Quantized Excitation Spectrum of the Classical Harmonic Oscillator in Zero-Point Radiation
Huang, Wayne Cheng-Wei
2012-01-01
We report that upon excitation by a single pulse, the classical harmonic oscillator immersed in classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, as described by random electrodynamics, exhibits a quantized excitation spectrum in agreement to that of the quantum harmonic oscillator. This numerical result is interesting in view of the generally accepted idea that classical theories do not support quantized energy spectra.
Classical Zero-Point Radiation and Relativity: The Problem of Atomic Collapse Revisited
Boyer, Timothy H.
2016-07-01
The physicists of the early twentieth century were unaware of two aspects which are vital to understanding some aspects of modern physics within classical theory. The two aspects are: (1) the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the importance of special relativity. In classes in modern physics today, the problem of atomic collapse is still mentioned in the historical context of the early twentieth century. However, the classical problem of atomic collapse is currently being treated in the presence of classical zero-point radiation where the problem has been transformed. The presence of classical zero-point radiation indeed keeps the electron from falling into the Coulomb potential center. However, the old collapse problem has been replaced by a new problem where the zero-point radiation may give too much energy to the electron so as to cause "self-ionization." Special relativity may play a role in understanding this modern variation on the atomic collapse problem, just as relativity has proved crucial for a classical understanding of blackbody radiation.
Classical Zero-Point Radiation and Relativity: The Problem of Atomic Collapse Revisited
Boyer, Timothy H.
2016-05-01
The physicists of the early twentieth century were unaware of two aspects which are vital to understanding some aspects of modern physics within classical theory. The two aspects are: (1) the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the importance of special relativity. In classes in modern physics today, the problem of atomic collapse is still mentioned in the historical context of the early twentieth century. However, the classical problem of atomic collapse is currently being treated in the presence of classical zero-point radiation where the problem has been transformed. The presence of classical zero-point radiation indeed keeps the electron from falling into the Coulomb potential center. However, the old collapse problem has been replaced by a new problem where the zero-point radiation may give too much energy to the electron so as to cause "self-ionization." Special relativity may play a role in understanding this modern variation on the atomic collapse problem, just as relativity has proved crucial for a classical understanding of blackbody radiation.
Classical Zero-Point Radiation and Relativity: The Problem of Atomic Collapse Revisited
Boyer, Timothy H
2015-01-01
The physicists of the early 20th century were unaware of two aspects which are vital to understanding some aspects of modern physics within classical theory. The two aspects are: 1) the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and 2) the importance of special relativity. In classes in modern physics today, the problem of atomic collapse is still mentioned in the historical context of the early 20th century. However, the classical problem of atomic collapse is currently being treated in the presence of classical zero-point radiation where the problem has been transformed. The presence of classical zero-point radiation indeed keeps the electron from falling into the Coulomb potential center. However, the old collapse problem has been replaced by a new problem where the zero-point radiation may give too much energy to the electron so as to cause self-ionization. Special relativity may play a role in understanding this modern variation on the atomic collapse problem, just as relativity has prov...
Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang; Herman Batelaan
2013-01-01
In the past decades, Random Electrodynamics (also called Stochastic Electrodynamics) has been used to study the classical harmonic oscillator immersed in the classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. Random Electrodynamics (RED) predicts an identical probability distribution for the harmonic oscillator compared to the quantum mechanical prediction for the ground state. Moreover, the Heisenberg minimum uncertainty relation is also recovered with RED. To understand the dynamics that gives...
Boyer, Timothy H.
2011-01-01
The analysis of this article is entirely within classical physics. Any attempt to describe nature within classical physics requires the presence of Lorentz-invariant classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation so as to account for the Casimir forces between parallel conducting plates at low temperatures. Furthermore, conformal symmetry carries solutions of Maxwell's equations into solutions. In an inertial frame, conformal symmetry leaves zero-point radiation invariant and does not connect...
Boyer, Timothy H.
2010-01-01
A relativistic classical field theory with zero-point radiation involves a vacuum corresponding to a scale-invariant spectrum of random classical radiation in spacetime with the overall constant chosen to give an energy (1/2)\\hbar\\omega per normal mode in inertial frames. Classical field theory with classical zero-point radiation gives the same field correlation functions as quantum field theory for the symmetrized products of the corresponding free massless fields in inertial frames; however...
Boyer, Timothy H
2010-01-01
A relativistic classical field theory with zero-point radiation involves a vacuum corresponding to a scale-invariant spectrum of random classical radiation in spacetime with the overall constant chosen to give an energy (1/2)\\hbar\\omega per normal mode in inertial frames. Classical field theory with classical zero-point radiation gives the same field correlation functions as quantum field theory for the symmetrized products of the corresponding free massless fields in inertial frames; however, the interpretations in classical and quantum theories are quite different. Quantum field theory has photons in thermal radiation but not in the vacuum state; classical theory has radiation in both situations. The contrast in interpretations is most striking for the Rindler coordinate frame accelerating through zero-point radiation; classical theory continues tensor behavior over to the Rindler frame, whereas quantum theory introduces a new Rindler vacuum state. The classical interpretation of thermal behavior rests on t...
Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Stochastic electrodynamics (SED predicts a Gaussian probability distribution for a classical harmonic oscillator in the vacuum field. This probability distribution is identical to that of the ground state quantum harmonic oscillator. Thus, the Heisenberg minimum uncertainty relation is recovered in SED. To understand the dynamics that give rise to the uncertainty relation and the Gaussian probability distribution, we perform a numerical simulation and follow the motion of the oscillator. The dynamical information obtained through the simulation provides insight to the connection between the classic double-peak probability distribution and the Gaussian probability distribution. A main objective for SED research is to establish to what extent the results of quantum mechanics can be obtained. The present simulation method can be applied to other physical systems, and it may assist in evaluating the validity range of SED.
Understanding zero-point energy in the context of classical electromagnetism
Boyer, Timothy H.
2016-09-01
Today’s textbooks of electromagnetism give the particular solution to Maxwell’s equations involving the integral over the charge and current sources at retarded times. However, the texts fail to emphasise that the choice of the incoming-wave boundary conditions corresponding to solutions of the homogeneous Maxwell equations must be made based upon experiment. Here we discuss the role of these incoming-wave boundary conditions for an experimenter with a hypothetical charged harmonic oscillator as his equipment. We describe the observations of the experimenter when located near a radio station or immersed in thermal radiation at temperature T. The classical physicists at the end of the 19th century chose the incoming-wave boundary conditions for the homogeneous Maxwell equations based upon the experimental observations of Lummer and Pringsheim which measured only the thermal radiation which exceeded the random radiation surrounding their measuring equipment; the physicists concluded that they could take the homogeneous solutions to vanish at zero temperature. Today at the beginning of the 21st century, classical physicists must choose the incoming-wave boundary conditions for the homogeneous Maxell equations to correspond to the full radiation spectrum revealed by the recent Casimir force measurements which detect all the radiation surrounding conducting parallel plates, including the radiation absorbed and emitted by the plates themselves. The random classical radiation spectrum revealed by the Casimir force measurements includes electromagnetic zero-point radiation, which is missing from the spectrum measured by Lummer and Pringsheim, and which cannot be eliminated by going to zero temperature. This zero-point radiation will lead to zero-point energy for all systems which have electromagnetic interactions. Thus the choice of the incoming-wave boundary conditions on the homogeneous Maxwell equations is intimately related to the ideas of zero-point energy and non-radiating
Filling a cavity with zero-point electromagnetic radiation
Mareš, Jiří J.; Špička, Václav; Krištofik, Jozef; Hubík, Pavel; Šesták, Jaroslav
2005-01-01
Roč. 29, - (2005), s. 213-217. ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0410; GA ČR(CZ) GA401/02/0579; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : zero-point radiation * heat engine * thought experiment * stochastic electrodynamics (SED) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2005
A perpetuum mobile - that doesn't exist. But hitherto less noticed energy sources - they exist nevertheless. Meaned are energy sources, which are hitherto such scarcely explored tha mankind has not yet learnt to use them. The largest part of the universe consists of such energy. A par of this is found in the zero-point oscillations of the quantum vacuum, so the ''empty'' space from the view of quantum physics. The author of the present book is physicist and has one of the few today discussed procedures for the conversion ov vacuum energy into classical mechanical energy first theoretically developed and in the following experimentally detected. The ways of proceeding to use vacuum energy are in the present book detailedly scientifically described and compared with other known proposals for possible procedures.
Understanding Zero-Point Energy in the Context of Classical Electromagnetism
Boyer, Timothy H
2015-01-01
Today's textbooks of electromagnetism give the particular solution to Maxwell's equations involving the integral over the charge and current sources at retarded times. However, the texts fail to emphasize the role played by the choice of the boundary conditions corresponding to solutions of the homogeneous Maxwell equations. Here we discuss the role of these boundary conditions for an experimenter with a hypothetical charged harmonic oscillator as his equipment. We describe the observations of the experimenter when located near a radio station or immersed in thermal radiation at temperature T. The classical physicists at the end of the 19th century chose the homogeneous boundary conditions for Maxwell's equation based upon the experimental observations of Lummer and Pringsheim which measured only the thermal radiation which exceeded the random radiation surrounding their measuring equipment. Today at the beginning of the 21st century, classical physicists must choose the homogeneous boundary conditions for Ma...
Quantum features derived from the classical model of a bouncer-walker coupled to a zero-point field
Schwabl, Herbert; Fussy, Siegfried; Groessing, Gerhard; 10.1088/1742-6596/361/1/012021
2012-01-01
In our bouncer-walker model a quantum is a nonequilibrium steady-state maintained by a permanent throughput of energy. Specifically, we consider a "particle" as a bouncer whose oscillations are phase-locked with those of the energy-momentum reservoir of the zero-point field (ZPF), and we combine this with the random-walk model of the walker, again driven by the ZPF. Starting with this classical toy model of the bouncer-walker we were able to derive fundamental elements of quantum theory. Here this toy model is revisited with special emphasis on the mechanism of emergence. Especially the derivation of the total energy hbar.omega and the coupling to the ZPF are clarified. For this we make use of a sub-quantum equipartition theorem. It can further be shown that the couplings of both bouncer and walker to the ZPF are identical. Then we follow this path in accordance with previous work, expanding the view from the particle in its rest frame to a particle in motion. The basic features of ballistic diffusion are der...
Groessing, Gerhard; Fussy, Siegfried; Pascasio, Johannes Mesa; Schwabl, Herbert
2011-01-01
A classical explanation of interference effects in the double slit experiment is proposed. We claim that for every single "particle" a thermal context can be defined, which reflects its embedding within boundary conditions as given by the totality of arrangements in an experimental apparatus. To account for this context, we introduce a "path excitation field", which derives from the thermodynamics of the zero-point vacuum and which represents all possible paths a "particle" can take via therm...
Recently, investigations of novel non-conventional sources of energy and propulsion technologies have led to the belief that vacuum fluctuations or zero-point energy (ZPE) can be tapped as an additional prime mover alongside fusion, fission, hydrocarbons, hydropower, geothermal and solar-based technologies. Only a handful of researchers have seriously investigated the possible use of vacuum fluctuation energy for power production and gravitational interaction and suggested methods of experimentation, among them, Vallee, Puthoff, Tchernetsky, and Alzofon. In theories ranging from advanced semi-classical treatments to quantum electrodynamics (QED) and dynamic nuclear orientation, they suggest several more or less practical approaches to interacting with vacuum fluctuation energy which may be undertaken with today's technology. Notwithstanding the paucity of consistent, repeatable results directly attributable to vacuum interactions, it is possible to outline the engineering tools and techniques required to begin to investigate ZPE. Extremely high frequency oscillations at high field strengths (Vallee), highly non-linear plasmas or arcs (Tchernetsky), super-high charge concentrations or field gradients (Puthoff), and dynamic magnetic resonance cooling of nuclei (Alzofon) are prime candidates for investigation at present. The paper attempts to draw together the most practical aspects of this, which is currently at a sufficiently advance stage to allow initial experiments to be designed. Only the essentials of the theories propounded will be presented, chiefly those aspects from which real-world physical apparatus and order-of-magnitude measurements can be deduced. The work of other researchers which may have a bearing on the subject will also be briefly touched upon
A classical explanation of interference effects in the double slit experiment is proposed. We claim that for every single “particle” a thermal context can be defined, which reflects its embedding within boundary conditions as given by the totality of arrangements in an experimental apparatus. To account for this context, we introduce a “path excitation field”, which derives from the thermodynamics of the zero-point vacuum and which represents all possible paths a “particle” can take via thermal path fluctuations. The intensity distribution on a screen behind a double slit is calculated, as well as the corresponding trajectories and the probability density current. The trajectories are shown to obey a “no crossing” rule with respect to the central line, i.e., between the two slits and orthogonal to their connecting line. This agrees with the Bohmian interpretation, but appears here without the necessity of invoking the quantum potential. - Highlights: ► We model quantum mechanical interference with classical means. ► The intensity distribution on a screen behind a double slit is calculated. ► Also, the corresponding trajectories and the probability density current are obtained.
Connecting Blackbody Radiation, Relativity, and Discrete Charge in Classical Electrodynamics
Boyer, Timothy H.
2006-01-01
It is suggested that an understanding of blackbody radiation within classical physics requires the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, the restriction to relativistic (Coulomb) scattering systems, and the use of discrete charge. The contrasting scaling properties of nonrelativistic classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics are noted, and it is emphasized that the solutions of classical electrodynamics found in nature involve constants which connect together the...
Connecting Blackbody Radiation, Relativity, and Discrete Charge in Classical Electrodynamics
Boyer, T H
2006-01-01
It is suggested that an understanding of blackbody radiation within classical physics requires the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, the restriction to relativistic (Coulomb) scattering systems, and the use of discrete charge. The contrasting scaling properties of nonrelativistic classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics are noted, and it is emphasized that the solutions of classical electrodynamics found in nature involve constants which connect together the scales of length, time, and energy. Indeed, there are analogies between the electrostatic forces for groups of particles of discrete charge and the van der Waals forces in equilibrium thermal radiation. The differing Lorentz- or Galilean-transformation properties of the zero-point radiation spectrum and the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum are noted in connection with their scaling properties. Also, the thermal effects of acceleration within classical electromagnetism are related to the existence of thermal equilibrium within a g...
Zero-point quantum fluctuations in cosmology
Hollenstein, Lukas; Maggiore, Michele; Mitsou, Ermis
2011-01-01
We re-examine the classic problem of the renormalization of zero-point quantum fluctuations in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. We discuss a number of issues that arise when regularizing the theory with a momentum-space cutoff, and show explicitly how introducing non-covariant counter-terms allows to obtain covariant results for the renormalized vacuum energy-momentum tensor. We clarify some confusion in the literature concerning the equation of state of vacuum fluctuations. Further, we point out that the general structure of the effective action becomes richer if the theory contains a scalar field phi with mass m smaller than the Hubble parameter H(t). Such an ultra-light particle cannot be integrated out completely to get the effective action. Apart from the volume term and the Einstein-Hilbert term, that are reabsorbed into renormalizations of the cosmological constant and Newton's constant, the effective action in general also has a term proportional to F(phi)R, for some function F(phi). As a resu...
Classical electromagnetic radiation
Heald, Mark A
2012-01-01
Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.
Classical theory of radiating strings
Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.
1990-01-01
The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.
The zero-point energy for rotation
The Gaussian overlap approach (GOA) becomes inappropriate for describing the rotation of weakly deformed systems. A modification is proposed which allows to maintain the GOA for small deformations. The zero-point energy subtraction, derived from it, provides a simple and reliable approximation for angular momentum projection. It becomes obvious, however, that the projection complicates the equations which determine the motion along the deformation path. These effects are studied in some simple models and the results are condensed into a simple interpolation formula for the total zero-point energy. (orig.)
Zero-point energy in bag models
The zero-point (Casimir) energy of free vector (gluon) fields confined to a spherical cavity (bag) is computed. With a suitable renormalization the result for eight gluons is E = + 0.51/a. This result is substantially larger than that for a spherical shell (where both interior and exterior modes are present), and so affects Johnson's model of the QCD vacuum. It is also smaller than, and of opposite sign to, the value used in bag model phenomenology, so it will have important implications there. 1 figure
Rindler particles and classical radiation
We describe the quantum and classical radiation emitted by a uniformly accelerating point source in terms of the elementary processes of absorption and emission of Rindler scalar photons of the Fulling-Davies-Unruh bath observed by a co-accelerating observer. To this end we compute the rate at which a DeWitt detector emits a Minkowski scalar particle with defined transverse momentum per unit of proper time of the source and we show that it corresponds to the induced absorption or spontaneous and induced emission of Rindler particles from the thermal bath. We then take what could be called the inert limit of the DeWitt detector by considering the limit of no energy gap. As suggested by DeWitt, we identify, in this limit, the detector with a classical point source and verify the consistency of our computation with the classical result. Finally, we study the behaviour of the emission rate in D spacetime dimensions in connection with the so-called apparent statistics inversion
Rindler Photons and Classical Radiation
Díaz, D E
2001-01-01
We describe the quantum and classical radiation by a uniformly accelerating point source in terms of the elementary processes of absorption and emission of Rindler scalar photons of the Fulling-Davies-Unruh bath observed by a co-accelerating observer.To this end we compute the emission rate by a DeWitt detector of a Minkowski scalar field particle with defined transverse momentum per unit of proper time of the source and we show that it corresponds to the induced absorption or spontaneous and induced emission of Rindler photons from the thermal bath. We then take what could be called the inert limit of the DeWitt detector by considering the limit of zero gap energy. As suggested by DeWitt, we identify in this limit the detector with a classical point source and verify the consistency of our computation with the classical result. Finally, we study the behavior of the emission rate in D space-time dimensions in connection with the so called apparent statistics inversion.
Contrasting Classical and Quantum Vacuum States in Non-Inertial Frames
Boyer, Timothy H
2013-01-01
Classical electron theory with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation (stochastic electrodynamics) is the classical theory which most closely approximates quantum electrodynamics. Indeed, in inertial frames, there is a general connection between classical field theories with classical zero-point radiation and quantum field theories. However, this connection does not extend to noninertial frames where the time parameter is not a geodesic coordinate. Quantum field theory applies the canonical quantization procedure (depending on the local time coordinate) to a mirror-walled box, and, in general, each non-inertial coordinate frame has its own vacuum state. In complete contrast, the spectrum of random classical zero-point radiation is based upon symmetry principles of relativistic spacetime; in empty space, the correlation functions depend upon only the geodesic separations (and their coordinate derivatives) between the spacetime points. It makes no difference whether a box of classical zero-point radiati...
Classical-field theory of thermal radiation
Rashkovskiy, Sergey A
2016-01-01
In this paper, using the viewpoint that quantum mechanics can be constructed as a classical field theory without any quantization I build a fully classical theory of thermal radiation. Planck's law for the spectral energy density of thermal radiation and the Einstein A-coefficient for spontaneous emission are derived in the framework of classical field theory without using the concept of "photon". It is shown that the spectral energy density of thermal radiation is apparently not a universal function of frequency, as follows from the Planck's law, but depends weakly on the nature of atoms, while Planck's law is valid only as an approximation in the limit of weak excitation of atoms.
Zero point energy and the origin of the density maximum in water
Deeney, F.A. [Physics Department, National University of Ireland, Cork (Ireland)], E-mail: f.a.deeney@ucc.ie; O' Leary, J.P. [Physics Department, National University of Ireland, Cork (Ireland)
2008-03-03
The density maximum in water must arise due to the opposing action of two independent physical processes. Here we calculate the effects of zero point energy on water near room temperature, to show that the phenomenon, acting in competition with classical expansion/contraction, can explain the existence of the density anomaly.
Entropy density of spacetime from the zero point length
Dawood Kothawala
2015-09-01
Full Text Available It is possible to obtain gravitational field equations in a large class of theories from a thermodynamic variational principle which uses the gravitational heat density Sg associated with null surfaces. This heat density is related to the structure of spacetime at Planck scale, LP2=(Għ/c3, which assigns A⊥/LP2 degrees of freedom to any area A⊥. On the other hand, it is also known that the surface term Kh in the gravitational action correctly reproduces the heat density of the null surfaces. We provide a link between these ideas by obtaining Sg, used in emergent gravity paradigm, from the surface term in the Einstein–Hilbert action. This is done using the notion of a nonlocal qmetric – introduced recently [arXiv:1307.5618, arXiv:1405.4967] – which allows us to study the effects of zero-point-length of spacetime at the transition scale between quantum and classical gravity. Computing Kh for the qmetric in the appropriate limit directly reproduces the entropy density Sg used in the emergent gravity paradigm.
Inertia as a zero-point-field Lorentz force
Under the hypothesis that ordinary matter is ultimately made of subelementary constitutive primary charged entities or ''partons'' bound in the manner of traditional elementary Planck oscillators (a time-honored classical technique), it is shown that a heretofore uninvestigated Lorentz force (specifically, the magnetic component of the Lorentz force) arises in any accelerated reference frame from the interaction of the partons with the vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF). Partons, though asymptotically free at the highest frequencies, are endowed with a sufficiently large ''bare mass'' to allow interactions with the ZPF at very high frequencies up to the Planck frequencies. This Lorentz force, though originating at the subelementary parton level, appears to produce an opposition to the acceleration of material objects at a macroscopic level having the correct characteristics to account for the property of inertia. We thus propose the interpretation that inertia is an electromagnetic resistance arising from the known spectral distortion of the ZPF in accelerated frames. The proposed concept also suggests a physically rigorous version of Mach's principle. Moreover, some preliminary independent corroboration is suggested for ideas proposed by Sakharov (Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 177, 70 (1968) [Sov. Phys. Dokl. 12, 1040 (1968)]) and further explored by one of us [H. E. Puthoff, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2333 (1989)] concerning a ZPF-based model of Newtonian gravity, and for the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass as dictated by the principle of equivalence
Zero-point quantum fluctuations and dark energy
In the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity, the energy associated to an asymptotically flat space-time with metric gμν is related to the Hamiltonian HGR by E=HGR[gμν]-HGR[ημν], where the subtraction of the flat-space contribution is necessary to get rid of an otherwise divergent boundary term. This classic result indicates that the energy associated to flat space does not gravitate. We apply the same principle to study the effect of the zero-point fluctuations of quantum fields in cosmology, proposing that their contribution to cosmic expansion is obtained computing the vacuum energy of quantum fields in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time with Hubble parameter H(t) and subtracting from it the flat-space contribution. Then the term proportional to Λc4 (where Λc is the UV cutoff) cancels, and the remaining (bare) value of the vacuum energy density is proportional to Λc2H2(t). After renormalization, this produces a renormalized vacuum energy density ∼M2H2(t), where M is the scale where quantum gravity sets is, so for M of the order of the Planck mass a vacuum energy density of the order of the critical density can be obtained without any fine-tuning. The counterterms can be chosen so that the renormalized energy density and pressure satisfy p=wρ, with w a parameter that can be fixed by comparison to the observed value, so, in particular, one can choose w=-1. An energy density evolving in time as H2(t) is however observationally excluded as an explanation for the dominant dark energy component that is responsible for the observed acceleration of the Universe. We rather propose that zero-point vacuum fluctuations provide a new subdominant ''dark'' contribution to the cosmic expansion that, for a UV scale M slightly smaller than the Planck mass, is consistent with existing limits and potentially detectable.
Ground state of hydrogen as a zero-point-fluctuation-determined state
Puthoff, H.E.
1987-05-15
We show here that, within the stochastic electrodynamic formulation and at the level of Bohr theory, the ground state of the hydrogen atom can be precisely defined as resulting from a dynamic equilibrium between radiation emitted due to acceleration of the electron in its ground-state orbit and radiation absorbed from zero-point fluctuations of the background vacuum electromagnetic field, thereby resolving the issue of radiative collapse of the Bohr atom.
DISTANCE SCALE ZERO POINTS FROM GALACTIC RR LYRAE STAR PARALLAXES
Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Barnes, Thomas G. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Feast, Michael W. [Centre for Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Harrison, Thomas E. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Bean, Jacob L.; Kolenberg, Katrien [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menzies, John W.; Laney, C. D. [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Chaboyer, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Fossati, Luca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Nesvacil, Nicole [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Smith, Horace A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kochukhov, Oleg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Nelan, Edmund P.; Taylor, Denise [STScI, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Shulyak, D. V. [Institute of Astrophysics, Georg-August-University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Freedman, Wendy L. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)
2011-12-15
We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars-five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and {kappa} Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 {+-} 0.16 mas; XZ Cyg, 1.67 {+-} 0.17 mas; SU Dra, 1.42 {+-} 0.16 mas; RR Lyr, 3.77 {+-} 0.13 mas; UV Oct, 1.71 {+-} 0.10 mas; VY Pyx, 6.44 {+-} 0.23 mas; and {kappa} Pav, 5.57 {+-} 0.28 mas; an average {sigma}{sub {pi}}/{pi} = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for M{sub V} -[Fe/H] and M{sub K} -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids.
DISTANCE SCALE ZERO POINTS FROM GALACTIC RR LYRAE STAR PARALLAXES
We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars—five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and κ Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 ± 0.16 mas; XZ Cyg, 1.67 ± 0.17 mas; SU Dra, 1.42 ± 0.16 mas; RR Lyr, 3.77 ± 0.13 mas; UV Oct, 1.71 ± 0.10 mas; VY Pyx, 6.44 ± 0.23 mas; and κ Pav, 5.57 ± 0.28 mas; an average σπ/π = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for MV -[Fe/H] and MK -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids.
Zero Point of Charge of Organo—Mineral Complexes
M.T.ANSARI; XUJIAN－MING; 等
1994-01-01
Five soil sapmles collected from China and two soil samples from Pakistan with widely different origin and characterstics were used to study the zero point of charge(ZPC) of soil colloids.The results showed that the value of zero point of charge of H-clay complexes was lower than that of H-clays in all the samples.Natural clay complexes had the highest ZPC as compared to -Hclay complex and H-clay in alfisol,closer to H-clays rather than H-clay complexes in oxisol and udult.The Delta Value of ZPT(zero point of titration )to ZPC was higher in H-Clay complexes than in H-Clays.
An Introduction to Classical Electromagnetic Radiation
Smith, Glenn S.
1997-08-01
A fundamental and thorough description of classical electromagnetic radiation, this book is a balance of physical and mathematical explanation and includes over 300 illustrations. Starting from Maxwell's equations, the author demonstrates how fundamental concepts are applied in a wide variety of examples from areas such as classical optics, antenna analysis, and electromagnetic scattering. An interweaving of theoretical and experimental results gives insight into the physical and historical foundations of the subject. The book gives equal footing to the radiation of pulses and the more conventional time harmonic signals. With more than 140 problems, it can be used as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in electrical engineering and physics, and will also be of interest to scientists and engineers working in applied electromagnetics. A solutions manual is available for instructors.
Zero-point vibrational effects on optical rotation
Ruud, K.; Taylor, P.R.; Åstrand, P.-O.
2001-01-01
We investigate the effects of molecular vibrations on the optical rotation in two chiral molecules, methyloxirane and trans-2,3-dimethylthiirane. It is shown that the magnitude of zero-point vibrational corrections increases as the electronic contribution to the optical rotation increases....... Vibrational effects thus appear to be important for an overall estimate of the molecular optical rotation, amounting to about 20-30% of the electronic counterpart. We also investigate the special case of chirality introduced in a molecule through isotopic substitution. In this case, the zero-point vibrational...
Classical Helium Atom with Radiation Reaction
Camelio, G; Galgani, L
2011-01-01
We study a classical model of Helium atom in which, in addition to the Coulomb forces, the radiation reaction forces are taken into account. This modification brings in the model a new qualitative feature of a global character. Indeed, as pointed out by Dirac, in any model of classical electrodynamics of point particles involving radiation reaction one has to eliminate, from the a priori conceivable solutions of the problem, those corresponding to the emission of an infinite amount of energy. We show that the Dirac prescription solves a problem of inconsistency plaguing all available models which neglect radiation reaction, namely, the fact that in all such models most initial data lead to a spontaneous breakdown of the atom. A further modification is that the system thus acquires a peculiar form of dissipation. In particular, this makes attractive an invariant manifold of special physical interest, the zero--dipole manifold, that corresponds to motions in which no energy is radiated away (in the dipole appro...
Uncertainty relations, zero point energy and the linear canonical group
Sudarshan, E. C. G.
1993-01-01
The close relationship between the zero point energy, the uncertainty relations, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group-theoretic perspective enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. In particular the generalized Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty relations are analyzed. An elementary method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented.
Early dark energy from zero-point quantum fluctuations
Maggiore, Michele; Jaccard, Maud; Mitsou, Ermis
2011-01-01
We examine a cosmological model where the dark energy density has the form $\\rho_{DE}(t)=\\rho_X(t)+\\rho_Z(t)$, where $\\rho_X$ is the dominant component of dark energy and $\\rho_Z(t)$ is an extra contribution proportional to $H^2(t)$. This form of $\\rho_Z(t)$ follows from the recent suggestion that the contribution of zero-point fluctuations of quantum fields to the cosmic expansion is obtained subtracting from the zero-point energy density computed in a FRW space-time the value computed in Minkowski space. Assuming an energy conservation of the form $d\\rho_X/dt+3H(1+w_X)\\rho_X+d\\rho_Z/dt+3H(1+w_Z)\\rho_Z=0$ we find that, for $w_Z\
Revised Filter Profiles and Zero Points for Broadband Photometry
Mann, Andrew W
2014-01-01
Estimating accurate bolometric fluxes for stars requires reliable photometry to absolutely flux calibrate the spectra. This is a significant problem for studies of very bright stars, which are generally saturated in modern photometric surveys. Instead we must rely on photometry with less precise calibration. We utilize precisely flux-calibrated spectra to derive improved filter bandpasses and zero points for the most common sources of photometry for bright stars. In total we test 40 different filters in the General Catalog of Photometric Data as well as those from Tycho-2 and $Hipparcos$. We show that utilizing inaccurate filter profiles from the literature can create significant color terms resulting in fluxes that deviate by $>$10% from actual values. To remedy this we employ an empirical approach; we iteratively adjust the literature filter profile and zero point, convolve it with catalog spectra, and compare to the corresponding flux from the photometry. We adopt the passband values that produces the best...
On zero-point energy, stability and Hagedorn behavior of Type IIB strings on pp-waves
Type IIB strings on many pp-wave backgrounds, supported either by 5-form or 3-form fluxes, have negative light-cone zero-point energy. This raises the question of their stability and poses possible problems in the definition of their thermodynamic properties. After having pointed out the correct way of calculating the zero-point energy, an issue not fully discussed in literature, we show that these Type IIB strings are classically stable and have well defined thermal properties, exhibiting a Hagedorn behavior. (author)
Damping the zero-point energy of a harmonic oscillator
Philbin, T. G; Horsley, S. A. R.
2013-01-01
The physics of quantum electromagnetism in an absorbing medium is that of a field of damped harmonic oscillators. Yet until recently the damped harmonic oscillator was not treated with the same kind of formalism used to describe quantum electrodynamics in a arbitrary medium. Here we use the techniques of macroscopic QED, based on the Huttner--Barnett reservoir, to describe the quantum mechanics of a damped oscillator. We calculate the thermal and zero-point energy of the oscillator for a rang...
The zero-point field and the emergence of the quantum
A new way of arriving at the quantum formalism is presented, based on the recognition of the reality of the random zero-point radiation field (ZPF). The quantization of both matter and radiation field is shown to emerge as a result of the permanent interaction of matter with the ZPF. Quantum mechanics (QM) is obtained both in its Schroedinger and its Heisenberg version, under certain well-defined conditions and approximations. The theory provides for an explanation of the origin of entanglement. Further, the same physical elements and hypotheses allow us to cross the doorway and go beyond QM, to the realm of (nonrelativistic) quantum electrodynamics (QED). (author)
Understanding the Planck Blackbody Spectrum and Diamagnetism within Classical Electromagnetism
Boyer, Timothy H
2016-01-01
Electromagnetism is a \\textit{relativistic} theory and one must exercise care in coupling this theory with \\textit{nonrelativistic} classical mechanics and with \\textit{nonrelativistic} classical statistical mechanics. Indeed historically, both the blackbody radiation spectrum and diamagnetism within classical theory have been misunderstood because of two crucial failures: 1)the neglect of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and 2) the use of erroneous combinations of nonrelativistic mechanics with relativistic electrodynamics. Here we show that the use of Lorentz-invariant classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation can be used to explain both the Planck blackbody spectrum and diamagnetism at thermal equilibrium within classical electromagnetic theory. The analysis requires that relativistic electromagnetism is joined appropriately with simple nonrelativistic mechanical systems which can be regarded as the zero-velocity limits of relativistic systems, and that nonrelativistic classical statist...
Role of the zero-point corrections in fission dynamics
The way of evaluating spontaneous fission half-lives of nuclei in a multidimensional deformation space is discussed. The cranking as well as the generator coordinate method were used to obtain the collective inertia tensor and the 'zero-point' corrections to the fission barriers. The fission probability was evaluated within the WKB approximation along the least-action trajectory to fission. The influence on the fission life-times of the dynamics in the pairing degrees of freedom as well as the effect of the higher even-multipolarity shape parameters and the role of the reflection asymmetry is examined. (author)
Reducing Zero-point Systematics in Dark Energy Supernova Experiments
Faccioli, Lorenzo; Kim, Alex G; Miquel, Ramon; Bernstein, Gary; Bonissent, Alain; Brown, Matthew; Carithers, William; Christiansen, Jodi; Connolly, Natalia; Deustua, Susana; Gerdes, David; Gladney, Larry; Kushner, Gary; Linder, Eric; McKee, Shawn; Mostek, Nick; Shukla, Hemant; Stebbins, Albert; Stoughton, Chris; Tucker, David
2011-04-01
We study the effect of filter zero-point uncertainties on future supernova dark energy missions. Fitting for calibration parameters using simultaneous analysis of all Type Ia supernova standard candles achieves a significant improvement over more traditional fit methods. This conclusion is robust under diverse experimental configurations (number of observed supernovae, maximum survey redshift, inclusion of additional systematics). This approach to supernova fitting considerably eases otherwise stringent mission cali- bration requirements. As an example we simulate a space-based mission based on the proposed JDEM satellite; however the method and conclusions are general and valid for any future supernova dark energy mission, ground or space-based.
Mamajek, E E; Prsa, A; Harmanec, P; Asplund, M; Bennett, P D; Capitaine, N; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Depagne, E; Folkner, W M; Haberreiter, M; Hekker, S; Hilton, J L; Kostov, V; Laskar, J; Kutz, D W; Mason, B D; Milone, E F; Montgomery, M M; Richards, M T; Schou, J; Stewart, S G
2015-01-01
The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale such that a radiation source with $M_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0 has luminosity L$_{\\circ}$ = 3.0128e28 W. The zero point of the apparent bolometric magnitude scale ($m_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0) corresponds to irradiance $f_{\\circ}$ = 2.518021002e-8 W/m$^2$. The zero points were chosen so that the nominal solar luminosity (3.828e26 W) adopted by IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to $M_{\\rm Bol}$(Sun) = 4.74, the value most com...
Gaia Parallax Zero Point From RR Lyrae Stars
Gould, Andrew
2016-01-01
Like Hipparcos, Gaia is designed to give absolute parallaxes, independent of any astrophysical reference system. And indeed, Gaia's internal zero-point error for parallaxes is likely to be smaller than any individual parallax error. Nevertheless, due in part to mechanical issues of unknown origin, there are many astrophysical questions for which the parallax zero-point error $\\sigma(\\pi_0)$ will be the fundamentally limiting constraint. These include the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Galactic Center. We show that by using the photometric parallax estimates for RR Lyrae stars (RRL) within 8kpc, via the ultra-precise infrared period-luminosity relation, one can independently determine a hyper-precise value for $\\pi_{0}$. Despite their paucity relative to bright quasars, we show that RRL are competitive due to their order-of-magnitude improved parallax precision for each individual object relative to bright quasars. We show that this method is mathematically robust and well-approximated by analy...
Riemann zeta zeros and zero-point energy
Dueñas, J G
2013-01-01
We postulate the existence of a self-adjoint operator associated to a system with countably infinite number of degrees of freedom whose spectrum is the sequence of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. We assume that it describes a massive scalar field coupled to a background field in a $(d+1)$-dimensional flat space-time. The scalar field is confined to the interval $[0,a]$ in one dimension and is not restricted in the other dimensions. The renormalized zero-point energy of this system is presented using techniques of dimensional and analytic regularization. In even dimensional space-time, the series that defines the regularized vacuum energy is finite. For the odd-dimensional case, to obtain a finite vacuum energy per unit area we are forced to introduce mass counterterms. A Riemann mass appears, which is the correction to the mass of the field generated by the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function.
Planck's radiation law: is a quantum-classical perspective possible?
Marrocco, Michele
2016-05-01
Planck's radiation law provides the solution to the blackbody problem that marks the decline of classical physics and the rise of the quantum theory of the radiation field. Here, we venture to suggest the possibility that classical physics might be equally suitable to deal with the blackbody problem. A classical version of the Planck's radiation law seems to be achievable if we learn from the quantum-classical correspondence between classical Mie theory and quantum-mechanical wave scattering from spherical scatterers (partial wave analysis). This correspondence designs a procedure for countable energy levels of the radiation trapped within the blackbody treated within the multipole approach of classical electrodynamics (in place of the customary and problematic expansion in terms of plane waves that give rise to the ultraviolet catastrophe). In turn, introducing the Boltzmann discretization of energy levels, the tools of classical thermodynamics and statistical theory become available for the task. On the other hand, the final result depends on a free parameter whose physical units are those of an action. Tuning this parameter on the value given by the Planck constant makes the classical result agree with the canonical Planck's radiation law.
NONE
2007-07-01
The the radiation monitoring of environment made in the vicinity of the CERN in the frame of zero point before the beginning of operation of the Large Hadronic Collider (L.H.C.) aims to establish an initial state of the radiological situation in atmosphere, soils and water areas in order to answer to following objectives: to provide a precise knowledge of actual levels of environmental radioactivity, in order to detect very early an impact of the operation of the L.H.C. facilities, eventually a process of contamination. Secondly, to check that the impacts of radioactive release and external irradiation observes the value of 0.3 mSv/year radiation dose and does not go over 1 mSv/year. to give a methodology and the implementation of monitoring means allowing an efficient control of metrological problems in case of radioactivity increase. (N.C.)
Paul, Amit K; Hase, William L
2016-01-28
A zero-point energy (ZPE) constraint model is proposed for classical trajectory simulations of unimolecular decomposition and applied to CH4* → H + CH3 decomposition. With this model trajectories are not allowed to dissociate unless they have ZPE in the CH3 product. If not, they are returned to the CH4* region of phase space and, if necessary, given additional opportunities to dissociate with ZPE. The lifetime for dissociation of an individual trajectory is the time it takes to dissociate with ZPE in CH3, including multiple possible returns to CH4*. With this ZPE constraint the dissociation of CH4* is exponential in time as expected for intrinsic RRKM dynamics and the resulting rate constant is in good agreement with the harmonic quantum value of RRKM theory. In contrast, a model that discards trajectories without ZPE in the reaction products gives a CH4* → H + CH3 rate constant that agrees with the classical and not quantum RRKM value. The rate constant for the purely classical simulation indicates that anharmonicity may be important and the rate constant from the ZPE constrained classical trajectory simulation may not represent the complete anharmonicity of the RRKM quantum dynamics. The ZPE constraint model proposed here is compared with previous models for restricting ZPE flow in intramolecular dynamics, and connecting product and reactant/product quantum energy levels in chemical dynamics simulations. PMID:26738691
The nucleation of particles from trace gases in the atmosphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei, and these are vital for the formation of clouds in view of the high supersaturations required for homogeneous water droplet nucleation. The methods of quantum chemistry have increasingly been employed to model nucleation due to their high accuracy and efficiency in calculating configurational energies; and nucleation rates can be obtained from the associated free energies of particle formation. However, even in such advanced approaches, it is typically assumed that the nuclei have a classical nature, which is questionable for some systems. The importance of zero-point motion (also known as quantum nuclear dynamics) in modelling small clusters of sulphuric acid and water is tested here using the path integral molecular dynamics method at the density functional level of theory. The general effect of zero-point motion is to distort the mean structure slightly, and to promote the extent of proton transfer with respect to classical behaviour. In a particular configuration of one sulphuric acid molecule with three waters, the range of positions explored by a proton between a sulphuric acid and a water molecule at 300 K (a broad range in contrast to the confinement suggested by geometry optimisation at 0 K) is clearly affected by the inclusion of zero point motion, and similar effects are observed for other configurations
Stinson, Jake; Ford, Ian
2014-01-01
The nucleation of particles from trace gases in the atmosphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and these are vital for the formation of clouds in view of the high supersaturations required for homogeneous water droplet nucleation. The methods of quantum chemistry have increasingly been employed to model nucleation due to their high accuracy and efficiency in calculating configurational energies; and nucleation rates can be obtained from the associated free energies of particle formation. However, even in such advanced approaches, it is typically assumed that the nuclei have a classical nature, which is questionable for some systems. The importance of zero-point motion (also known as quantum nuclear dynamics) in modelling small clusters of sulphuric acid and water is tested here using the path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) method at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. The general effect of zero-point motion is to distort the mean structure slightly, and to promo...
Isotope effect on the zero point energy shift upon condensation
The various isotope-dependent and independent atomic and molecular properties that pertain to the isotopic difference between the zero point energy (ZPE) shifts upon condensation were derived. The theoretical development of the change of the ZPE associated with the internal molecular vibrations, due to the condensation of the gaseous molecules, is presented on the basis of Wolfsberg's second-order perturbation treatment of the isotope-dependent London dispersion forces between liquid molecules. The isotope effect on the ZPE shift is related to the difference between the sums of the integrated intensities of the infrared absorption bands of the two gaseous isotopic molecules. The effective atomic charges are also calculated from available experimental infrared intensity data. The effects of isotopic substitutions of carbon-13 for carbon-12 and/or deuterium for protium, in ethylene, methane, and the fluorinated methanes, CH3F, CH2F2, CHF3, and CF4, on the ZPE shift upon condensation are calculated. These results compare well with the Bigeleisen B-factors, which are experimentally obtained from vapor pressure measurements of the isotopic species. Each of the following molecular properties will tend to increase the isotopic difference between the ZPE shifts upon condensation: (1) large number of highly polar bonds, (2) high molecular weight, (3) non-polar (preferably) or massive molecule, (4) non-hydrogenous molecule, and (5) closely packed liquid molecules. These properties will result in stronger dispersion forces in the liquid phase between the lighter molecules than between the isotopically heavier molecules. 36 tables, 9 figures
Early dark energy from zero-point quantum fluctuations
We examine a cosmological model with a dark energy density of the form ρDE(t)=ρX(t)+ρZ(t), where ρX is the component that accelerates the Hubble expansion at late times and ρZ(t) is an extra contribution proportional to H2(t). This form of ρZ(t) follows from the recent proposal that the contribution of zero-point fluctuations of quantum fields to the total energy density should be computed by subtracting the Minkowski-space result from that computed in the FRW space-time. We discuss theoretical arguments that support this subtraction. By definition, this eliminates the quartic divergence in the vacuum energy density responsible for the cosmological constant problem. We show that the remaining quadratic divergence can be reabsorbed into a redefinition of Newton's constant only under the assumption that ∇μμν|0>=0, i.e. that the energy-momentum tensor of vacuum fluctuations is conserved in isolation. However in the presence of an ultra-light scalar field X with mX0, as typical of some dark energy models, the gravity effective action depends both on the gravitational field and on the X field. In this case general covariance only requires ∇μ(TμνX+μν|0>). If there is an exchange of energy between these two terms, there are potentially observable consequences. We construct an explicit model with an interaction between ρX and ρZ and we show that the total dark energy density ρDE(t)=ρX(t)+ρZ(t) always remains a finite fraction of the critical density at any time, providing a specific model of early dark energy. We discuss the implication of this result for the coincidence problem and we estimate the model parameters by means of a full likelihood analysis using current CMB, SNe Ia and BAO data.
Classical electromagnetic radiation in noninertial reference frames
Customarily electromagnetic radiation is defined with reference to some inertial laboratory frame. But such a definiton is too narrow to be applicable to questions concerning accelerated observers, e.g. why an accelerated observer does not receive radiation from a co-accelerating charge. It is shown in this paper that a radiation concept introduced for inertial observers by Rohrlich and Teitelboim allows an extension to noninertial (accelerating and rotating) reference frames in a natural way. The generalized concept is explicitly dependent on the proper acceleration and the rotation of the observer's laboratory frame. The case of radiation due to an accelerated point charge is treated in full detail. Roughly speaking, radiation from a point charge is observed, when the relative acceleration (in a well-defined sense) between charge and observer is nonvanishing. The analysis of this paper requires a detailed study of the general properties of noninertial laboratory frames. The necessary mathematical framework has been developed in an earlier paper, using ideas introduced by DeFacio, Dennis and Retzloff
Use of hyperfunctions for classical radiation-reaction calculations
It is shown that the use of hyperfunctions for the evaluation of radiation reaction in classical field theories leads to calculational simplifications compared to other methods. As illustrations, we calculate the radiation-reaction terms for systems of point particles in electrodynamics and in the lowest nontrivial order of the ''fast motion'' approximation of general relativity. Applications to other field theories are discussed briefly
A modified variation-perturbation approach to zero-point vibrational motion
Åstrand, Per-Olof; Ruud, K.; Sundholm, D.
2000-01-01
We present a detailed investigation of the perturbation approach for calculating zero-point vibrational contributions to molecular properties. It is demonstrated that if the sum of the potential energy and the zero-point vibrational energy is regarded as an effective potential energy, the leading...
Immunomodulation of classical and non-classical HLA molecules by ionizing radiation.
Gallegos, Cristina E; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Carosella, Edgardo D
2016-05-01
Radiotherapy has been employed for the treatment of oncological patients for nearly a century, and together with surgery and chemotherapy, radiation oncology constitutes one of the three pillars of cancer therapy. Ionizing radiation has complex effects on neoplastic cells and on tumor microenvironment: beyond its action as a direct cytotoxic agent, tumor irradiation triggers a series of alterations in tumoral cells, which includes the de novo synthesis of particular proteins and the up/down-regulation of cell surface molecules. Additionally, ionizing radiation may induce the release of "danger signals" which may, in turn lead to cellular and molecular responses by the immune system. This immunomodulatory action of ionizing radiation highlights the importance of the combined use (radiotherapy plus immunotherapy) for cancer healing. Major histocompatibility complex antigens (also called Human Leukocyte Antigens, HLA in humans) are one of those molecules whose expression is modulated after irradiation. This review summarizes the modulatory properties of ionizing radiation on the expression of HLA class I (classical and non-classical) and class II molecules, with special emphasis in non-classical HLA-I molecules. PMID:27113815
Compton's Kinematics and Einstein - Ehrenfest's radiation theory
The Compton Kinematic relations are obtained from entirely classical arguments, that is, without the corpuscular concept of the photon. The calculations are nonrelativistic and result from Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory modified in order to introduce the effects of the classical zero-point fileds characteristic of Stochastic Electrodynamics. (author)
Classical Radiation Reaction in Particle-In-Cell Simulations
Vranic, Marija; Fonseca, Ricardo A; Silva, Luis O
2015-01-01
Under the presence of ultra high intensity lasers or other intense electromagnetic fields the motion of particles in the ultrarelativistic regime can be severely affected by radiation reaction. The standard particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithms do not include radiation reaction effects. Even though this is a well known mechanism, there is not yet a definite algorithm nor a standard technique to include radiation reaction in PIC codes. We have compared several models for the calculation of the radiation reaction force, with the goal of implementing an algorithm for classical radiation reaction in the Osiris framework, a state-of-the-art PIC code. The results of the different models are compared with standard analytical results, and the relevance/advantages of each model are discussed. Numerical issues relevant to PIC codes such as resolution requirements, application of radiation reaction to macro particles and computational cost are also addressed. The Landau and Lifshitz reduced model is chosen for implementatio...
Classical theory of thermal radiation from a solid.
Guo, Wei
2016-06-01
In this work, a solid at a finite temperature is modeled as an ensemble of identical atoms, each of which moves around a lattice site inside an isotropic harmonic potential. The motion of one such atom is studied first. It is found that the atom moves like a time-dependent current density and, thus, can emit electromagnetic radiation. Since all the atoms are identical, they can radiate, too. The resultant radiation from the atoms is the familiar thermal radiation from the solid. After its general expression is obtained, the intensity of the thermal radiation is discussed for its properties, and specifically calculated in the low-temperature limit. Both atomic motion and radiation are formulated in the classical domain. PMID:27409442
Ground-state selection from anharmonic zero-point energy in the pyrochlore antiferromagnet
Hizi, Uzi; Henley, Christopher L.
2004-03-01
In the pyrochlore lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, for large spin length S, the massive classical ground state degeneracy is partly lifted by the zero-point energy of quantum fluctuations at harmonic order in spin waves. [1] In a system of O(L^3) spins, there remained O(exp(const L)) collinear states, exactly degenerate to that order. We have extended the calculation to quartic order, assuming a Gaussian variational wavefunction (equivalent to Hartree-Fock approximation). Preliminary quartic calculations do break the harmonic-order degeneracy of two periodic ground states. We estimate the scaling with S of the mean-square spin fluctuations (which diverge at harmonic order). The results differ from analogous ones for the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet [2], where the harmonic-order ground states are coplanar. Our aim is to represent the quartic energy differences by an effective Ising Hamiltonian in the spirit of [1]. [1] C. L. Henley, APS March Meeting 2001, abstract W24.010. [2] A. Chubukov, PRL 69, 832 (1992); C. L. Henley and E. P. Chan, J. Mag. Mag. Mater. 140-144, 1693 (1995).
Classical radiation reaction in particle-in-cell simulations
Vranic, M.; Martins, J. L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.
2016-07-01
Under the presence of ultra high intensity lasers or other intense electromagnetic fields the motion of particles in the ultrarelativistic regime can be severely affected by radiation reaction. The standard particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithms do not include radiation reaction effects. Even though this is a well known mechanism, there is not yet a definite algorithm nor a standard technique to include radiation reaction in PIC codes. We have compared several models for the calculation of the radiation reaction force, with the goal of implementing an algorithm for classical radiation reaction in the Osiris framework, a state-of-the-art PIC code. The results of the different models are compared with standard analytical results, and the relevance/advantages of each model are discussed. Numerical issues relevant to PIC codes such as resolution requirements, application of radiation reaction to macro particles and computational cost are also addressed. For parameters of interest where the classical description of the electron motion is applicable, all the models considered are shown to give comparable results. The Landau and Lifshitz reduced model is chosen for implementation as one of the candidates with the minimal overhead and no additional memory requirements.
What the Casimir-Effect really is telling about Zero-Point Energy
Gruendler, Gerold
2013-01-01
The attractive force between metallic surfaces, predicted by Casimir in 1948, seems to indicate the physical existence and measurability of the quantized electromagnetic field's zero-point energy. It is shown in this article, that Casimir's derivation depends essentially on a misleading idealization. When that idealization is replaced by a realistic assumption, Casimir's argument turns to the exact opposite: The observed Casimir force does positively prove, that the electromagnetic field's zero-point energy does not exert forces onto metallic surfaces.
Plasmon-supported emission of entangled photons and zero-point energy
Hizhnyakov, Vladimir
2013-01-01
Emission of pairs of photons in the interface metal-dielectric under the laser excitation arising due to the time-dependent perturbation of the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field by photons of the laser is considered. The enhancement of this emission by surface plasmons may be used for getting polarization-entangled photons. A possibility to compensate the energy of the zero-point fluctuations of bosons by other fluctuations with negative energy is discussed.
Effects of quantum zero-point spin fluctuations on the ground state of plutonium
Ratnikov, P. V.; Solontsov, A.
2013-01-01
The magnetic stability of {\\delta}-plutonium is analyzed taking into account zero-point spin fluctuations. Within the generalized theory of spin fluctuations described within a simple phenomenological model neglecting its spatial dispersion we show that zero-point local magnetic moments are giant (at.Pu) and suppress the magnetic order predicted by ab initio calculations resulting in the observed paramagnetic state of {\\delta}-plutonium.
BOOK REVIEW: An Introduction to Classical Electromagnetic Radiation
Tran, Minh Quang
1998-05-01
This book provides the basic concepts necessary for an introduction to the classical theory of radiation. The reader is first introduced to Maxwell's equations and then led through their basic properties (Chapters 1 and 2). Non-uniform plane waves are treated in Chapter 3 with a discussion of the two and three dimensional cases. Many examples of two and three dimensional electromagnetic fields are given, and the physics of practical devices is also analysed. Geometrical rays, as well as the notion of a Gaussian beam, are introduced at this stage, and the link between electromagnetism and optical principles is amplified in Chapter 4 (the Huyghens principle, transmission through an aperture, scattering cross-section). The electromagnetic radiation from charge and current distributions is obtained in a general form from potential theory (Chapter 5), followed quite naturally by the classic illustration of the fields produced by a moving charge in the classical (v/c feature is the inclusion in the text, whenever necessary, of the required mathematical bases: numerical solutions of Maxwell's equation, Fourier transforms (Chapter 1), the stationary phase method (Chapter 3), the Dirac function (Chapter 5) and a review of vector analysis (Annex B). These mathematical sections will be specially useful for advanced undergraduates who may need some mathematical tools and, thus, will not need to search for these in more specialized books. The main focus of the book is to provide the reader with the fundamentals of the classical theory of radiation. This aim is well complemented by examples from a variety of fields. Since the purpose of the book is not to provide a general treatment of electromagnetism or electrodynamics, the reader cannot expect to find some of the topics usual in other electrodynamics texts, such as relativistic transforms of electromagnetic fields (although the Lorentz condition is mentioned) or a discussion of the causality principle in the derivation of the
On the relation between zero-point-field-induced inertial mass and the Einstein-de Broglie formula
Haisch, B; Haisch, Bernhard; Rueda, Alfonso
2000-01-01
It has been proposed that the scattering of electromagnetic zero-point radiation by accelerating objects results in a reaction force that may account, at least in part, for inertia [1,2,3]. This arises because of asymmetries in the zero-point field (ZPF) of the quantum vacuum as perceived from an accelerating reference frame. In such a frame, the Poynting vector and momentum flux of the ZPF become non-zero. If one assumes that scattering of the ZPF radiation takes place at the level of quarks and electrons constituting matter, then it is possible for both Newton's equation of motion, ${\\bf f}=m{\\bf a}$, and its relativistic covariant form, ${\\cal F}=d{\\cal P}/d\\tau$, to be derived from electrodynamics as a consequence of the non-zero ZPF momentum flux. It is now suggested that this scattering must take place at the Compton frequency of a particle, and that this interpretation of mass leads directly to the de Broglie relation characterizing the wave nature of that particle in motion, between electrodynamics an...
Classically conformal radiative neutrino model with gauged B - L symmetry
Okada, Hiroshi; Orikasa, Yuta
2016-09-01
We propose a classically conformal model in a minimal radiative seesaw, in which we employ a gauged B - L symmetry in the standard model that is essential in order to work the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism well that induces the B - L symmetry breaking. As a result, nonzero Majorana mass term and electroweak symmetry breaking simultaneously occur. In this framework, we show a benchmark point to satisfy several theoretical and experimental constraints. Here theoretical constraints represent inert conditions and Coleman-Weinberg condition. Experimental bounds come from lepton flavor violations (especially μ → eγ), the current bound on the Z‧ mass at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, and neutrino oscillations.
Collective mass and zero-point energy in the generator-coordinate method
The aim of the present thesis if the study of the collective mass parameters and the zero-point energies in the GCM framework with special regards to the fission process. After the derivation of the collective Schroedinger equation in the framework of the Gaussian overlap approximation the inertia parameters are compared with those of the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock method. Then the kinetic and the potential zero-point energy occurring in this formulation are studied. Thereafter the practical application of the described formalism is discussed. Then a numerical calculation of the GCM mass parameter and the zero-point energy for the fission process on the base of a two-center shell model with a pairing force in the BCS approximation is presented. (HSI)
Zero-point energy in the Johnson noise of resistors: Is it there?
Kish, Laszlo B
2015-01-01
There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.
Tameshtit, Allan
2012-01-01
High temperature and white noise approximations are frequently invoked when deriving the quantum Brownian equation for an oscillator. Even if this white noise approximation is avoided, it is shown that if the zero point energies of the environment are neglected, as they often are, the resultant equation will violate not only the basic tenet of quantum mechanics that requires the density operator to be positive, but also the uncertainty principle. When the zero-point energies are included, asymptotic results describing the evolution of the oscillator are obtained that preserve positivity and, therefore, the uncertainty principle.
Is the zero-point energy a source of the cosmological constant?
Fujii, Yasunori
2014-01-01
We discuss how we remove a huge discrepancy between the theory of a cosmological constant, due to the zero-point energies of matter fields, and the observation. The technique of dimensional regularization plays a decisive role. We eventually reach the desired behavior of the vacuum densities falling off like t^{-2}, allowing us to understand how an extremely small result comes about naturally. As a price, however, the zero-point energy vacuum fails to act as a true cosmological constant. Its expected role responsible for the observed accelerating universe is then to be inherited by the gravitational scalar field, dark energy, as we suggest in the scalar-tensor theory.
On the Origins of the Planck Zero Point Energy in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory
Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N
2015-01-01
It is argued that the zero point energy in quantum field theory is a reflection of the particle anti-particle content of the theory. This essential physical content is somewhat disguised in electromagnetic theory wherein the photon is its own anti-particle. To illustrate this point, we consider the case of a charged Boson theory $(\\pi^+,\\pi^-)$ wherein the particle and anti-particle can be distinguished by the charge $\\pm e$. Starting from the zero point energy, we derive the Boson pair production rate per unit time per unit volume from the vacuum in a uniform external electric field. The result is further generalized for arbitrary spin $s$.
The zero point of extinction toward Baade close-quote s window from RR Lyrae stars
We measure the zero point of the Stanek extinction map by comparing the observed (V-K) colors of 20 RR Lyrae stars (type ab) found in the MACHO survey with their intrinsic (V-K)0 colors as a function of period as determined from nearby RR Lyrae stars. We find that the zero point of the Stanek map should be changed by ΔAV=-0.11±0.05mag, in excellent agreement with the recent measurement of Gould, Popowski, ampersand Terndrup using K giants. copyright 1998 The American Astronomical Society
The Apparent Lack of Lorentz Invariance in Zero-Point Fields with Truncated Spectra
Daywitt W. C.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The integrals that describe the expectation values of the zero-point quantum-field- theoretic vacuum state are semi-infinite, as are the integrals for the stochastic electro- dynamic vacuum. The unbounded upper limit to these integrals leads in turn to infinite energy densities and renormalization masses. A number of models have been put for- ward to truncate the integrals so that these densities and masses are finite. Unfortunately the truncation apparently destroys the Lorentz invariance of the integrals. This note ar- gues that the integrals are naturally truncated by the graininess of the negative-energy Planck vacuum state from which the zero-point vacuum arises, and are thus automati- cally Lorentz invariant.
Preludes to dark energy: Zero-point energy and vacuum speculations
Kragh, Helge
2011-01-01
Although dark energy is a modern concept, some elements in it can be traced back to the early part of the twentieth century. This paper examines the origin of the idea of zero-point energy and in particular how it appeared in a cosmological context in a hypothesis proposed by Walther Nernst in 1916. The hypothesis of a zero-point vacuum energy attracted some attention in the 1920s, but without attempts to relate it to the cosmological constant that was discussed by Georges Lema\\^itre in particular. Only in the late 1960s was it recognized that there is a connection between the cosmological constant and the quantum vacuum. As seen in retrospect, many of the steps that eventually led to the insight of a kind of dark energy occurred isolated and uncoordinated.
The Apparent Lack of Lorentz Invariance in Zero-Point Fields with Truncated Spectra
Daywitt W. C.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The integrals that describe the expectation values of the zero-point quantum-field-theoretic vacuum state are semi-infinite, as are the integrals for the stochastic electrodynamic vacuum. The unbounded upper limit to these integrals leads in turn to infinite energy densities and renormalization masses. A number of models have been put forward to truncate the integrals so that these densities and masses are finite. Unfortunately the truncation apparently destroys the Lorentz invariance of the integrals. This note argues that the integrals are naturally truncated by the graininess of the negative-energy Planck vacuum state from which the zero-point vacuum arises, and are thus automatically Lorentz invariant.
Zero-point fluctuations in rotation: Perpetuum mobile of the fourth kind without energy transfer
In this paper we discuss a simple Casimir-type device for which the rotational energy reaches its global minimum when the device rotates about a certain axis rather than remaining static. This unusual property is a direct consequence of the fact that the moment of inertia of zero-point vacuum fluctuations is a negative quantity (the rotational vacuum effect). Moreover, the device does not produce any work despite the fact that its equilibrium ground state corresponds to a permanent rotation. Counterintuitively, the device has no internally moving mechanical parts while its very existence is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. We point out that such devices may possibly be constructed using carbon nanotubes subjected to the strong-but experimentally feasible-magnetic field. The effect in the carbon nanotubes is enhanced due to the presence of massless charged excitations. We call this 'zero-point-driven' device as the perpetuum mobile of the fourth kind.
Broken vertex symmetry and finite zero-point entropy in the artificial square ice ground state
Gliga, Sebastian; Kákay, Attila; Heyderman, Laura J.; Hertel, Riccardo; Heinonen, Olle G.
2015-08-01
We study degeneracy and entropy in the ground state of artificial square ice. In theoretical models, individual nanomagnets are typically treated as single spins with only two degrees of freedom, leading to a twofold degenerate ground state with intensive entropy and thus no zero-point entropy. Here, we show that the internal degrees of freedom of the nanostructures can result, through edge bending of the magnetization and breaking of local magnetic symmetry at the vertices, in a transition to a highly degenerate ground state with finite zero-point entropy, similar to that of the pyrochlore spin ices. We find that these additional degrees of freedom have observable consequences in the resonant spectrum of the lattice, and predict the occurrence of edge "melting" above a critical temperature at which the magnetic symmetry is restored.
Zero-Point Fluctuations in the Nuclear Born-Oppenheimer Ground State
Zettili, Nouredine
The small-amplitude oscillations of rigid nuclei around the equilibrium state are described by means of the nuclear Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) method. In this limit, the method is shown to give back the random phase approximation (RPA) equations of motion. The contribution of the zero-point fluctuations to the ground state are examined, and the NBO ground state energy derived is shown to be identical to the RPA ground state energy.
Zero-point fluctuations in the ground state of a mesoscopic normal ring
Cedraschi, Pascal; Buttiker, Markus
2000-01-01
We investigate the persistent current of a ring with an in-line quantum dot capacitively coupled to an external circuit. Of special interest is the magnitude of the persistent current as a function of the external impedance in the zero temperature limit when the only fluctuations in the external circuit are zero-point fluctuations. These are time-dependent fluctuations which polarize the ring-dot structure and we discuss in detail the contribution of displacement currents to the persistent cu...
On the relativistic origin of inertia and zero-point forces
Ridgely, C. T.
2001-01-01
Current approaches to the problem of inertia attempt to explain the inertial properties of matter by expressing the inertial mass appearing in Newton's second law of motion in terms of some other more fundamental interaction. One increasingly popular approach explains inertial and gravitational forces as drag forces arising due to quantum vacuum zero-point phenomena. General relativity, however, suggests that gravitational and inertial forces are manifestations of space-time geometry. Based o...
Classical and quantum radiation of perturbed discrete breathers
Flach, S.; Fleurov, V.; Gorbach, A. V.
2004-01-01
We show that the linearized phase space flow around a discrete breather solution is not capable of generating persistent energy flow away from the breather even in the case of instabilities of extended states. This holds both for the classical and quantized description of the flow. The main reason for that is the parametric driving the breather provides to the flow. Corresponding scaling arguments are derived for both classical and quantum cases. Numerical simulations of the classical flow su...
Consequences of zero-point motion to the radial distribution function of amorphous silicon
While there have been many studies based on models of amorphous silicon, there have been surprisingly few (perhaps only one) that have seriously addressed the radial distribution function at low temperature. Our work is based in part on the so-called NRL tight binding method using parameters for silicon determined by Bernstein et al. As we have recently shown in the case of 216-atom models, upon including zero-point motion good agreement is obtained with very accurate low temperature x-ray diffraction measurements by Laaziri et al of the radial distribution function, although, as also found by Herrero who used the Stillinger-Weber potential, a slight asymmetry of the first peak in the RDF is predicted and this asymmetry has not been observed experimentally. Upon use of an estimate of zero-point broadening from our previous work we show here that 1000-atom models lead to good agreement with experiment for the RDF. Perhaps fortuitously, we obtain models that agree with the experimentally determined second peak in the RDF for both annealed and unannealed samples: our tight binding relaxed models based on topologies derived from the Wooten-Winer-Weaire method and the Barkema-Mousseau method yield unannealed-sample results, whereas our tight binding relaxed model based on an MD quench of the liquid using the semi-empirical interatomic potential, EDIP, of Kaxiras and coworkers yield the annealed-sample results. Finally, the significant effect of zero-point motion on the first peak in the radial distribution that we obtain in the case of amorphous silicon could also have implications for other amorphous materials, e.g. SiO2
Advances in the proposed electromagnetic zero-point field theory of inertia
Haisch, Bernhard; Rueda, Alfonso; Puthoff, H. E.
1998-01-01
A NASA-funded research effort has been underway at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto and at California State University in Long Beach to develop and test a recently published theory that Newton's equation of motion can be derived from Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics as applied to the zero-point field (ZPF) of the quantum vacuum. In this ZPF-inertia theory, mass is postulated to be not an intrinsic property of matter but rather a kind of electromagnetic drag fo...
Sensing Atomic Motion from the Zero Point to Room Temperature with Ultrafast Atom Interferometry
Johnson, K. G.; Neyenhuis, B.; Mizrahi, J.; Wong-Campos, J. D.; Monroe, C.
2015-11-01
We sense the motion of a trapped atomic ion using a sequence of state-dependent ultrafast momentum kicks. We use this atom interferometer to characterize a nearly pure quantum state with n =1 phonon and accurately measure thermal states ranging from near the zero-point energy to n ¯˜104, with the possibility of extending at least 100 times higher in energy. The complete energy range of this method spans from the ground state to far outside of the Lamb-Dicke regime, where atomic motion is greater than the optical wavelength. Apart from thermometry, these interferometric techniques are useful for characterizing ultrafast entangling gates between multiple trapped ions.
This paper focuses on a novel fibre-coupled monochromatic zero-point reference sensor for high-precision measurement and positioning tasks, especially for use in nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines. The motivation for this development and the basic concept of the confocal-based sensor are explained in detail. Differences from other similar systems also realizing the confocal principle through fibre coupling are pointed out. Furthermore, the optical system design is described. Initial experimental results using this sensor as a probe system in a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine, and investigations into the metrological properties are discussed, which underscore the great potential for utilization as a reference sensor. (paper)
The influence of zero-point vibrations on multipole moments of rare earth nuclei
The influence of the zero-point quadrupole-hexadecapole vibrations on multipole moments and mean square radii for rare earth nuclei was investigated. The Born-Oppenheimer approximation was used to separate collective and intrinsic motion. The macroscopic-microscopic method in the potential energy part and cranking model in the kinetic energy part was used to construct the collective Hamiltonian. The intrinsic motion was described in terms of Nilsson single-particle potential and BCS theory. Systematic improvement to static calculations was achieved. (orig.)
The cosmological constant from the zero point energy of compact dimensions
Soni, Vikram; Adhikari, Rathin
2015-01-01
We consider extra compact dimensions as the origin of a cosmological universal energy density in the regular dimensions, with only graviton fields propagating in the compact space dimensions. The quantum zero point energy originating from the finite size boundary condition in the compact dimensions can produce a constant energy density in regular $3$ space which is homogeneous and isotropic. It then makes a natural identification with the cosmological constant in conformity with the Einstein equation. It turns out that for the emergent energy density to agree with the observed value of the cosmological constant, the size/radius of compact dimension is to be of order of $10^{-2}$ cm.
Efficient Recovery of Block Sparse Signals via Zero-point Attracting Projection
Liu, Jingbo; Jin, Jian; Gu, Yuantao
2012-01-01
In this paper, we consider compressed sensing (CS) of block-sparse signals, i.e., sparse signals that have nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters. An efficient algorithm, called zero-point attracting projection (ZAP) algorithm, is extended to the scenario of block CS. The block version of ZAP algorithm employs an approximate $l_{2,0}$ norm as the cost function, and finds its minimum in the solution space via iterations. For block sparse signals, an analysis of the stability of the local m...
What measurable zero point fluctuations can(not) tell us about dark energy
We show that laboratory experiments cannot measure the absolute value of dark energy. All known experiments rely on electromagnetic interactions. They are thus insensitive to particles and fields that interact only weakly with ordinary matter. In addition, Josephson junction experiments only measure differences in vacuum energy similar to Casimir force measurements. Gravity, however, couples to the absolute value. Finally we note that Casimir force measurements have tested zero point fluctuations up to energies of ∝ 10 eV, well above the dark energy scale of ∝ 0.01 eV. Hence, the proposed cut-off in the fluctuation spectrum is ruled out experimentally. (Orig.)
Electron scattering as a tool to study zero-point kinetic energies of atoms in molecules
Moreh, R.; Finkelstein, Y.; Vos, M.
2015-07-01
High resolution electron compton scattering (ECS) is being used to study the atomic momentum distributions and hence the zero-point kinetic energies (ZPKE) of the scattering atoms. Such studies have shown that the scattering is from a single atom of the scattering sample. For an electron beam with a well defined incident energy, the scattered electron energy at any angle from each atomic species is Doppler broadened. The broadening reflects the atomic momentum distribution contributed by both the internal and external motions of the molecular system. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the scattered electron lines it was possible to determine the kinetic energy of the scattering atom including that of its zero-point motion. Thus, the atomic kinetic energies in gases such as H2, D2, HD, CH4 and in H2O, D2O and NH3 were measured and compared with those calculated semi-empirically using the measured optical infra red (IR) and Raman frequencies of the internal vibrations of the molecules. In general, good agreement between the measured and calculated values was found. Electron scattering was also used to study the ratio of e-scattering intensities from the H- and O-atoms in water (H2O), where some anomalies were reported to exist.
Electron scattering as a tool to study zero-point kinetic energies of atoms in molecules
High resolution electron compton scattering (ECS) is being used to study the atomic momentum distributions and hence the zero-point kinetic energies (ZPKE) of the scattering atoms. Such studies have shown that the scattering is from a single atom of the scattering sample. For an electron beam with a well defined incident energy, the scattered electron energy at any angle from each atomic species is Doppler broadened. The broadening reflects the atomic momentum distribution contributed by both the internal and external motions of the molecular system. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the scattered electron lines it was possible to determine the kinetic energy of the scattering atom including that of its zero-point motion. Thus, the atomic kinetic energies in gases such as H2, D2, HD, CH4 and in H2O, D2O and NH3 were measured and compared with those calculated semi-empirically using the measured optical infra red (IR) and Raman frequencies of the internal vibrations of the molecules. In general, good agreement between the measured and calculated values was found. Electron scattering was also used to study the ratio of e-scattering intensities from the H- and O-atoms in water (H2O), where some anomalies were reported to exist
Satellite Eoetvoes test of the weak equivalence principle for zero-point vacuum energy
An Eoetvoes experiment to test the weak equivalence principle (WEP) for zero-point vacuum energy is proposed using a satellite. Following the suggestion of Ross for a terrestrial experiment of this type, the acceleration of a spherical test mass of aluminium would be compared with that of a similar test mass made from another material. The estimated ratio of the zero-point vacuum energy density inside the aluminium sphere to the rest mass energy density is ∼1.6x10-14, which would allow a 1% resolution of a potential WEP violation observed in a satellite mission test that had a baseline sensitivity to WEP violations of ∼10-16. An observed violation of the WEP for vacuum energy density would constitute a significant clue as to the origin of the cosmological constant and the source of dark energy, and test a recently proposed resolution of the cosmological constant problem, based on a model of nonlocal quantum gravity and quantum field theory
Electron scattering as a tool to study zero-point kinetic energies of atoms in molecules
Moreh, R., E-mail: moreh@bgu.ac.il [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Finkelstein, Y. [Nuclear Research Center – Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)
2015-07-01
High resolution electron compton scattering (ECS) is being used to study the atomic momentum distributions and hence the zero-point kinetic energies (ZPKE) of the scattering atoms. Such studies have shown that the scattering is from a single atom of the scattering sample. For an electron beam with a well defined incident energy, the scattered electron energy at any angle from each atomic species is Doppler broadened. The broadening reflects the atomic momentum distribution contributed by both the internal and external motions of the molecular system. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the scattered electron lines it was possible to determine the kinetic energy of the scattering atom including that of its zero-point motion. Thus, the atomic kinetic energies in gases such as H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, HD, CH{sub 4} and in H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} were measured and compared with those calculated semi-empirically using the measured optical infra red (IR) and Raman frequencies of the internal vibrations of the molecules. In general, good agreement between the measured and calculated values was found. Electron scattering was also used to study the ratio of e-scattering intensities from the H- and O-atoms in water (H{sub 2}O), where some anomalies were reported to exist.
Hernández, Marta I; Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Campos-Martínez, José
2015-10-29
Recent progress in the production of new two-dimensional (2D) nanoporous materials is attracting considerable interest for applications to isotope separation in gases. In this paper we report a computational study of the transmission of (4)He and (3)He through the (subnanometer) pores of graphdiyne, a recently synthesized 2D carbon material. The He-graphdiyne interaction is represented by a force field parametrized upon ab initio calculations, and the (4)He/(3)He selectivity is analyzed by tunneling-corrected transition state theory. We have found that both zero point energy (of the in-pore degrees of freedom) and tunneling effects play an extraordinary role at low temperatures (≈20-30 K). However, both quantum features work in opposite directions in such a way that the selectivity ratio does not reach an acceptable value. Nevertheless, the efficiency of zero point energy is in general larger, so that (4)He tends to diffuse faster than (3)He through the graphdiyne membrane, with a maximum performance at 23 K. Moreover, it is found that the transmission rates are too small in the studied temperature range, precluding practical applications. It is concluded that the role of the in-pore degrees of freedom should be included in computations of the transmission probabilities of molecules through nanoporous materials. PMID:26447561
Role of the zero-point field in the shift of the ground state energy of atoms
Huang, X.Y.; Peng, J.S.
1988-01-01
Suppose there is a zero-point field corresponding to the zero-point energy in vacuum. We can use time-dependent perturbation theory to calculate the influence of the field on the energy of atoms. When the field is applied to atoms which are in the ground state initially, the energy change of the atoms shows a linear dependence on time with a constant energy shift. This constant shift is the usual energy shift of atoms.
Equipartition, Plank's radiation law and quanta
By extending the concept of equipartition, it is possible to derive a nonquantum version of Planck's radiation law, without ad hoc assumptions of zero point, zero temperature random radiation which violates classical thermodynamical principles. The meaning of the Planck constant is discussed together with the quantum hypothesis, and applied to the photoelectric effect. A coarse-averaged description, which may be refined to any order is employed throughout
Frank, Irmgard
2016-01-01
The notion from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations that nuclear motion is best described by classical Newton dynamics instead of the time-dependent Schr{\\"o}dinger equation is substantiated. In principle a single experiment should bring clarity. Caution is however necessary, as temperature dependent effects must be eliminated when trying to determine the existence of a zero-point energy.
The Electromagnetic Zero-Point Field and the Flat Polarizable Vacuum Representation
Desiato, J T
2003-01-01
There are several interpretations of the Polarizable Vacuum (PV). One is the variable speed of light (VSL) approach, that has been shown to be isomorphic to General Relativity (GR) within experimental limits. However, another interpretation is representative of flat geometry, in which intervals of time and distance are measured in local inertial reference frames where the speed of light remains constant. The Flat PV approach leads to variable impedance transformations, governed by the spectral energy content of the Quantum Vacuum’s Electromagnetic (EM) Zero-Point Field (ZPF). The EM ZPF consists of photons. An unlimited number of photons may occupy the same quantum state at an arbitrary set of coordinates. Therefore, the spectral energy of the ZPF may be varied smoothly, represented by a superposition of EM waves with a large number of photons per cubic wavelength. Utilizing the Flat PV representation, a family of frequency dependent solutions of Poisson’s equation are derived, that may be applied as tool...
Equation of state for a trapped quantum gas: remnant of zero-point energy effects
Castilho, P. C. M.; Poveda-Cuevas, F. J.; Seman, J. A.; Shiozaki, R. F.; Roati, G.; Muniz, S. R.; Magalhães, D. V.; Bagnato, V. S.
2016-02-01
The study of the thermodynamic properties of trapped gases has attracted great attention during the last few years and can be used as a tool to characterize such clouds in the presence of other phenomena. Here, we obtain an equation of state for a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate taking the limit of T\\to 0 by means of global themodynamic variables. These variables allow us to explore limits in which the standard thermodynamics are not defined. Our results are taken in the high density limit, and the extrapolation for N\\to 1 is done later. Even in this situation, we qualitatively observe the well known existence of a zero-point energy for harmonic potentials in which the determination of conjugated variables is limited by the quantum nature of the system.
Ab initio calculation of the zero-point energy in dense hydrogen
Takezawa, Tomoki [Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Nagara, Hitose [Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Nagao, Kazutaka [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornel University, Ithaca, NY (United States)
2002-11-11
We have studied the vibrational modes and their frequencies in both atomic and molecular phases of dense hydrogen to find the stable structures and evaluated the zero-point energies (ZPEs) and the effect on molecular dissociation. The most probable structure in the atomic phase is Cs IV whose vibrational modes have real frequencies over the whole Brillouin zone. And the structure in the molecular phase is very close to Cmca, whose vibrational modes with imaginary frequencies work as guides to the stable structure. Our estimates of the ZPE are very close to those of Kagan et al (Kagan Yu, Pushkarev V V and Kholas A 1977 Sov. Phys.-JETP 46 511). Adding the ZPE to the static energy, we estimated its effect on the pressure of the molecular dissociation. The reduction of the dissociation pressure due to the inclusion of the ZPE becomes over 100 GPa.
Efficient Recovery of Block Sparse Signals via Zero-point Attracting Projection
Liu, Jingbo; Gu, Yuantao
2012-01-01
In this paper, we consider compressed sensing (CS) of block-sparse signals, i.e., sparse signals that have nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters. An efficient algorithm, called zero-point attracting projection (ZAP) algorithm, is extended to the scenario of block CS. The block version of ZAP algorithm employs an approximate $l_{2,0}$ norm as the cost function, and finds its minimum in the solution space via iterations. For block sparse signals, an analysis of the stability of the local minimums of this cost function under the perturbation of noise reveals an advantage of the proposed algorithm over its original non-block version in terms of reconstruction error. Finally, numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other state of the art methods for the block sparse problem in various respects, especially the stability under noise.
Sensing Atomic Motion from the Zero Point to Room Temperature with Ultrafast Atom Interferometry.
Johnson, K G; Neyenhuis, B; Mizrahi, J; Wong-Campos, J D; Monroe, C
2015-11-20
We sense the motion of a trapped atomic ion using a sequence of state-dependent ultrafast momentum kicks. We use this atom interferometer to characterize a nearly pure quantum state with n=1 phonon and accurately measure thermal states ranging from near the zero-point energy to n[over ¯]~10^{4}, with the possibility of extending at least 100 times higher in energy. The complete energy range of this method spans from the ground state to far outside of the Lamb-Dicke regime, where atomic motion is greater than the optical wavelength. Apart from thermometry, these interferometric techniques are useful for characterizing ultrafast entangling gates between multiple trapped ions. PMID:26636850
The zero-point field. On the search for the cosmic basic energy
Does an inexhaustable energy source exist from which all life is fed? A form of energy, which penetrates all dead and living expression forms of life? Does a logical, scientific explanation exist for parapsychological phenomena like clairvoyance, telepathy, ghost healing, synchronicity, and a model for the mode of action of homeopathy? Do serious researchers and scientific studies to be token in ernest exist, which not only deal with this questions but also have found answers? During eight years the British scientific journalist Lynne McTaggart has researched. ''Teh zero-point field'' is the result of numerous speeches with renowned physicists, biophysicists, neuroscientists, biologist, and consciousness researchers on the whole world, which have independently discovered phenomena, which are combined like puzzle pieces to a fascinating total picture.
Sensing Atomic Motion from the Zero Point to Room Temperature with Ultrafast Atom Interferometry
Johnson, K G; Mizrahi, J; Wong-Campos, J D; Monroe, C
2015-01-01
We sense the motion of a trapped atomic ion using a sequence of state-dependent ultrafast momentum kicks. We use this atom interferometer to characterize a nearly-pure quantum state with $n=1$ phonon and accurately measure thermal states ranging from near the zero-point energy to $\\bar{n}\\sim 10^4$, with the possibility of extending at least 100 times higher in energy. The complete energy range of this method spans from the ground state to far outside of the Lamb-Dicke regime, where atomic motion is greater than the optical wavelength. These interferometric techniques are useful for characterizing ultrafast entangling gates between multiple trapped ions, and may also be used for sensing electromagnetic fields over a wide dynamic range.
Classical aspects of Hawking radiation verified in analogue gravity experiment
Weinfurtner, Silke; Penrice, Matthew C J; Unruh, William G; Lawrenc, Gregory A
2013-01-01
There is an analogy between the propagation of fields on a curved spacetime and shallow water waves in an open channel flow. By placing a streamlined obstacle into an open channel flow we create a region of high velocity over the obstacle that can include wave horizons. Long (shallow water) waves propagating upstream towards this region are blocked and converted into short (deep water) waves. This is the analogue of the stimulated Hawking emission by a white hole (the time inverse of a black hole). The measurements of amplitudes of the converted waves demonstrate that they appear in pairs and are classically correlated; the spectra of the conversion process is described by a Boltzmann-distribution; and the Boltzmann-distribution is determined by the determined by the change in flow across the white hole horizon.
A semi-classical approach to radiation problems
The article is mainly devoted to a detailed exposition of the method of solution of problems in magnetic resonance by transformations to rotating co-ordinate frames. The well-known method of transformation to a frame rotating at constant angular velocity has been extended to embrace modulated rotations, thereby allowing the elimination of oscillating fields of any strength. A detailed analysis of the Bloch-Siegert problem is given to illustrate the application of the techniques. Since the original work was carried out in relation to the study of excited atoms, the question naturally arose, how to deal with spontaneous emission. A general discussion of this question is given, and a technique is described which allows spontaneous emission to be included in semi-classical calculations of cycles of optical pumping. (Auth.)
Mamajek, E. E.; Torres, G.; Prsa, A.;
2015-01-01
The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after...... consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale.......828e26 W) adopted by IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to $M_{\\rm Bol}$(Sun) = 4.74, the value most commonly adopted in recent literature. The nominal total solar irradiance (1361 W/m$^2$) adopted in IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to apparent bolometric magnitude $m...
Advances in the proposed electromagnetic zero-point field theory of inertia
Haisch, B; Puthoff, H E; Haisch, Bernhard; Rueda, Alfonso
1998-01-01
A NASA-funded research effort has been underway at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto and at California State University in Long Beach to develop and test a recently published theory that Newton's equation of motion can be derived from Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics as applied to the zero-point field (ZPF) of the quantum vacuum. In this ZPF-inertia theory, mass is postulated to be not an intrinsic property of matter but rather a kind of electromagnetic drag force that proves to be acceleration dependent by virtue of the spectral characteristics of the ZPF. The theory proposes that interactions between the ZPF and matter take place at the level of quarks and electrons, hence would account for the mass of a composite neutral particle such as the neutron. An effort to generalize the exploratory study of Haisch, Rueda and Puthoff (1994) into a proper relativistic formulation has been successful. Moreover the principle of equivalence implies that in this view gravitation would also...
Zero-point energy, tunneling, and vibrational adiabaticity in the Mu + H2 reaction
Mielke, Steven L.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Fleming, Donald G.; Truhlar, Donald G.
2015-01-09
Abstract: Isotopic substitution of muonium for hydrogen provides an unparalleled opportunity to deepen our understanding of quantum mass effects on chemical reactions. A recent topical review [Aldegunde et al., Mol. Phys. 111, 3169 (2013)] of the thermal and vibrationally-stateselected reaction of Mu with H2 raises a number of issues that are addressed here. We show that some earlier quantum mechanical calculations of the Mu + H2 reaction, which are highlighted in this review and which have been used to benchmark approximate methods, are in error by as much as 19% in the low-temperature limit. We demonstrate that an approximate treatment of the Born–Oppenheimer diagonal correction that was used in some recent studies is not valid for treating the vibrationally-state-selected reaction. We also discuss why vibrationally adiabatic potentials that neglect bend zero-point energy are not a useful analytical tool for understanding reaction rates and why vibrationally nonadiabatic transitions cannot be understood by considering tunneling through vibrationally adiabatic potentials. Finally, we present calculations on a hierarchical family of potential energy surfaces to assess the sensitivity of rate constants to the quality of the potential surface.
Zero-point fluctuations in the ground state of a mesoscopic normal ring
Cedraschi, Pascal; Büttiker, Markus
2001-04-01
We investigate the persistent current of a ring with an in-line quantum dot capacitively coupled to an external circuit. Of special interest is the magnitude of the persistent current as a function of the external impedance in the zero-temperature limit when the only fluctuations in the external circuit are zero-point fluctuations. These are time-dependent fluctuations that polarize the ring-dot structure and we discuss in detail the contribution of displacement currents to the persistent current. We have earlier discussed an exact solution for the persistent current and its fluctuations based on a Bethe ansatz. In this work, we emphasize a physically more intuitive approach using a Langevin description of the external circuit. This approach is limited to weak coupling between the ring and the external circuit. We show that the zero-temperature persistent current obtained in this approach is consistent with the persistent current calculated from the Bethe ansatz solution. In the absence of coupling our system is a two level system consisting of the ground state and the first excited state. In the presence of coupling we investigate the projection of the actual state on the ground state and the first exited state of the decoupled ring. With each of these projections we can associate a phase-diffusion time. In the zero-temperature limit we find that the phase-diffusion time of the excited state projection saturates, whereas the phase-diffusion time of the ground state projection diverges.
Non-classical radiation transport in random media with fluctuating densities
The ensemble averaged propagation kernels of the non-classical radiation transport are studied by means of the proposed application of the stochastic differential equation random medium generators. It is shown that the non-classical transport is favored in long-correlated weakly fluctuating media. The developed kernel models have been implemented in GEANT4 and validated against the double Monte Carlomodeling of absorptions curves of disperse neutron absorbers and γ-albedos from a scatterer/absorber random mix
Synthetic Lorentz force in classical atomic gases via Doppler effect and radiation pressure
Dubček, T; Jukić, D; Aumiler, D; Ban, T; Buljan, H
2014-01-01
We theoretically predict a novel type of synthetic Lorentz force for classical (cold) atomic gases, which is based on the Doppler effect and radiation pressure. A fairly uniform and strong force can be constructed for gases in macroscopic volumes of several cubic millimeters and more. This opens the possibility to mimic classical charged gases in magnetic fields, such as those in a tokamak, in cold atom experiments.
Quasars can be used to verify the parallax zero-point of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution
Michalik, Daniel; Lindegren, Lennart
2016-02-01
Context. The Gaia project will determine positions, proper motions, and parallaxes for more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. It is known that Gaia's two telescopes are affected by a small but significant variation of the basic angle between them. Unless this variation is taken into account during data processing, e.g. using on-board metrology, it causes systematic errors in the astrometric parameters, in particular a shift in the parallax zero-point. Previously, we suggested an early reduction of Gaia data for the subset of Tycho-2 stars (Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution; TGAS). Aims: We investigate whether quasars can be used to independently verify the parallax zero-point in early data reductions. This is not trivially possible as the observation interval is too short to disentangle parallax and proper motion for the quasar subset. Methods: We repeat TGAS simulations but additionally include simulated Gaia observations of quasars from ground-based surveys. All observations are simulated with basic angle variations. To obtain a full astrometric solution for the quasars in TGAS we explore the use of prior information for their proper motions. Results: It is possible to determine the parallax zero-point for the quasars with a few μas uncertainty, and it agrees to a similar precision with the zero-point for the Tycho-2 stars. The proposed strategy is robust even for quasars exhibiting significant spurious proper motion due to a variable source structure, or when the quasar subset is contaminated with stars misidentified as quasars. Conclusions: Using prior information about quasar proper motions we could provide an independent verification of the parallax zero-point in early solutions based on less than one year of Gaia data.
Hawking Radiation from a Vaidya Black Hole: A Semi-Classical Approach and Beyond
Siahaan, Haryanto M
2008-01-01
We derive the Hawking radiation for Vaidya black hole in the tunneling picture from the corresponding single particle action by the use of the radial null geodesic and the Hamilton-Jacobi method (beyond semi-classical approximation). Both results are then analyzed and compared.
Classical and quantum cosmology with two perfect fluids: stiff matter and radiation
Alvarenga, F G; Freitas, R C; Gonçalves, S V B
2016-01-01
In this work the homogeneous and isotropic Universe of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker is studied in the presence of two fluids: stiff matter and radiation described by the Schutz's formalism. We obtain to the classic case the behaviour of the scale factor of the universe. For the quantum case the wave packets are constructed and the wave function of the universe is found.
Antonius, G.; Poncé, S.; Lantagne-Hurtubise, E.; Auclair, G.; Gonze, X.; Côté, M.
2015-08-01
The renormalization of the band structure at zero temperature due to electron-phonon coupling is explored in diamond, BN, LiF, and MgO crystals. We implement a dynamical scheme to compute the frequency-dependent self-energy and the resulting quasiparticle electronic structure. Our calculations reveal the presence of a satellite band below the Fermi level of LiF and MgO. We show that the renormalization factor (Z ), which is neglected in the adiabatic approximation, can reduce the zero-point renormalization (ZPR) by as much as 40 % . Anharmonic effects in the renormalized eigenvalues at finite atomic displacements are explored with the frozen-phonon method. We use a nonperturbative expression for the ZPR, going beyond the Allen-Heine-Cardona theory. Our results indicate that high-order electron-phonon coupling terms contribute significantly to the zero-point renormalization for certain materials.
Vacuum-to-vacuum transition probability and the classic radiation theory
Using the fact that the vacuum-to-vacuum transition probability for the interaction of the Maxwell field Aμ(x) with a given current Jμ(x) represents the probability of no photons emitted by the current of a Poisson distribution, the average number of photons emitted of given energies for the underlying distribution is readily derived. From this the classical power of radiation of Schwinger of a relativistic charged particle follows. - Highlights: • Quantum viewpoint of radiation theory based on the vacuum-to-transition probabilities. • Mathematical method in handling radiation for extended and point sources. • Radiated energy and power for arbitrary source distribution obtained from the above. • Explicit power of radiation for point relativistic sources from the general theory
On the contribution of intramolecular zero point energy to the equation of state of solid H2
Chandrasekharan, V.; Etters, R. D.
1978-01-01
Experimental evidence shows that the internal zero-point energy of the H2 molecule exhibits a relatively strong pressure dependence in the solid as well as changing considerably upon condensation. It is shown that these effects contribute about 6% to the total sublimation energy and to the pressure in the solid state. Methods to modify the ab initio isolated pair potential to account for these environmental effects are discussed.
Yeol Je Cho
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Two iterative schemes for finding a common element of the set of zero points of maximal monotone operators and the set of fixed points of nonexpansive mappings in the sense of Lyapunov functional in a real uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space are obtained. Two strong convergence theorems are obtained which extend some previous work. Moreover, the applications of the iterative schemes are demonstrated.
Jarlborg, Thomas; Bianconi, Antonio
2016-01-01
While 203 K high temperature superconductivity in H3S has been interpreted by BCS theory in the dirty limit here we focus on the effects of hydrogen zero-point-motion and the multiband electronic structure relevant for multigap superconductivity near Lifshitz transitions. We describe how the topology of the Fermi surfaces evolves with pressure giving different Lifshitz-transitions. A neck-disrupting Lifshitz-transition (type 2) occurs where the van Hove singularity, vHs, crosses the chemical potential at 210 GPa and new small 2D Fermi surface portions appear with slow Fermi velocity where the Migdal-approximation becomes questionable. We show that the neglected hydrogen zero-point motion ZPM, plays a key role at Lifshitz transitions. It induces an energy shift of about 600 meV of the vHs. The other Lifshitz-transition (of type 1) for the appearing of a new Fermi surface occurs at 130 GPa where new Fermi surfaces appear at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone here the Migdal-approximation breaks down and the zero-point-motion induces large fluctuations. The maximum Tc = 203 K occurs at 160 GPa where EF/ω0 = 1 in the small Fermi surface pocket at Γ. A Feshbach-like resonance between a possible BEC-BCS condensate at Γ and the BCS condensate in different k-space spots is proposed. PMID:27095368
Jarlborg, Thomas; Bianconi, Antonio
2016-04-01
While 203 K high temperature superconductivity in H3S has been interpreted by BCS theory in the dirty limit here we focus on the effects of hydrogen zero-point-motion and the multiband electronic structure relevant for multigap superconductivity near Lifshitz transitions. We describe how the topology of the Fermi surfaces evolves with pressure giving different Lifshitz-transitions. A neck-disrupting Lifshitz-transition (type 2) occurs where the van Hove singularity, vHs, crosses the chemical potential at 210 GPa and new small 2D Fermi surface portions appear with slow Fermi velocity where the Migdal-approximation becomes questionable. We show that the neglected hydrogen zero-point motion ZPM, plays a key role at Lifshitz transitions. It induces an energy shift of about 600 meV of the vHs. The other Lifshitz-transition (of type 1) for the appearing of a new Fermi surface occurs at 130 GPa where new Fermi surfaces appear at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone here the Migdal-approximation breaks down and the zero-point-motion induces large fluctuations. The maximum Tc = 203 K occurs at 160 GPa where EF/ω0 = 1 in the small Fermi surface pocket at Γ. A Feshbach-like resonance between a possible BEC-BCS condensate at Γ and the BCS condensate in different k-space spots is proposed.
Radiation characteristics of multiple and single sound hole vihuelas and a classical guitar.
Bader, Rolf
2012-01-01
Two recently built vihuelas, quasi-replicas of the Spanish Renaissance guitar, one with a small body and one sound hole and one with a large body with five sound holes, together with a classical guitar are investigated. Frequency dependent radiation strengths are measured using a 128 microphone array, back-propagating the frequency dependent sound field upon the body surface. All three instruments have a strong sound hole radiation within the low frequency range. Here the five tone holes vihuela has a much wider frequency region of strong sound hole radiation up to about 500 Hz, whereas the single hole instruments only have strong sound hole radiations up to about 300 Hz due to the enlarged radiation area of the sound holes. The strong broadband radiation of the five sound hole vihuela up to about 500 Hz is also caused by the sound hole phases, showing very consistent in-phase relations up to this frequency range. Also the radiation strength of the sound holes placed nearer to the center of the sound box are much stronger than those near the ribs, pointing to a strong position dependency of sound hole to radiation strength. The Helmholtz resonance frequency of the five sound hole vihuela is influenced by this difference in radiation strength but not by the rosettas, which only have a slight effect on the Helmholtz frequency. PMID:22280704
Paul, Saurabh; Johnson, P R; Tiesinga, Eite
2016-01-01
We show that for ultra-cold neutral bosonic atoms held in a three-dimensional periodic potential or optical lattice, a Hubbard model with dominant, attractive three-body interactions can be generated. In fact, we derive that the effect of pair-wise interactions can be made small or zero starting from the realization that collisions occur at the zero-point energy of an optical lattice site and the strength of the interactions is energy dependent from effective-range contributions. We determine...
Nakamura, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Yagasaki, Takuma; Tanaka, Hideki
2016-03-01
We investigate why no hydrogen-disordered form of ice II has been found in nature despite the fact that most of hydrogen-ordered ices have hydrogen-disordered counterparts. The thermodynamic stability of a set of hydrogen-ordered ice II variants relative to ice II is evaluated theoretically. It is found that ice II is more stable than the disordered variants so generated as to satisfy the simple ice rule due to the lower zero-point energy as well as the pair interaction energy. The residual entropy of the disordered ice II phase gradually compensates the unfavorable free energy with increasing temperature. The crossover, however, occurs at a high temperature well above the melting point of ice III. Consequently, the hydrogen-disordered phase does not exist in nature. The thermodynamic stability of partially hydrogen-disordered ices is also scrutinized by examining the free-energy components of several variants obtained by systematic inversion of OH directions in ice II. The potential energy of one variant is lower than that of the ice II structure, but its Gibbs free energy is slightly higher than that of ice II due to the zero-point energy. The slight difference in the thermodynamic stability leaves the possibility of the partial hydrogen-disorder in real ice II. PMID:26595233
Quasars can be used to verify the parallax zero-point of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution
Michalik, Daniel
2016-01-01
Context. The Gaia project will determine positions, proper motions, and parallaxes for more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. It is known that Gaia's two telescopes are affected by a small but significant variation of the basic angle between them. Unless this variation is taken into account during data processing, e.g. using on-board metrology, it causes systematic errors in the astrometric parameters, in particular a shift of the parallax zero-point. Previously, we suggested an early reduction of Gaia data for the subset of Tycho-2 stars (Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution; TGAS). Aims. We aim to investigate whether quasars can be used to independently verify the parallax zero-point already in early data reductions. This is not trivially possible as the observation interval is too short to disentangle parallax and proper motion for the quasar subset. Methods. We repeat TGAS simulations but additionally include simulated Gaia observations of quasars from ground-based surveys. All observations are simulated w...
Primordial black holes, zero-point energy and CMB: The cosmic connection
Zeynizadeh, S
2013-01-01
We propose a possible resolution to the cosmological constant problem through a scenario in which the universe is composed of three components: matter, radiation (CMB) and vacuum energy such that vacuum energy is not constant and is decaying into the matter component. Matter in this scenario consists of baryonic (ordinary) matter and primordial black holes (PBHs) as the dark matter. Local equilibrium condition between PBHs and CMB confines the mass and the radius of PBHs. The mechanism accounting for the decaying process is nothing but primordial black holes (PBHs) swallowing vacuum energy modes up to a wavelength of the order of their radius. Acting as a natural cut-off on the wavelength of vacuum energy modes this leads to the observed value for the vacuum energy density.
The effective equations of motion for a point charged particle taking into account the radiation reaction are considered in various space-time dimensions. The divergences stemming from the pointness of the particle are studied and an effective renormalization procedure is proposed encompassing uniformly the cases of all even dimensions. It is shown that in any dimension the classical electrodynamics is a renormalizable theory if not multiplicatively beyond d=4. For the cases of three and six dimensions the covariant analogues of the Lorentz-Dirac equation are explicitly derived
Kazinski, P. O.; Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.
2002-07-01
The effective equations of motion for a point charged particle taking into account the radiation reaction are considered in various space-time dimensions. The divergences stemming from the pointness of the particle are studied and an effective renormalization procedure is proposed encompassing uniformly the cases of all even dimensions. It is shown that in any dimension the classical electrodynamics is a renormalizable theory if not multiplicatively beyond d=4. For the cases of three and six dimensions the covariant analogues of the Lorentz-Dirac equation are explicitly derived.
Kazinski, P O; Sharapov, A A
2002-01-01
The effective equations of motion for a point charged particle taking account of radiation reaction are considered in various space-time dimensions. The divergencies steaming from the pointness of the particle are studied and the effective renormalization procedure is proposed encompassing uniformly the cases of all even dimensions. It is shown that in any dimension the classical electrodynamics is a renormalizable theory if not multiplicatively beyond d=4. For the cases of three and six dimensions the covariant analogs of the Lorentz-Dirac equation are explicitly derived.
Deeney, F A; O' Leary, J P [Physics Department, National University of Ireland, Cork, Republic of Ireland (Ireland)], E-mail: f.a.deeney@ucc.ie
2008-09-15
The connection between quantum zero point fluctuations and a density maximum in water and in liquid He{sup 4} has recently been established. Here we present a description of a simple and rapid method of determining the temperatures at which maximum densities in water and aqueous solutions occur. The technique is such as to allow experiments to be carried out in one session of an undergraduate laboratory thereby introducing students to the concept of quantum zero point energy.
A dual-unit pressure sensor for on-chip self-compensation of zero-point temperature drift
A novel dual-unit piezoresistive pressure sensor, consisting of a sensing unit and a dummy unit, is proposed and developed for on-chip self-compensation for zero-point temperature drift. With an MIS (microholes inter-etch and sealing) process implemented only from the front side of single (1 1 1) silicon wafers, a pressure sensitive unit and another identically structured pressure insensitive dummy unit are compactly integrated on-chip to eliminate unbalance factors induced zero-point temperature-drift by mutual compensation between the two units. Besides, both units are physically suspended from silicon substrate to further suppress packaging-stress induced temperature drift. A simultaneously processes ventilation hole-channel structure is connected with the pressure reference cavity of the dummy unit to make it insensitive to detected pressure. In spite of the additional dummy unit, the sensor chip dimensions are still as small as 1.2 mm × 1.2 mm × 0.4 mm. The proposed dual-unit sensor is fabricated and tested, with the tested sensitivity being 0.104 mV kPa−1 3.3 V−1, nonlinearity of less than 0.08% · FSO and overall accuracy error of ± 0.18% · FSO. Without using any extra compensation method, the sensor features an ultra-low temperature coefficient of offset (TCO) of 0.002% °C−1 · FSO that is much better than the performance of conventional pressure sensors. The highly stable and small-sized sensors are promising for low cost production and applications. (paper)
Random electrodynamics : a classical foundation for key quantum concepts
The model of random electrodynamics, in which electromagnetic particles are subjected, in a classical manner, to the forces of radiation damping and the fluctuating zero-point fields provides the framework in which the following results are obtained: (1) The precession dynamics of a long-lived, non-relativistic particle with a magnetic moment proportional to its spin, leads to a self-consistent determination of the spin value as one-half. (2) The internal dynamic underlying the intrinsic magnetic moment of a Dirac particle yields a classically visualizable picture of the spin-magnetic moment. (3) The Bose correlation among indistinguishable, non-interacting, spin-zero Particles arises from the coupling through the common- zero point fields and the radiation reaction fields when the particles are close together in both the r vector and the energy spaces. (4) The (exclusion principle-induced) correlation among identical, non-interacting magnetic particles with spin 1/2 is brought about by the coupling, (through the common fields of radiation reaction and the vacuum fluctuations), of the spins as well as the translational motions when the particles are close together in r vector and the energy spaces. (5) A dilute gas of free electrons has a Maxwellian distribution of velocities and the correct value of the djamagnetic moment in the presence of a magnetic field. Considerations on the centre of mass motion of a composite neutral particle lead to a simple resolution of the foundational paradoxes of statistical mechanics. (6) An approximate treatment of the hydrogen atom leads to a description of the evolution to the ground state at absolute zero and an estimation of the mass frequency and the line-width of the radiation emitted when an excited atom decays. (author)
Ayala, David; Francis, John
2014-01-01
We formulate a theory of pointed manifolds, accommodating both embeddings and Pontryagin-Thom collapse maps, so as to present a common generalization of Poincar\\'e duality in topology and Koszul duality in $\\mathcal{E}_n$-algebra.
Zhang Jianzu [Institute for Theoretical Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Box 316, Shanghai 200237 (China)], E-mail: jzzhang@ecust.edu.cn
2008-12-18
An induced fractional zero-point angular momentum of charged particles by the Bohm-Aharonov (BA) vector potential is realized via a modified combined trap. It explores a 'spectator' mechanism in this type of quantum effects: In the limit of the kinetic energy approaching one of its eigenvalues the BA vector potential alone cannot induce a fractional zero-point angular momentum at quantum mechanical level in the BA magnetic field-free region; But when there is a 'spectator' magnetic field the BA vector potential induces a fractional zero-point angular momentum. The 'spectator' does not contribute to such a fractional angular momentum, but plays essential role in guaranteeing non-trivial dynamics at quantum mechanical level in the required limit. This 'spectator' mechanism is significant in investigating the BA effects and related topics in both aspects of theory and experiment.
Antonius, Gabriel; Poncé, Samuel; Lantagne-Hurtubise, Étienne; Auclair, Gabriel; Côté, Michel; Gonze, Xavier
2015-03-01
The electron-phonon coupling in solids renormalizes the band structure, reducing the band gap by several tenths of an eV in light-atoms semiconductors. Using the Allen-Heine-Cardona theory (AHC), we compute the zero-point renormalization (ZPR) as well as the quasiparticle lifetimes of the full band structure in diamond, BN, LiF and MgO. We show how dynamical effects can be included in the AHC theory, and still allow for the use of a Sternheimer equation to avoid the summation over unoccupied bands. The convergence properties of the electron-phonon coupling self-energy with respect to the Brillouin zone sampling prove to be strongly affected by dynamical effects. We complement our study with a frozen-phonon approach, which reproduces the static AHC theory, but also allows to probe the phonon wavefunctions at finite displacements and include anharmonic effects in the self-energy. We show that these high-order components tend to reduce the strongest electron-phonon coupling elements, which affects significantly the band gap ZPR.
Paul, Saurabh; Johnson, P. R.; Tiesinga, Eite
2016-04-01
We show that, for ultracold neutral bosonic atoms held in a three-dimensional periodic potential or optical lattice, a Hubbard model with dominant, attractive three-body interactions can be generated. In fact, we derive that the effect of pairwise interactions can be made small or zero starting from the realization that collisions occur at the zero-point energy of an optical lattice site and the strength of the interactions is energy dependent from effective-range contributions. We determine the strength of the two- and three-body interactions for scattering from van der Waals potentials and near Fano-Feshbach resonances. For van der Waals potentials, which for example describe scattering of alkaline-earth atoms, we find that the pairwise interaction can only be turned off for species with a small negative scattering length, leaving the 88Sr isotope a possible candidate. Interestingly, for collisional magnetic Feshbach resonances this restriction does not apply and there often exist magnetic fields where the two-body interaction is small. We illustrate this result for several known narrow resonances between alkali-metal atoms as well as chromium atoms. Finally, we compare the size of the three-body interaction with hopping rates and describe limits due to three-body recombination.
Kolmann, Stephen J.; Jordan, Meredith J. T.
2010-02-01
One of the largest remaining errors in thermochemical calculations is the determination of the zero-point energy (ZPE). The fully coupled, anharmonic ZPE and ground state nuclear wave function of the SSSH radical are calculated using quantum diffusion Monte Carlo on interpolated potential energy surfaces (PESs) constructed using a variety of method and basis set combinations. The ZPE of SSSH, which is approximately 29 kJ mol-1 at the CCSD(T)/6-31G∗ level of theory, has a 4 kJ mol-1 dependence on the treatment of electron correlation. The anharmonic ZPEs are consistently 0.3 kJ mol-1 lower in energy than the harmonic ZPEs calculated at the Hartree-Fock and MP2 levels of theory, and 0.7 kJ mol-1 lower in energy at the CCSD(T)/6-31G∗ level of theory. Ideally, for sub-kJ mol-1 thermochemical accuracy, ZPEs should be calculated using correlated methods with as big a basis set as practicable. The ground state nuclear wave function of SSSH also has significant method and basis set dependence. The analysis of the nuclear wave function indicates that SSSH is localized to a single symmetry equivalent global minimum, despite having sufficient ZPE to be delocalized over both minima. As part of this work, modifications to the interpolated PES construction scheme of Collins and co-workers are presented.
Viel, Alexandra; Coutinho-Neto, Maurício D.; Manthe, Uwe
2007-01-01
Quantum dynamics calculations of the ground state tunneling splitting and of the zero point energy of malonaldehyde on the full dimensional potential energy surface proposed by Yagi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 1154, 10647 (2001)] are reported. The exact diffusion Monte Carlo and the projection operator imaginary time spectral evolution methods are used to compute accurate benchmark results for this 21-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface. A tunneling splitting of 25.7±0.3cm-1 is obtained, and the vibrational ground state energy is found to be 15122±4cm-1. Isotopic substitution of the tunneling hydrogen modifies the tunneling splitting down to 3.21±0.09cm-1 and the vibrational ground state energy to 14385±2cm-1. The computed tunneling splittings are slightly higher than the experimental values as expected from the potential energy surface which slightly underestimates the barrier height, and they are slightly lower than the results from the instanton theory obtained using the same potential energy surface.
Aramburu, José Antonio; García-Fernández, Pablo; García-Lastra, Juan María; Moreno, Miguel
2016-07-18
First-principle calculations together with analysis of the experimental data found for 3d(9) and 3d(7) ions in cubic oxides proved that the center found in irradiated CaO:Ni(2+) corresponds to Ni(+) under a static Jahn-Teller effect displaying a compressed equilibrium geometry. It was also shown that the anomalous positive g∥ shift (g∥ -g0 =0.065) measured at T=20 K obeys the superposition of the |3 z(2) -r(2) ⟩ and |x(2) -y(2) ⟩ states driven by quantum effects associated with the zero-point motion, a mechanism first put forward by O'Brien for static Jahn-Teller systems and later extended by Ham to the dynamic Jahn-Teller case. To our knowledge, this is the first genuine Jahn-Teller system (i.e. in which exact degeneracy exists at the high-symmetry configuration) exhibiting a compressed equilibrium geometry for which large quantum effects allow experimental observation of the effect predicted by O'Brien. Analysis of the calculated energy barriers for different Jahn-Teller systems allowed us to explain the origin of the compressed geometry observed for CaO:Ni(+) . PMID:27028895
Boyer, Timothy H.
2010-01-01
The Planck spectrum of thermal scalar radiation is derived suggestively within classical physics by the use of an accelerating coordinate frame. The derivation has an analogue in Boltzmann's derivation of the Maxwell velocity distribution for thermal particle velocities by considering the thermal equilibrium of noninteracting particles in a uniform gravitational field. For the case of radiation, the gravitational field is provided by the acceleration of a Rindler frame through Minkowski space...
Cosmological Consequences of Classical Flavor-Space Locked Gauge Field Radiation
Bielefeld, Jannis
2015-01-01
We propose a classical SU(2) gauge field in a flavor-space locked configuration as a species of radiation in the early universe, and show that it would have a significant imprint on a primordial stochastic gravitational wave spectrum. In the flavor-space locked configuration, the electric and magnetic fields of each flavor are parallel and mutually orthogonal to other flavors, with isotropic and homogeneous stress-energy. Due to the non-Abelian coupling, the gauge field breaks the symmetry between left- and right-circularly polarized gravitational waves. This broken chiral symmetry results in a unique signal: non-zero cross correlation of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization, $TB$ and $EB$, both of which should be zero in the standard, chiral symmetric case. We forecast the ability of current and future CMB experiments to constrain this model. Furthermore, a wide range of behavior is shown to emerge, depending on the gauge field coupling, abundance, and allocation into electric and mag...
Mancini, John S.; Bowman, Joel M.
2013-03-01
We report a global, full-dimensional, ab initio potential energy surface describing the HCl-H2O dimer. The potential is constructed from a permutationally invariant fit, using Morse-like variables, to over 44 000 CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ energies. The surface describes the complex and dissociated monomers with a total RMS fitting error of 24 cm-1. The normal modes of the minima, low-energy saddle point and separated monomers, the double minimum isomerization pathway and electronic dissociation energy are accurately described by the surface. Rigorous quantum mechanical diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations are performed to determine the zero-point energy and wavefunction of the complex and the separated fragments. The calculated zero-point energies together with a De value calculated from CCSD(T) with a complete basis set extrapolation gives a D0 value of 1348 ± 3 cm-1, in good agreement with the recent experimentally reported value of 1334 ± 10 cm-1 [B. E. Casterline, A. K. Mollner, L. C. Ch'ng, and H. Reisler, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 9774 (2010), 10.1021/jp102532m]. Examination of the DMC wavefunction allows for confident characterization of the zero-point geometry to be dominant at the C2v double-well saddle point and not the Cs global minimum. Additional support for the delocalized zero-point geometry is given by numerical solutions to the 1D Schrödinger equation along the imaginary-frequency out-of-plane bending mode, where the zero-point energy is calculated to be 52 cm-1 above the isomerization barrier. The D0 of the fully deuterated isotopologue is calculated to be 1476 ± 3 cm-1, which we hope will stand as a benchmark for future experimental work.
Classic and molecular cytogenetic analysis regarding human reactivity to beta radiation
Complete text of publication follows. One of the most important mutagen agents in developing different types of cancer is the action of ionizing radiation. The main events induced by irradiation are: chromosome breakage, chromosome rearrangements and genomic instability. The chromosomal aberrations are very useful biomarkers as intermediate end points in evaluating harmful biological effects of ionizing radiation. So, the main objectives of this work were: the study of human genome reactivity to beta radiation by classic microscopy; the study of the integrity/modification of the telomeres after irradiation and the analysis of the amplification of the RNA telomerase compound by FISH technique. Irradiations were performed at Electron Accelerators Laboratory, National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania. The samples were irradiated using an ALIN 10 linear electron accelerator. ALIN 10 is a travelling wave type linac operating at 2.998 GHz, 6.5 MeV mean energy, with a 0.1 mm Al foil exit window. Improved Fricke, ferrous sulphate, cupric sulphate and sulphuric acid in triple distilled water dosimetry system has been used to perform preliminary dose measurements. The conventional Hungerford method on short-term cultures for 72 hrs was adapted for human chromosome investigation. The peripheral blood was collected from aged 27, healthy, non-smoker donor. The doses used to irradiate human blood cultures were: 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy. The slides for optic microscopy were prepared by air-drying and stained with a 10% Giemsa solution. For FISH technique was used Chromosome In Situ Hybridization Kit. The probes were: one satellite probe - for revealing the telomere and the second one for the RNA telomerase compound. A large spectrum of chromosomal rearrangements was induced by beta irradiation in humans in vitro: complex chromosomal interchange involving at least two nonhomologous chromosomes, double minutes (DM), acentric fragments
Cremaschini, Claudio; 10.1140/epjp/i2011-11063-3
2012-01-01
A notorious difficulty in the covariant dynamics of classical charged particles subject to non-local electromagnetic (EM) interactions arising in the EM radiation-reaction (RR) phenomena is due to the definition of the related non-local Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems. The lack of a standard Lagrangian/Hamiltonian formulation in the customary asymptotic approximation for the RR equation may inhibit the construction of consistent kinetic and fluid theories. In this paper the issue is investigated in the framework of Special Relativity. It is shown that, for finite-size spherically-symmetric classical charged particles, non-perturbative Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations in standard form can be obtained, which describe particle dynamics in the presence of the exact EM RR self-force. As a remarkable consequence, based on axiomatic formulation of classical statistical mechanics, the covariant kinetic theory for systems of charged particles subject to the EM RR self-force is formulated in Hamiltonian form....
Bhattacharya, Rupak; Mondal, Richarj; Khatua, Pradip; Rudra, Alok; Kapon, Eli; Malzer, Stefan; Döhler, Gottfried; Pal, Bipul; Bansal, Bhavtosh
2015-01-01
We study a specific type of lifetime broadening resulting in the well-known exponential "Urbach tail" density of states within the energy gap of an insulator. After establishing the frequency and temperature dependence of the Urbach edge in GaAs quantum wells, we show that the broadening due to the zero-point optical phonons is the fundamental limit to the Urbach slope in high-quality samples. In rough analogy with Welton's heuristic interpretation of the Lamb shift, the zero-temperature contribution to the Urbach slope can be thought of as arising from the electric field of the zero-point longitudinal-optical phonons. The value of this electric field is experimentally measured to be 3 kV cm-1 , in excellent agreement with the theoretical estimate.
Phenomenological aspects of radiation by relativistic electrons in external field, in matter or the vicinity of matter are reviewed, among which: infrared divergence, coherence length effects, shadowing, crystal-assisted radiation, quantum recoil and spin effects, electron side-slipping, photon impact parameter and tunneling in the radiation process
The exact radiation-reaction equation for a classical charged particle
Tessarotto, M; Cremaschini, C; Nicolini, P; Beklemishev, A
2008-01-01
An unsolved problem of classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics is the search of the exact relativistic equations of motion for a classical charged point-particle subject to the force produced by the action of its EM self-field. The problem is related to the conjecture that for a classical charged point-particle there should exist a relativistic equation of motion (RR equation) which results both non-perturbative, in the sense that it does not rely on a perturbative expansion on the electromagnetic field generated by the charged particle and non-asymptotic, i.e., it does not depend on any infinitesimal parameter. In this paper we intend to propose a novel solution to this well known problem, and in particular to point out that the RR equation is necessarily variational. The approach is based on two key elements: 1) the adoption of the relativistic hybrid synchronous Hamilton variational principle recently pointed out (Tessarotto et al, 2006). Its basic feature is that it can be expressed in principle...
The integral expressions for spectral-angular and spectral distributions of the radiation power of heterogeneous charged particles system moving on arbitrary trajectory in nonabsorbable isotropic media media with ε≠1 , μ≠1 are obtained using the Lorentz's self-interaction method. In this method a proper electromagnetic field, acting on electron, is defined as a semi difference between retarded and advanced potentials (Dirac, 1938). The power spectrum of Cherenkov radiation for the linear uniformly moving heterogeneous system of charged particles are obtained. It is found that the expression for the radiation power of heterogeneous system of charged particles becomes simplified when a system of charged particles is homogeneous. In this case the radiation power includes the coherent factor. It is shown what the redistribution effects in energy of the radiation spectrum of the studied system are caused by the coherent factor. The radiation spectrum of the system of electrons moving in a circle in this medium is discrete. The Doppler effect causes the appearance of the new harmonics for the system of electrons moving in a spiral. These harmonics form the region of continuous radiation spectrum. (authors)
Bruce S. Hudson
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Zero-point vibrational level averaging for electron spin resonance (ESR and muon spin resonance (µSR hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs are computed for H and Mu isotopomers of the cyclohexadienyl radical. A local mode approximation previously developed for computation of the effect of replacement of H by D on 13C-NMR chemical shifts is used. DFT methods are used to compute the change in energy and HFCCs when the geometry is changed from the equilibrium values for the stretch and both bend degrees of freedom. This variation is then averaged over the probability distribution for each degree of freedom. The method is tested using data for the methylene group of C6H7, cyclohexadienyl radical and its Mu analog. Good agreement is found for the difference between the HFCCs for Mu and H of CHMu and that for H of CHMu and CH2 of the parent radical methylene group. All three of these HFCCs are the same in the absence of the zero point average, a one-parameter fit of the static HFCC, a(0, can be computed. That value, 45.2 Gauss, is compared to the results of several fixed geometry electronic structure computations. The HFCC values for the ortho, meta and para H atoms are then discussed.
Reiter, G F; Mayers, J
2010-01-01
The zero point kinetic energy of protons in water is large on the scale of chemical interaction energies(29 Kj/mol in bulk room temperature water). Its value depends upon the structure of the hydrogen bond network, and can change as the network is confined or as water interacts with surfaces. These changes have been observed to be large on a chemical scale for water confined in carbon nanotubes and in the pores of xerogel, and may play a fundamental, and neglected, role in biological processes involving confined water. We measure the average momentum distribution of the protons in salmon Na-DNA using Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering, for a weakly hydrated (6w/bp) and a dehydrated fiber sample. This permits the determination of the change in total kinetic energy of the system per water molecule removed from the DNA and placed in the bulk liquid. This energy is equal, within errors, to the measured enthalpy for the same process, demonstrating that changes in the zero point motion of the protons, arising from c...
Tailored strategies for radiation therapy in classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Kasamon, Yvette L.
2012-01-01
Radiotherapeutic advances have contributed to the evolution of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) treatment paradigms. A reduction in radiation therapy (RT) field size and dose has the potential to significantly impact the therapeutic ratio by diminishing late toxicities while maintaining curability. Substantial progress in risk stratification has contributed to the development of tailored RT strategies which address both field design as well as dose. Technologic improvements have also enhanced the abil...
Classical-Field Theory of Electron Waves as a Polarized Radiation Probe of Magnetic Surfaces
Hatton, D. C.; Bland, J. A. C.
2002-01-01
Recently, there has been a revival of interest in mechanisms for changing the spin polarization of an electron beam on transmission through, or reflection from, a magnetic surface. An understanding of these mechanisms would allow the use of an electron beam as a polarized radiation probe for magnetic characterization, like light in MOKE and neutrons in PNR. Here, a mechanism is described which, unlike simultaneously occurring processes proposed elsewhere, polarizes an unpolarized incident bea...
Split-dose recovery has been observed under a variety of experimental conditions in many cell systems and believed to be the recovery of sublethal damage (SLD). It is considered to be one of the most widespread and important cellular responses in clinical radiotherapy. To study the molecular mechanism of this recovery, we analyzed the knockout mutants KU70-/-, RAD54-/-, and KU70-/-/ RAD54-/- of the chicken B-cell line, DT40. Rad54 participates in the homologous recombinational (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), while Ku proteins are involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Split-dose recovery was observed in the parent DT40 and KU70-/- cells. Moreover the split-dose survival enhancement had all of the characteristics of SLD recovery that had been demonstrated earlier: e.g., the reappearance of the shoulder of the survival curve with dose fractionation; repair at 25degC; and inhibition by the antibiotic actinomycin D. These results strongly suggest that SLD recovery is due to DSB repair via or mediated by HR, and that these breaks constitute SLD. The tonicity-sensitive potentially lethal damage (PLD) recovery was also found only in DT40 and KU70 -/- cells. Delayed-plating PLD recovery may be controlled by NHEJ repair that works through the cell cycle. These results lead to the conclusion that the repair of DSBs could explain the classical operational recovery phenomena. We have also investigated RBE/LET using those mutants. (author)
We continue with our series of papers concerning a self-field approach to quantum electrodynamics that is not second quantized. We use the theory here to show that a detector with a uniform acceleration a will respond to its own self-field as if immersed in a thermal photon bath at temperature Ta=ℎa/2πkc. This is the celebrated Unruh effect, and it is closely related to the emission of Hawking radiation from the event horizon of a black hole. Our approach is novel in that the radiation field is classical and not quantized; the vacuum field being identically zero with no zero-point energy. From our point of view, all radiative effects are accounted for when the self-field of the detector, and not the hypothetical zero-point field of the vacuum, acts back on the detector in a quantum-electrodynamic analog of the classical phenomenon of radiation reaction. When the detector is accelerating, its transformed self-field induces a different back reaction than when it is moving inertially. This process gives rise to the appearance of a photon bath, but the photons are not real in the sense that the space surrounding the accelerating detector is truly empty of radiation, a fact that is verified by the null response of an inertially moving detector in the same vicinity. The thermal photons are in this sense fictitious, and they have no independent existence outside the detector
Utsumi, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst
2000-09-01
Split-dose recovery has been observed under a variety of experimental conditions in many cell systems and believed to be the recovery of sublethal damage (SLD). It is considered to be one of the most widespread and important cellular responses in clinical radiotherapy. To study the molecular mechanism of this recovery, we analyzed the knockout mutants KU70{sup -/-}, RAD54{sup -/-}, and KU70{sup -/-}/ RAD54{sup -/-} of the chicken B-cell line, DT40. Rad54 participates in the homologous recombinational (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), while Ku proteins are involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Split-dose recovery was observed in the parent DT40 and KU70{sup -/-} cells. Moreover the split-dose survival enhancement had all of the characteristics of SLD recovery that had been demonstrated earlier: e.g., the reappearance of the shoulder of the survival curve with dose fractionation; repair at 25degC; and inhibition by the antibiotic actinomycin D. These results strongly suggest that SLD recovery is due to DSB repair via or mediated by HR, and that these breaks constitute SLD. The tonicity-sensitive potentially lethal damage (PLD) recovery was also found only in DT40 and KU70 {sup -/-} cells. Delayed-plating PLD recovery may be controlled by NHEJ repair that works through the cell cycle. These results lead to the conclusion that the repair of DSBs could explain the classical operational recovery phenomena. We have also investigated RBE/LET using those mutants. (author)
McTaggart, L.
2007-02-15
Does an inexhaustable energy source exist from which all life is fed? A form of energy, which penetrates all dead and living expression forms of life? Does a logical, scientific explanation exist for parapsychological phenomena like clairvoyance, telepathy, ghost healing, synchronicity, and a model for the mode of action of homeopathy? Do serious researchers and scientific studies to be token in ernest exist, which not only deal with this questions but also have found answers? During eight years the British scientific journalist Lynne McTaggart has researched. ''Teh zero-point field'' is the result of numerous speeches with renowned physicists, biophysicists, neuroscientists, biologist, and consciousness researchers on the whole world, which have independently discovered phenomena, which are combined like puzzle pieces to a fascinating total picture.
Radiative accretion shocks along nonuniform stellar magnetic fields in classical T Tauri stars
Orlando, S; Argiroffi, C; Reale, F; Peres, G; Miceli, M; Matsakos, T; Stehle', C; Ibgui, L; de Sa, L; Chie`ze, J P; Lanz, T
2013-01-01
(abridged) AIMS. We investigate the dynamics and stability of post-shock plasma streaming along nonuniform stellar magnetic fields at the impact region of accretion columns. We study how the magnetic field configuration and strength determine the structure, geometry, and location of the shock-heated plasma. METHODS. We model the impact of an accretion stream onto the chromosphere of a CTTS by 2D axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Our model takes into account the gravity, the radiative cooling, and the magnetic-field-oriented thermal conduction. RESULTS. The structure, stability, and location of the shocked plasma strongly depend on the configuration and strength of the magnetic field. For weak magnetic fields, a large component of B may develop perpendicular to the stream at the base of the accretion column, limiting the sinking of the shocked plasma into the chromosphere. An envelope of dense and cold chromospheric material may also develop around the shocked column. For strong magnetic fields, th...
Costa, G; Peres, G; Argiroffi, C; Bonito, R
2016-01-01
Context. It is generally accepted that, in Classical T Tauri Stars, the plasma from the circumstellar disc accretes onto the stellar surface with free fall velocity, and the impact generates a shock. The impact region is expected to contribute to emission in different spectral bands; many studies have confirmed that the X-rays arise from the post-shock plasma but, otherwise, there are no studies in the literature investigating the origin of the observed UV emission which is apparently correlated to accretion. Aims. We investigated the effect of radiative heating of the infalling material by the post-shock plasma at the base of the accretion stream with the aim to identify in which region a significant part of the UV emission originates. Methods. We developed a 1D hydrodynamic model describing the impact of an accretion stream onto the stellar surface; the model takes into account the gravity, the radiative cooling of an optically thin plasma, the thermal conduction, and the heating due to absorption of X-ray ...
García-Mayén, Héctor; Santillán, Arturo
2011-03-01
An experimental investigation on the coupling between the fingerboard and the top plate of a classical guitar at low frequencies is presented. The study was carried out using a finished top plate under fixed boundary conditions and a commercial guitar. Radiated sound power was determined in one-third octave bands up to the band of 1 kHz based on measurements of sound intensity. The results provide evidence that the way in which the fingerboard and top plate are coupled is not a relevant factor in the radiated acoustic power of the classical guitar in the studied frequency range. PMID:21428477
Kesharwani, Manoj K; Brauer, Brina; Martin, Jan M L
2015-03-01
We have obtained uniform frequency scaling factors λ(harm) (for harmonic frequencies), λ(fund) (for fundamentals), and λ(ZPVE) (for zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs)) for the Weigend-Ahlrichs and other selected basis sets for MP2, SCS-MP2, and a variety of DFT functionals including double hybrids. For selected levels of theory, we have also obtained scaling factors for true anharmonic fundamentals and ZPVEs obtained from quartic force fields. For harmonic frequencies, the double hybrids B2PLYP, B2GP-PLYP, and DSD-PBEP86 clearly yield the best performance at RMSD = 10-12 cm(-1) for def2-TZVP and larger basis sets, compared to 5 cm(-1) at the CCSD(T) basis set limit. For ZPVEs, again, the double hybrids are the best performers, reaching root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) as low as 0.05 kcal/mol, but even mainstream functionals like B3LYP can get down to 0.10 kcal/mol. Explicitly anharmonic ZPVEs only are marginally more accurate. For fundamentals, however, simple uniform scaling is clearly inadequate. PMID:25296165
Faber, Rasmus; Buczek, Aneta; Kupka, Teobald;
2016-01-01
The method and basis set dependence of zero-point vibrational corrections (ZPVC) to NMR shielding constants and anisotropies has been investigated using water as a test system. A systematic comparison has been made using the Hartree-Fock (HF), second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2......), coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples corrections (CCSD(T)) and Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional methods in combination with the second order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2......) approach for the vibrational corrections. As basis sets the correlation consistent basis sets cc-pVXZ, aug-ccpVXZ, cc-pCVXZ and aug-cc-pCVXZ with X = D, T, Q, 5, 6 and the polarization consistent basis sets aug-pc-n and aug-pcS-n with n = 1, 2, 3, 4 were employed. Our results show, that basis set...
We predict a new quantum isotope effect for unimolecular dissociations of molecules with two equivalent but isotopically substituted bonds l (light isotope) and h (heavy isotope), e.g., HOT where l=HO and h=OT. Consider two near-degenerate local vibrational excitations of bonds l or h, with energies between the gap of product zero point energies. Dynamically, these excitations should induce preferential fissions of bonds l or h, but energetically, these decay channels are open and closed, respectively. Therefore, local excitation of bond h must be followed by extremely slow internal vibrational energy redistribution to bond l before dissociation, whereas local excitation of bond l induces direct, rapid decay. The resulting decay rates differ by many orders of magnitudes. The effect is demonstrated by fast Fourier transform propagation of representative wavepackets for a model system, HOT→H+OT. Extended applications to more excited educts HOT also confirm an effect discovered previously for HOD, i.e., local mode selective control of competing bond fissions H+OT left-arrow HOT→HO+T
Azadegan, B.; Wagner, W.
2015-01-01
We present a Mathematica package for simulation of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of planar channeling radiation of relativistic electrons and positrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure or tungsten single crystal. The program is based on the classical theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling of light charged particles at energies higher than 100 MeV. Continuous potentials for different planes of diamond, Si, Ge and W single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the classical one-dimensional equation of motion. The code is designed to calculate the trajectories, velocities and accelerations of electrons (positrons) channeled by the planar continuous potential. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, these data allow realistic simulations of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of planar channeling radiation. Since the generated output is quantitative, the results of calculation may be useful, e.g., for setup configuration and crystal alignment in channeling experiments, for the study of the dependence of channeling radiation on the input parameters of particle beams with respect to the crystal orientation, but also for the simulation of positron production by means of pair creation what is mandatory for the design of efficient positron sources necessary in high-energy and collider physics. Although the classical theory of channeling is well established for long time, there is no adequate library program for simulation of channeling radiation up to now, which is commonly available, sufficiently simple and effective to employ and, therefore, of benefit as for special investigations as for a quick overview of basic features of this type of radiation.
Kepp, Kasper P
2011-10-01
Porphyrins are much studied due to their biochemical relevance and many applications. The density functional TPSSh has previously accurately described the energy of close-lying electronic states of transition metal systems such as porphyrins. However, a recent study questioned this conclusion based on calculations of five iron(III) porphines. Here, we compute the geometries of 80 different electronic configurations and the free energies of the most stable configurations with the functionals TPSSh, TPSS, and B3LYP. Zero-point energies and entropy favor high-spin by ~4kJ/mol and 0-10kJ/mol, respectively. When these effects are included, and all electronic configurations are evaluated, TPSSh correctly predicts the spin of all the four difficult phenylporphine cases and is within the lower bound of uncertainty of any known theoretical method for the fifth, iron(III) chloroporphine. Dispersion computed with DFT-D3 favors low-spin by 3-53kJ/mol (TPSSh) or 4-15kJ/mol (B3LYP) due to the attractive r(-6) term and the shorter distances in low-spin. The very large and diverse corrections from TPSS and TPSSh seem less consistent with the similarity of the systems than when calculated from B3LYP. If the functional-specific corrections are used, B3LYP and TPSSh are of equal accuracy, and TPSS is much worse, whereas if the physically reasonable B3LYP-computed dispersion effect is used for all functionals, TPSSh is accurate for all systems. B3LYP is significantly more accurate when dispersion is added, confirming previous results. PMID:21855825
Marashdeh, A.; Frankcombe, T.J.
2008-01-01
The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4 have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski’s direct method. The dehydrog
Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.
1997-03-01
We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tab.
Vernon Cooray
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic energy radiated by antennas working in both the frequency domain and time domain is studied as a function of the charge associated with the current in the antenna. The frequency domain results, obtained under the assumption of sinusoidal current distribution, show that, for a given charge, the energy radiated within a period of oscillation increases initially with L/λ and then starts to oscillate around a steady value when L/λ > 1. The results show that for the energy radiated by the antenna to be equal to or larger than the energy of one photon, the oscillating charge in the antenna has to be equal to or larger than the electronic charge. That is, U ≥ hν or UT ≥ h ⇒ q ≥ e, where U is the energy dissipated over a period, ν is the frequency of oscillation, T is the period, h is Planck’s constant, q is the rms value of the oscillating charge, and e is the electronic charge. In the case of antennas working in the time domain, it is observed that UΔt ≥ h/4π ⇒ q ≥ e, where U is the total energy radiated, Δt is the time over which the energy is radiated, and q is the charge transported by the current. It is shown that one can recover the time–energy uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics from this time domain result. The results presented in this paper show that when quantum mechanical constraints are applied to the electromagnetic energy radiated by a finite antenna as estimated using the equations of classical electrodynamics, the electronic charge emerges as the smallest unit of free charge in nature.
Torrielli, Alessandro
2016-08-01
We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.
This article investigates the classical entropy generation in cooled slabs. Two types of materials are assumed for the slab: homogeneous material and FGM (functionally graded material). For the homogeneous material, the thermal conductivity is assumed to be a linear function of temperature, while for the FGM slab the thermal conductivity is modeled to vary in accordance with the rule of mixtures. The boundary conditions are assumed to be convective and radiative concurrently, and the internal heat generation of the slab is a linear function of temperature. Using the DTM (differential transformation method) and resultant temperature fields from the DTM, the local and total entropy generation rates within slabs are derived. The effects of physically applicable parameters such as the thermal conductivity parameter for the homogenous slab, β, the thermal conductivity parameter for the FGM slab, γ, gradient index, j, internal heat generation parameter, Q, Biot number at the right side, Nc2, conduction–radiation parameter, Nr2, dimensionless convection sink temperature, δ, and dimensionless radiation sink temperature, η, on the local and total entropy generation rates are illustrated and explained. The results demonstrate that considering temperature- or coordinate-dependent thermal conductivity and radiation heat transfer at both sides of the slab have great effects on the entropy generation. - Highlights: • The paper investigates entropy generation in a slab due to heat generation and convective–radiative boundary conditions. • Both homogeneous material and FGM (functionally graded material) were considered. • The calculations are carried out using the differential transformation method which is a well-tested analytical technique
Ni, Guang-Jiong
2005-01-01
In order to clarify why the zero-point energy associated with the vacuum fluctuations cannot be a candidate for the dark energy in the universe, a comparison with the Casimir effect is analyzed in some detail. A principle of epistemology is stressed that it is meaningless to talk about an absolute (isolated) thing. A relative thing can only be observed when it is changing with respect to other things. Then a new conjecture of antigravity --the repulsive force between matter and antimatter der...
Cohn, A G; Rabinowitz, Mario
2003-01-01
A classical representation of an extended body over barriers of height greater than the energy of the incident body is shown to have many features in common with quantum tunneling as the center-of-mass literally goes through the barrier. It is even classically possible to penetrate any finite barrier with a body of arbitrarily low energy if the body is sufficiently long. A distribution of body lengths around the de Broglie wavelength leads to reasonable agreement with the quantum transmission coefficient.
Cohn, Arthur; Rabinowitz, Mario
2003-01-01
A classical representation of an extended body over barriers of height greater than the energy of the incident body is shown to have many features in common with quantum tunneling as the center-of-mass literally goes through the barrier. It is even classically possible to penetrate any finite barrier with a body of arbitrarily low energy if the body is sufficiently long. A distribution of body lengths around the de Broglie wavelength leads to reasonable agreement with the quantum transmission...
Mould, Richard A
2003-01-01
Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previous...
Stochastic semi-classical description of sub-barrier fusion reactions
Ayik Sakir
2011-10-01
Full Text Available A semi-classical method that incorporates the quantum effects of the low-lying vibrational modes is applied to fusion reactions. The quantum effect is simulated by stochastic sampling of initial zero-point ﬂuctuations of the surface modes. In this model, dissipation of the relative energy into non-collective excitations of nuclei can be included straightforwardly. The inclusion of dissipation is shown to increase the agreement with the fusion cross section data of Ni isotopes.
Stochastic semi-classical description of sub-barrier fusion reactions
Ayik Sakir; Yilmaz Bulent; Lacroix Denis
2011-01-01
International audience A semi-classical method that incorporates the quantum e ects of the low-lying vibrational modes is applied to fusion reactions. The quantum e ect is simulated by stochastic sampling of initial zero-point fluc- tuations of the surface modes. In this model, dissipation of the relative energy into non-collective excitations of nuclei can be included straightforwardly. The inclusion of dissipation is shown to increase the agreement with the fusion cross section data of N...
Kukush, Alexander
2011-01-16
With a binary response Y, the dose-response model under consideration is logistic in flavor with pr(Y=1 | D) = R (1+R)(-1), R = λ(0) + EAR D, where λ(0) is the baseline incidence rate and EAR is the excess absolute risk per gray. The calculated thyroid dose of a person i is expressed as Dimes=fiQi(mes)/Mi(mes). Here, Qi(mes) is the measured content of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of person i at time t(mes), Mi(mes) is the estimate of the thyroid mass, and f(i) is the normalizing multiplier. The Q(i) and M(i) are measured with multiplicative errors Vi(Q) and ViM, so that Qi(mes)=Qi(tr)Vi(Q) (this is classical measurement error model) and Mi(tr)=Mi(mes)Vi(M) (this is Berkson measurement error model). Here, Qi(tr) is the true content of radioactivity in the thyroid gland, and Mi(tr) is the true value of the thyroid mass. The error in f(i) is much smaller than the errors in ( Qi(mes), Mi(mes)) and ignored in the analysis. By means of Parametric Full Maximum Likelihood and Regression Calibration (under the assumption that the data set of true doses has lognormal distribution), Nonparametric Full Maximum Likelihood, Nonparametric Regression Calibration, and by properly tuned SIMEX method we study the influence of measurement errors in thyroid dose on the estimates of λ(0) and EAR. The simulation study is presented based on a real sample from the epidemiological studies. The doses were reconstructed in the framework of the Ukrainian-American project on the investigation of Post-Chernobyl thyroid cancers in Ukraine, and the underlying subpolulation was artificially enlarged in order to increase the statistical power. The true risk parameters were given by the values to earlier epidemiological studies, and then the binary response was simulated according to the dose-response model.
Mould, R A
2003-01-01
Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previously given rules support all of these cases. Key Words: brain states, conscious observer, detector, measurement, probability current, state reduction, von Neumann, wave collapse.
Danforth, Douglas G.
2001-01-01
Classical systems can be entangled. Entanglement is defined by coincidence correlations. Quantum entanglement experiments can be mimicked by a mechanical system with a single conserved variable and 77.8% conditional efficiency. Experiments are replicated for four particle entanglement swapping and GHZ entanglement.
Gallavotti, Giovanni
1999-01-01
This is the English version of a friendly graduate course on Classical Mechanics, containing about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. For the Spanish version, see physics/9906066
Ni, G
2005-01-01
In order to clarify why the zero-point energy associated with the vacuum fluctuations cannot be a candidate for the dark energy in the universe, a comparison with the Casimir effect is analyzed in some detail. A principle of epistemology is stressed that it is meaningless to talk about an absolute (isolated) thing. A relative thing can only be observed when it is changing with respect to other things. Then a new conjecture of antigravity --the repulsive force between matter and antimatter derived from the modified Einstein field equation in general relativity-- is proposed. this is due to the particle-antiparticle symmetry based on a new understanding about the essence of special relativity. Its possible consequences in the theory of cosmology are discussed briefly, including a new explanation for the accelerating universe and gamma-ray-bursts.
R. L. S. Pinto
2012-12-01
Full Text Available No nordeste do Pará o transporte da polpa de bauxita é através de mineroduto, sendo a viscosidade um parâmetro de controle fundamental para o bombeamento do minério. Este estudo ilustra a influência do pH na reologia da polpa por meio da determinação do ponto de carga zero (pHpcz da bauxita. Foram efetuadas análise granulométrica, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, ensaios potenciométricos testando o cloreto de amônia como eletrólito indiferente e ensaios reológicos em diferentes valores de pH. Os resultados revelaram que o cloreto de amônia pode ser utilizado como eletrólito indiferente para esse tipo de análise e que ocorre a redução da viscosidade em valores de pH distantes do ponto de carga zero.In the northeast of Pará, Brazil, the transport of bauxite pulp is through pipeline, being the viscosity a parameter which can interfere in the pumping. This study illustrates the influence of pH on pulp rheology through of determination of the zero point of charge. Were done particle size analysis, SEM, EDS, potentiometric tests testing ammonia chloride as indifferent electrolyte and rheological tests at different pH values. The results revealed that ammonia chloride can be used as indifferent electrolyte and showed a decrease in viscosity when there is far of the zero point of charge.
Radiation Pressure Approach to the Repulsive Casimir Force
Hushwater, V.
1999-01-01
We study the Casimir force between a perfectly conducting and an infinitely permeable plate with the radiation pressure approach. This method illustrates how a repulsive force arises as a consequence of the redistribution of the vacuum-field modes corresponding to specific boundary conditions. We discuss also how the method of the zero-point radiation pressure follows from QED.
Zero Point Energy and the Dirac Equation
Forouzbakhsh, Farshid
2007-01-01
this article, the ZPE is explained by using a novel description of the graviton. This is based on the behavior of photons in gravitational field, leading to a new definition of the graviton. In effect, gravitons behave as if they have charge and magnetic effects. These are referred to as negative color...
Spin and paramagnetism in classical stochastic electrodynamics (SED)
The statistical properties of the spin S-> and magnetic dipole μ- of a particle with two constituents bounded by a harmonic force are studied. The relation between μ-> and S-> and also conclude that ->2 > ∼ ℎ2 is found. The giromagnetic factor can assume any value depending on the charges and masses of the constituents. In another example, the case of a permanent magnetic dipole moving in an external magnetic field, under the influence of the fluctuations associated with the zero-point and thermal radiations characteristic of SED is considered. It is concluded that the system presents paramagnetism and comparison with the experimental data shows excellent agreement with SED. (author)
A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author)
This final report describes research on the theory of isotope separation produced by the illumination of polyatomic molecules by intense infrared laser radiation. This process is investigated by treating the molecule, sulfur hexafluoride, as a system of seven classical particles that obey the Newtonian equations of motion. A minicomputer is used to integrate these differential equations. The particles are acted on by interatomic forces, and by the time-dependent electric field of the laser. We have a very satisfactory expression for the interaction of the laser and the molecule which is compatible with infrared absorption and spectroscopic data. The interatomic potential is capable of improvement, and progress on this problem is still being made. We have made several computer runs of the dynamical behavior of the molecule using a reasonably good model for the interatomic force law. For the laser parameters chosen, we find that typically the molecule passes quickly through the resonance region into the quasi-continuum and even well into the real continuum before dissociation actually occurs. When viewed on a display terminal, the motions are exceedingly complex. As an aid to the visualization of the process, we have made a number of 16 mm movies depicting a three-dimensional representation of the motion of the seven particles. These show even more clearly the enormous complexity of the motions, and make clear the desirability of finding ways of characterizing the motion in simple ways without giving all of the numerical detail. One of the ways to do this is to introduce statistical parameters such as a temperature associated with the distribution of kinetic energies of the single particle. We have made such an analysis of our data runs, and have found favorable indications that such methods will prove useful in keeping track of the dynamical histories
Marashdeh, Ali; Frankcombe, Terry J
2008-06-21
The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski's direct method. The dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2) is exothermic, indicating a metastable hydride. Calculations for CaAlH(5) including ZPE effects indicate that it is not stable enough for a hydrogen storage system operating near ambient conditions. The destabilized combination of LiBH(4) with CaH(2) is a promising system after ZPE-corrected enthalpy calculations. The calculations confirm that including ZPE effects in the harmonic approximation for the dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) has a significant effect on the calculated reaction enthalpy. The contribution of ZPE to the dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2) and CaAlH(5) calculated by the direct method phonon analysis was compared to that calculated by the frozen-phonon method. The crystal structure of CaAlH(5) is presented in the more useful standard setting of P2(1)c symmetry and the phonon density of states of CaAlH(5), significantly different to other common complex metal hydrides, is rationalized. PMID:18570508
Yoshioka, Yasuo; Suzuki, Osamu; Nishimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Hitoshi; Hara, Tsuneo; Yoshida, Ken; Imai, Atsushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio; Ogawa, Kazuhiko
2012-01-01
We aimed to analyse late toxicity associated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer using uniform dose-fractionation and beam arrangement, with the focus on the effect of 3D (CT) simulation and portal field size. We collected data concerning patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma who had been treated with EBRT at five institutions in Osaka, Japan, between 1998 and 2006. All had been treated with 70 Gy in 35 fractions, using the classical 4-field technique wit...
Mechanics classical and quantum
Taylor, T T
2015-01-01
Mechanics: Classical and Quantum explains the principles of quantum mechanics via the medium of analytical mechanics. The book describes Schrodinger's formulation, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the Lagrangian formulation. The author discusses the Harmonic Oscillator, the generalized coordinates, velocities, as well as the application of the Lagrangian formulation to systems that are partially or entirely electromagnetic in character under certain conditions. The book examines waves on a string under tension, the isothermal cavity radiation, and the Rayleigh-Jeans result pertaining to the e
Proton transport in barium stannate: classical, semi-classical and quantum regimes.
Geneste, Grégory; Ottochian, Alistar; Hermet, Jessica; Dezanneau, Guilhem
2015-07-15
Density-functional theory calculations are performed to investigate proton transport in BaSnO3. Structural optimizations in the stable and saddle point configurations for transfer (hopping) and reorientation allow description of the high-temperature classical and semi-classical regimes, in which diffusion occurs by over-barrier motion. At lower temperature (typically below 300 K), we describe the thermally-assisted quantum regime, in which protonic motion is of quantum nature and occurs in "coincidence" configurations favored by thermal fluctuations of the surrounding atoms. Both the non-adiabatic and the adiabatic limits are examined. In the adiabatic limit, the protonic energy landscape in the coincidence configuration is very flat. Path-integral molecular dynamics simulations of the proton in the coincidence potential reveal, in the transfer case, that the density of probability of H(+) has its maximum at the saddle point, because the zero-point energy exceeds the coincidence barrier. Arguments are given that support the adiabatic picture for the transfer mechanism. In the case of reorientation, the time scales for the existence of the coincidence and for protonic motion, as estimated from the time-energy uncertainty principle by using a simple one-dimensional model, are of the same order of magnitude, suggesting that the adiabatic limit is not reached. Protonic transfer and reorientation in this oxide are therefore governed by different mechanisms below room temperature. PMID:26126772
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) molecules are suspected to be present in the interstellar medium and to participate to the broad and unresolved emissions features, the so-called unidentified infrared bands. In the laboratory, very few studies report the rotationally resolved structure of such important class of molecules. In the present work, both experimental and theoretical approaches provide the first accurate determination of the rotational energy levels of two diazanaphthalene: [1,5]- and [1,6]-naphthyridine. [1,6]-naphthyridine has been studied at high resolution, in the microwave (MW) region using a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer and in the far-infrared (FIR) region using synchrotron-based Fourier transform spectroscopy. The very accurate set of ground state (GS) constants deduced from the analysis of the MW spectrum allowed the analysis of the most intense modes in the FIR (ν38-GS centered at about 483 cm−1 and ν34-GS centered at about 842 cm−1). In contrast with [1,6]-naphthyridine, pure rotation spectroscopy of [1,5]-naphthyridine cannot be performed for symmetry reasons so the combined study of the two intense FIR modes (ν22-GS centered at about 166 cm−1 and ν18-GS centered at about 818 cm−1) provided the GS and the excited states constants. Although the analysis of the very dense rotational patterns for such large molecules remains very challenging, relatively accurate anharmonic density functional theory calculations appeared as a highly relevant supporting tool to the analysis for both molecules. In addition, the good agreement between the experimental and calculated infrared spectrum shows that the present theoretical approach should provide useful data for the astrophysical models. Moreover, inertial defects calculated in the GS (ΔGS) of both molecules exhibit slightly negative values as previously observed for planar species of this molecular family. We adjusted the semi-empirical relations to estimate the zero-point
The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter
Koch, Matthew J; Agarwalla, Pankaj K; Stapleton, Christopher J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Loeffler, Jay S
2016-06-01
Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are traditionally considered primary congenital lesions that result from embryological aberrations in vasculogenesis. Recent insights, however, suggest that these lesions may be secondary to a vascular insult such as ischemia or trauma. Herein, the authors present a rare case of a secondary cerebral AVM, occurring in a young girl who received prior cranial radiation therapy. At age 3years, she underwent surgical resection, chemotherapy, and photon radiation therapy for treatment of a fourth ventricular ependymoma. At age 19years, she developed new onset seizures and was found to have a left medial temporal lobe AVM. Her seizures were managed successfully with anti-epileptic medications and the AVM was treated with proton radiation therapy. This case highlights a rare but possible vascular sequela of radiation therapy and adds to the growing body of evidence that cerebral AVM may arise as secondary lesions. PMID:26860850
Vernon Cooray; Gerald Cooray
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic energy radiated by antennas working in both the frequency domain and time domain is studied as a function of the charge associated with the current in the antenna. The frequency domain results, obtained under the assumption of sinusoidal current distribution, show that, for a given charge, the energy radiated within a period of oscillation increases initially with L/λ and then starts to oscillate around a steady value when L/λ > 1. The results show that for the energy radia...
What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts
Schlosshauer, Maximilian
2010-01-01
Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum and signifies a break with the Copenhagen interpretation-for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper we'll try to shine some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy cohabitate. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's take on the quantum-classical problem and reflect on different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherence-induced classical...
Brito, B. G. A.; Cândido, Ladir; Hai, G.-Q.; Peeters, F. M.
2015-11-01
In order to study quantum effects in a two-dimensional crystal lattice of a free-standing monolayer graphene, we have performed both path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and classical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for temperatures up to 2000 K. The REBO potential is used for the interatomic interaction. The total energy, interatomic distance, root-mean-square displacement of the atom vibrations, and the free energy of the graphene layer are calculated. The obtained lattice vibrational energy per atom from the classical MC simulation is very close to the energy of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator 3 kBT . The PIMC simulation shows that quantum effects due to zero-point vibrations are significant for temperatures T energy becomes larger than that of the classical lattice for T zero-point motion causes an increase of 0.53% in the lattice parameter. A minimum in the lattice parameter appears at T ≃500 K. Quantum effects on the atomic vibration amplitude of the graphene lattice and its free energy are investigated.
Classical gravity does not refract negatively.
McCall, Martin W
2007-03-01
We appraise recent claims that classical gravitation can induce negative refraction of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum. By recasting the previous literature in covariant notation, we show that the criterion used hitherto for determining negative refraction in vacuum is inappropriate, and can even be satisfied by parametrized transformations in Minkowski spacetime. Using instead a covariantly acceptable definition, we find that in classical vacuum the power flux of a plane electromagnetic wave points in the direction of phase advance. PMID:17359145
Bidirectional coherent classical communication
Harrow, Aram W.; Leung, Debbie W.
2005-01-01
A unitary interaction coupling two parties enables quantum or classical communication in both the forward and backward directions. Each communication capacity can be thought of as a tradeoff between the achievable rates of specific types of forward and backward communication. Our first result shows that for any bipartite unitary gate, bidirectional coherent classical communication is no more difficult than bidirectional classical communication — they have the same achievable rate regions. ...
Entanglement in Classical Optics
Ghose, Partha; Mukherjee, Anirban
2013-01-01
The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate betw...
Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise
Poor, H; Scully, Marlan
2012-01-01
David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...
Teleportation via classical entanglement
Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Boyd, Robert W
2015-01-01
We present a classical counterpart to quantum teleportation that uses classical entanglement instead of quantum entanglement. In our implementation we take advantage of classical entanglement among three parties: orbital angular momentum (OAM), polarization, and the radial degrees of freedom of a beam of light. We demonstrate the teleportation of arbitrary OAM states, in the subspace spanned by any two OAM states, to the polarization of the same beam. Our letter presents the first classical demonstration of a commonly-perceived--quantum phenomenon that requires entanglement among more than two parties.
Solar Activity and Classical Physics
无
2001-01-01
This review of solar physics emphasizes several of the more conspicuous scientific puzzles posed by contemporary observational knowledge of the magnetic activity of the Sun. The puzzles emphasize how much classical physics we have yet to learn from the Sun. The physics of solar activity is based on the principles of Newton, Maxwell, Lorentz, Boltzmann, et. al., along with the principles of radiative transfer. In the large, these principles are expressed by magnetohydrodynamics. A brief derivation of the magnetohydrodynamic induction and momentum equations is provided, with a discussion of popular misconceptions.
Lectures on Classical Integrability
Torrielli, Alessandro
2016-01-01
We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the lectures consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schroedinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin-Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.
Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics
Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H2C2 → HC2H, HNC → HCN, and H2CO → H2 + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I → Na + + I- is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features
Grassmannians of classical buildings
Pankov, Mark
2010-01-01
Buildings are combinatorial constructions successfully exploited to study groups of various types. The vertex set of a building can be naturally decomposed into subsets called Grassmannians. The book contains both classical and more recent results on Grassmannians of buildings of classical types. It gives a modern interpretation of some classical results from the geometry of linear groups. The presented methods are applied to some geometric constructions non-related to buildings - Grassmannians of infinite-dimensional vector spaces and the sets of conjugate linear involutions. The book is self
Davidson and classical pragmatism
Paula Rossi
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003 and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914 and William James (1842-1910. I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect briefly on the relevance –often unrecognized- of classical pragmatist ideas in the context of contemporary philosophi-cal discussions.
Physics of classical electromagnetism
Fujimoto, Minoru
2007-01-01
The classical electromagnetism described by the Maxwell equations constitutes a fundamental law in contemporary physics. Even with the advent of sophisticated new materials, the principles of classical electromagnetism are still active in various applied areas in today’s advanced communication techniques. Physics of Classical Electromagnetism, by Minoru Fujimoto, is written with concise introductory arguments emphasizing the original field concept, with an aim at understanding objectives in modern information technology. Following basic discussions of electromagnetism with a modernized approach, this book will provide readers with an overview of current problems in high-frequency physics. To further the reader’s understanding of the concepts and applications discussed, each illustration within the book shows the location of all active charges, and the author has provided many worked-out examples throughout the book. Physics of Classical Electromagnetism is intended for students in physics and engineering ...
Quirk, R
1984-11-01
The specialised medical knowledge about dancers' injuries is negligible compared with that which surrounds sports medicine. The author discusses his experience in the management of more than 2000 injuries sustained by dancers of classical ballet. PMID:6151832
Classical and Quantum Intertwine
Blanchard, Ph.; Jadczyk, A.
1993-01-01
Model interactions between classical and quantum systems are briefly discussed. These include: general measurement-like couplings, Stern-Gerlach experiment, model of a counter, quantum Zeno effect, SQUID-tank model.
The chronicle of the classical electrodynamics
In this Chronicle of the classical electrodynamics it is shown how this important branch of classical physics was developed since the mathematical formulation of the electromagnetism empiric laws carried by Maxwell, mainly the laws of Coulomb, Oersted, Ampere, Biot-Savart, Faraday, Henry and Lenz, up to the settlement of the radiation theory, scientific background for the technological development of the wireless telegraphy. Through this chronicle, it is also seen how Maxwell got one of the main results of the past century classical physics - the electromagnetic theory of light -, and how the experimental production of an electromagnetic wave by Hertz, unchained a collection of theoretical papers which explained many experimental results such as dispersion of light, thermical radiation, X-rays and its scattering through the matter. At last, it is still seen that the study of electrodynamics of moving bodies led to the relativity theory, presented by Einstein's famous paper about such subject. (Author)
The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)
Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward
1993-01-01
An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.
Davidson and classical pragmatism
Paula Rossi
2007-01-01
In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003) and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) and William James (1842-1910). I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect brie...
Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120
Classically-Controlled Quantum Computation
Perdrix, Simon; Jorrand, Philippe
2004-01-01
Quantum computations usually take place under the control of the classical world. We introduce a Classically-controlled Quantum Turing Machine (CQTM) which is a Turing Machine (TM) with a quantum tape for acting on quantum data, and a classical transition function for a formalized classical control. In CQTM, unitary transformations and measurements are allowed. We show that any classical TM is simulated by a CQTM without loss of efficiency. The gap between classical and quantum computations, ...
This final report describes research on the theory of isotope separation produced by the illumination of polyatomic molecules by intense infrared laser radiation. This process is investigated by treating the molecule, sulfur hexafluoride, as a system of seven classical particles that obey the Newtonian equations of motion. A minicomputer is used to integrate these differential equations. The particles are acted on by interatomic forces, and by the time-dependent electric field of the laser. We have a very satisfactory expression for the interaction of the laser and the molecule which is compatible with infrared absorption and spectroscopic data. The interatomic potential is capable of improvement, and progress on this problem is still being made. We have made several computer runs of the dynamical behavior of the molecule using a reasonably good model for the interatomic force law. For the laser parameters chosen, we find that typically the molecule passes quickly through the resonance region into the quasi-continuum and even well into the real continuum before dissociation actually occurs. When viewed on a display terminal, the motions are exceedingly complex. As an aid to the visualization of the process, we have made a number of 16 mm movies depicting a three-dimensional representation of the motion of the seven particles. These show even more clearly the enormous complexity of the motions, and make clear the desirability of finding ways of characterizing the motion in simple ways without giving all of the numerical detail. One of the ways to do this is to introduce statistical parameters such as a temperature associated with the distribution of kinetic energies of the single particle. We have made such an analysis of our data runs, and have found favorable indications that such methods will prove useful in keeping track of the dynamical histories
W. C. Kreye
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum-mechanical and semi-classical spectral-line shapes are computed at =400, 800, and 1000 K for the line core of the 5802 Å line of the Ar-Perturbed/K-Radiator system. HWHMs ('s are measured from computed full spectral-line shapes. The final-state pseudopotential is for the 721/2 state, and the initial-state potential is for the 423/2,3/2 state. Three high-pressure (P log(—versus—log( curves, corresponding to the non-impact region, intersect a similar set of low-P, impact-region curves at intersections, 0's. Similarly, for two sets of log(—versus—log( curves, which yield intersections, 0's, where is the perturber density. These 0's and 0's separate the two regions and represent the upper limits of the impact regions. A specific validity condition for the impact region is given by the equation ≤0. From an earlier spectroscopic, Fabry-Perot paper, expt=0.021 cm−1 at =400 K and =10 torr. Two theoretical values, theor=0.025 and 0.062 cm−1 corresponding to two different pseudo-potentials, are reported. Two -dependent figures are given, in which the first shows an increase in the impact region with , based on as the basic parameter, and the second which shows a decrease in the impact region with , based on as the basic parameter.
Lamb, W. E. Jr.
1981-12-01
This final report describes research on the theory of isotope separation produced by the illumination of polyatomic molecules by intense infrared laser radiation. This process is investigated by treating the molecule, sulfur hexafluoride, as a system of seven classical particles that obey the Newtonian equations of motion. A minicomputer is used to integrate these differential equations. The particles are acted on by interatomic forces, and by the time-dependent electric field of the laser. We have a very satisfactory expression for the interaction of the laser and the molecule which is compatible with infrared absorption and spectroscopic data. The interatomic potential is capable of improvement, and progress on this problem is still being made. We have made several computer runs of the dynamical behavior of the molecule using a reasonably good model for the interatomic force law. For the laser parameters chosen, we find that typically the molecule passes quickly through the resonance region into the quasi-continuum and even well into the real continuum before dissociation actually occurs. When viewed on a display terminal, the motions are exceedingly complex. As an aid to the visualization of the process, we have made a number of 16 mm movies depicting a three-dimensional representation of the motion of the seven particles. These show even more clearly the enormous complexity of the motions, and make clear the desirability of finding ways of characterizing the motion in simple ways without giving all of the numerical detail. One of the ways to do this is to introduce statistical parameters such as a temperature associated with the distribution of kinetic energies of the single particle. We have made such an analysis of our data runs, and have found favorable indications that such methods will prove useful in keeping track of the dynamical histories.
Can classical physics agree with quantum physics on quantum phenomena?
Marrocco, Michele
2015-01-01
Classical physics fails where quantum physics prevails. This common understanding applies to quantum phenomena that are acknowledged to be beyond the reach of classical physics. Here, we make an attempt at weakening this solid belief that classical physics is unfit to explain the quantum world. The trial run is the quantization of the free radiation field that will be addressed by following a strategy that is free from operators or quantum-mechanical concepts
Learning Classical Music Club
2010-01-01
There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President
Dzhunushaliev, V D
1997-01-01
The spherically symmetric solution in classical SU(3) Yang - Mills theory is found. It is supposed that such solution describes a classical quark. It is regular in origin and hence the interaction between two quarks is small on the small distance. The obtained solution has the singularity on infinity. It is possible that is the reason why the free quark cannot exist. Evidently, nonlocality of this object leads to the fact that in quantum chromodynamic the difficulties arise connected with investigation of quarks interaction on large distance.
Brehm, Enrico M
2016-01-01
In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.
Classical mechanics with Maxima
Timberlake, Todd Keene
2016-01-01
This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.
Elementary classical hydrodynamics
Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C
1967-01-01
Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c
Classic Problems of Probability
Gorroochurn, Prakash
2012-01-01
"A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin
The classical nova outburst occurs on the white dwarf component in a close binary system. Nova systems are members of the general class of cataclysmic variables and other members of the class are the Dwarf Novae, AM Her variables, Intermediate Polars, Recurrent Novae, and some of the Symbiotic variables. Although multiwavelength observations have already provided important information about all of these systems, in this review I will concentrate on the outbursts of the classical and recurrent novae and refer to other members of the class only when necessary. 140 refs., 1 tab
Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell
Garg, Anupam
2012-01-01
This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.
Casimir Effect - The Classical Limit
The temperature dependence of the Casimir effect for the radiation field confined between two conducting plates is analysed; The Casimir energy is shown to decline exponentially with temperature while the Casimir entropy which is defined in the text is shown to approach a limit which depends only on the geometry of the constraining plates. The result is shown to hold, for a scalar field, for arbitrary geometry. The high temperature (T) expansion is shown to be ''robust'', i.e. it does not have any nonvanishing correction to the ''classical' result where the latter is defined by the validity of the Rayleigh - Jeans law. We show that validity of the Rayleigh - Jeans law implies the vanishing of the Casimir energy, hence the high temperature Casimir force, for a wide variety of geometries, is purely entropic
Curiel, Erik
2014-01-01
In the early 1970s it is was realized that there is a striking formal analogy between the Laws of black-hole mechanics and the Laws of classical thermodynamics. Before the discovery of Hawking radiation, however, it was generally thought that the analogy was only formal, and did not reflect a deep connection between gravitational and thermodynamical phenomena. It is still commonly held that the surface gravity of a stationary black hole can be construed as a true physical temperature and its area as a true entropy only when quantum effects are taken into account; in the context of classical general relativity alone, one cannot cogently construe them so. Does the use of quantum field theory in curved spacetime offer the only hope for taking the analogy seriously? I think the answer is `no'. To attempt to justify that answer, I shall begin by arguing that the standard argument to the contrary is not physically well founded, and in any event begs the question. Looking at the various ways that the ideas of "tempe...
From Quantum to Classical in the Sky
Singh, Suprit
2016-01-01
Inflation has by-far set itself as one of the prime ideas in the current cosmological models that seemingly has an answer for every observed phenomenon in cosmology. More importantly, it serves as a bridge between the early quantum fluctuations and the present-day classical structures. Although the transition from quantum to classical is still not completely understood till date, there are two assumptions made in the inflationary paradigm in this regard: (i) the modes (metric perturbations or fluctuations) behave classically once they are well outside the Hubble radius and, (ii) once they become classical they stay classical and hence can be described by standard perturbation theory after they re-enter the Hubble radius. We critically examine these assumptions for the tensor modes of (linear) metric perturbations in a toy three stage universe with (i) inflation, (ii) radiation-dominated and (iii) late-time accelerated phases. The quantum-to-classical transition for these modes is evident from the evolution of...
Strong Coupling and Classicalization
Dvali, Gia
2016-01-01
Classicalization is a phenomenon in which a theory prevents itself from entering into a strong-coupling regime, by redistributing the energy among many weakly-interacting soft quanta. In this way, the scattering process of some initial hard quanta splits into a large number of soft elementary processes. In short, the theory trades the strong coupling for a high-multiplicity of quanta. At very high energies, the outcome of such a scattering experiment is a production of soft states of high occupation number that are approximately classical. It is evident that black hole creation in particle collision at super-Planckian energies is a result of classicalization, but there is no a priory reason why this phenomenon must be limited to gravity. If the hierarchy problem is solved by classicalization, the LHC has a chance of detecting a tower of new resonances. The lowest-lying resonances must appear right at the strong coupling scale in form of short-lived elementary particles. The heavier members of the tower must b...
Axelsson, Owe
1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2013 - (Björm, E.), s. 205-224 ISBN 978-3-540-70528-4 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : classical iterative methods * applied computational mathematics * encyclopedia Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.springerreference.com/docs/ navigation .do?m=Encyclopedia+of+Applied+and+Computational+Mathematics+%28Mathematics+and+Statistics%29-book224
Classical and quantum satisfiability
de Araújo, Anderson; 10.4204/EPTCS.81.6
2012-01-01
We present the linear algebraic definition of QSAT and propose a direct logical characterization of such a definition. We then prove that this logical version of QSAT is not an extension of classical satisfiability problem (SAT). This shows that QSAT does not allow a direct comparison between the complexity classes NP and QMA, for which SAT and QSAT are respectively complete.
Why Study Classical Languages?
Lieberman, Samuel
This speech emphasizes the significance of living literatures and living cultures which owe a direct debt to the Romans and the Greeks from whom they can trace their origins. After commenting on typical rejoinders to the question "Why study classical languages?" and poking fun at those who advance jaded, esoteric responses, the author dispels the…
Camic, Charles
2008-01-01
They seem the perfect bookends for the social psychologist's collection of "classics" of the field. Two volumes, nearly identical in shape and weight and exactly a century old in 2008--each professing to usher "social psychology" into the world as they both place the hybrid expression square in their titles but then proceed to stake out the field…
Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)
Rosu, H. C.
1999-01-01
First Internet graduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031
Classical galactosaemia revisited
A.M. Bosch
2006-01-01
Classical galactosaemia (McKusick 230400) is an: autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT; EC 2.7.712). Most patients present in the neonatal period, after ingestion of galactose, with jaundice, hepatospl
Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.
Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.
Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…
Huddleston, Gregory H.
1993-01-01
Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)
Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)
Rosu, H C
1999-01-01
First Internet undergraduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031
Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.
1973-01-01
Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)
Minamitani, Y.; Nakatani, H. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-08-20
Excimer laser is used in various fields such as luminous source for steppers, annealing treatment, ablation process, nuclear fusion and so on. In this paper, the radiation timing and gas temperature of cathode spots, streamer discharges and glow discharges in KrF excimer are measured by observing the radiating spectra thereof. The following conclusions are obtained from the results of the present study. Cathode spots begin to radiate at about 20ns after the discharge initiation, then the first and second radiation peaks are observed respectively when the discharge current reversing after passing zero point and the reserved discharged current approaching zero point. Streamer discharge makes flashover between electrodes at the second radiation peak of cathode spots, while the glow discharges almost disappear when streamer discharges occurring. The temperatures of cathode spots and glow discharge as 5500K and 2600K respectively are almost constant and independent upon the discharging voltage of laser. 14 refs., 12 figs.
Quantum emulation of classical dynamics
Margolus, Norman
2011-01-01
In statistical mechanics, it is well known that finite-state classical lattice models can be recast as quantum models, with distinct classical configurations identified with orthogonal basis states. This mapping makes classical statistical mechanics on a lattice a special case of quantum statistical mechanics, and classical combinatorial entropy a special case of quantum entropy. In a similar manner, finite-state classical dynamics can be recast as finite-energy quantum dynamics. This mapping...