitored on 42 consecutive milking occasions through collection of udder quarter milksamples and representative cow composite milk samples, giving a total of 2100 individual milk samples. Each cow had its individual profile for the concentrations and variations in the parameters analysed. Although there was relatively large variation between cows for the biomarkers analysed, the variation between milkings in clinically healthy quarters within cows was often below 10%. The biomarker with the lowest variation in this study was LDH. The results suggest that comparing quarters within an individual cow can identify deviations from the natural variations between milkings. This could be a valuable tool instead of, or in combination with, a cut-off value for each parameter in order to detect changes in the milk indicating mastitis.

Åkerstedt, Maria; Forsbäck, Linda

2010-01-01

286

Congenital ichthyosis: interesting clinical case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research goal is to explore the clinical anamnestic features of congenital ichthyosis in newborns, to analyze the perinatal period for this child and to draw attention to one of the problems in neonatology — non-infectious diseases in newborns and skin care features on modified skin.

Dukhonina ?.?.; Chernenkov Yu.V.; Panina O.S.; Lavrova D.B.; Lyubimova M.A.

2013-01-01

287

Treatment trial of subclinical mastitis with the herb Persicaria senegalense (Polygonaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible remedial effect of Persicaria senegalense in bovine subclinical mastitis was studied by in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial tests, using crude extracts and the leaf in different forms. The in vitro test showed that isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Corynebacterium bovis from subclinical cases and an isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a clinical case of mastitis were all inhibited by the three crude extracts at 820 micrograms concentration. An in vivo trial feeding 1.5 kg of the cooked leaf per day for 5 days did not give a significant cure rate, whereas a second trial in which 0.77 kg of leaf powder, equivalent to 3 kg of wet leaf, was fed per day for 5 days resulted in an apparent cure rate of 92.8% (52.8% actual as there was a 40% spontaneous cure rate in the negative control group, in contrast to 80% (40% actual) in the positive control group treated with an intramammary antibiotic preparation. The difference in cure rate between the negative control group and the experimental group given 0.77 kg leaf powder was significant (p = 0.008). PMID:11770205

Abaineh, D; Sintayehu, A

2001-12-01

288

Treatment trial of subclinical mastitis with the herb Persicaria senegalense (Polygonaceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The possible remedial effect of Persicaria senegalense in bovine subclinical mastitis was studied by in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial tests, using crude extracts and the leaf in different forms. The in vitro test showed that isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Corynebacterium bovis from subclinical cases and an isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a clinical case of mastitis were all inhibited by the three crude extracts at 820 micrograms concentration. An in vivo trial feeding 1.5 kg of the cooked leaf per day for 5 days did not give a significant cure rate, whereas a second trial in which 0.77 kg of leaf powder, equivalent to 3 kg of wet leaf, was fed per day for 5 days resulted in an apparent cure rate of 92.8% (52.8% actual as there was a 40% spontaneous cure rate in the negative control group, in contrast to 80% (40% actual) in the positive control group treated with an intramammary antibiotic preparation. The difference in cure rate between the negative control group and the experimental group given 0.77 kg leaf powder was significant (p = 0.008).

Abaineh D; Sintayehu A

2001-12-01

289

[Bullous mastocytosis. Two clinical cases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two cases of bullous mastocytosis in children are described. This form must be differentiated from the more common mastocytosis with bullae: in the latter form, blisters occur on previously existing papillar or nodular lesions, whereas in bullous mastocytosis the blisters occur on apparently normal skin.

Balato N; Bordone F; Patruno C; Ayala F

1992-11-01

290

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228

Lin Chih-Hsun; Hsu Chih-Wei; Tsao Tang-Yi; Chou Jason

2012-01-01

291

Aspectos clínicos e características do leite em ovelhas com mastite induzida experimentalmente com Staphylococcus aureus/ Clinical aspects and characteristics of the milk in sheep with mastitis experimentally induced with Staphylococcus aureus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os aspectos clínicos e as características físico-químicas do leite em ovelhas com mastite induzida experimentalmente com Staphylococcus aureus. Foram utilizados dez animais da raça Santa Inês, com peso médio de 30 kg, fêmeas, primíparas recém-paridas, mantidos em apriscos e clinicamente sadios. Após se estabelecer os padrões de normalidade para as variáveis estudadas, os animais foram inoculados experimentalmente numa m (more) ama com uma cepa de S. aureus, empregando-se o inóculo de 1,0x10(4)ufc/ml, enquanto a outra serviu como controle. As observações clínicas e laboratoriais foram realizadas nos intervalos de 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 132, 168, 180, 288 e 336 horas após a inoculação do agente etiológico (PI). Todos os animais apresentaram manifestações clínicas sistêmicas e nas glândulas inoculadas, observadas com mais intensidade a partir de 24 horas após a inoculação. Alterações significativas (P Abstract in english The objective was to study the clinical aspects and the physical-chemical characteristics of the milk in sheep with mastitis experimentally induced with Staphylococcus aureus. For such, were used 10 Santa Inês primiparity ewes, weighing 30 kg, clinically healthy and housed in a stall. After establishing the normality patterns for the studied variables, the animals were inoculated into one teat of the udder with an inoculum of 1.0x10(4)ufc/ml of S. aureus, while the other (more) gland served as control. The clinical observations were accomplished in intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 132, 168, 180, 288 and 336 hours after the inoculation of the agent (PI). All the animals presented clinical systemic manifestations, and in the inoculated glands with more intensity from 24 hours on after the inoculation. There were significant alterations (P

Santos, Rogério A.; Mendonça, Carla L.; Afonso, José Augusto B.; Simão, Luis Carlos V.

2007-01-01

292

Host response in bovine mastitis experimentally induced with Staphylococcus chromogenes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An experimental infection model was developed to study host response to intramammary infection in cows caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes. CNS intramammary infections have become very common in modern dairy herds, and they can remain persistent in the mammary gland. More information would be needed about the pathophysiology of CNS mastitis, and an experimental mastitis model is a means for this research. Six primiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were challenged with S. chromogenes 4 weeks after calving. One udder quarter of each cow was inoculated with 2.1 x 10(6)cfu of S. chromogenes. All cows became infected and clinical signs were mild. Milk production of the challenged quarter decreased on average by 16.3% during 7 days post-challenge. Cows eliminated bacteria in a few days, except for one cow which developed persistent mastitis. Milk indicators of inflammation, SCC and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) returned to normal within a week. Milk NAGase activity increased moderately, which reflects minor tissue damage in the udder. Concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) and milk amyloid A (MAA) were both elevated at 12h PC. MAA was affected by the milking times, and was at its highest before the morning milking. In our experimental model, systemic acute phase protein response with SAA occurred as an on-off type reaction. In conclusion, this experimental model could be used to study host response in CNS mastitis caused by the main CNS species and also for comparison of the host response in a mild intramammary infection and in more severe mastitis models.

Simojoki H; Orro T; Taponen S; Pyörälä S

2009-02-01

293

Acute phase proteins in the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly used for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. Acute phase proteins (APPs), as alternative biomarkers of mastitis, may increase in concentration in the absence of macroscopic changes in the milk, or may precede the onset of clinical signs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of APPs measured in milk and in serum with bacterial culture for the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-five Holstein cows were randomly selected from 7 dairy farms. Quarter milk and serum samples were taken from all cows. Milk samples were analyzed using a CMT and SCC, and for haptoglobin (MHp) and amyloid A (MAA) concentrations, and were also submitted for bacterial culture. Serum samples obtained concurrently were analyzed for haptoglobin (SHp) and amyloid A (SAA). Two-sample Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney) test was used to compare SCC, MAA, MHp, SAA, and SHp concentrations between culture-positive and culture-negative animals. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of each test using bacterial culture as the reference method. RESULTS: MAA concentration was the most accurate of the 5 tests, with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 98.3% at concentrations >16.4 mg/L. MAA and MHp had significantly larger areas under the curve than the respective serum proteins, SAA and SHp. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that measuring haptoglobin and amyloid A in milk is more accurate than serum analysis for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows.

Safi S; Khoshvaghti A; Jafarzadeh SR; Bolourchi M; Nowrouzian I

2009-12-01

294

[Bladder carcinosarcoma. A clinical case].  

Science.gov (United States)

Presentation of a new case of vesical carcinosarcoma in a 49 year-old male patient. The tumour's pathoanatomical study showed an epithelial pattern of transitional and squamous cells and a sarcomatous pattern composed of rabdomiosarcoma, osteochondrosarcoma and pleomorphous indifferentiated sarcoma with giant multinuclear cells. Histogenesis, signs and symptoms, and treatment, as well as the need of performing an immunohistochemical study for its diagnosis are discussed. PMID:8659281

Pena Outeiriño, J M; León Dueñas, E; Romero Gil, J R; Leal López, A

1995-03-01

295

[Bladder carcinosarcoma. A clinical case  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Presentation of a new case of vesical carcinosarcoma in a 49 year-old male patient. The tumour's pathoanatomical study showed an epithelial pattern of transitional and squamous cells and a sarcomatous pattern composed of rabdomiosarcoma, osteochondrosarcoma and pleomorphous indifferentiated sarcoma with giant multinuclear cells. Histogenesis, signs and symptoms, and treatment, as well as the need of performing an immunohistochemical study for its diagnosis are discussed.

Pena Outeiriño JM; León Dueñas E; Romero Gil JR; Leal López A

1995-03-01

296

Epidemiological Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy cows in Assiut Governorate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this investigation, some epidemiological studies were run on subclinical mastitis for totally 350 dairy cows of different breeds, ages and distributed in different villages in Assiut governorate, Assiut, Egypt, along a whole year (during the period from June 2006 till July 2007) through field screening surveys by using of the California mastitis test (CMT) for each quarter milk sample followed by bacteriological examination to identify the major causative agents of intramammary infection (IMI). The dairy cows were differed from the breed point of view as 230 Holstein Friesian breed and 120 native breed. Also, they were differed from the age point of view as a group of 95 cows aged from 2 to 4 years old and another group of 255 cow aged from 5 to 8 years old. All dairy cows were apparently healthy with clinically sound udder secreting apparently normal milk. All the cows lived nearly under the same conditions of breeding from the habitat, hygiene and feeding systems. The obtained results revealed that 67 cows (19.14%) had 80 infected quarters (5.71%). It was found that the most frequently major causative agents isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli from the positive CMT samples with prevalence 52.5, 31.25 and 16.25%, respectively. With studying the breed factor, it was found Friesian breed was sensitive towards infection (20.43% at the cow level and 6.09% at the quarter level) than of native breed (16.67% at the cow level and 5% at the quarter level). It was also noticed that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in hot weather as during summer (9.14% at the cow level and 2.64% at the quarter level) and during spring (4.86% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level) was higher than in cold weather as during winter (2% at the cow level and 0.64% at the quarter level) and during autumn (3.14% at the cow level and 1.07% at the quarter level). In relation to age susceptibility, 5-8 years old cows (15.43% at the cow level and 4.36% at the quarter level) were susceptible than those of 2-4 years (3.71% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level). The degree of quarter attack according to positive CMT was varied from 35 quarters (2.50%) showed degree (+++), to 45 ones (3.22%) showed degree (++), to 120 ones (8.57%) showed degree (+) and the rest (85.71%) showed degree (-). The obtained results threw the light on the epidemiology of subclinical mastitis in Assiut villages and provided an importance of the CMT for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis due to it is a reliable, easy, rapid and cheap tool helping in diagnosis and controlling the disease because it directs attention to individual mammary quarter that is secreting milk of high somatic cell content (SCC). Programs for control of subclinical mastitis may be planned around the routine examination of all lactating cows, and consequently early treatment can be applied towards positive cases rapidly for preventing their conversion towards clinical form among dairy cows and for protecting the herd health, milk hygiene and consequently the consumer health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000): 373-380

Ahmed Abdel-Rady; Mohammed Sayed

2009-01-01

297

[Jaccoud's postrheumatic arthritis. A clinical case report  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors describe a case of Jaccoud's arthropathy, a very rare disease of unknown pathogenesis, that can develop in patients after repeated attacks of rheumatic fever. Clinical pictures with analogous features can be found associated with many other pathological processes, such as connective tissue diseases or cancers. The case presented here is interesting for the diagnostic and therapeutic mistakes made, probably because it is an illness very little known and with ambiguous clinical features.

Biasi D; Carletto A; Caramaschi P; Botto M; Pacor ML; Frigo A; Bambara LM

1992-04-01

298

Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná/ Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test) em todos os an (more) imais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados. Abstract in english Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test) were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

Filippsen, Laerte Francisco; Moreira, Fernanda Barros; Sakashita, Adauto Taiti; Bittencourt, Daniéla Regina

1999-03-01

299

Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test) em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test) were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

Laerte Francisco Filippsen; Fernanda Barros Moreira; Adauto Taiti Sakashita; Daniéla Regina Bittencourt

1999-01-01

300

Effect of mastitis on macro-minerals of bovine milk and blood serum in Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk and blood serum from clinically mastitis infected, subclinically mastitis infected and healthy Friesian cows (15 samples from each of 3 groups) were evaluated for macrominerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus). The milk from cows infected with subclinical mastitis revealed a significant decrease in potassium (P < 0.001) and a significant increase in sodium and phosphorus content (P < 0.01). Similarly, the milk from cows with the clinical form of the disease showed a significant increase in sodium (P < 0.001) and a significant decrease in potassium, magnesium (P < 0.001) and calcium (P < 0.01). Comparison of healthy cow's milk with that from cows with subclinical mastitis revealed a highly significant increase in sodium (P < 0.001). Comparison of healthy cow's milk with that of clinically mastitic milk showed a highly significant decrease in levels of calcium, magnesium (P < 0.001) and potassium (P < 0.01). However, sodium increased highly significantly (P < 0.001). Comparison of macro-minerals in milk from cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis revealed a significant decrease in potassium contents (P < 0.05) compared with that of healthy cows. Potassium levels were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) in subclinically infected cow's blood serum. However, calcium and phosphorus showed a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in blood serum samples from the clinically infected cows.

I.E.M. El Zubeir; O.A.O. ElOwni; G.E. Mohamed

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Bovine mastitis in the metropolitan area of Curitiba: antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial control of the infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A study from cows with mastitis was performed and Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen in 46.4 % among 153 studied strains from 276 milk samples of infected cows. Antibiotic resistance of 71 S. aureus isolates was determined in order to search resistant strains to antibiotics of clinical interest, as well as to determine their degree of multi-resistance. It was found that 60% of the S. aureus strains presented resistance to ?-lactams, but none to oxacil (more) lin, teicoplamin or vancomycin. On the other hand, with the aim of reducing the use of current antibiotics and their associated resistance, a new formulation was introduced. The antimicrobial compounds (P22-P32), demonstrated to be effective in 55% of the 76 mastitis cases studied. The use of P22-P32 reduced the number of somatic cell to less than 300,000 SCC/mL-1 in 75.2 % of milk samples analyzed, normalizing the milk quality, fat and lactose levels and increasing the volume of production in 10.1 %.

Parada, José Luis; Gonçalves, Dicezar; Soccol, Vanete Tomaz; Lima, Marisa; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

2011-08-01

302

Bovine mastitis in the metropolitan area of Curitiba: antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial control of the infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study from cows with mastitis was performed and Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen in 46.4 % among 153 studied strains from 276 milk samples of infected cows. Antibiotic resistance of 71 S. aureus isolates was determined in order to search resistant strains to antibiotics of clinical interest, as well as to determine their degree of multi-resistance. It was found that 60% of the S. aureus strains presented resistance to ?-lactams, but none to oxacillin, teicoplamin or vancomycin. On the other hand, with the aim of reducing the use of current antibiotics and their associated resistance, a new formulation was introduced. The antimicrobial compounds (P22-P32), demonstrated to be effective in 55% of the 76 mastitis cases studied. The use of P22-P32 reduced the number of somatic cell to less than 300,000 SCC/mL-1 in 75.2 % of milk samples analyzed, normalizing the milk quality, fat and lactose levels and increasing the volume of production in 10.1 %.

José Luis Parada; Dicezar Gonçalves; Vanete Tomaz Soccol; Marisa Lima; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2011-01-01

303

Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: Diagnostic strategy and therapeutic implications in Omani patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign disorder of the breast whose aetiology is controversial, and is often misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as mammary malignancy; as a result, it may be incorrectly treated. Although no standard treatment is available for this chronic disease, surgery with or without corticosteroids has been tried with controversial results. This study discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, recurrence, and follow-up data of IGM with a review of relevant literature. METHODS: From 2009-2012, the Breast Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, conducted a clinical study on 20 patients with breast lumps. Their clinical and radiological examinations were indeterminate, and a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis was established only by histopathology. RESULTS: The majority of the patients were cases of unknown aetiology, who presented with a unilateral breast mass. A few patients had a mass with an abscess, along with axillary lymphadenopathy. A total of 4 patients were suspected of malignancy using radiology. In all patients, sterilised pus was sent for culture and sensitivity. Microscopy showed the characteristic pattern of granulomatous inflammation. All patients were treated with antibiotics for 6 weeks, and the mean follow-up period was 15 months (11-33 months). All patients had complete remission with no further recurrence. CONCLUSION: This single largest study of cases of IGM in Oman highlights the pitfalls in diagnosing this non-neoplastic disease of unknown aetiology and uncertain pathogenesis. It emphasises IGM's excellent response to antibiotics, which is crucial, as IGM is a disease which is notoriously difficult and controversial to treat.

Al-Jarrah A; Taranikanti V; Lakhtakia R; Al-Jabri A; Sawhney S

2013-05-01

304

Identification of nonlipophilic corynebacteria isolated from dairy cows with mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkaline phosphatase. Absence of growth at 20 degrees C and lack of alpha-glucosidase and 4MU-alpha-D-glycoside hydrolysis activity differentiated C. amycolatum from C. pseudotuberculosis and C. ulcerans. The mastitis C. pseudotuberculosis strains differed from the biovar equi and ovis reference strains and from caprine field strains in their colony morphologies and in their reduced inhibitory activity on staphylococcal beta-hemolysin. C. amycolatum was the most frequently isolated nonlipophilic corynebacterium. PMID:10074508

Hommez, J; Devriese, L A; Vaneechoutte, M; Riegel, P; Butaye, P; Haesebrouck, F

1999-04-01

305

Identification of nonlipophilic corynebacteria isolated from dairy cows with mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkaline phosphatase. Absence of growth at 20 degrees C and lack of alpha-glucosidase and 4MU-alpha-D-glycoside hydrolysis activity differentiated C. amycolatum from C. pseudotuberculosis and C. ulcerans. The mastitis C. pseudotuberculosis strains differed from the biovar equi and ovis reference strains and from caprine field strains in their colony morphologies and in their reduced inhibitory activity on staphylococcal beta-hemolysin. C. amycolatum was the most frequently isolated nonlipophilic corynebacterium.

Hommez J; Devriese LA; Vaneechoutte M; Riegel P; Butaye P; Haesebrouck F

1999-04-01

306

[Automated detection of estrus and mastitis in dairy cows  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development and test of detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows is described in a PhD thesis that was defended in Wageningen on June 5, 2000. These models were based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and cow activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The models alert farmers to cows that need attention, because of possible oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables. A time series model describes the dependence between successive observations. The parameters of the time series models were fitted on-line for each cow after each milking by means of a Kalman filter, a mathematical method to estimate the state of a system on-line. The Kalman filter gives the best estimate of the current state of a system based on all preceding observations. This model was tested for 2 years on two experimental farms, and under field conditions on four farms over several years. A second detection model, for cow milked in an automatic milking system (AMS), was based on a generalization of the first model. Two data sets (one small, one large) were used for testing. The results for oestrus detection were good for both models. The results for mastitis detection were varying (in some cases good, in other cases moderate). Fuzzy logic was used to classify mastitis and oestrus alerts with both detection models, to reduce the number of false positive alerts. Fuzzy logic makes approximate reasoning possible, where statements can be partly true or false. Input for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection models and additional information. The number of false positive alerts decreased considerably, while the number of detected cases remained at the same level. These models make automated detection possible in practice.

de Mol RM

2001-02-01

307

[Report of an amyopathic dermatomyositis clinical case].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors report a clinical case of a 41-years-old man with astenia and myalgias maintained for many years without an accurate diagnosis. Amyopathic dermatomyositis was diagnosed based on the presence of typical cutaneous lesions and the absence of myositis. Subsequent evidence of subclinical myositis allowed the diagnosis of hypomyophatic dermatomyositis. Finally, the diagnosis of classical dermatomyositis could be made when the patient presented elevated levels of muscle enzimes. There was a good clinical response to imunossupressor therapy and the patient remains asymptomatic. Differences in the clinical management of amyopathic, hypomyopathic and classic dermatomyositis are discussed.

Monteiro P; Duarte C; Salvador MJ; Malcata A

2009-04-01

308

External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying an internal quality control strain, i.e. including the same strain of Streptococcus agalactiae in all iterations of the proficiency test, served to gauge the bias caused by the year-to-year variation in the selection of test strains. A total of 73% of all uploaded results over the years were correct, with the internal quality control strain exhibiting a statistically significant ascending trend from 54% correct identifications in 2006 to 91% in 2011 (p-value=0.0082; n=13).Even if specifics were not recorded as regards the laboratory methods employed at the veterinary clinics for identification of mastitis pathogens, the results from this study indicate that the practices’ application of basic biochemical analyses in this context could be optimized. In addition, dissemination of information on new methods and updated nomenclature appeared to be an area which future efforts with advantage could aim at.

Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.

2013-01-01

309

Detection of the enterotoxigenic genes (sei,sej) in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk in the West Azerbaijan of Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative pathogen of clinical and subclinical mastitis of dairy domestic ruminants. This organism produces a variety of extracellular toxins and virulence factors such as enterotoxin SEI and SEJ that contribute to its pathogenic potential. In this study 25 S. aureus isolates obtained from four dairy herds of Urmia region which is located in West Azerbaijan province in Iran. The tested isolates were identified on the basis of the cultural and biochemical properties, as well as amplification of the aroA gene which is specific for S. aureus. All isolates were also analyzed for the presence of the SEI (sei) and SEJ (sej) encoding genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seven positive isolates were detected for sei, but sej gene was not detected in any of the total number of 25 isolates. The present study revealed that the PCR amplification of the aroA gene could be used as a powerful tool for identification of S. aureus from the cases of bovine mastitis. Results of the present study also showed that the strains of S. aureus which cause mastitis can potentially produce enterotoxin SEI. Overall, our results suggest that it is of special importance to follow the presence of enterotoxin-producing S. aureus in other dairy products, especially for protecting the consumers from staphylococcal food poisoning.

Ahmady M; Kazemi S

2013-07-01

310

Clinical analysis of cases with nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-one cases with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in our department between 1991 and 2007 were clinically analyzed. The mean age of the cases was 53 years old, and the male-to female ratio was 3.6:1. The most common chief complaint was ear symptoms followed by neck, eye, and nose symptoms. The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma, followed by undifferentiated carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and spindle cell carcinoma. More than half of the cases were classified as clinical stage IV. For squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma cases, concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy was applied. For adenocarcinoma cases, transpalatal resection and postoperative radiotherapy was applied. The five-year overall survival rate was 64.1% and the disease-specific five-year survival rate was 71.2%. No significant statistical differences were seen between early stage (I, II) and late stage (III, IV), between I, II, III stage and IV stage. Recurrence occurred in 24.4% of the cases, and distant metastasis was more dominant than local recurrence. For the diagnosis and treatment of NPC, proper detection of NPC from variegated symptoms, and chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma cases were considered to be important. (author)

2010-01-01

311

EVALUACIÓN DE LA SENSIBILIDAD Y ESPECIFICIDAD DEL DIAGNÓSTICO MOLECULAR DEL Staphylococcus aureus EN LECHE DE VACAS AFECTADAS POR MASTITIS/ EVALUATION OF SENSITIVITY AN SPECIFICITY OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS FOR Staphylococcus aureus IN MILK OF COWS AFFECTED BY MASTITIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Entre los agentes contagiosos que inducen mastitis severas en la vaca, se encuentra el Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), de difícil cura bacteriológica y alta resistencia antimicrobiana. Debido a que el cultivo microbiológico de las muestras clínicas, solo ofrece resultado en un 50% de los casos (1) el diagnóstico por PCR es una alternativa. El objetivo de este estudio fue probar si los cebadores descritos por Cremonesi et al. (2) para el diagnóstico de S. aureus, (more) como de buena sensibilidad y especificidad, sirven para ser usados en muestras clínicas. Los resultados demostraron que las siguientes secuencias de nucleótidos como cebadores: F 5' AGC TGT GGA TTG TCC TTT GG 3' y R 5' TCG CTC GCT CAC CTT AGA A 3', para obtener un amplificado de 499 pb no sirven en muestras clínicas por su baja especificidad (62,95%). Se requiere buscar nuevos cebadores que amplifiquen regiones del S. aureus que no se compartan con otras bacterias, en especial aquellas que producen mastitis en vacas productoras de leche. Abstract in english Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the infectious agents that induce severe mastitis in cows with a difficult bacteriological cure and high antimicrobial resistance. Because the microbiological culture of clinical samples only shows results in 50% of the cases (Koskinen et al., 2009), diagnostic through PCR is an alternative. The aim of this study was to prove if the primers described by Cremonesi et al. (2006) for the S. aureus diagnosis, with good sensitivity a (more) nd specificity, could be used in clinical samples too. The results showed that the following nucleotide sequences can be used as primers: F 5' AGC TGT GGA TTG TCC TTT GG 3' and R 5' TCG CTC GCT CAC CTT AGA A 3' in order to obtain a 499 pb enlargemenr are not useful in clinical samples due their low specificity (62.95%). It is required to search new primers to amplify S. aureus regions not shared with other bacteria, especially those cauding mastitis in dairy cows.

Restrepo, Juan; Ortiz, Luisa; Cardona, Ximena; Olivera, Martha

2012-12-01

312

EFECTO DE LA MASTITIS SUBCLÍNICA SOBRE EL RENDIMIENTO EN LA FABRICACIÓN DEL QUESO COSTEÑO/ THE EFFECT OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS ON COASTAL CHEESE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La inflamación de las glándulas mamarias produce un descenso en la síntesis de los diferentes componentes de la leche, como respuesta para neutralizar agentes infecciosos, reparar el epitelio alveolar y retornar a la función normal. En la mastitis clínica y subclínica, hay un aumento del número de células somáticas cuya función es fagocitar, lisar a los patógenos, remover los deshechos producidos en el foco de infección mediante enzimas bacterianas que se inco (more) rporan a la leche reduciendo la vida útil de los diferentes derivados. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la mastitis subclínica sobre el rendimiento del queso costeño. Se realizó un estudio observacional transversal, en una empresa ganadera con dos grupos, seleccionando cinco cuartos con resultados grado 3 del CMT y 5 cuartos con reacciones negativas al CMT. Se minimizó la variabilidad por raza y lactancia. Los análisis fisicoquímicos se efectuaron por triplicado y se llevaron a cabo, teniendo en cuenta los métodos referenciados, el RCS se realizó en un contador electrónico de células somáticas. Los resultados de la calidad fisicoquímica de la leche con y sin mastitis, se compararon por medio de la prueba t-Student y se procesaron en el software SAS 9.0. Los quesos elaborados con leches sin mastitis subclínicas mostraron un 5.8 % de mayor rendimiento sobre los quesos elaborados con leches provenientes de vacas con mastitis subclínica. El rendimiento de la leche en la elaboración de queso costeño está directamente relacionado con el número de células somáticas. Abstract in english The mammary gland inflammation diminishes the synthesis of different milk compounds as a response to neutralize pathogens, repair the alveolar epithelium and return to normal functioning. In clinical and subclinical mastitis there is a significant increase of somatic cell count whose function is to phagocytose, lyse pathogens, and to remove wastes in the infection focus through bacterial enzymes that are added to milk, reducing the life span of different derivates. The ai (more) m of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical mastitis on coastal cheese production efficiency. A cross sectional observational study was carried out in a cattle enterprise having two groups from which five quarters with California Mastitis Test grade 3 and five quarters with negative California Mastitis Test reaction were selected. The variability by breed and lactation was minimized. The physical and chemical milk analyses were done in triplicate and were carried put considering reference methods. The somatic cells count was measured with an electronic somatic cell counter. The results of the physicochemical quality of the milk with and without mastitis were compared using the t-Student test and were processed using the SAS software 9.0. The cheese made using milk without sub clinic mastitis showed 5.8% better output over the cheese prepared with milk coming from cows with sub clinic mastitis. The efficiency of milk in the production of coastal cheese is directly related with somatic cell counts.

Calderón, Alfonso; Arteaga, Margarita Rosa; Rodríguez, Virginia Consuelo; Arrieta, Germán Javier; Bermudez, Diana Carolina; Villareal, Viviana Patrícia

2011-12-01

313

Mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum en una paciente HIV negativa/ Mastitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso de una paciente HIV negativa de 39 años con una mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum, sin antecedentes patogénicos previos. Fue tratada en base a las pruebas de susceptibilidad a antibióticos y quimioterápicos y a la evidencia empírica citada por la bibliografía, con kanamicina, doxiciclina, ciprofloxacina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se obtuvo la remisión completa de sus lesiones luego de 15 meses de tratamiento. Se comenta la capacidad de producir lesiones de esta micobacteria de crecimiento rápido, su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Abstract in english A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented.

Palmero, Domingo J.; Ambroggi, Marta G.; Poggi, Susana E.

2004-12-01

314

Mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum en una paciente HIV negativa Mastitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente HIV negativa de 39 años con una mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum, sin antecedentes patogénicos previos. Fue tratada en base a las pruebas de susceptibilidad a antibióticos y quimioterápicos y a la evidencia empírica citada por la bibliografía, con kanamicina, doxiciclina, ciprofloxacina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se obtuvo la remisión completa de sus lesiones luego de 15 meses de tratamiento. Se comenta la capacidad de producir lesiones de esta micobacteria de crecimiento rápido, su diagnóstico y tratamiento.A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented.

Domingo J. Palmero; Marta G. Ambroggi; Susana E. Poggi

2004-01-01

315

Development of a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine against mastitis in dairy cows. I. Challenge trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A vaccine composed of three field isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) derived from cases of mastitis in cows was developed. The vaccine was administered to nine uninfected cows while 10 other cows were used as controls. All cows were challenged with a highly virulent S. aureus strain administered into two quarters of each cow. Quarters were tested for clinical signs, secretion of S. aureus, and somatic cell count (SCC). No systemic effects were observed in any of the cows, vaccinated or control. Vaccinated cows had 70% protection from infection compared with fewer than 10% in the controls. Moreover, all quarters challenged in the vaccinated cows, regardless of whether they were successfully infected or not with S. aureus, exhibited very mild inflammatory reactions, identified by their low SCCs (<100,000).

Leitner G; Lubashevsky E; Glickman A; Winkler M; Saran A; Trainin Z

2003-05-01

316

Mastitis in dairy heifers: initial studies on prevalence and control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Initial studies to determine the prevalence of mastitis in heifers of breeding age and in pregnant dairy heifers demonstrated that IMI were present in 97% of heifers and 75% of quarters. The most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hyicus, and Staphylococcus chromogenes; SCC ranged from 12.4 to 17.3 x 10(6)/ml. Approximately 29% of heifers and 15% of quarters exhibited clinical mastitis at breeding age, as evidenced by clots or flakes in mammary secretions. Histologic examination of mammary tissues demonstrated significant reductions in alveolar epithelial and luminal areas and increases in connective tissue stroma and leukocytosis, illustrating limited development and marked inflammation of infected tissues. A one-time infusion of antibiotic for nonlactating cows into infected quarters > or = 45 d prepartum reduced incidence of IMI by 59% at calving compared with the pretreatment level; the cure rate for Staph. aureus IMI was > 90%. Prophylactic treatment of uninfected quarters > or = 45 d prepartum reduced new Streptococcus sp. IMI by 93%. The mean SCC was 50% lower at calving for treated heifers, and milk yield over the first 2 mo of lactation was 10% greater than that of untreated controls. Heifers from herds using fly control had a lower prevalence of IMI than herds without fly control. Prevalences of IMI and SCC in dairy heifers were higher than previously realized, but mastitis at calving was controlled by use of therapeutic products for nonlactating cows during pregnancy.

Nickerson SC; Owens WE; Boddie RL

1995-07-01

317

Analysis of an outbreak of Streptococcus uberis mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An outbreak of Streptococcus uberis mastitis was described to gain insight into the dynamics of Strep. uberis infections at a herd level. Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on a commercial Dutch dairy farm with good udder health management. Quarter milk samples for bacteriological culture were routinely collected at 3-wk intervals from all lactating animals (n = 95 +/- 5). Additional samples were collected at calving, clinical mastitis, dry-off, and culling. During the 78-wk observation period, 54 Strep. uberis infections were observed. The majority of infections occurred during a 21-wk period that constituted the disease outbreak. The incidence rate was higher in quarters that had recovered from prior Strep. uberis infection than in quarters that had not experienced Strep. uberis infection before. The incidence rate of Strep. uberis infection did not differ between quarters that were infected with other pathogens compared with quarters that were not infected with other pathogens. The expected number of new Strep. uberis infections per 3-wk interval was described by means of a Poisson logistic regression model. Significant predictor variables in the model were the number of existing Strep. uberis infections in the preceding time interval (shedders), phase of the study (early phase vs. postoutbreak phase), and prior infection status of quarters with respect to Strep. uberis, but not infection status with respect to other pathogens. Results suggest that contagious transmission may have played a role in this outbreak of Strep. uberis mastitis.

Zadoks RN; Allore HG; Barkema HW; Sampimon OC; Gröhn YT; Schukken YH

2001-03-01

318

Analysis of an outbreak of Streptococcus uberis mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An outbreak of Streptococcus uberis mastitis was described to gain insight into the dynamics of Strep. uberis infections at a herd level. Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on a commercial Dutch dairy farm with good udder health management. Quarter milk samples for bacteriological culture were routinely collected at 3-wk intervals from all lactating animals (n = 95 +/- 5). Additional samples were collected at calving, clinical mastitis, dry-off, and culling. During the 78-wk observation period, 54 Strep. uberis infections were observed. The majority of infections occurred during a 21-wk period that constituted the disease outbreak. The incidence rate was higher in quarters that had recovered from prior Strep. uberis infection than in quarters that had not experienced Strep. uberis infection before. The incidence rate of Strep. uberis infection did not differ between quarters that were infected with other pathogens compared with quarters that were not infected with other pathogens. The expected number of new Strep. uberis infections per 3-wk interval was described by means of a Poisson logistic regression model. Significant predictor variables in the model were the number of existing Strep. uberis infections in the preceding time interval (shedders), phase of the study (early phase vs. postoutbreak phase), and prior infection status of quarters with respect to Strep. uberis, but not infection status with respect to other pathogens. Results suggest that contagious transmission may have played a role in this outbreak of Strep. uberis mastitis. PMID:11286411

Zadoks, R N; Allore, H G; Barkema, H W; Sampimon, O C; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

2001-03-01

319

Associação deagentes patogênicos isolados emanálise microbiológica da água, coma presença de mastite clínica ou subclínica, em vacas de propriedades leiteiras da região de Cerqueira César - SP Association of pathogenic agents isoladed from microbiological analysis of water with the presence of clinical or subclinical mastitis in cows of dairy farms of Cerqueira Cesar region SP  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, pesquisar a relação entre os microrganismos patogênicos isolados e identificados em água utilizada na ordenha, com o isolamento e identificação dos mesmos em amostras de leite, de quartos mamários apresentando mastite clínica ou subclínica nas mesmas propriedades. Foram utilizadas 16 propriedades rurais leiteiras, escolhidas aleatoriamente, na região de Cerqueira César - SP, que utilizavam ordenha mecânica. A água utilizada na ordenha foi classificada em relação à presença de coliformes totais e fecais, como dentro dos padrões ou fora dos padrões de potabilidade humana. Nos resultados obtidos, 94% das amostras foram classificadas como fora dos padrões em relação a coliformes totais e fecais. Os microrganismos identificados foram: Escherichia coli (51%), Enterobacter spp. (25%), Enterobacter cloacae (8%) Edwardsiella tarda (8%) e Klebsiella oxytoca (8%). Em relação ao leite, foram analisadas 373 amostras provenientes de vacas em lactação, com mastite clínica (n=19; 5%) e subclínica (n=354; 95%). Os animais com mastite subclínica foram identificados pela contagem de células somáticas (CCS), utilizando-se o aparelho eletrônico (Somacount 300, Bentley), onde a média observada foi de 1.631 x 10³ células/mL. Os principais microrganismos identificados foram: Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Corynebacterium bovis (23%) e Staphylococcus spp. (15%). Conforme os dados obtidos, os agentes coliformes encontrados na água, utilizada na ordenha, não estavam presentes nas análises das amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica das respectivas propriedades, demonstrando não haver associação entre a qualidade da água e a ocorrência de mastite.The aim of the present study was to research the relation between the isolated and identified pathogenic microorganisms in the water used in the milking, with the isolation and identification of the same in milk samples of teats showing clinical or subclinical mastitis. Sixteen dairy farms were randomly chosen, in Cerqueira Cesar town - SP, which used mechanical milking. Water of the farms was classified in relation to the presence of total and fecal coliforms such as in the standard or out of the standard of human potability. In the results obtained, 94% of the samples were classified as being out of the standards in relation to total and fecal coliforms. The identified microorganisms were Escherichia coli (51%), Enterobacter spp. (25%), Enterobacter cloacae (8%), Edwardsiella tarda (8%) and Klebsiella oxytoca (8%). Regarding the milk samples, 373 samples from suckling cows were analyzed, presenting clinical mastitis (n=19; 5%) and subclinical mastitis (n=354; 95%).Animals presenting subclinical mastitis were identified by somatic cell count (SCC), utilizing electronic equipment (Somacount 300 - Bentley), where the mean found was 1,631 x 10³ cells/mL. The main identified microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Corynebacterium bovis (23%) and Staphylococcus spp. (15%). According to the results obtained, coliform agents found in the water used in the milking were not present in the analysis of the milk samples of quarters presenting clinical or subclinical mastitis from the respective farms, showing that there was not an association between water quality and mastitis occurrence.

Maria Izabel Merino de Medeiros; Luiz Carlos de Souza

2009-01-01

320

Associação deagentes patogênicos isolados emanálise microbiológica da água, coma presença de mastite clínica ou subclínica, em vacas de propriedades leiteiras da região de Cerqueira César - SP/ Association of pathogenic agents isoladed from microbiological analysis of water with the presence of clinical or subclinical mastitis in cows of dairy farms of Cerqueira Cesar region SP  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, pesquisar a relação entre os microrganismos patogênicos isolados e identificados em água utilizada na ordenha, com o isolamento e identificação dos mesmos em amostras de leite, de quartos mamários apresentando mastite clínica ou subclínica nas mesmas propriedades. Foram utilizadas 16 propriedades rurais leiteiras, escolhidas aleatoriamente, na região de Cerqueira César - SP, que utilizavam ordenha mecânica. A água utilizada na or (more) denha foi classificada em relação à presença de coliformes totais e fecais, como dentro dos padrões ou fora dos padrões de potabilidade humana. Nos resultados obtidos, 94% das amostras foram classificadas como fora dos padrões em relação a coliformes totais e fecais. Os microrganismos identificados foram: Escherichia coli (51%), Enterobacter spp. (25%), Enterobacter cloacae (8%) Edwardsiella tarda (8%) e Klebsiella oxytoca (8%). Em relação ao leite, foram analisadas 373 amostras provenientes de vacas em lactação, com mastite clínica (n=19; 5%) e subclínica (n=354; 95%). Os animais com mastite subclínica foram identificados pela contagem de células somáticas (CCS), utilizando-se o aparelho eletrônico (Somacount 300, Bentley), onde a média observada foi de 1.631 x 10³ células/mL. Os principais microrganismos identificados foram: Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Corynebacterium bovis (23%) e Staphylococcus spp. (15%). Conforme os dados obtidos, os agentes coliformes encontrados na água, utilizada na ordenha, não estavam presentes nas análises das amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica das respectivas propriedades, demonstrando não haver associação entre a qualidade da água e a ocorrência de mastite. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to research the relation between the isolated and identified pathogenic microorganisms in the water used in the milking, with the isolation and identification of the same in milk samples of teats showing clinical or subclinical mastitis. Sixteen dairy farms were randomly chosen, in Cerqueira Cesar town - SP, which used mechanical milking. Water of the farms was classified in relation to the presence of total and fecal coliforms such as in (more) the standard or out of the standard of human potability. In the results obtained, 94% of the samples were classified as being out of the standards in relation to total and fecal coliforms. The identified microorganisms were Escherichia coli (51%), Enterobacter spp. (25%), Enterobacter cloacae (8%), Edwardsiella tarda (8%) and Klebsiella oxytoca (8%). Regarding the milk samples, 373 samples from suckling cows were analyzed, presenting clinical mastitis (n=19; 5%) and subclinical mastitis (n=354; 95%).Animals presenting subclinical mastitis were identified by somatic cell count (SCC), utilizing electronic equipment (Somacount 300 - Bentley), where the mean found was 1,631 x 10³ cells/mL. The main identified microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Corynebacterium bovis (23%) and Staphylococcus spp. (15%). According to the results obtained, coliform agents found in the water used in the milking were not present in the analysis of the milk samples of quarters presenting clinical or subclinical mastitis from the respective farms, showing that there was not an association between water quality and mastitis occurrence.

Medeiros, Maria Izabel Merino de; Souza, Luiz Carlos de

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

PREVALENCE AND INFECTIOUS ETIOLOGY OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN THE MICROREGION OF CUIABÁ, MT, BRAZIL PREVALÊNCIA E ETIOLOGIA INFECCIOSA DA MASTITE BOVINA NA MICRORREGIÃO DE CUIABÁ-MT  

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Full Text Available This study aims to verify the prevalence and infectious etiology of bovine mastitis in dairy farms of the microregion of Cuiabá, state of  Mato Grosso, Brazil. One hundred eight cows belonging to herds from this microregion were examined. Afterwards, 279 milk samples from mastitic mammary quarters were submitted to microbiological examinations. Among the examined animals, 85.2% were carriers of mastitis in one mammary quarter at least. The percentile of mammary quarters affected by clinical and subclinical mastitis was 5.8 and 65% respectively. Corynebacterium sp. (27.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (21.5%) were the major causative agents among the subclinical infections. Among the clinical cases, S. aureus (44.0%) and Corynebacterium sp. (12.0%) were more frequently isolated. Although the high prevalence of S. aureus and Corynebacterium sp. as mastitis causatives confirms the results obtained in studies developed in other Brazilian regions, the low prevalence of the genus Streptococcus in the cases analyzed disagrees to those records.KEY WORDS: Cuiabá-MT, bovine mastitis, microorganisms. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a prevalência e etiologia infecciosa da mastite bovina em propriedades leiteiras da microrregião de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso. Foram examinadas 108 vacas pertencentes a rebanhos desta microrregião. Em seguida, submeteram-se 279 amostras de leite provenientes de quartos mamários mastíticos a provas microbiológicas. Dos animais examinados, 85,2% eram portadores de mastite em pelo menos um quarto mamário. O percentual de quartos mamários afetados pela mastite clínica e subclínica foi de 5,8 e 65%, respectivamente. Quanto à etiologia, nos casos de mastite subclínica os agentes causais mais isolados foram Corynebacterium spp. (27,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (21,5%). Dentre os casos de mastite clínica, isolaram-se com maior freqüência S. aureus (44,0%) e Corynebacterium spp. (12,0%). Embora a elevada prevalência de S. aureus e Corynebacterium spp. como causadores de mastites corrobore o verificado em estudos realizados em outras regiões do Brasil, a baixa prevalência de bactérias do gênero Streptococcus nos casos analisados difere do observado em tais relatos.PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cuiabá-MT, mastite bovina, microrganismos.

Rodrigo Prado Martins; Josiane Aparecida Gonçalina da Silva; Luciano Nakazato; Valéria Dutra; Edivaldo Sampaio de Almeida Filho

2010-01-01

322

[Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites: clinical case report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eosinophilic Gastroentertis (EG) is a very rare disease, characterized by focal or difuse eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical presentation is variable and depends on the histological and the extension layer involved. We report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis whose main presentation was ascites with peripheral eosinophilia and chronic intermittent diarrhea in a patient with a history of atopy. Upper endoscopy showed severe multifocal erythematous gastritis, the ascitic fluid showed elevated WBC with eosinophilia, with a SAAG (Serum albumin ascites gradient) of less 1.1. The patient was treated with corticoesteroids with remission of clinical manifestation.

Yep Gamarra V; Matos Nova A; Aldave Herrera A

2011-04-01

323

Cubicle Refusal and Rearing Accommodation as Possible Mastitis Risk Factors in Cubicle-Housed Dairy Heifers  

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Full Text Available Fifty-nine of the 65 dairy farms with cubicle sheds in the Norwegian county of Oppland in 1990 were included in a study of rearing accommodation, cubicle refusal and mastitis incidence. The farmers recorded the favoured resting location of the individual cows and heifers throughout the final week of pregnancy as well as during calving. The observations were matched with individual records of mastitis cases during the first 30 days after calving. Mastitis incidence in the heifers was analysed by logistic regression using rearing accommodation and cubicle refusal as independent variables, controlling for herd as a clustering factor. Cubicle refusal was found in 29% of the heifers, but in only 3% of older cows. The results of the analysis indicated a tendency for cubicle refusal to be associated with an increased mastitis incidence among the heifers (OR = 2.2, c.i.95%OR = 0.9–5.4, P = 0.08). Cubicle refusal accounted for 21% (0–32%) of the mastitis cases in the study population (PAF = 0.21).

Kjæstad HP; Simensen E

2001-01-01

324

An outbreak of acute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a dairy herd  

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Full Text Available An outbreak of coliform mastitis is described in a dairy herd from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During a four-month period 14 fatal cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae-related mastitis were observed in a herd of 104 lactating cows. The symptoms included peracute enterotoxemia in which the cows died 6 to 12 h after the detection of mastitis by CMT. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae were also isolated although could not be associated with cases of acute fatal mastitis. Milking practices were also evaluated. The milking machine was being used correctly and adequate precautions for hygiene and pre-milking and post-milking teat dipping were used. The organism was sensitive to gentamicin. Therapy for acute toxic mastitis required early action for the treatment of infections, involving corticosteroids and fluid therapy. The use of a Klebsiella vaccine produced from the microorganisms isolated from the herd, associated with hygiene measures, resulted in the control of the outbreak.

Silva N.; Costa G.M.

2001-01-01

325

Mammographic and sonographic features of tuberculous mastitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From December 1999 to April 2001, 10 cases of tuberculous mastitis were presented to the Radiology Unit at the Medical Research Institute of Alexandria University for mammographic and sonographic evaluation. Sixty percent presented with masses, 50% mastalgia, 40% discharge, and 10% complained of skin sinus. In 30% of the patients the complaint was bilateral. All cases underwent full mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) studies, and US-guided fine needle aspiration. Also pathological, bacteriological analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done to all patients to prove the tuberculous nature of their lesions. Thirty percent of the cases had surgical excision on their masses. On mammography 30% were found to have mass lesion mimicking malignant tumors, 40% smooth bordered masses, 40% axillary or intramammary adenopathy, 30% asymmetric density, 30% duct ectasia, 20% with skin thickening and nipple retraction, 20% with macrocalcification, and 10% with skin sinus. On US 60% had hypoechoic masses, 40% focal or sectorial duct ectasia, and 50% axillary adenopathy. History of tuberculosis was found in 30% of the cases. Chest X-ray was positive in 20% and breast magnetic resonance imaging was done to one patient who had skin sinus.

2004-01-01

326

Mammographic and sonographic features of tuberculous mastitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From December 1999 to April 2001, 10 cases of tuberculous mastitis were presented to the Radiology Unit at the Medical Research Institute of Alexandria University for mammographic and sonographic evaluation. Sixty percent presented with masses, 50% mastalgia, 40% discharge, and 10% complained of skin sinus. In 30% of the patients the complaint was bilateral. All cases underwent full mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) studies, and US-guided fine needle aspiration. Also pathological, bacteriological analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done to all patients to prove the tuberculous nature of their lesions. Thirty percent of the cases had surgical excision on their masses. On mammography 30% were found to have mass lesion mimicking malignant tumors, 40% smooth bordered masses, 40% axillary or intramammary adenopathy, 30% asymmetric density, 30% duct ectasia, 20% with skin thickening and nipple retraction, 20% with macrocalcification, and 10% with skin sinus. On US 60% had hypoechoic masses, 40% focal or sectorial duct ectasia, and 50% axillary adenopathy. History of tuberculosis was found in 30% of the cases. Chest X-ray was positive in 20% and breast magnetic resonance imaging was done to one patient who had skin sinus.

Sakr, Ayman A. E-mail: fahmi.sakr@link.netaymansakr12345@hotmail.com; Fawzy, Rawya K.; Fadaly, Gylan; Baky, Moustafa Abdel

2004-07-01

327

A clinical case treated with clear aligners.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are a wide variety of techniques, prescriptions and materials that can be used to correct malocclusions. Esthetic and discrete appliances have gained popularity in recent years and there seems to be a continual search for new materials that can provide similar orthodontic results. This article will describe the relevant aspects of clear aligners and present clinical cases to document some of the applications of Invisalign. PMID:22031989

Torres, Fernando César; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Cepera, Fernanda; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Sanders, Derek

2011-01-01

328

A clinical case treated with clear aligners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are a wide variety of techniques, prescriptions and materials that can be used to correct malocclusions. Esthetic and discrete appliances have gained popularity in recent years and there seems to be a continual search for new materials that can provide similar orthodontic results. This article will describe the relevant aspects of clear aligners and present clinical cases to document some of the applications of Invisalign.

Torres FC; Jóias RP; Cepera F; Paranhos LR; Sanders D

2011-01-01

329

Use of composite milk samples for diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To measure relative sensitivity and relative specificity for use of composite milk samples, compared with that of individual gland milk samples, for diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. ANIMALS: 505 cows suspected of having subclinical mastitis. Of these cows, 172 were considered infected with Sta aureus, based on the results from individual gland samples. PROCEDURE: Composite and individual gland milk samples were collected from cows suspected of having subclinical mastitis, and results of bacteriologic culturing of samples from the same cow were compared. Results were interpreted at the cow level. Relative sensitivity and relative specificity for composite samples were computed from 2 x 2 tables, using results from individual gland samples as references. RESULTS: Relative sensitivity for use of composite milk samples in diagnosing Sta aureus mastitis was 0.63. The relative specificity was 0.98. Factors influencing the relative sensitivity for composite samples were the number of infected glands per cow, the amount of Sta aureus shedding from infected glands, and the proportion of the composite milk obtained from each gland. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Collecting composite instead of individual gland milk samples increases the number of false-negative results in diagnosing Sta aureus mastitis. By collecting consecutive samples from the same cow or by increasing the inoculum volume at culturing, this problem can be diminished.

Lam TJ; van Wuijckhuise LA; Franken P; Morselt ML; Hartman EG; Schukken YH

1996-05-01

330

Potential mechanism of action of J5 vaccine in protection against severe bovine coliform mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coliform mastitis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat in the modern dairy industry. Curative therapy with antibiotics remains only moderately effective and depends on the stage at which the disease is treated. The most successful strategies for combating coliform mastitis appear to be prevention by hygienic management or prophylactic immunization. The severity of clinical symptoms of coliform mastitis has been shown to be reduced by immunization with the Escherichia coli J5 vaccine. However, although the J5 vaccine has been licensed in the United States for about 10 years, the immunological basis of its mechanism of action is still unknown. Until now, protection by J5 vaccination has often been explained by a straightforward mechanism of enhanced antibody production resulting in increased opsonization of coliform bacteria and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The possibility that J5 vaccination could decrease risk factors for coliform mastitis such as impaired blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocyte (PMN) diapedesis has never been investigated. This review provides arguments to support the hypothesis that J5 vaccination may reduce the severity of coliform mastitis by inducing a condition of mammary gland hyper-responsiveness, characterized by a T helper 1 (Th1) response and mediated by memory cells inside the mammary gland, finally resulting in enhanced PMN diapedesis upon an intramammary infection.

Dosogne H; Vangroenweghe F; Burvenich C

2002-01-01

331

A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 2: Implementation and evaluation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Part 1 of the study described the development of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) based programme and accompanying handbook for the control of mastitis. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of customised HACCP-based programmes, which were developed from the handbook and assessed on six Irish dairy farms. Both quantitative and qualitative (action research) research methodologies were used to measure the success of implementation and efficacy of control of sub-clinical mastitis as measured by Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and the degree of compliance by farmers in adopting and maintaining recommendations throughout the course of the study period. No overall differences in SCC before and during the implementation of the study were found when all six farms were considered together. Three of the six study farms experienced a significant decrease in herd milk recorded SCC during the implementation of the control programme. An essential part of the study was achieving initial agreement on recommendations as well as ongoing monitoring of compliance during the study. This pilot study shows that HACCP can be implemented on farms as a means of working towards the control of mastitis and that farmer attitude, and understanding of mastitis are crucial in terms of motivation irrespective of practical approaches used to manage mastitis.

Beekhuis-Gibbon Lies; Devitt Catherine; Whyte Paul; O'Grady Luke; More Simon J; Redmond Bairbre; Quin Suzanne; Doherty Michael L

2011-01-01

332

Central toxic keratopathy: a clinical case series.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To describe clinically, a case series of central toxic keratopathy (CTK), and contribute with one possible aetiology of this entity. METHODS: A retrospective observational case series, which included 12 eyes diagnosed with CTK after undergoing laser refractive surgery in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). RESULTS: From a total of 28 eyes that underwent LASIK in the same week, 12 develop CTK. The mean time of the diagnostic was 4 days after surgery. The resolution time had an interval between 1, 3 and 9 months, and an average of 4.6 months. The occurrence of CTK cases coincided with the change of the brand of surgical gloves, and no further cases were found after their replacement. CONCLUSIONS: The CTK clinical findings are well described, but with a yet unknown origin. It seems clear that it does not require specific treatment. It is possible that there might be a relationship between a substance of the gloves and CTK. Further studies are needed to know all the details of this process.

Marí Cotino JF; Suriano MM; De La Cruz Aguiló RI; Vila-Arteaga J

2013-06-01

333

Pérdidas económicas ocasionadas por la mastitis bovina en la industria lechera - Economic causalties inflicted by the bovine mastitis in the milk industry)  

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Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo fue hacer una revisión bibliográfica sobre las pérdidas económicas que ocasiona la mastitis bovina en la industria lechera en el Mundo, en México y Michoacán. La mastitis es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa más costosa de las vacas lecheras debido a que induce a una disminución en la producción del 4 al 30% de leche y baja su calidad, además de incrementar los costos del cuidado de la salud del hato y un desecho prematuro de animales genéticamente mejorados. En el documento, se hace una descripción de los conceptos concernientes a la mastitis bovina, su clasificación, características de la enfermedad tanto en su forma de presentación clínica y subclínica en el ganado bovino lechero, así mismo se hace referencia a las pérdidas económicas que ésta ocasiona tanto en la industria lechera a nivel mundial, como en México y en el Estado deMichoacán; finalmente, se aborda lo relacionado a los costos de prevención, tratamiento y control de la enfermedad. Se concluye que las pérdidas económicas que ocasiona la mastitis bovina a la industria lechera son considerables, esto en base a diversos estudios reportados por diferentes autores.summaryThe objective of the present paper was to make a revision of literature on the economic causalties that the bovine mastitis in the milk industry in the World inflicts, in Mexico and Michoacan. The mastitis is considered infectious the disease more expensive of the milk cows because it induces to a diminution in the production from the 4 to 30% of low milk and his quality, besides to increase the costs of the care of the health of the cattle ranch and a premature animal remainder genetically improved. In the document, a description of the concepts concerning the bovine mastitis, its classification,characteristics of the disease as much in its form of clinical and subclinical presentation in the milk bovine cattle becomes, also reference to the economic losses that this one causes so much in the milk industry at worldwide level, like in Mexico and the State of Michoacan; finally, the related thing to the costs of prevention, treatment and control of the disease is approached. On the basis of diverse studies reported by different authors concludes that the economic casualties that the bovine mastitis to the milk industry inflicts are considerable.

Bedolla, CC;; Ponce de León, MER;

2008-01-01

334

Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed ??Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%).

Radhwane Saidi; Djamel Khelef; Rachid Kaidi

2013-01-01

335

Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological (more) analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%).

Saidi, Radhwane; Khelef, Djamel; Kaidi, Rachid

2013-01-01

336

Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcus aureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%).

Saidi R; Khelef D; Kaidi R

2013-01-01

337

Mastitis in One Humped She-Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Jordan  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish data on mastitis in she-camels in Jordan. Milk samples were collected from 90 dromedary camels in south province of Jordan. California Mastitis Test (CMT) gave results with 70 milk samples; 42 samples (60%) showed positive CMT. Infection with some bacterial species was associated with positive CMT. About 21% of the camels revealed clinical signs of mastitis. The highest percentage of bacterial count, which range from 3.0x102 to 3 cfu mL-1, was founded in the milk samples. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Gentamycin, Ampicillin and Tetracycline were the most effective antimicrobial agents against the bacterial isolates.

Azmi D. Hawari; Dhia S. Hassawi

2008-01-01

338

Outbreak of endemic form of protothecal mastitis on a dairy farm  

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Full Text Available In this paper an outbreak of mastitis in cows resistant to antibiotic treatment on a Holstein-Friesian cattle farm in Vojvodina (Serbia and Montenegro) was described. Microbiological examination of 73 milk samples from lactating cows revealed the presence of Prototheca zopfii in 22 samples (30.13%). Identification of the isolates was performed on the basis of growth features, microscopic appearance, assimilation patterns and antimicrobial susceptibility. Protothecal infection of the mammary gland resulted in clinical symptoms of chronic mastitis in 19 animals. Histopathological findings revealed distinct granulomatous inflammations of the mammary gland interstitium.

Milanov Dubravka; Suvajdži? Ljiljana; Puši? I.; Vidi? Branka; ?or?evi?-Mili? Vukosava

2006-01-01