Sample records for chinese materia medica

  1. Chinese Marine Materia Medica

    Peter Proksch


    China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...

  2. [Management of Chinese materia medica market based on information asymmetry].

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Liu, Jin-Xin


    Pharmaceutical market is a typical market with information asymmetry, and which can lead to "lemons" problem. In all developed countries, firms must receive regulatory approval to market a pharmaceutical product. Such administrative department including SFDA, EMA, FDA and so on. Chinese materia medica is a special part of pharmaceutical market in China. The management of Chinese materia medica is a special challenge in China. PMID:24791511

  3. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun


    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively. PMID:24429032

  4. Industry Development and Health of Chinese Materia Medica and Natural Products

    Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines


    @@ In order to push forward the research and development of innovative drugs, to re-exploit large species, and to invent healthy product, Tianjin Pharmaceutical Association, Tianjin Plant Association, and Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines sponsored the meeting “Circum-Bohai Industry Development and Health of Chinese Materia Medica and Natural Products”. It will be held during May 28-30, 2010. Some famous experts will be invited to make speeches and to communicate with participants.

  5. Status and Trends of GAP Base Construction of Chinese Materia Medica in Guangdong Province

    DING Ping; LAI Xiao-ping; XU Hong-hua; DU Qin; WANG Jian-gang; YING Ge; LIAO Hui-jun; DAI Lei; SHAO Yan-hua


    It is one of the key points for modernization and internationalization of traditional Chinese medicines to construct the Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) base of Chinese materia medica (CMM).GAP helps to minimize contamination and improve the quality of CMM during the plantation and the production of Chinese crude drugs.In this article,the status and development of CMM production bases of GAP in Guangdong Province,China,are presented.The suggestions upon the problems during the development of GAP for Chinese crude drugs are also provided.

  6. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Dong-Lu Bay


    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.

  7. Effects of Chinese materia medica combined chemotherapy on the survivals of stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ colorectal cancer



    Objective To study the effects of Chinese materia medica (CMM) combined chemotherapy on the recurrence,metastasis,and the disease free survival(DFS) of stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ colorectal cancer (CC) patients after radical treatment. Methods 366 inpatients and outpatients with stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ colorectal

  8. PAT: From Western solid dosage forms to Chinese materia medica preparations using NIR-CI.

    Zhou, Luwei; Xu, Manfei; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang


    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging technology that combines traditional near-infrared spectroscopy with chemical imaging. Therefore, NIR-CI can extract spectral information from pharmaceutical products and simultaneously visualize the spatial distribution of chemical components. The rapid and non-destructive features of NIR-CI make it an attractive process analytical technology (PAT) for identifying and monitoring critical control parameters during the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. This review mainly focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of NIR-CI in each unit operation during the manufacturing processes, from the Western solid dosage forms to the Chinese materia medica preparations. Finally, future applications of chemical imaging in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25877484

  9. [Investigation on pattern of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on famous-region drug and bioassay--the work reference].

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiaohe


    Selection and standardization of the work reference are the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis. as an example, the manufacture process of the famous-region drugs extraction was explained from the aspects of original identification, routine examination, component analysis and bioassay. The common technologies were extracted, and the selection and standardization procedures of the work reference for the bioassay of Chinese materia medica were drawn up, so as to provide technical support for constructing a new mode and method of the quality control of Chinese materia medica based on the famous-region drugs and bioassay. PMID:21842660

  10. [Rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (II): strategy of NIR assignment].

    Pei, Yan-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Qiao, Yan-Jiang


    The present paper firstly reviewed the research progress and main methods of NIR spectral assignment coupled with our research results. Principal component analysis was focused on characteristic signal extraction to reflect spectral differences. Partial least squares method was concerned with variable selection to discover characteristic absorption band. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was mainly adopted for spectral assignment. Autocorrelation peaks were obtained from spectral changes, which were disturbed by external factors, such as concentration, temperature and pressure. Density functional theory was used to calculate energy from substance structure to establish the relationship between molecular energy and spectra change. Based on the above reviewed method, taking a NIR spectral assignment of chlorogenic acid as example, a reliable spectral assignment for critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (CMM) was established using deuterium technology and spectral variable selection. The result demonstrated the assignment consistency according to spectral features of different concentrations of chlorogenic acid and variable selection region of online NIR model in extract process. Although spectral assignment was initial using an active pharmaceutical ingredient, it is meaningful to look forward to the futurity of the complex components in CMM. Therefore, it provided methodology for NIR spectral assignment of critical quality attributes in CMM. PMID:25532332

  11. [Research on Zhang's collated edition of Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica)].

    Cheng, Li


    Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica) collated by Zhang Ji, and printed by Zhang's Yisheng Tang in Chengdu in 1932 was the first collated edition. Its original edition was not Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) of the Song Dynasty, but was Xiu shi zhi nan (Instruction for Drug Processing) and Lei gong pao zhi yao xing jie (Explanation on Master Lei's Properties of Drugs Processing) of the Qing Dynasty. The contents of this collated edition was far from Lei gong pao zhi lun with many mistakes, and was not the best edition to study Lei gong pao zhi lun. PMID:21029711

  12. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi


    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  13. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he


    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay. PMID:21800546

  14. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian


    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine. PMID:27245045

  15. 古代中药掺伪考%Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China

    谢晋; 王德群


    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages,it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China.The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties,fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty,and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty.By statistics,there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period.The main varieties were precious drugs,animal drugs and artifacts.Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating,dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively.Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis ; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt,Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine,and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey.However,the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist,resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants.Besides,rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.%通过梳理历代主流本草发现,中药掺伪古已有之.南北朝时期以造作为主,唐代始见伪充,明清以后掺伪现象泛滥.据统计,民国以前本草著作记载的掺伪品种达76味,主要集中在贵重药、动物药和人工制品.常用掺伪手法有造作、伪充2种方式.其中涉及造作的中药有11味,而以假乱真的伪充品种高达68味.掺伪现象泛滥,迫使藿香药用部位改变,盐附子、酒制当归和蜜炙黄芪等炮制品的出现均可能与之有关.中药掺伪的根本原因是医药分家,医不识药,而商家职业操守淡漠;

  16. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparation, Chinese materia medica and active compounds on ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances and neuron damage.

    Sun, Kai; Fan, Jingyu; Han, Jingyan


    Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB) disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage. PMID:26579420

  17. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparation, Chinese materia medica and active compounds on ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances and neuron damage

    Kai Sun


    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage.

  18. Practice and thought of MOOC for Chinese materia medica%中药学MOOC课程的制作实践与思考

    刘四军; 刘步平; 吴庆光


    目的:大规模开放在线课程(Massive Open Online Course,MOOC)近年来受到国际教育界的高度关注,对高等教育正在产生着广泛而深远的影响。以传统医学的基础学科中药学作为切入点,对中药学MOOC制作进行实践与探索。方法通过中药学授课老师团队的研讨,在对整个中药学知识点进行梳理、模块化、单元化的基础上,组建MOOC拍摄团队,对课程进行视频制作、发表、互动以及管理,并总结了制作过程中遇到的问题。结果在团队合作的基础上,开发了中药学MOOC课程,从而改进互动方式和课程,使教学更有效。结论MOOC可能是未来教育资源建设的聚焦点,制作优质的MOOC资源是首当其冲的问题。%Objective Massive open online course (MOOC) has received close attention in the international educational world in recent years, and has brought about wide and far-reaching influence on higher education. This paper explored and practiced production of MOOC by taking Chinese materia medica as an entry point. Methods Research was conducted by Chinese materia medica teaching team to find out knowledge points for teaching in different modules and units. Shooting team was also organized for video producing, issuing, interaction and management. Problems in the course of production were summarized. Results Online course of Chinese materia medica might contribute to interactive mode of teaching and result in more effective teaching. Conclusion MOOC can be the focus of the future construction of educational resources. Production of high-quality MOOC resources is the most important issue to be considered.

  19. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le


    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county. PMID:25898599

  20. [Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].

    Oh, Chae-Kun


    In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in

  1. An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing


    Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research. PMID:24063783

  2. Different Effects of Mahuang Decoction and Maxing Shigan Decoction on Animal Temperature Tropism and Correlation to Differences of Cold and Hot Nature of Chinese Materia Medica

    WANG Jia-bo; ZHAO Yan-ling; ZHANG Xue-ru; ZHOU Can-ping; LIU Ta-si; ZHAO Hai-ping; REN Yong-shen; XIAO Xiao-he


    Objective To establish an objective method for evaluating the intrinsic characteristics between cold and hot nature of Chinese materia medica(CMM)through the different effects of Mahuang decoction(MHD)and Maxing Shigan decoction(MSD)on animal temperature tropism.Methods The equipment with cold/hot pads was used to investigate the variety ofthe temperature tropism between two groups of mice treated by MHD and MSD,respectively.Meanwhile,the activities ofadenosine triphosphatase(ATPase),superoxide dismutase,succinate dehydrogenase,and malondialdehyde were measured.Results After treated by MHD,the macroscopic behavioral index of remaining rate on warm pad(40 ℃)of mice decreasedsignificantly(P < 0.05),suggesting the enhancement of cold tropism,meanwhile,the internal indices of ATPase activity and oxygen consuming volume increased significantly(P < 0.05),suggesting the enhancement of energy metabolism.On theother hand,the above-mentioned indices in MSD group changed on the inverse way.Conclusion The relative drug natureof MHD and MSD revealed in this study is consistent with the theoretical prognostication or definition.It indicates that theinternal cold and hot nature of CMM could be reflected in ethological way on the changes of animal temperature tropismwhich might be internally regulated by body energy metabolism.

  3. Stability and Accuracy Assessment of Identification of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica Using DNA Barcoding: A Case Study on Flos Lonicerae Japonicae

    Dianyun Hou


    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a novel molecular identification method that aids in identifying traditional Chinese materia medica using traditional identification techniques. However, further study is needed to assess the stability and accuracy of DNA barcoding. Flos Lonicerae Japonicae, a typical medicinal flower, is widely used in China, Korea, and other Southeast Asian countries. However, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and its closely related species have been misused and traded at varying for a wide range of prices. Therefore, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae must be accurately identified. In this study, the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sequence assembly was performed using CodonCode Aligner V 3.5.4. The intra- versus inter-specific variations were assessed using six metrics and “barcoding gaps.” Species identification was conducted using BLAST1 and neighbor-joining (NJ trees. Results reveal that ITS2 and psbA-trnH exhibited an average intraspecific divergence of 0.001 and 0, respectively, as well as an average inter-specific divergence of 0.0331 and 0.0161. The identification efficiency of ITS2 and psbA-trnH evaluated using BLAST1 was 100%. Flos Lonicerae Japonicae was formed into one clade through the NJ trees. Therefore, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae can be stably and accurately identified through the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions, respectively.

  4. 以专业为先导在《中药学》教学中实施多元化考核方式的探讨%Study on Diversified Evaluation Mode of Chinese Materia Medica in Different Specialities

    刘立萍; 任艳玲; 李然


    To promote the innovate of diversified examining mode of Chinese Materia Medica education,this article summarizes the reform of exam mode in School of Chinese medicine and Pharmacy and then describes the implementation process and significance in the usage of the exam pattern of diversity in different specialties.It will provide a meaningful reference for the reform of education.%该文梳理了国内各中医药院校考核方式改革的概况和发展趋势,介绍了多元化考核方式在中医学专业和中药学专业《中药学》教学过程中的具体实施方法和意义,旨在为《中药学》考核方式改革提供借鉴.

  5. 自乳化释药系统在难溶性中药制剂中的应用%Self-emulsifying delivery systems and its application on preparations of poorly soluble Chinese materia medica

    叶珍珍; 张建; 崔升淼


    自乳化释药系统可以提高难溶性药物的溶出度和生物利用度,在中药方面的应用具有良好的发展前景.文章综述自乳化释药系统的定义、特点、体内外质量评价指标、在难溶性中药制剂中的应用以及存在问题与对策.%The dissolution and the bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs can be improved by the utilization of serf-emulsifying delivery systems (SEDDS), so SEDDS has a promising application in the field of Chinese medicine. The definition, characterization, indexes in vivo and in vitro evaluations, application to preparations of poorly soluble Chinese materia medica, problems and countermeasures are reviewed.

  6. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Peter Proksch


    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  7. 设计性实验在中药化学实验教学中的应用%Application of design experiment in experimental of chemistry of Chinese materia medica

    陈红; 陈卫琳


      设计性实验在中药化学实验教学中的应用过程:教师给定范围—学生查阅文献命题—设计实验方案—教师辅助指导—学生独立操作—分析结果—得出结论。整个过程以学生为主,教师为辅%  Application of design experiment in experimental of chemistry of Chinese materia medica. The students are in a given range, they read some literature-assign a topic, design the experimental program, the teacher counselling guidance, the students independent operation, analyze the results, arrive at a conclusion. The whole process to students is given priority to, supplemented by the teacher.

  8. The relation between Greek and Islamic materia medica.

    El-Gammal, S Y


    Many studies have been made on the exact data of the introduction of Greek sciences to the Arabic culture. During the 8th and 9th centuries A.D. a big progress was done in the Arab-Islamic sciences, when the Caliphs of the Omayad and Abbasid dynasties invited many scientists, researchers and translators for translation of all sciences into Arabic. The Arabs paid special attention to the Greek natural sciences such as botany and pharmacy. Greek materia medica was a major common basis for Arab-Islamic medicine and pharmacy which in turn paved the way to the modern pharmaceutical therapy. PMID:12575695

  9. Progress of Experimental Study on Treatment of Psoriasis by Chinese Medicinal Monomer and Single or Compound Recipe in Chinese Materia Medica


    Psoriasis is a common,chronic,recurrent inflammatory skin disorder whose etiology is still unknown.It is believed that a multiple-gene inheritance is involved and it also involves various factors such as immunity,inflammation,cell proliferation,apoptosis,neural media,etc.Since cytokines are key mediators in inflammation,a number of Chinese medicines(CMs)have been reported to have certain antagonist effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a(TNF-α),platelet active factor(PAF)and interleukin-8(IL-8).Some researches on CMs have made significant breakthroughs in psoriasis by intervening with cytokines.Abnormalities with keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis are considered to be present in patients with psoriasis and a number of studies show that the mechanism of CMs on psoriasis may be through the inhibition of the keratinocyte proliferation and induction of apoptosis.Other studies also show that the inhibition of fibroblast-secreted cytokines could regulate keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and reduce the level of Calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP)in plasma and in lesions so as to slow down the process of inflammation and proliferation in psoriasis.The most commonly used models for psoriasis are the scaled tails or the vaginal epithelium of mice in China.They were used to observe the histopathological changes after the model mice were treated with CMs with the inhibition on the mitosis of vaginal epithelium or promotion of granular layer in rat tail taken as the indices of clinical efficacy.A variety of signs occur in psoriasis patients with TCM blood-stasis syndrome type and the effect of CMs in activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis on psoriasis suggested that the mechanism of CMs may be partially correlated to hemorrheology and microcirculation.Along with the continuous development of the biosciences,some TCM theories for psoriasis have been confirmed by laboratory studies.However,the exploration into

  10. 中药肝毒性与四气、五味及归经的相关性%Correlations between Hepatotoxicity and Four Properties,Five Tastes, Meridian Entry of Chinese Materia Medica

    禄保平; 贾睿


    To analyze the correlations between hepatotoxicity and four properties;five tastes,meridian entry of Chinese materia medica. Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity were regarded as the research objects, which were collected from published reports and monographs. The property theory of Chinese materia medica were referred to . The regularities of four properties, five tastes, arid meridian entry of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity, and the correlations between hepatotoxicity and property theory of Chinese materia medica were analyzed. ①The differences in terms of four properties of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity or general Chinese herbs were obvious(P <0. 05) , and the order from high to low was cold, warm, neutral, cool and hot, which was similar between two kinds of Chinese herbs. There was no correlation between hepatotoxicity and four properties; ②The difference in terms of five tastes of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity was obvious ( P < 0. 05) , and the order from high to low was bitter, acrid, sweet, sour, astringent, salty and bland. The difference in terms of five tastes of of general Chinese herbs was also obvious (P <0. 05) , and the order from high to low was bitter, sweet, acrid, salty, astringent, sour and bland. There existed some correlation between hepatotoxicity and five tastes ( P < 0. 05, rp = 0. 137 ) ;③The differences in terms of meridian entry of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity or general Chinese herbs were obvious(P <0. 05) , and the order from high to low was liver, lung,stomach, spleen, kidney, heart, large intestine, bladder, gallbladder, small intestine, pericardium and triple energizer meridian, which was similar between two kinds of Chinese herbs. There was no correlation between hepatotoxicity and meridian entry. The differences in terms of four properties, five tastes and meridian entry of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity are obvious. Comparied with general Chinese herbs, there is no correlation between hepatotoxicity and

  11. Study on the Determination Method of Oxytetracycline Added Illegally in Veterinary Chinese Materia Medica Powders by HPLC%HPLC法测定中兽药散剂中非法添加土霉素的方法研究

    李树纲; 金录胜; 王登临; 杲寿善; 张宏; 于清伟; 张蕾; 史梓萱


    建立了高效液相色谱法检测清肺散、白头翁散、止痢散等中兽药散剂中非法添加土霉素的方法。用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶色谱柱,以0.05 mol/L草酸铵溶液-二甲基甲酰胺-0.2 mol/L磷酸氢二铵(75∶20∶5)(用氨试液调pH值至8.0±0.2)为流动相,检测波长280 nm,流速1.0mL/min,进样量20μL,柱温35℃。结果显示,土霉素的线性范围为100~300μg/mL,线性方程为Y=4.90×10 X-2.39×103(,r=0.999 6,n=5),本方法的回收率为80.68%~119.23%,RSD为0.66%~1.85%。结果表明,本方法准确、可靠,适用于中兽药散剂中非法添加土霉素的检测。%An HPLC method was established for effective detection on oxytetracycline added illegally in veterinary Chinese materia medica powders as Qingfei San,Baitouweng San and Zhili San,etc.A reverse-phase C18 column was used,the mobile phase was 0.05 mol/L ammonium oxalate solution-DMF-0.2 mol/L ammonium dibasic phosphate(75∶ 20∶ 5)(adjusted the pH value with ammoniac solution to 8.0±0.2),the determination wave length was 280 nm,the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the column worked at 35 ℃.The result demonstrated that the linearity range of oxytetracycline was 100~300 μg/mL,the linear equation is Y=4.90×10 X-2.39×103(r=0.999 6,n=5),the recovery was 80.68%~119.23%,RSD was 0.66%~1.85%.It indicated that this method was accurate,reliable,and suitable in the determination of oxytetracycline added illegally in veterinary Chinese materia medica powders.

  12. Research of Bioavailability of Chinese Materia Medica Preparation%中药制剂生物利用度研究概况

    李艳玲; 王锦玉; 杨德斌; 董美虹; 仝燕


    生物利用度是药物安全性及有效性的重要评价指标.通过检索万方、中国知网及OVI等数据库,对国内外近10年来150余篇相关资料进行全面的分析、整理和综述.从药物和生物两方面阐述了生物利用度的影响因素,包括剂型、理化性质、制剂工艺、胃肠道生理环境、给药时间及途径等.基于此从前体药物设计、胃内滞留释药系统、环糊精包合技术、固体分散技术、共研磨技术、纳米技术等制剂技术方面探讨改善中药制剂生物利用度的研究方法,以期为中药的现代化研究提供有意义的参考.%Bioavailability was important evaluation index of safety and effectiveness of drugs. Consult data library such as Wan Fang, CNKI, OVI and so on, comprehensive analyzed and reviewed more than 150 related data recent 10 years from domestic and abroad. Summarized the influencing factors of bioavailability from two aspects of medicine and biology, consist of the form of drugs, physicochemical property, the preparation technology, physiological environment of gastrointestinal, the delivery time and way and so on. Some new research ideas like the pro-drug strategy, the gastro-retentive drug delivery system, cyclodextrin closure technology, solid dispersion technique, co-grinding technology, nano-technology etc. for improving bioavailability of traditional chinese medicine ( TCM ) preparations were discussed in order to provide reference for the research on modernization of TCM preparations.

  13. Analysis on current situation of compound Chinese materia medica patent entried into China%进入中国的复方中药专利现状分析

    许钧钧; 张辉; 唐力英; 吴宏伟


    为了解国外申请人在我国天然药物尤其是复方药物的专利布局特点,采用国家知识产权局自主开发的专利检索与服务系统(Patent Search and Service System of SIPO)的中国专利文摘数据库(CNABS),对1985-2012年5月的不同国家地区来源的专利申请进行检索,以国际专利分类表中涉及植物、藻类、苔藓、真菌等涵盖中药的分类号为检索目标,采用人工及软件辅助分析的方法对检索结果,尤其是中药复方专利进行多角度的分析(包括申请人、治疗领域、重点专利技术),以期掌握中药复方专利申请中的发展态势,并籍此分析国外复方专利技术的布局状况与技术发展路径,为国内专利制度下中药复方产业的长足发展提供参考.%In order to learn about the patent layout features of natural drugs, especially compound Chinese materia medica (CMM) patents in China applied by foreign applicants, the patent applications from the different countries during 1985-May, 2012 were searched and analyzed based on Patent Search and Service System of SIPO. The searches are targeted at the classification numbers of CMM, such as plant, algae, moss, fungi, in the international patent classification. The search results, particularly multi-angle analysis on compound CMM patents, including applicants, therapeutic field, and important patent technology, were analyzed by manpower and assistant software. The results could help us to know more about the development trend in the application of compound CMM patents on which the foreign situation and technology development path of patent medicine will be analyzed so as to provide a strategic value for the rapid development of CMM enterprises in China under the domestic patent system.

  14. Studies on De Materia Medica of Dioscorides in the Islamic era

    Vedat Yildirim, Rifat


    Full Text Available Pedanius Dioscorides was a Roman army surgeon in the first century A.D. His great work called De Materia Medica is widely accepted as the foremost pharmaceutical source of antiquity. Dioscorides was the originator of materia medica (pharmacology, and he took advantage of his extensive travels to study plants. Dioscorides was considered a major authority on simple drugs for sixteen centuries. De Materia Medica served as a corner stone for both western and eastern pharmaceutical and herbal writing, and was translated into Syriac, Arabic, and Persian, as well as Latin. The particular characteristic of medical therapy in the Medieval Period was the extensive employment of drugs of all kinds. For this reason, Dioscorides’ De Materia Medicawas not only studied closely, but it also became a text book that Turk-Islamic scientists frequently referred to in their writings.Pedanius Dioscórides fue médico cirujano en el ejército romano en el siglo I d.C. Su gran obra llamada De Materia Medica es conocida como la principal fuente de farmacopea de la antigüedad. Dioscórides fue el inventor de la materia medica, y aprovechó sus extensos viajes para dedicarse al estudio de las plantas. Dioscórides fue considerado una eminencia en el tema de las drogas de origen natural a lo largo de dieciséis siglos. De Materia Medica sirvió como piedra angular para los textos farmacéuticos y herbarios tanto en occidente como en oriente y fue traducida al siríaco, árabe y persa, además de al latín. La particular característica de la terapia médica en la época medieval fue el uso extensivo de todo tipo de drogas. Por esta razón, además de estudiarse minuciosamente, De Materia Medica de Dioscórides se convirtió también en un libro de texto al que frecuentemente hacían referencia los científicos turco-islámicos en sus escrituras.

  15. 防制胚泡着床障碍中药的筛选及药效研究%Screen and Pharmacodynamic Action of Chinese Materia Medica for Prevention and Cure Embryo Implantation Dysfunction

    王东升; 张世栋; 荔霞; 董书伟; 李世宏; 严作廷


    为了筛选防制胚泡着床障碍中药,本试验利用皮下注射米非司酮所致的小鼠胚泡着床障碍模型,以妊娠率、着床胚泡数、雌激素和孕激素及其比值为指标,将丹参、黄芪、川芎、黄芩、白术、菟丝子、桑寄生、续断、党参、当归等中药组成复方进行筛选和药效评价.筛选试验结果表明,方3组妊娠率显著高于方1组、菟丝子组和续断组(P<0.05),也高于方2组和对照组,说明方3有利于小鼠胚泡的着床.方3的药效试验表明,保胎组妊娠率极显著高于对照组和高剂量组(P<0.01),显著高于低剂量组(P<0.05).保胎组孕酮水平、孕酮和雌二醇比值极显著高于高、低剂量组、对照组和正常组(P<0.01),孕酮和雌二醇比值显著高于中剂量组(P<0.05),而保胎组、低剂量组和正常组雌二醇水平显著低于高剂量组和对照组(P<0.05),中剂量组孕酮水平显著高于对照组(P<0.05).这表明方3能提高小鼠的孕酮水平及孕酮和雌二醇比值,有利于小鼠胚泡着床.%To screen Chinese materia medica for prevention and cure embryo implantation dysfunction, mouse model with embryo implantation dysfunction was established by injected subcutaneously with mifepristone. Complex prescription composed of such Chinese materia medica as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Radix astragali, Szechwan lovage rhizome, Radix scutellariae, Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae , Semen cuscutae, Herba taxilli , Radix dipsaci, Radix codonopsis, Radix angelicae sinensis and some of them were evaluated in the model, pregnancy rate (PR), number of embryo implantation, progestin (P4), estradiol (E2) and ratio of progestin to estradiol (P4/E2) were the main index. The results of the screen test showed that PR was significantly higher in prescription 3 group than that in prescription 1 group, Semen cuscutae group and Radix dipsaci group (P<0. 05) , and was higher than those in the prescription 2 group and control group

  16. [Discussion on sources of texts of Meng Sheng's Herbology of dietotherapy cited in Jinling edition of Compendium of materia medica].

    Shang, Z


    Most of the citations of Meng Sheng's Herbology of Dietotherapy in Compendium of Materia Medica are originated from the Daguan Herbology and Zhenghe Herbology. When comparing these sources of citations in Compendium of Materia Medica with the texts in Daguan and Zhenghe, it can be found that there are differences, In Compendium of Materia Medica, it is indicated that these sources marked "Meng Sheng's Herbology of Dietotherapy" are actually derived from other sources, while citations from other sources are marked "Meng Sheng's Herbology of Dietotherapy" which are not found in Classified Herbology (Zhenglei ben cao). This might be due to the editions of Daguan and Zhenghe Li Shizhen applied are different. PMID:11624691

  17. [Research on the origins and development of the verse "eighteen antagonism" in Chinese material medica].

    Yang, Huan; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Bian, Ya-Li; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen-Xue


    The verse "eighteen antagonism" of Chinese materia medica is a kind of describing of drug nature concerning the incompatibility of drugs in compound prescription. Through organizing the medical books in different historical periods, it is found that the drugs in this verse basically coming from TAO Hong-jing's ben cao jing ji zhu (Variorum of Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica), while the style of verse mostly appeared during the Song-Jin-Yuan period was made. The formed verse was explained and supplemented further in the Ming Dynasty, the basis of which appeared in the Song-Jin-Yuan Dynasty, resulting in the increase of the number of antagonistic drugs and lengthy verse. The origin of the verse seen in Ru men shi qin (Confucians' Duties to Their Parents) and those in other books was not identical and was the most popular one after the Qing Dynasty, becoming the most popularly known even today. PMID:24135473

  18. The Integration of Chinese Material Medica into the Chinese Health Care Delivery System, an Update.

    Dang, Haixia; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Hainan; Yan, Ming; Liu, Xinmin


    Integration of Traditional Chinese medicine, including Chinese materia medica (CMM), into the national healthcare delivery system, is now an essential national policy in China and is increasing rapidly. This case study summarizes the profile of integration of CMM in China, describing markets, industries, management mechanisms, education, research and development, human resources and international cooperation related to Traditional Chinese medicine, and CMM in particular. It provides a basis for policies for integrating TM into national healthcare systems to save costs and improve the general health of the population. By the end of 2014, the overall sale value of CMM exceeded $US120bn, representing 31% of the total pharmaceutical industry markets in China. More than 200 CMM formulated drugs and 1100 prepared CMM are now on the national 'Essential Drug List' and the financial budget for CMM from the Chinese government in 2014 was approximately $US4.66bn, almost double that of 2011, indicating an increasing and long-term commitment to integrated medicine in China. PMID:26728426

  19. [The Seongho () School's Study of the Ancient Learning () and Its Influence on the Debate about Materia Medica in the Late Joseon Dynasty].

    Cho, Sung-San


    This study will determine the ways in which the ancient learning (gu xue, ) scholarship of the Seongho School, and its interest in the materia medica (ben cao xue, ) were related during the late Joseon period. The Seongho School centered its studies mainly on classical Chinese texts of the Han (206 BC-AD 220) and pre-Han (?-221 BC) (xian-qin lianghan, ) periods rather than those of the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). gu xue scholarship emerged during the Ming dynasty era (1368 -1644) as an alternative to the scholarly trends of the Song dynasty, which were dependent on Zhu Xi's (, 1130-1200) Neo-Confucianism and its interpretation of Han and pre-Han classical Chinese texts. This scholarly trend influenced Korean and Japanese literature, philosophy, and even medicine from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Focusing on Korean scholarship, we find a great deal of research regarding the influence of gu xue on Korean classical Chinese literature and Confucian philosophy in the late Joseon period; however, no study has examined how this style of scholarship influenced the field of medicine during the same period. This study will investigate how the intellectuals of the Seongho School, who did the most to develop gu xue among Joseon intellectuals, were influenced by this style of scholarship in their study of the materia medica. Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), the representative intellectual of the Seongho School, did not focus on complicated metaphysical medical theories, such as the Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory (yin yang wu xing shui, ) or the Five Movements and Six Atmospheres theory (wu yun liu qi shui, ). Instead, his interests lay in the exact diagnoses of diseases and meticulous herbal prescriptions which formed an essential part of the Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease (Shang han lun, ) written by Zhang Zhungjing (, 150-219) in the Han dynasty. The Treatise was compatible with the scholarly purpose of gu xue in that they both

  20. Optimal design principle and method of inhaled composite particles for complex system of Chinese materia medica%面向中药复杂体系的吸入给药复合粒子优化设计原理与方法

    郭立玮; 付廷明; 李玲娟


    鉴于中医药复杂巨系统求解过程在数学上的不可描述性,借鉴国内外先进的计算机化学与粉体材料科学理念与方法,以由水溶性和脂溶性两类物质组成的复方丹参制剂处方为模型药物,采集有效部位物料体系的物理化学特征参数(有关化学成分的熵、焓、表面能、电性等)、相关复合工艺特征参数(操作温度、搅拌速度、包覆时间等)及目的产物复合粒子性能特征参数(微结构参数与生物药剂学性能)等数据,建立中药复合粒子设计与制备工艺小型数据库,应用中药学、计算机化学、物理化学等跨学科交叉研究“中药粒子复合技术”的规律,探索中药复合粒子制备工艺微、纳米尺度有序组合机制,尝试以现代物理化学手段调控中药多元组分微结构及性能.为中药复方体系实现“表征参数检测一工艺过程参数筛选一目的产物性能优化”提供一种全新的研究模式.%Seeing that the complex giant system solving process of traditional Chinese medicine in mathematics is not descriptive and drawing on the advanced concepts of modern computer chemistry and materials science, Compound Danshen prescription consisting of both water-and fat-soluble substances was selected as a drug model to collect the physicochemical characteristic parameters of the effective part of material system (the chemical composition of the entropy, enthalpy, surface energy, and electricity, etc.), complex process-related characteristic parameters (operating temperature, stirring speed, and coating time, etc.), compound performance characteristic parameters of the product particle (micro-structural parameters and properties of biological agents), and other data, so as to establish a small database for the design and preparation of composite particles technology, study the regularity of "Chinese particle composite technology" by cross applying the knowledge of Chinese materia medica (CMM

  1. [Classes of crude drugs and its distribution of producing area in the attached illustrations in Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Xu, T; Peng, H S


    Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica) is the earliest extant atlas book of materia medica in China, with 933 attached drawings. Among them, the largest portion, amounting to 670, are herbaceous plants, mostly commonly used, with definite marks of the origin producing areas, distributed across 149 administrative divisions(prefectures and counties) of the Song Dynasty, most of them in Northern area which were distributed denser than those in Southern area. The densest ones were located in Southern Shanxi, Eastern Sichuan and Eastern Anhui. In the attached drawings, the frequency of highest occurrence appeared in this Classic are three prefectures, Chuzhou, Shizhou and Guangzhou. PMID:27255195

  2. Teaching Method of Chinese Materia Medica Based on the Combination of Stage-progressive Learning with Problem-based Learning%“层次递进教学法”与“解决问题学习法”结合的《中药学》教学模式

    冯志毅; 崔瑛; 王君明; 贾玉梅


    探索《中药学》新时期教学方法的优化与变革.通过教学实践和引进国外先进教学方法,在《中药学》教学中建立层次递进教学法(SPL)与解决问题学习法(PBL)教学相结合的SPL-PBL新型教学法,提出了应用于《中药学》教学的设计和实施方法,以便为从事中药教育的同仁提供参考.%In the present paper, the authors explored the optimization and reform in teaching methods of Chinese Materia Medico. The authors combined stage-progressive learning (SPL) with problem-based learning (PBL) and established a new SPL-PBL teaching method based on years of teaching practice. The authors also pointed out the specific design and example in the SPL-PBL teaching of Chinese Materia Medico. The present paper will provide methodological guidance and ideas for reference for the teaching of Chinese Materia Medico.

  3. [Study on carving workers of Chong xiu zheng he jing shi zheng lei bei yong ben cao (Revised Prepared Materia Medica Classified under Syndromes in Zhenghe Period) published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum)].

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian


    The ancient carving workers have made a great contribution to the xylographic printing art in ancient China, so the studies on them are significant for a survey of ancient Chinese printing history, and for the identification of ancient Chinese books edition. Zheng lei ben cao published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum) in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, which is the earliest extant edition of Zhenghe version system of Zheng lei ben cao and has important literature value. Thirty carving workers were involved in its printing process. On the whole, these workers had a relatively high technique and completed a remarkably fine work. In addition to lettering, 28 persons of them also made a total of 536 pages with 900 exquisite engraving illustrations on Chinese materia medica included in this book. Because of the high levels on carving, this precious book has been the representative of Pingshui edition, which has a great reputation but has very few works now. PMID:23363847

  4. Term Selecting Research on "Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany" for the Revision of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Subject Headings%《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类主题词修订选词研究

    朱玲; 刘静; 刘丽红; 董燕; 贾李蓉; 高博; 李海燕


    Objective To study term selecting principles and methods of subject terms in the class of"Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany"for the new edition of TCM Materia Medica Subject Headings;To provide references for the revision.Methods Based on the compiling principles, word frequency of subject headings in TCM database were used as references. MeSH was referred to establish detail rules and regulations for revision of TB class.Results In TB class, 226 subject headings were planned to delete, such as "Apocynum Linn", "Piper betle Linn", "cetacean" and"dolphins";42 subject headings were planned to add, such as "Kalimerisindica", "Actinidiaceae" and "Squamata".Conclusion This revision formulated individual revision principles, proposed solutions for common problems, and basically completed adding and deleting of TB class and frame adjustment.%目的 研究《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类(TB类)主题词选词原则与方法,为其修订提供依据.方法 基于主题词表总体编制原则,以中国中医药数据库主题词标引词频为依据,参考医学主题词表(MeSH),确立TB类主题词修订细则.结果 本次修订拟删除罗布麻属、蒌叶胡椒、鲸目、海豚等226个主题词,拟增加马兰、猕猴桃科、有鳞目等42个主题词.结论 此次修订制定了药用动植物与中药类主题词结合考量等个性化修订原则,对常见问题提出了解决方案,基本完成原TB类主题词的增删及框架的调整.

  5. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei


    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way. PMID:25208840

  6. Analysis to inadvisable combination of Chinese material medica recordered in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 edition and 2010 edition%中国药典2005版与2010版一部收载不宜同用中药分析

    何春玲; 王晓燕; 李梅


    To investigate and analyze inadvisable combination of Chinese materia medica recorded in China Pharmacopeia 2005 edition and 2010 edition, and to provide convenience for physicians and pharmacists in clinical practice.%总结中国药典2005年版与2010年版一部不宜同用中药品种,并进行分析。为医生和药师方便查询该类药品临床使用注意事项提供方便。

  7. 《神农本草经》对痹病的认识和治疗经验%Experience of treatment and understanding of impediment disease in Shen nong ben cao ring (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica)

    丁红昌; 王振瑞


    《神农本草经》是研究古代痹病史不可忽视的重要史料,书中所载365种药物中,与痹病相关的药物达75种,其中“湿痹”“寒湿痹”“风寒湿痹”“风痹”“风湿痹”“寒痹”涉及药物51种;“喉痹”“周痹”“血痹”涉及药物16种;“肉痹”“胃痹”“疝瘕痹”“消渴内痹”“痿痹”“偏痹”涉及药物8种.系统分析这些药物的性味、功效等相关知识,进而探寻当时医家对于痹病的整体认识和治疗经验,不仅可以丰富痹病的史学研究,而且可以为当代临床医生认识、治疗与“痹”相关的病症提供借鉴和参考.%As a book with significant historical materials for the research of impediment disease not to be ignored,Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) contains,among its 365 kinds of materia medica,75 kinds of medicines related to impediment disease.Among the latter ones,51 are related to" damp impediment"," cold-damp impediment","wind-cold-damp impediment","wind impediment","wind-damp impediment",and" cold impediment"; 16 are related to "laryngeal impediment","general impediment",and "blood impediment" ; 8 are related to "muscular impediment","stomach impediment","hernia-conglomeration impediment","internal consumptive-thirst impediment","wilting impediment",and "hemiplegic impediment".To systematically analyze the properties,tastes,and effects of these medicines and its related knowledge,and then further explore the overall recognition and their treating experience of the physicians at that period would not only enrich the historical research on impediment disease,but also offer much help and reference to the understanding and treatment of impediment for contemporary clinicians.

  8. 《神农本草经》木香考%Textual research on Costus root (Aucklandia lappa Decne) in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica)

    李光燕; 王德群; 方士英; 徐茂红


    Aucklandia lappa Decne was first recorded in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic ofMateria Medica).Through the textual research of herbal literature,it was found that the costus root in the Sheng nong ben cao jing perhaps was not the plant of Aucklandia lappa Decne of Compositae,but the eaglewood or Lignum Aquilasria Resinatum based on the comprehensive judgment of shape,taste,nature,and function etc.In the Sheng nong ben cao jing,it only includes costus root without the title of eaglewood,and Tao Hongjing recorded both herbs together in his Ming yi bie lu (Supplementary Records of Celebrated Physicians),which became a foreshadow of misunderstanding of the later generations.Beginning from the Tang ben cao (Materia Medica of the Tang Dynasty),the costus root was considered as the plant of Auckiandia lappa Decne from the Compostae with its profound influence until now.%中药木香最早记载于《神农本草经》.通过考察多种本草文献,发现《神农本草经》中的木香可能不是现代菊科木香类植物,而是沉香,因为从形态、气味、功效等方面综合判断,沉香与《本神农草经》中的木香相吻合.《神农本草经》中只有“木香”,而无“沉香”,陶弘景将“木香”与“沉香”一并记载于《名医别录》中,为后人的误识埋下了伏笔.自《唐本草》始认为“木香”主要为菊科的木香类草本植物,这种认识一直影响至今.马兜铃科藤本青木香在《唐本草》和《本草图经》等本草著作的“木香”条中均有记载,但不做“木香”药用的主流.

  9. [Contention on the theory of processing techniques of Chinese materia medica in the Ming-Qing period].

    Chen, Bin; Jia, Tianzhu


    On the basis of the golden stage of development of processing techniques of medicinals in the Song dynasty, the theory and techniques of processing in the Ming-Qing dynasties developed and accomplished further. The knowledge of some physicians on the processing of common medicinal, such as Radix rehmannia and Radixophiopogonis, was questioned, with new idea of processing methods put forward and argued against those insisting traditional ones, marking the progress of the art of processing. By reviewing the contention of technical theory of medicinal processing in the Ming-Qing period, useful references can be provided for the inheritance and development of the traditional art of processing medicinals. PMID:26420409

  10. Latest Progress in Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines


    <正>Four journals including Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (CTHD), Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM), Drugs & Clinic (DC), and Drug Evaluation Research (DER) are edited and published by Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines. CTHD was first published in 1970 and has been playing a great role for Chinese materia medica (CMM), especially in its present modernization. CTHD has successively won several honors in recent years, such as the 2nd State

  11. [A study of association rules in three-dimensional property-taste-effect data of Chinese herbal medicines based on Apriori algorithm].

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Qian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xin; Liu, Sen-Mao; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Xiu-Lan


    The theory of four properties (Qi) and five tastes (Wei) is the core of the property theory of Chinese materia medica. It is known that Qi and Wei are associated with the pharmacological effects (Xiao) of herbs. This study took records of all 365 Chinese herbs in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica (Shennong Ben Cao Jing) as the data resource and established a three-dimensional data cube, in the purpose of finding out and analyzing the frequent patterns and valued association rules of Qi, Wei and Xiao based on Apriori algorithm. The results of this study may give rise to innovative ideas and methods in research of traditional Chinese materia medica. PMID:21749832

  12. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Xia, Xun-Li


    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  13. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong


    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on. PMID:26677664

  14. Digital Materia

    Lindgren, Marcus; Richey, Emma


    Med tankar från pedagogen Montessori och filosoferna Platon och Baudrillard har detta arbete behandlat frågor om datorn och dess betydelse för en grafiker. Frågeställningen formulerades efter hand och lydde tillslut: ”Hur kan materia te sig i digital form?” Forskningen resulterade i en hypotes för hur digital materia skulle födas i datorn: genom att blanda två uppsättningar av data, såsom två genuppsättningar tillsammans skapar en ny organism. Under produktionen utvecklades därmed en metod fö...

  15. Textual Research on Names of Species of Pteridophyta in A Supplement to Compendium of Materia Medica%《本草纲目拾遗》蕨类植物名实考

    鲁宏明; 刘守金


    Nine species of Pteridophyta were recorded in A Supplement to Compendium of Materia Medicaby Zhao Xuemin in the Qing Dynasty. The textual research on the names of the nine species of Pteridophy-ta showed that Cuiyucao is Cuiyuncao ( Selaginella uncinata ) , Jingouji is Jinmaogouji ( Cibotium barometz) , Piwencao is Jinjijue (Phymatopsis hastata) , Yubiejinxing is Baoshilian (Lepidogrammitis drymoglossoides) , Fengweijinxingcao is Yuewawei (Lepisorus obscure-venulosus ) , Duyeyizhiqiang is Pingerxiaocao (Ophioglossum vulgatum), Wugongping is Huaiyeping (Salvinia natans), Caoshican is Jiangnanxingjue (Microsorum fortunei) , and Jinjidulicao is Cuiyuncao (Selaginella uncinata).%清代赵学敏所著收集9种蕨类药物,经考证其原植物分别为:翠羽草为翠云草Selaginella uncinata、金狗脊为金毛狗脊Cibotium barometz、辟瘟草为金鸡蕨Phymatopsis hastata、鱼鳖金星为抱石莲Lepidogrammitis drymoglossodes、凤尾金星草为粤瓦韦Lepisorus obscure-venulosus、独叶一枝枪为瓶尔小草Ophioglossum vulgatum、蜈蚣萍为槐叶萍Salvinia natans、草石蚕为江南星蕨Microsorum fortunei,金鸡独立草与翠云草是同一物,即翠云草Selaginella uncinata.

  16. Root canal medicaments.

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Wadachi, Reiko; Suda, Hideaki; Yeng, Thai; Parashos, Peter


    The ultimate goals of endodontic treatment are complete removal of bacteria, their byproducts and pulpal remnants from infected root canals and the complete seal of disinfected root canals. Intracanal medicaments have been thought an essential step in killing the bacteria in root canals; however, in modern endodontics, shaping and cleaning may be assuming greater importance than intracanal medicaments as a means of disinfecting root canals. Until recently, formocresol and its relatives were frequently used as intracanal medicaments, but it was pointed out that such bactericidal chemicals dressed in the canal distributed to the whole body from the root apex and so might induce various harmful effects including allergies. Furthermore, as these medicaments are potent carcinogenic agents, there is no indication for these chemicals in modern endodontic treatment. Today, biocompatibility and stability are essential properties for intracanal medicaments. The more modern meaning of intracanal dressing is for a blockade against coronal leakage from the gap between filling materials and cavity wall. Calcium hydroxide has been determined as suitable for use as an intracanal medicament as it is stable for long periods, harmless to the body, and bactericidal in a limited area. It also induces hard tissue formation and is effective for stopping inflammatory exudates. Single-visit endodontics, where intracanal medicaments are not used, is generally not now contraindicated and various reports have shown that the clinical outcomes between single- and multiple- visit endodontics are similar. There is no reason to counsel against single-visit endodontics: however, if multiple-visit endodontics is chosen, calcium hydroxide is recommended to be used as an intracanal medicament. PMID:19323305

  17. Exploration of 3D Printer Models in Teaching Identification of Chinese Meteria Medica%《中药鉴定学》性状教学引入3D 纸模型构建技术初探

    车苏容; 苏碧丽; 魏政熙; 文琛; 曾松


    The characteristics of Chinese meteria medica is an important part in teaching the course of Identification of Chinese Meteria Medica.It needs the real materials to display during teaching which would easily be damaged or rotten , and some of them are very ex-pensive.The development of 3D technology which owns the advantages of high quality with reasonable price and visual display can be a potential teaching method to change the traditional teaching way .%《中药鉴定学》性状教学的是直观形态教学为主的学科,教学用药材样本易变质受损,部分药材价格昂贵。3D纸模型技术的发展,物美价廉、表现力强,具有诸多优势,成为一个潜力具大的教学手段,引入本学科的教学将对传统教学模式带来改变。

  18. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing


    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica. PMID:26978977

  19. Application of DNA Molecular Markers in Chinese Medicinal Materia Identification and its Development Trends%DNA分子标记在中药鉴定中的应用及发展趋势分析

    李力; 徐永莉; 张月云; 赵成坚


    目的 对DNA分子遗传标记技术在中药材鉴定领域的应用作一综述.方法 通过查阅20世纪90年代以来发表的文献进行归纳分析.结果 DNA分子遗传标记技术具有微量、快速、特异性强、准确可靠、对样本要求较低的特点;使用较多的方法 主要有RAPD、ISSR、ITS标记以及rRNA基因序列分析技术.同时,DNA分子标记技术也存在着使用局限、对实验硬件和从业人员的技术要求高、成本较高、技术复杂度高、对不同部位入药的药材仍然难以区分以及无法用于成药、复方、提取液鉴定等弱点.结论 DNA分子遗传标记作为中药材鉴定的方法 还有待发展和完善.%Objective The paper summarizes the researches of application of DNA molecular markers in Chinese medicinal mate-ria. Methods Induction and analysis were used by referring to literature released since 1990s . Results DNA Marker Technologies have characteristics of trace,rapid,peculiarity, accuracy and credibility, lower requirements for the sample. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) , inter - simple sequence repeat (ISSR) , interial transcribed spaoers (ITS) and rRNA gene sequencing technology are often used. However, DNA Marker Technologies have some disadvantages that employees are required special skills,the cost is high and the technique is complicated,while it is difficult to distinguish different parts of Chinese medicinal materia used medicinally and identify patent medicine, Chinese medicine complex prescription and the extract of Chinese medicinal materia. Conclusion The methods of Chinese medicinal materia identification by DNA molecular markers need to develop and improve.

  20. Study on the irradiation decontamination of traditional Chinese medicines

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are natural products prepared from plants, minerals and animals, it is easy for contamination by microorganisms to occur; thus causing problems in complying with the requirements laid down for passing microbial limit tests. We selected some kinds of TCMs, including unprocessed materia medica, traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPMs) and chemical constituents for irradiation by 60Co gamma ray and investigating the results in terms of microbiology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. We found no evidence of changes in most of the tested items, which indicates that the irradiation method could be employed for decontamination of TCMs. However, some chemical constituents of unprocessed materia medica, such as gentiopicrin in Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in Radix Polygoni Multiflori, decomposed when these crude materials were irradiated with dose of 5kGy. Further study revealed that although the medicinal were altered by irradiation, the monomers of some of these chemical constituents were not affected. In addition to investigation of the items described above, the doses of irradiation were selected experimentally to ensure that, after irradiation, the TCMs passed the microbial limit tests described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The lowest possible doses were used in order to avoid any impairment of the quality and clinical efficacy of the effective ingredients of the TCMs. (author)

  1. Retigabine (ASTA Medica).

    Fatope, M O


    ASTA Medica is developing retigabine, a carbamic acid ethyl ester and a selective potassium channel opener, for the treatment of complex partial seizures. Phase II trials have commenced [249117], and a multicenter placebo-controlled dosage-finding study has begun in Europe and Australia [392702]. Retigabine is also undergoing phase II testing in Germany, Switzerland, Russia and the US for the potential treatment of epilepsy [323383]. Phase II trials have shown >50% reduction in seizure frequency in 12 of 35 patients with refractory epilepsy [373379]. Phase I clinical trials for epilepsy were successfully completed in Germany in 1995 [180371]. Single and multiple dose trials demonstrated the tolerability and favorable pharmacokinetic behavior of the compound [264306]. The compound showed good compatibility and exhibits an antisense anticonvulsive effect in various preclinical epilepsy models [250565,299344]. Side effects of mild to moderate tiredness, fatigue and nausea were observed [276123]. The spectrum of activity of retigabine resembles that of valproate, but its potency is greater and toxicity is reduced [373379]. The mechanism of action of retigabine is probably multifactorial. Research has shown that retigabine acts as a selective K+ channel opener in neuronal cells and this can be expected to contribute to its anticonvulsant effect [273670]. In addition it demonstrates potentiation of GABA transmission and possibly also weak modulation of sodium and calcium channels [299344]. Retigabine also has neuroprotective activity with potential for the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis [249381]. In February 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted product launch could be as early as 2002 for epilepsy in the US [357788]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted that the first major launch date of the drug would be 2003, and the year of peak sales to be 2011 [319225]. PMID:16034707

  2. Oral self-emulsifying drug delivery system and its application to preparations of Chinese materia medica%口服自乳化释药系统及其在中药制剂中的应用

    钱一鑫; 唐景玲; 孙进; 张天虹; 何仲贵



  3. Exploration of the Curriculum Evaluation Reform of Chinese Materia Medica of Thailand Students%泰国留学生中药学课程考核评价改革之探索

    王海颖; 朱国福; 杨柏灿; 潘颖宜; 金素安; 袁颖; 何世民; 张贵彪; 王又闻



  4. Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals%中药材规范化生产(GAP)10年:成果、问题与建议

    郭兰萍; 张燕; 朱寿东; 王桂华; 王秀; 张小波; 陈美兰; 何雅莉; 韩邦兴



  5. Materia musical y recorridos

    Horst, Jorge


    Alrededor de la noción de materia musical, habitualmente se arremolinan las más variadas concepciones que incluyen generalmente no sólo lo sonoro sino también los silencios, gestualidades e intenciones. Por lo tanto, y sin pretender desmalezar esa enorme riqueza de aproximaciones, se podría concebir la materia musical como un repertorio de materiales, más allá de su combinatoria posterior o de un modo de empleo determinado que pueda implicar tanto reglas de exclusión como de pertinencia.

  6. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng)

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki


    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  7. Research progress of microemulsion technique in modern Chinese medical preparations%微乳技术在现代中药制剂中的研究进展

    张龙; 马卓


    本文综述了近年来微乳技术在中药口服制剂、注射剂、经皮吸收制剂等方面的研究概况.结果表明微乳技术在中药制剂领域有较好的应用前景.利用微乳载药系统的优势,开发中药微乳新制剂,可望解决中药剂型存在的某些问题.%This paper reviews the summary on the study of the microemulsion technique in traditional Chinese medical o- ral preparation, injections, transdermal prearation in recently years. It is found that the microemulsion technique has a good prospect in the field of Chinese materia medica preparation. Making use of the advantage of the microemulsion delivery system to develop the Chinese materia medica microemulsion new dosage forms can be expected to solve some problems of traditional Chinese medical preparations. .

  8. Materia strana romanzo scientifico

    Gómez Cadenas, Juan José


    Nel Laboratorio europeo per la fisica delle particelle, il CERN di Ginevra, sta per vedere la luce uno dei più grandi progressi scientifici di tutti i tempi: la scoperta di un nuovo stato della materia, il cosiddetto "plasma di quark". La direttrice del CERN, Helena Le Guin, teme però che insieme al plasma si stiano formando grumi letali di materia strana, in grado di scatenare una reazione a catena che potrebbe distruggere l'intero pianeta. Mentre Helena cerca disperatamente di far fronte alla crisi, a Ginevra arrivano Irene de Ávila, una giovane e promettente fisica teorica, e il maggiore Héctor Espinosa, un militare americano assegnato alla sede dell'ONU per lavorare a un progetto ultrasegreto legato alla non proliferazione delle armi nucleari: inizia così un'appassionante vicenda in cui convergono rivalità scientifiche, peripezie personali e rischiose operazioni di spionaggio che porteranno i protagonisti fino in Iran.

  9. Vaidyajivanam: Contributions of Lolimbaraja to Ayurvedic Materia Medica– A Review

    K. Nishteswar


    Full Text Available Lolimbaraja was the author of Vaidyajivanam popularly known as Lolimbarajeeyam. The author has composed the entire text in a poetic style. This work may be considered as a best piece of Ayurvedic literature consisting of single and simple herbal recipes for common ailments. Though herbal formulations dominated the therapeutics, the author also quoted certain Rasayogas consisting of metals and minerals. In total 37 single drug recipes were documented. The materia medica discussed by Lolimbaraja consists of 153 drugs (130 Herbal drugs, 3 Animal products and 20 Metals and Minerals. The period of Lolimbarajeeyam appears to be belonging to 16th – 17th century. A critical analysis of formulations mentioned in the text clearly indicate that the author consulted many a works of Ayurveda and compiled the most useful recipes which are indicated for the management of the common ailments.

  10. From rustics to savants: indigenous materia medica in eighteenth-century Mexico.

    Achim, Miruna


    This essay explores how indigenous knowledge about plant and animal remedies was gathered, classified, tested, and circulated across wide networks of exchange for natural knowledge between Europe and the Americas. There has been much recent interest in the "bioprospecting" of local natural resources-medical and otherwise-by Europeans in the early modern world and the strategies employed by European travellers, missionaries, or naturalists have been well documented. By contrast, less is known about the role played by indigenous and Creole intermediaries in this process. And yet, the transmission of knowledge between indigenous communities and the European cabinet was neither transparent nor natural, and often involved epistemological, linguistic, and religious obstacles. Drawing on printed and manuscript collections of indigenous remedies, written in colonial Mexico between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries, I focus on how local intermediaries, like creoles scholars, sought to overcome such obstacles by observing indigenous uses of remedies, by studying indigenous languages and by producing natural histories and pharmacopoeias in indigenous languages. Ultimately, behind the Creole participation in the transmission of indigenous remedies, one can point to political and cultural interests and to inclusive definitions of knowledge, which cut across oppositions between science and superstition, cabinet and field, centre and periphery. PMID:21802632

  11. An overview on adverse drug reactions to traditional Chinese medicines.

    Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu


    The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used. PMID:25619530

  12. Challenges in Research and Development of Traditional Chinese Medicines


    This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new "-omics" techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.

  13. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    Majd Ahmad


    Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco,supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum,peniciline-streptomycin,L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days.In addition cancer cell line were treated by half-ripe and ripe Citrus Medica fruit juice and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT. The Citrus Medica fruit juice was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity and anticancer properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100 .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide. During MTT, human astrocytoma cell line revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01. In Ames Test the fruit juice prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of half-ripe Citrus Medica was 71.7% and ripe Citrus Medica was 34.4% in antimutagenicity test and this value in anticancer test was 83.3% and 50% in half-ripe Citrus Medica and ripe Citrus Medica respectively.This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice and the effects were higher in half-ripe Citrus Medica in comparison to the riprned one.

  14. The improve effect of Yiqihuoxue Chinese materia medica for the ethology of mouse with diabetes mellitus encephalopathy induced by streptozotocin%益气活血中药对链脲佐菌素致糖尿病脑病小鼠行为学的改善作用

    路军章; 刘毅



  15. 应用大鼠肝微粒体筛选对细胞色素P4502D6有抑制作用的中药%Screening of Chinese materia medica possessed inhibitory effect on cytochrome P4502D6 in liver microsomes of rats

    于卫江; 黄丽军; 朱大岭


    目的 从17种中药(单体、提取物和注射液)中快速筛选出对细胞色素P4502D6(CYP2D6)亚型有抑制作用的中药,建立高通量筛选对CYP2D6有抑制作用中药的技术平台.方法 取大鼠空白肝微粒体,分别加入17种中药,HPLC法测定大鼠肝微粒体中CYP2D6的探针药物右美沙芬(DM)的代谢率,通过代谢率降低的现象初步筛选出能抑制肝微粒体中CYP2D6代谢的药物.结果 槲皮素、黄芩苷、厚朴提取物、清开灵注射液、盐酸川芎嗪注射液可明显降低DM的代谢率(P<0.01).结论 初步筛选出槲皮素、黄芩苷、厚朴提取物、清开灵注射液、盐酸川芎嗪注射液这5种中药可抑制肝微粒体CYP2D6酶活性.此方法可作为高通量筛选对CYP2D6活性有抑制作用中药的技术平台.

  16. 《中药学》和《中华人民共和国药典》中对某些药材来源的表述差异比较%Differences of sources of some medical materials described in the Chinese Materia Medica and Pharmacopeia of People's republic of China

    许斌; 陈建议; 夏卫东


    目的 科学、规范、准确的表述中药的来源,使新版教材更趋完善.方法 对照2005年版(一部)的质量标准.比较23种药材的科、种及药用部位的差异.结果 4种药材存在科差异,8种药材存在种差异,11种药材存在药用部位的差异.结论 六版教材对某些药品来源的阐述与有较大差异,再版时希望药物的来源方面能力求与同时期的一致,以保证中药质量,确保用药安全.

  17. Quality of reporting of trial abstracts needs to be improved: using the CONSORT for abstracts to assess the four leading Chinese medical journals of traditional Chinese medicine

    Yuan Wenming


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to language limitations, the abstract of journal article may be the only way for people of non-Chinese speaking countries to know about trials in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, little is known about the reporting quality of these trial abstracts. Our study is to assess the reporting quality of abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCT published in four leading Chinese medical journals of TCM, and to identify any differences in reporting between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract publication. Method Two reviewers hand-searched the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, the Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica and the Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion for all abstracts of RCTs published between 2006 and 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the reporting quality of the Chinese and English version of all eligible abstracts based on a modified version of the CONSORT for reporting randomised trials in journal and conference abstracts (CONSORT for abstracts. Results We identified a total of 345 RCTs of TCM with both a Chinese and English abstract. More than half of Chinese abstracts reported details of the trial participants (68%; 234/345, control group intervention (52%; 179/345, the number of participants randomized (73%; 253/345 and benefits when interpreting the trial results (55%; 190/345. Reporting of methodological quality or key features of trial design and trial results were poor; only 2% (7/345 included details of the trial design, 3% (11/345 defined the primary outcome, 5% (17/345 described the methods of random sequence generation, and only 4% (13/345 reported the number of participants analyzed. No abstracts provided details on allocation concealment and trial registration. The percentage agreement in reporting (between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract ranged from 84% to 100% across

  18. Published papers about Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge as a Chinese medicinal material


    Xu Cuihong, Shu Zhiming, Wang Yan, Miao Fang, Zhou ke. The accumulation rule of the main medicinal components in different organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba. Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research, 2010, 21(09): 2129-2132. Email: miaofangmf@ 163,com

  19. The journey,gain,and thought from engaging in the research of Chinese herbal medicines in China,Japan,and United States%The journey, gain, and thought from engaging in the research of Chinese herbal medicines in China, Japan, and United States

    LIUYan-ze; DENG Zhu-ping


    Since early 80s of last century,Chinese herbal medicines focused on the isolation and structural identification of active/chemical compounds have being investigated,started the journey from Henan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.After one year (1985~ 1986) advanced study in Prof.Jingxi Xie's laboratory in the Institute of Materia Medica,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences in Beijing,further studies in Prof.Takuo Okuda's laboratory,Okayama University,Japan as a guest researcher from 1988 to 1992 opened a fresh and amazing gate of tannin chemistry.Near 10 years'investigation of tannins and related polyphenols from Chinese herbal medicines,supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China and other grants,some typical herbs containing tannins and related polyphenols as major active components have been in-depth studied,such as Loropetalum chinense,Epilobium angustifolium,Rhodmyrtus tomentosa,Lythrum salicaria,Epilobium pyrricholophum,Rodgersia podoph ylla,Punica granatum,Euphorbia humifusa,and Cornus of ficinalis etc.Hundreds of diversified tannins and related polyphenols have been isolated including monomer,dimmer,trimer of ellagitannins and C-glycosidic tannins etc.

  20. Creato un nuovo stato della materia

    Valsecchi, M C


    "Nei laboratori di tutto il mondo nascono continuamente nuovi materiali plastici, leghe di metallo, molecole progettate e assemblate atomo per atomo. I ricercatori dell'Istituto nazionale di fisica nucleare hanno fatto un passo in piu': manipolando i costituenti fondamentali dei nuclei atomici, hanno creato una nuova forma di materia, radicalmente diversa da quella che noi conosciamo" (1 page)

  1. Analysis of characters of bitter flavor in Chinese medicinal%苦味药材性状分析

    纪玉佳; 王鹏; 李佳; 张永清; 滕佳林; 王振国


    Bitter flavor(taste) is an important part of the theory of Chinese herbal property. Different material composition not only aflect the medicinal characters,but also affect the the properties and flavors of Chinese materia medica. Total 1 728 Chinese medicinal which cold or heat property were described definitely in Herbal Medicine were selected. The relationship between bitter flavor and the characters was studied by using mathematical statistical methods. The results showed that the bitter flavor was effected by texture,flavor,taste,external color. The more crisp,bitter and astringent the Chinese medicinal is,the more bitter it is. The more sweet,salty,spicy and white the Chinese medicinal is,the less bitter it is.%苦味是中药药性理论的重要组成部分.不同的物质组成影响着药材性状,也影响着药材性味.选取《中华本草》所载1 728种寒热药性明确的中药,运用数学统计方法,研究了中药苦味与药材性状的关系,认为药材质地、气味、味道、外观颜色共同影响着中药苦味.药材性状质脆、味苦或味涩越多的中药,药材性味越偏向苦味;药材性状气香、味甘、味咸、味辛和白色越多的中药,药材性味越远离苦味.

  2. 浅谈中药三七及其有效成分对血液系统的药理活性研究概况%Introduction to Chinese Traditional Medicine Notoginseng and the Pharmacological Activity of the Research of the Effective Components of the Blood System



    Notoginseng is recorded in the texts of the motherland medicine, it is a kind of commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. Li shizhen called it as the "voice". Years of clinical application of fully conifrmed that Chinese medicine notoginseng medicinal value, however, its medicinal development is far from its own value. Analysis and summarize the "compendium of materia medica", "Chinese medicine dictionary aspects of the relevant information, in this paper, the traditional Chinese medicine notoginseng and their pharmacological activities of effective components of the blood system, this paper hopes to strengthen the research and development and utilization of panax notoginseng.%三七是祖国医学典籍中记载的一种传统常用中药,被李时珍誉称为“金不换”。多年的临床应用充分证实了中药三七的药用价值,然而,其药用开发远未达到其自身价值水平。分析和总结《本草纲目》、《中药大辞典》等多方面有关资料,本文对中药三七及其有效成分对血液系统的药理活性加以论述,期望以此可加强对三七的研究以及开发利用。

  3. Combustión turbulenta de materia nuclear en materia extraña

    Vucetich, H.

    La simulación numérica de supernovas tipo II muestra que los mecanismos físicos convencionales no son suficientes como para producir la explosión. La detonación de materia nuclear en materia extraña es un mecanismo físico capaz de proveer la energía faltante en las simulaciones. En esta comunicación se muestra que la turbulencia en el corazón compacto de una supernova, después del primer choque, es capaz de transformar una combustión lenta en una detonación. Se concluye que, si la materia extraña existe, todas las ``estrellas de neutrones'' son, en realidad, ``estrellas extrañas''.

  4. 民国中西药学汇通代表作《汉药新觉》考略%Textual research on the Han yao xin jue (New Recognition of Chinese Medicines), a representative book of amalgamation of Chinese and western pharmacy in the Republican period



    郭若定《汉药新觉》为民国时期中西药学汇通的代表作,其上集曾被民国时期北平杂志《明日医药》连载,并刊有单行本.续集内容由其家属收藏,全书完整本于2010年由上海科学技术文献出版社出版,载药208种,以单味中药为主,并收部分复方药及西药.该书中西药学汇通思想,体现在3个方面:中西药物,兼收并蓄;衷中参西,继承创新;中西合参,旨在汇通.%Guo Ruo-ding's Han yao xin jue (New Recognition of Chinese Medicines) was the representative work of amalgamating Chinese and western pharmacy of the Republican period.Its first volume was published in Medicine Tomorrow in Peiping in installments,also with offprints; while the second volume was collected by his relatives.The whole book was published by the Shanghai Press of Science and Technology,carrying 208 kinds of Chinese materia medica mainly with individual drug descriptions,some compound prescriptions,and some western medicines.The amalgamating idea was expressed in three points:collection of both Chinese and western drugs; inheritance and creation with new idea of amalgamating Chinese and western medical systems; mutual consultation of Chinese and western medicine aiming at their amalgamation.

  5. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    Majd Ahmad; Falahian Fathollah; Mehrabian Sedigheh; Hashemi Mehrdad; Ardeshiry Lajimi Abdolreza; Entezari Maliheh


    Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured i...

  6. La realidad como materia novelable: Alejo Carpentier

    Raquel Arias Careaga


    Desde que en 1897 Benito Pérez Galdós defendiera como materia prima legítima de la literatura «la vida misma, de donde el artista saca las ficciones que nos instruyen y embelesan» (Pérez Galdós, 1990: 159), el realismo como instrumento de indagación y análisis de la sociedad no ha dejado de crecer y expandirse. Realismo crítico, como este de Galdós, que implica una ampliación del concepto chato de «realidad», incluyendo en ella «recuerdos, sueños, imaginación, locura, símbolos» para contribui...

  7. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Zhang, Hai-ming; Liang, Feng-xia


    Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications. PMID:25815039

  8. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Hai-ming Zhang


    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM. This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications.

  9. La realidad como materia novelable: Alejo Carpentier

    Raquel Arias Careaga


    Full Text Available Desde que en 1897 Benito Pérez Galdós defendiera como materia prima legítima de la literatura «la vida misma, de donde el artista saca las ficciones que nos instruyen y embelesan» (Pérez Galdós, 1990: 159, el realismo como instrumento de indagación y análisis de la sociedad no ha dejado de crecer y expandirse. Realismo crítico, como este de Galdós, que implica una ampliación del concepto chato de «realidad», incluyendo en ella «recuerdos, sueños, imaginación, locura, símbolos» para contribuir a la formación de un «realismo total» (Rodríguez Puértolas, 2000, II: 93, al que se une también la asimilación de enseñanzas esenciales como la que representa la narrativa de Cervantes: La novelística de Galdós hunde sus raíces en el mejor Cervantes, como puede verse en su peculiar sentido del humor y de la ironía, en la concepción perspectivista de la realidad y en tantas otras cosas, algunas de ellas en verdad fundamentales. Así el concepto de la Naturaleza y sus relaciones dialécticas con el ser humano; así el Amor como elemento vital y animador del orden cósmico, muy alejado del idealismo vulgar romántico (Ibid., 93.

  10. Materia y Pobreza = Matter and Poverty

    María Teresa Muñoz


    Full Text Available ResumenLa acumulación material es uno de los signos más identificables de la pobreza. El pobre vive apegado a la tierra, esa es su única posesión y a partir de ella construirá sus refugios, sus habitaciones, sus utensilios. Las construcciones de arcilla, de barro, moldeadas con gran abundancia de materia  se encuentran en los poblados primitivos, pero cualquier situación marcada por la extrema pobreza lo estará también por las acumulaciones de material. Resulta inimaginable una situación de pobreza que no implique la acumulación de materia y esto es particularmente evidente en las sociedades desarrolladas, donde un mendigo es reconocible por su montaña de ropas, calzado o enseres de todo tipo.Resulta, sin embargo, significativo que en los discursos de los ideólogos de la modernidad, la identificación de ésta con el advenimiento de una sociedad sin clases venga acompañada de una apelación a la pobreza, una nueva pobreza fría y sobria, propia de una habitación humana abierta y transparente, casi desnuda, e igualitaria para todos los hombres sin distinción de clases sociales. Así, la pobreza moderna estaría ligada al material, a los nuevos materiales, pero no es una condición impuesta, sino elegida, o al menos aceptada como inevitable por el nuevo hombre.La convivencia entre una pobreza de la acumulación material y una pobreza de ascetismo y renuncia es un hecho tanto en los discursos como en las obras de las vanguardias del siglo XX. La acumulación de materia informe y trabajada manualmente tiene lugar al mismo tiempo que la exhibición de la desnudez y la frialdad de los materiales producidos por la industria.  Y en ambos casos, se apela a la pobreza como última referencia para las obras que tratan de ser una expresión fiel de las aspiraciones de su época.Palabras clavemateria, pobreza, material, acumulación, modernidad, sociedadAbstractAccumulation of matter is one of the most recognizable signs of poverty. The poor

  11. Anàlisi de la utilització de medicaments en població pediàtrica i adulta utilització de medicaments en condicions no aprovades /

    Danés Carreras, Immaculada; Vallano Ferraz, Antonio


    Els estudis d'utilització de medicaments permeten identificar els patrons d'ús dels medicaments en diferents poblacions, ja siguin adults o nens. Un aspecte és l'anàlisi de l'ús de medicaments en condicions diferents a les autoritzades a la fitxa tècnica. Aquesta tesi és una anàlisi de diferents aspectes de l'ús de medicaments en condicions no aprovades després que es publiqués el Reial Decret 1015/2009 del 19 de juny pel qual es regula la disponibilitat de medicaments en diferents situacions...

  12. Anàlisi de la utilització de medicaments en població pediàtrica i adulta. utilització de medicaments en condicions no aprovades

    Danés Carreras, Immaculada


    Els estudis d'utilització de medicaments permeten identificar els patrons d'ús dels medicaments en diferents poblacions, ja siguin adults o nens. Un aspecte és l’anàlisi de l’ús de medicaments en condicions diferents a les autoritzades a la fitxa tècnica. Aquesta tesi és una anàlisi de diferents aspectes de l’ús de medicaments en condicions no aprovades després que es publiqués el Reial Decret 1015/2009 del 19 de juny pel qual es regula la disponibilitat de medicaments en diferents situacions...

  13. [Popular knowledge about medicaments in 19th century periodicals].

    Arabas, Iwona


    Polish periodicals published since the beginning of 19th century contained household knowledge which was of great importance to peasants. In the second half of 19th century the number of articles related to prevention, treatment as well as life hygiene (including nutrition guidance) enlarged significantly. The term "household medicine box# was very often used in periodicals as titles of both: sections dedicated to hygiene or medicine as well as for articles describing medicaments intended to be kept in the boxes. Articles referenced law regulations stated in "law for pharmacists and pharmacies# from 1844. The availability of medical handbooks widened with the end of the century and this fact may have caused the changes in profiles of numerous medical sections in popular periodicals. However the changes did not affect publications related to contents of medical boxes. PMID:17152882

  14. LaMedica - Eine multimediale online Lehr- und Lernplattform [

    Stracke, Sylvia


    Full Text Available [english] The project LaMedica ( has as its aim the development of a multimedia teaching and learning platform, the compilation of contents for medicine and the implementation of these in the teaching process. An on-line author environment was created which supports a variety of didactic approaches: systematic and networked communication of knowledge, case-based learning, the creation of lectures and learning sequence checks. The teaching contents can be edited and illustrated, and are aimed in particular at students, doctors in continuing education and specialists. An on-line media databank supports the re-use and the exchange of contents on the basis of a content management system through the use of the Learning Objects Metadata standards (LOM. Funding is provided by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (FKZ NM054A. [german] Das Projekt LaMedica ( hat zum Ziel, eine multimediale Lehr- und Lernplattform zu entwickeln, Inhalte für die Medizin zu erstellen und diese in die Lehre zu implementieren. Es wurde eine on-line Autorenumgebung geschaffen, die sehr unterschiedliche didaktische Ansätze unterstützt: systematische und vernetzte Wissensvermittlung, fallbasiertes Lernen, Erstellung von Vorlesungen und Lernerfolgskontrolle. Die Lehrinhalte können zielgruppenspezifisch aufbereitet und dargestellt werden und richten sich insbesondere an Studenten, Ärzte in der Weiterbildung und Fachärzte. Eine on-line Medien-Datenbank unterstützt die Wiederverwendung und den Austausch von Inhalten auf der Basis eines Content-Management-Systems durch Verwendung des Learning Objects Metadata Standards (LOM. Die Förderung erfolgt durch das BMBF (FKZ NM054A.

  15. A ten-year audit of traditional Chinese medicine and other natural product research published in the Chinese Medical Journal (2000-2009)

    Richard A. Collins


    Background Clinical research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and natural product research have made great contributions to preventing and treating illness. The number and content of original research reports evaluating TCM and natural products have not previously been described. Information in this area will identify areas of relative strength and weakness in terms of knowledge gaps with respect to clinical conditions and natural product remedies.Methods Original research reports (i.e. original articles, brief reports, and research letters) published in the Chinese Medical Journal (CMJ) from January 2000 to December 2009 evaluating TCM and other natural products were reviewed.The United Kingdom Clinical Research Collaboration (UK-CRC) Health Research Classification System was used to analyze the type of health research conducted. Further analysis on the major illnesses addressed and the major herbal components utilized was conducted.Results One hundred and seventeen original research reports involving TCM or other natural products were identified,comprising 3.82% of the CMJ output in the period covered by this study. Of the different materia medica described in these reports, 74.4% were derived exclusively from plant material, 10.3% from animals, 3.4% from fungi, 1.7% from minerals, and 10.3% were of mixed (plant / animal / fungal / mineral) composition. Twelve herbs were investigated exclusively or were constituents of 66/87 (75.9%) of the plant-based materia medica investigated. Panax ginseng was the most commonly investigated herb or constituent (14/87, 16.1%), followed by Astragalus membranaceus (9/87, 10.3%),Coptis chinensis/Berberis spp. (7/87, 8.0%) and Rheum spp. (7/87, 8.0%). Four UK-CRC health categories accounted for the majority of TCM and other natural product research (cancer, 20.9%; cardiovascular, 19.2%; oral/gastrointestinal,9.8%; and inflammatory/immune, 9.0%). The most common research activity was

  16. Ciencia con Euclid: Materia y Energía Oscura

    Pérez Garrido, Antonio; Díaz Sánchez, Anastasio; Jódar Ferrández, Ester; TOLEDO MOREO, Rafael; Villo Pérez, Isidro; Garrigós Guerrero, Francisco Javier; Martínez Álvarez, José Javier; Toledo Moreo, Francisco Javier; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel


    Recientemente se aprobó la construcción del satélite espacial Euclid, que se encargará de indagar en dos de los grandes misterios actuales de la Ciencia: la materia oscura y la energía oscura. La UPCT participa tanto a nivel tecnológico como científico en esta misión espacial cuyo lanzamiento está previsto para el año 2019. Las primeras evidencias de la existencia de la materia oscura datan de 1932. Se presupone su existencia ya que, entre otras cosas, la distribución de velocidades de las es...

  17. The effects of dyadic combinations of endodontic medicaments on microbial growth inhibition.

    Seow, W K


    In recent years dyadic combinations of endodontic medicaments have been used increasingly in clinical pediatric dentistry with little regard to the possibility of pharmacological antagonism of the components. In this investigation, a microbial growth inhibition assay was used to determine changes in antimicrobial activity in dyadic mixtures of endodontic medicaments. The combinations assayed were Ledermix (corticosteroid-antibiotic) and Calyxl (calcium hydroxide), Ledermix and Kri (iodoform), Kri and Calyxl, and formocresol and eugenol. All these compounds have antibacterial activity when used individually. In the dyadic combinations assayed, results showed that adding calcium hydroxide to another antibiotic preparation has deleterious effects on growth inhibition, and combining any two antimicrobial medicaments produces no additive or synergistic effects. It is concluded that it may be clinically advantageous to use endodontic medicaments in the dyadic combinations shown in this investigation. PMID:2128893

  18. Pediatric liquid medicaments – Are they cariogenic? An in vitro study

    Babu, K. L. Girish; Doddamani, Geeta Maruti; Naik, L. R. Kumaraswamy; Jagadeesh, K. N.


    Aim: Young and chronically sick children receive a variety of oral liquid medications on a routine and regular basis. These pharmaceutical preparations are cariogenic and acidogenic in nature. Hence, the present study was taken up to determine the cariogenic potential of the commonly prescribed pediatric liquid medicaments. Materials and Methods: Eight commonly used pediatric liquid medicaments (PLM) were selected and their endogenous pH was measured using a pH electrode meter. The sugar cont...

  19. 白花丹的药学研究与临床应用概述%Materia Medica Research and Clinical Application of Plumbago Zeylanica L.

    赵铁建; 方卓



  20. Extraction, Modelling and Purification of Flavonoids from Citrus Medica Peel

    M. Parvathi Nandan


    Full Text Available Soxhlet extraction technique is widely employed for the extraction and separation of chemical constituents in the medicinal plants. Citrus medica L commonly called as Citron belongs to family Rutaceae, is a slow-growing shrub. It is mainly cultivated for the production of edible fruits which are sour in taste like lime and lemon and the main content of a citron fruit is the thick rind, which is very adherent to the segments. From the phytochemical analysis the peel extract is rich source of phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids. The objective of present work is to develop a modelling equation for quercetin, rutin and kaempferol and the crude extract obtained by soxhlet extraction was further purified by solvent-solvent extraction and Column chromatography. Extraction was carried out by 80% methanol as a solvent Soxhlet extractor. Soxhlet extraction with methanol was carried out with varying time intervals, to evaluate modelling equation. The proposed modelling equation was Es = 0.0849(t + 7.0286 for Quercetin and Es = 0.0912(t + 25.971 for rutin, and Es = 0.0267(t + 7.3714 for Kaempferol. High yield was obtained for 180min of Soxhlet extraction with 80% methanol. Yield of quercetin, rutin and kaempferol after solvent-solvent extraction and column chromatography was 22.6µg/ml, 43.7µg/ml and 10.8µg/ml respectively. The proposed model showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. PH of endodontic medicaments used in pediatric dentistry: effects of dyadic combinations.

    Anderson, M; Seow, W K


    The optimum pH of an endodontic medicament is close as possible to that of body fluids, i.e., around 7.2 as higher and lower pH's are likely to cause cellular necrosis of tissues in direct contact with the medicament. This study investigated the pH of various endodontic medicaments commonly used in pediatric dentistry, both singly and in the various combinations available for clinical use. The results showed that the pH ranged from a low of 2.90 +/- 0.02 for iodoform paste (Kri) to a high of 12.45 +/- 0.02 for calcium hydroxide (Calyxl). Eugenol showed a pH of 4.34 +/- 0.05, formocresol 2.79 +/- 0.02, and a commercially-available antibiotic-corticosteroid paste (Ledermix) 8.13 +/- 0.01. Addition of up to 50 percent (v/v) of Ledermix or 25 percent Kri respectively did not affect the pH of Calyxl significantly. Although the addition of up to 75 percent Kri to Ledermix caused a fall in pH, the changes are probably not significant clinically. Furthermore, the addition of 50 percent eugenol to formocresol increased its pH significantly. The optimum pH of an endodontic medicament is as close as possible to that of body fluids, i.e., around 7.2. Higher and lower pH's are likely to cause cellular necrosis of tissues in direct contact with the medicament. However with the exception of calcium hydroxide there has been very little information available on the pH of endodontic medicaments commonly used in pediatric dentistry. Medicaments such as formocresol, eugenol and iodoform pastes have been extensively used for endodontic therapy yet very little attention has been given to their pH values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2129105

  2. Study of contact dermatitis due to topical medicaments and cosmetics by patch testing

    Vij Amit


    Full Text Available Background: Contact dermatitis is the most common immunological disorder encountered by the dermatologist and it arises when a person develops delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction to a substance coming in contact with his skin. The patch test is at present a helpful test for demonstrating contact type of allergy that identifies the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Aim: To study the common topical medicaments and cosmetics capable of producing contact dermatitis and value of patch testing in these situations. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients suspected of having contact sensitivity to topical medicaments and common cosmetics were subjected to patch testing with the finished commercial product being used by the patient and the antigens of the Indian Standard Series and Cosmetic series kit. Results: Positivity with patch test of 96.65% was observed in patients with contact dermatitis to topical medicaments, whereas 85% of the patients with cosmetic dermatitis were tested positive. Among the cases with contact dermatitis to topical medicaments, Neomycin was tested positive in more number of patients and among the patients with cosmetic dermatitis; Kum-Kum powder and Fairness cream were tested positive in more number of patients. Conclusion: It is well known that topical medicaments are known to produce contact dermatitis; the cosmetics that are claimed to be very safe by their manufacturers do not stay much behind in doing so.

  3. The effect of carvacrol on Enterococcus faecalis as an intracanal medicament-Invitro study

    Sharifian M.


    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Researches have shown that bacteria play the main role in development of pulpal and periapical diseases. Chemo-mechanical cleaning of infected root-canal system can not remove all of the microorganisms. Thus interappointment medicaments are necessary to aid this goal. Calcium hydroxide is one of the most useful medicaments in root canal therapy, but this medicament can not eliminated all of the bacteria in root canal system. Carvacrol is an edible plant extract that has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. If this extract is effective against endodontic bacteria, it can be used as an root canal medicament. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, Initially, MIC and MBC of carvacrol detected with Macro broth dilution method and determined as 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. After that, 30 single root and single canal extracted human teeth were used in this study. The number of specimens determined in a pilot study on 4 extracted teeth. After preparation to apical size # 30 with hand and rotary instruments, teeth were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups. After culturing Enterococcus faecalis in prepared canals, we used emulsion of 0.6% carvacrol and calcium hydroxide in two A and B experimental groups for 7 days as the intracanal medicament. Microbial samples obtained before and after experiment. Then, canals with negative culture selected to obtain dentinal shaving to culture. Data obtained from microbiological samples analyzed with kruskal-wallis and Bonferroni tests. "nResults: Results of this study showed that emulsion of 0.6% carvacrol has no significant difference with calcium hydroxide in elimination enterococcus faecalis after 7 days dressing (p>0.05. "nConclusion: Carvacrol can be used as an intrappointment intracanal medicament.

  4. Materia extraña en el universo

    A Pérez Martínez


    Full Text Available La hipótesis de la materia de quarks extraña constituye una de las especulaciones más excitantes de la Física del siglo XX. Si dicha hipótesis fuese correcta, la materia de quarks constituiría el estado más fundamental de la materia, conformaría el nucleo de objetos compactos como las estrellas de neutrones y podría formar objetos aun más exóticos como las estrellas de quarks. Debido al régimen de alta densidad y baja temperatura al que se encuentran sometidas estas estrellas es posible que la interacción atractiva de los quarks, a través del intercambio de gluones, favorezca la aparición de una fase superconductora de color, modificando significativamente la ecuación de estado del sistema. En este trabajo se pretende dar un panorama general de esta tematica, teniendo en cuenta, además, la influencia de campos magnéticos intensos en las estrellas de quarksThe strange quark matter hypothesis is one of the most exciting speculations of the XX Century Physics. If this hypothesis is correct, the ground state of the matter would be the strange matter, which could form the core of compact objects like neutron stars or even more exotic objects like quarks stars. Due to the high-density and low-temperature regime in these stars, the interaction between quarks through gluon exchange could favor the appearance of a color superconducting state, significantl modifying the equation of state of the system. In this paper we present a general overview of this subject, taking also into account the effect of strong magnetic field in the quark stars

  5. Identification of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus from Foshou (Citrus medica) in China

    In China, Foshou (Buddha’s hand), C. medica var. sarcodactylus Swing, is commonly cultured and valued for its fragrance and used medicinally as a stomach, stimulant, expectorant and tonic. Since 1999, we noted that Foshou succumbs to Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow shoot disease with incidence up to 4...

  6. Pintura, una materia interdisciplinar. Metodologías docentes

    Cantalozella i Planas, Joaquim; Negre, Marta, 1973-


    El grado de Bellas Artes permite revisar las asignaturas vinculadas a los talleres de creación y mejorar las metodologías docentes. Pintura pasará a compartir espacio con las materias de Dibujo, Escultura y más adelante Imagen. Así pues, lo que se impone es un aprendizaje basado en la interdisciplinariedad que puede llegar a proporcionar una mayor flexibilidad del conocimiento. El artículo presenta una serie de reflexiones sobre la docencia en los talleres de Pintura, de los dos primeros curs...

  7. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Cuminum Cyminum as an Intracanal Medicament Compared to Chlorhexidine Gel

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Gholami, Ahmad; Ghahramani, Yasamin; Ghareghan, Razieh; Ghareghan, Marzieh; Kazemi, Aboozar; Iraji, Aida; Ghasemi, Younes


    Introduction: The aims of this study were i) to define the chemical constituents of Cuminum cyminum (cumin) essential oil, ii) to compare the antimicrobial activity of this oil to that of chlorhexidine (CHX) and co-trimoxazole on planktonic and biofilm forms of bacteria isolated from the teeth with persistent endodontic infection and iii) to compare the cytotoxicity of these medicaments on L929 fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: Three groups of microorganisms [aerobic bacterial mixture, anaerobic bacterial mixture and Enterococcus faecalis (E .faecalis)] were isolated from the teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. Zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) and time-kill tests were performed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the medicaments. Further, a cytocompatibility analysis of the medicaments was performed on L929 fibroblasts. The results obtained from disc diffusion test and mean cell viability values of the experimental medicaments were analyzed using two-way and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Seventeen constituents were recognized in cumin oil (predominantly cumin aldehyde and γ-terpinene). Co-trimoxazole showed the greatest ZOI followed by cumin and CHX. The smallest MIC and MBC belonged to co-trimoxazole followed by cumin and CHX for all groups of bacteria except for E. faecalis for which the MBC of cumin was smaller than co-trimoxazole. The results of time-kill assay revealed that all medicaments totally inhibited the bacterial growth in all groups after 24 h. CHX was the most cytotoxic solution while there were no significant differences between the cytocompatibility of different concentrations of cumin essential oil and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion: Cumin exhibited a strong antimicrobial efficiency against the microbial flora of the teeth with failed endodontic treatments and it was biocompatible for L929 mouse

  8. Therapeutic uses of animal biles in traditional Chinese medicine: an ethnopharmacological, biophysical chemical and medicinal review.

    Wang, David Q-H; Carey, Martin C


    Forty-four different animal biles obtained from both invertebrates and vertebrates (including human bile) have been used for centuries for a host of maladies in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) beginning with dog, ox and common carp biles approximately in the Zhou dynasty (c. 1046-256 BCE). Overall, different animal biles were prescribed principally for the treatment of liver, biliary, skin (including burns), gynecological and heart diseases, as well as diseases of the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and throat. We present an informed opinion of the clinical efficacy of the medicinal uses of the different animal biles based on their presently known principal chemical components which are mostly steroidal detergent-like molecules and the membrane lipids such as unesterified cholesterol and mixed phosphatidylcholines and sometimes sphingomyelin, as well as containing lipopigments derived from heme principally bilirubin glucuronides. All of the available information on the ethnopharmacological uses of biles in TCM were collated from the rich collection of ancient Chinese books on materia medica held in libraries in China and United States and the composition of various animal biles was based on rigorous separatory and advanced chemical identification techniques published since the mid-20(th) century collected via library (Harvard's Countway Library) and electronic searches (PubMed and Google Scholar). Our analysis of ethnomedical data and information on biliary chemistry shows that specific bile salts, as well as the common bile pigment bilirubin and its glucuronides plus the minor components of bile such as vitamins A, D, E, K, as well as melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) are salutary in improving liver function, dissolving gallstones, inhibiting bacterial and viral multiplication, promoting cardiac chronotropsim, as well as exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-oxidant, sedative, anti-convulsive, anti-allergic, anti-congestive, anti-diabetic and anti

  9. Modelo Interactuante entre Energ ́ Oscura y Materia Oscura

    De ARcia Solís, Roberto Carlos


    El modelo Materia Oscura Fría con Constante Cosmo ógica o “Lambda Cold Dark Matter” (ΛCDM por sus siglas en inglés) es llamado el modelo estándar de la cosmología ya que describe de manera general como está formado el Universo, su dinámica a grandes escalas de distancia (del orden de cientos de Megaparsecs) y es capaz de explicar fenómenos que hasta hace algunos años eran un misterio. El modelo considera que del contenido total del Universo, ∼ 5 % está compuesto por partícu...

  10. El electrón en la materia condensada

    Rojo, Juan Manuel


    Full Text Available Not available.Se lleva a cabo una discusión sobre las características de los estados de los electrones en la materia condensada. Se analizan tres propiedades importantes de dichos estados: 1 el canje entre electrones, responsable del magnetismo, con énfasis en sistemas de interés actual como aglomerados pequeños y materiales amorfos; 2 el apareamiento entre electrones con una nota sobre la superconductividad a alta temperatura y 3 el túnel de electrones, mostrándose algunos ejemplos recientes de la aplicación del túnel al estudio a escala atómica de fenómenos de superficie.

  11. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of intracanal medicaments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars-an in vivo study

    Lele G


    Full Text Available Antibacterial efficacy of formocresol, 2% gluteraldehyde and iodine-potassium iodide was assessed by obtaining cultures at consecutive appointments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars. Formocresol and 2% gluteraldehyde were more effective as intracanal medicaments and caused significant reduction in the counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, thereby supporting the need for placing intracanal medicaments with antibacterial properties, in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars.

  12. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn.) and its use in food system

    Rojanakorn, T.; Lerkchaiyaphum, K.; Nantachai, K.; Tangwongchai, R.


    Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD). Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the m...

  13. An Update on the Management of Endodontic Biofilms Using Root Canal Irrigants and Medicaments

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan


    Microbial biofilm is defined as a sessile multicellular microbial community characterized by cells that are firmly attached to a surface and enmeshed in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilms play a very important role in pulp and periradicular pathosis. The aim of this article was to review the role of endodontic biofilms and the effects of root canal irrigants, medicaments as well as lasers on biofilms A Medline search was performed on the English articles pu...

  14. Physicochemical Properties and Fungitoxicity of the Essential Oil of Citrus medica L. against Groundnut Storage Fungi

    ESSIEN, Emmanuel Peter; ESSIEN, Joseph Peter; Ita, Basil Nse


    The in vitro antifungal effect of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. on storage fungi of Arachis hypogea L. stored for 6 months was evaluated using the disc diffusion agar method. The oil exhibited a wide spectrum of fungitoxicity, inhibiting all 14 fungus species tested. Thus, the oil can be exploited as a fumigant against storage fungi for the preservation of stored legume seeds due to its wide range of activity, non-phytotoxicity, and long-term persistence of fungitoxicity.

  15. Tinjauan higiene dan Sanitasi Dalam Penyelenggaraan Makanan Di Instalasi Gizi RSU Artha Medica Binjai Tahun 2010



    Hospital as one of health institution has a duty that support in medical patient healing and recovering by institutional food service healthy and hygiene food. Because of that, it needs to managed the healthy food and fulfill the condition of standard sanitation for hygiene food. The purpose for this research was for hygiene evaluation and food processing sanitation at Nutrition Instalation of Artha Medica Hospital Binjai in completing hygiene quality standard and managed sanitation food...

  16. Yeast α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    Chao Tan


    Full Text Available Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1, quercetin (2, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4, rutin (5, chlorogenic acid (6 and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7. All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively.

  17. Consumer’s intentions to shop medicaments on-line: A survey from Czech Republic market

    Jan Svorc


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to identify what are the main determinants of the consumer’s intentions to shop medicaments online in Czech Republic; grounded mainly on theoretical models such as Technology Acceptance Model this research specifically aims to identify whether there are relations between these intentions and perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived risk, past experience, consumer trust and consumer social norms. Second goal is to identify whether there are differences in intentions to buy medicaments online among the main demographic groups based on age, gender, income and education in Czech Republic. The questionnaire survey method was used. Data collected were analysed using correlation and regression analysis to determine the significance of the relationship between the respective variables. Demographic group’s differences were analysed using t-test and analysis of variance. The results showed that the significant relations exist between consumer’s intention to shop medicaments online and all examined variables in Czech Republic. Multiple regression analysis of the model has shown that only perceived risk and perceived usefulness are the significant predictors for intention. There are no significant differences among the demographic groups based on age, gender, income and education.

  18. Candida materiae sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from rotting wood in the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Barbosa, Anne C; Cadete, Raquel M; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A


    Three strains of a novel yeast species, Candida materiae sp. nov., were isolated from rotting wood in an Atlantic rain forest site in Brazil. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA showed that this species belonged to the Spathaspora clade and was related to Candida jeffriesii and Spathaspora passalidarum. Unlike C. jeffriesii and S. passalidarum, C. materiae sp. nov. did not ferment xylose. The type strain of C. materiae sp. nov. is UFMG-07-C15.1BT (=CBS 10975T=CBMAI 956T). PMID:19605715

  19. Effect of calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste as intracanal medicaments on the incidence of inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients: An in vivo study

    Swathi Pai; A R Vivekananda Pai; Thomas, Manuel S; Vishal Bhat


    Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of antibacterial intracanal medicaments on inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty diabetic patients requiring root canal treatment were assigned into groups I, II, and III. In group I, no intracanal medicament was placed. In groups II and III, calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic pastes were placed as intracanal medicaments, respectively. Patients were instructed to record their pain on days 1, 2, 3, 7, and ...

  20. Effects of Chinese herbs on multiple ion channels in isolated ventricular myocytes

    LI Ning; MA Ke-juan; WU Xiang-feng; SUN Qi; ZHANG Yi-hui; PU Jie-lin


    Background Shensong Yangxin (SSYX) is one of the compound recipe of Chinese materia medica. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of SSYX on sodium current (INa), L-type calcium current (ICa,L), transient outward potassium current (Ito), delayed rectifier current (IK), and inward rectifier potassium currents (IK1) in isolated ventricular myocytes.Methods Whole cell patch-clamp technique was used to study ion channel currents in enzymatically isolated guinea pig or rat ventricular myocytes.Results SSYX decreased peak INa by (44.84±7.65)% from 27.21±5.35 to 14.88±2.75 pA/pF (n=5, P<0.05). The medicine significantly inhibited the ICa,L. At concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 g/100 mi, the peak ICa,L was reduced by(19.22±1.10)%, (44.82±6.50)% and (50.69±5.64)%, respectively (n=5, all P<0.05). SSYX lifted the Ⅰ-Ⅴ curve of both INa and ICa,L without changing the threshold, peak and reversal potentials. At the concentration of 0.5%, the drug blocked the transient component of Ito by 50.60% at membrane voltage of 60 mV and negatively shifted the inactive curve and delayed the recovery from channel inactivation. The tail current density of IK was decreased by (30.77±1.11)% (n=5,P<0.05) at membrane voltage of 50 mV after exposure to the medicine and the time-dependent activity of IK was also inhibited. Similar to the effect on IK, the SSYX inhibited IK1 by 33.10% at the test potential of -100 mV with little effect on reversal potential and the rectification property.Conclusions The experiments revealed that SSYX could block multiple ion channels such as INa ICa,L, Ik, Ito and IK1,which may change the action potential duration and contribute to some of its antiarrhythmic effects.

  1. Materia y energía oscuras, ¿qué son?

    G.A. Caldera-Cabral; Ureña-López, L. A.


    Uno de los problemas m´as importantes de la cosmolog´ #305;a actual es el determinar la naturaleza de la materia oscura y la energ´ #305;a oscura. Presentaremos un resumen de las evidencias observacionales de la existencia de la materia oscura, y se revisar´an algunos de los posibles candidatos propuestos en la literatura. De igual manera, describiremos modelos din´amicos de energ´ #305;a oscura como Quintessence y Phantom.

  2. Desarrollo de la materia Proyectos. Grado de Comunicación Audiovisual. Universitat de Barcelona

    Romeo Delgado, Marina; Yepes i Baldó, Montserrat; Burset Burillo, Sílvia; García Asensio, Ma. Ángeles; González Argüello, Ma. Vicenta (María Vicenta); Sánchez, Lydia; Berger, Rita


    El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar la propuesta de desarrollo de la materia Proyectos del Grado de Comunicación Audiovisual de la Universidad de Barcelona, que incluye las asignaturas Proyectos I y Proyectos II. Ambas asignaturas son especialmente idóneas para trabajar las competencias transversales del grado, dado que el objetivo de la materia a la que pertenecen es integrar las competencias adquiridas en el conjunto de asignaturas cursadas por los alumnos hasta este momento, poni...

  3. La legislación más relevante en materia de adicciones

    Cobas Cobiella, María Elena


    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo, exponer sucintamente, y acotada cronológicamente, la legislación más destacada en materia de adicción, con especial referencia al alcoholismo, tabaquismo y drogas. Igualmente se expondrán aquellos elementos comunes y principios que identifica la legislación estatal, y las legislacio­nes autonómicas en la materia.

  4. Identification of Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) medicae based on a specific genomic sequence unveiled by M13-PCR fingerprinting.

    Dourado, Ana Catarina; Alves, Paula I L; Tenreiro, Tania; Ferreira, Eugénio M; Tenreiro, Rogério; Fareleira, Paula; Crespo, M Teresa Barreto


    A collection of nodule isolates from Medicago polymorpha obtained from southern and central Portugal was evaluated by M13-PCR fingerprinting and hierarchical cluster analysis. Several genomic clusters were obtained which, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected representatives, were shown to be associated with particular taxonomic groups of rhizobia and other soil bacteria. The method provided a clear separation between rhizobia and co-isolated non-symbiotic soil contaminants. Ten M13-PCR groups were assigned to Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) medicae and included all isolates responsible for the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules upon re-inoculation of M. polymorpha test-plants. In addition, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprinting indicated a high genomic heterogeneity within the major M13- PCR clusters of S. medicae isolates. Based on nucleotide sequence data of an M13-PCR amplicon of ca. 1500 bp, observed only in S. medicae isolates and spanning locus Smed_3707 to Smed_3709 from the pSMED01 plasmid sequence of S. medicae WSM419 genome's sequence, a pair of PCR primers was designed and used for direct PCR amplification of a 1399-bp sequence within this fragment. Additional in silico and in vitro experiments, as well as phylogenetic analysis, confirmed the specificity of this primer combination and therefore the reliability of this approach in the prompt identification of S. medicae isolates and their distinction from other soil bacteria. PMID:20112226

  5. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla


    Introduction: Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). Aim: To evaluate journal “Acta Informatica Medica” in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). Results: A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by “Publish or Perish” software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Conclusion: Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine. PMID:27147796

  6. Medical Business Ethics in the XXI century; Deontologia medica del siglo XXI

    Moya Pueyo, V.


    Since ancient times the medical professional practice included moral rules in order to assure a correct approach of capital problems. These rules evolve and are now gathered in the Deontological Codes watching the Constitution and other higher Laws. There has been an increase of interest for none strictly clinical matter since the appearance of the term Bioethics. The book Deontologia medica en el siglo XXI tackles problems of first interest in the present times, thru statistics and analysis, trying to help the medical doctors that have to take ethic decisions. (Author)

  7. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn. and its use in food system

    Rojanakorn, T.


    Full Text Available Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD. Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the mathematics models, the condition of pH 2, 100ºC and 105 min was found to be the optimum conditions for pectin extraction from Citrus medica Linn. Mathematical and experimental results were verified. The use of extracted pectin as a gelling agent in pineapple jam revealed no significant difference in gel consistency compared to that of commercial pectin grade 150 (p>0.05. However, the commercial pectin had a higher liking score on the spreadability, texture and overall liking. As a stabilizer in chocolate pasteurised milk, 0.2% of the extracted pectin was required to prevent precipitation of chocolate powder with the similar viscosity obtained from 0.06% κ-carageenan

  8. In vitro effect of intracanal medicaments on strict anaerobes by means of the broth dilution method

    ROSA Odila Pereira da Silva


    Full Text Available The determination of bacterial susceptibility to intracanal medicaments is a necessity. Nevertheless, few studies utilize the proper methodology to carry out that evaluation with anaerobes. In this study, the steps of a broth dilution method, carried out in microplates (microdilution and tubes (macrodilution, to test the effect of traditional intracanal medicaments on anaerobic bacteria are described. The results are presented as values of minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC. Standardized inocula of the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (ATCC 33563, Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 25586 and Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 13124, in reinforced Clostridium medium (RCM and supplemented Brucella broth, were submitted to different concentrations of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine digluconate, camphorated paramonochlorophenol and formocresol solutions. The drugs were diluted in the same culture broths, in microplates and tubes, and were then incubated in anaerobiosis jars at 37ºC for 48 or 96 hours. The determination of MICs was carried out through visual and spectrophotometric readings, and the determination of MBCs, through the plating of aliquots on RCM-blood agar. For that kind of study, the macromethod with spectrophotometric reading should be the natural choice. MICs and MBCs obtained with the macromethod were compatible with the known clinical performance of the studied medications, and the values varied according to the bacteria and culture media employed. RCM was the most effective medium and C. perfringens, the most resistant microorganism.

  9. La pericia medico-legal en materia penal juvenil

    Ronald Salazar Murillo


    Full Text Available La reforma recién ocurrida en materia penal juvenil en Costa Rica reconoce al menor su personalidad jur{idica, le hace justicia, le otorga responsabilidad por sus acciones, para lo cual se ha diseñado un Sistema Penal Juvenil de fin pedagógico, educativo y formativo delmenor infractor y por ello puede ser objeto de peritación médicolegal, pericias físicas sobre su cuerpo y exámenes psicosociales. Interesa en la pericia f{isica establecer laedad del menor, especialmente en un país de alta inmigración indocumentada comoel nuestro donde diferencias de tan solo un mes pueden producir la aplicación o no de la Ley. Toda pericia debe respeta el pudor, evitar la revictimización y ser realizada por peritos forenses deseablemente. Es de interés también la constatación de la capacidad de culpabilidad, el grado de desarrollo y responsabiliadad de dirigir sus acciones e ilustrar al Juez y a las partes aacerca de las eventuales sanciones a imponer.The new reformation made in the Costa Rican Juvenile Law recognizes the legal personality of the minor, it makes him justice and gives him more responsability for his actions .For all these it has been design a Juvenile Law System with pedagogic, educative and formative ends for the minor transgressor , therefore it can be the object of medico-legal expertize, physical aspects like his body, his tests and psicoanalisis. The porpouse of physical expertize is to establish the age of the minor specially in a high undocumented migration country like ours, where differences of only a months can produce the aplication or not of the law. All the expertizes must respect the dignity, avoid the victimazation once again and be done by forensic experts by their own will. It is also important in medico-legal expertize the constation of capacity of guiltiness, the degree of development and responsability to direct their actions , and ilustrate to the judge and the parties, about the eventuals sanctions to impone.

  10. La materia administrativa y su gestión en el reinado de Fernando VII

    Barrero García, Ana María


    La organización de los asuntos de Estado en función de la materia sobre la que versaban fue el punto de arranque de las reformas llevadas a cabo en la Administración en el siglo XVIII . La materia administrativa aparecía diferenciada en cuatro causas: Justicia, Policía, Hacienda y Guerra, de las cuales, las de Justicia, Hacienda y Guerra encontraron cauce en sus respectivas Secretarías de Estado, pero no así la causa de Policía, cuyos asuntos fueron objeto de la atención ...

  11. Diagramas de energía, fuerza y materia = Diagrams of energy, force and matter

    Josep Maria Montaner


    ResumenEn este ensayo se va a tratar sobre arquitectura a partir de la definición de forma como “estructura esencial e interna, como construcción del espacio y de la materia”. Para ello, podemos establecer, como punto de partida, que el proceso de la arquitectura va de la energía, las fuerzas y la materia hacia la forma. Por tanto, teorizar sobre la forma en arquitectura nos lleva a reflexionar sobre tres fenómenos previos a su configuración: la energía, las fuerzas y la materia. Para seguir ...

  12. De la geosfera a la biosfera: circulación de materia en la naturaleza

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula L.


    Con este experimento, para alumnos de la educación secundaria, se pretende estimular el gusto por la ciencia experimental. De una manera lúdica, vamos a intentar ejemplificar el movimiento de la materia en la naturaleza e ilustrar las consecuencias que los desequilibrios en los ciclos biogeoquímicos pueden tener para los seres vivos.

  13. Acerca de una obra de materia religiosa en poder de moriscos valencianos

    Fierro Bello, María Isabel


    En el número anterior de esta revista se incluye un interesante artículo de M.= José Hermosilla titulado «Dos obras de materia religiosa en poder de moriscos valencianos»~. El texto designado con la sigla 11 se presta a algunas observaciones respecto a sus fuentes y a la identificación de su autor.

  14. Classification of Chinese herbs based on the cluster analysis of delayed luminescence.

    Pang, Jingxiang; Yang, Meina; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Liu, Yanli; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Fan, Hua; Han, Jinxiang


    Traditional Chinese material medica are an important component of the Chinese pharmacopeia. According to the traditional Chinese medicinal concept, Chinese herbal medicines are classified into different categories based on their therapeutic effects, however, the bioactive principles cannot be solely explained by chemical analysis. The aim of this study is to classify different Chinese herbs based on their therapeutic effects by using delayed luminescence (DL). The DL of 56 Chinese herbs was measured using an ultra-sensitive luminescence detection system. The different DL parameters were used to classify Chinese herbs according to a hierarchical cluster analysis. The samples were divided into two groups based on their DL kinetic parameters. Interestingly, the DL classification results were quite consistent with classification according to the Chinese medicinal concepts of 'cold' and 'heat' properties. In this paper, we show for the first time that by using DL technology, it is possible to classify Chinese herbs according to the Chinese medicinal concept and it may even be possible to predict their therapeutic properties. PMID:26240033

  15. [Deciphering the argots of the names of materia medica and its dosage in the Yi lin kou pu liu zhi mi shu (A Secret Medical Book of Six Therapies in Rhymes of Medical Professionals)].

    Zhou, Jian; Lin, Shiyi; Liu, Shijue


    Yi lin kou pu liu zhi mi shu (A Secret Medical Book of Six Therapies in Rhymes of Medical Professionals) was additionally compiled, supplemented and annotated by Zhou Sheng, a famous doctor of the Qing Dynasty, based on Yi lin kou pu (Rhymes of Medical Professionals) which was composed by Lu Qi. The book contains four volumes in total, dealing mainly with the miscellaneous diseases of internal medicine, as well as external medicine, gynecology, and pediatrics etc. The syndrome differentiation and treatment, prescriptions and medications in this book has its own characteristic with rather high academic value and practical significance. There were 20 drug names were deciphered by the argots, for instance, "you che" was the argot of golden thread, and "wu yue (May)" was the argot of medicinal evodia fruit, etc. In addition, the argots were often used to decipher numerals and quantifiers, for example, "su, qi, zi, qi, man" referring to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively, and "huo, pu, xiang, feng, lai" referring to 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 respectively, and "qing","zhong","xi" referring to qian, liang and fen respectively. Hence, deciphering of these argots could help to understand and apply these prescriptions correctly. PMID:25620357

  16. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra


    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs. PMID:25761857

  17. Complete genome sequence of the Medicago microsymbiont Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae strain WSM419

    Reeve, Wayne [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); O' Hara, Graham [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Ardley, Julie [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Nandesena, Kemanthi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Brau, Lambert [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Tiwari, Ravi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Kiss, Hajnalka [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gollagher, Margaret [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Yates, Ron [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Dilworth, Michael [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Howieson, John [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia


    Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae is an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual Medicago (medic) species. Strain WSM419 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod isolated from a M. murex root nodule collected in Sardinia, Italy in 1981. WSM419 was manufactured commercially in Australia as an inoculant for annual medics during 1985 to 1993 due to its nitrogen fixation, saprophytic competence and acid tolerance properties. Here we describe the basic features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first report of a complete genome sequence for a microsymbiont of the group of annual medic species adapted to acid soils. We reveal that its genome size is 6,817,576 bp encoding 6,518 protein-coding genes and 81 RNA only encoding genes. The genome contains a chromosome of size 3,781,904 bp and 3 plasmids of size 1,570,951 bp, 1,245,408 bp and 219,313 bp. The smallest plasmid is a feature unique to this medic microsymbiont.

  18. Condensación de Bose-Einstein. El quinto estado de la materia

    Gloria Peñaloza


    Full Text Available Se presenta una introducción al fenómeno sorprendente de condensación de la materia a temperaturas cercanas al cero absoluto. Este fenómeno está basado en los fundamentos cuánticos de la materia. Sus principales descubridores teóricos fueron S.Bose y A. Einstein. Se inicia con un poco de historia, para luego analizar el comportamiento físico del problema. Posteriormente se abordan algunos aspectos relevantes de sus aplicaciones tecnológicas, apartir de los resultados de investigación de los grupos enbezados por Eric Cornell (NIST, Carl Wieman (Universidad de Colorado y Wolfgang Ketterle (MIT.

  19. Orientaciones y bibliografía seleccionada en materia de residuos

    Chicharro Fernández, Elena; Galve Martín, Amelia


    El objetivo de este trabajo es la presentación y valoración de bibliografía sobre residuos, especialmente tóxicos y peligrosos, seleccionada en diferentes ámbitos temáticos. Para ello se ha consultado información de las bases de datos de organismos locales, regionales, nacionales e internacionales con competencias y responsabilidad en materia de residuos.

  20. Aspectos del procedimiento de evaluación de impacto ambiental neuquino en materia agraria

    Fuentes, Diego Ramiro


    El procedimiento de evaluación de impacto ambiental neuquino tuvo un notorio desarrollo en los últimos años. Merced a la ultima reforma constitucional, se institucionalizó la Licencia Ambiental, el Estudio, y la idea de planeamiento, como instituto fundamental para el desarrollo sustentable. El artículo resume el procedimiento de evaluación, su vínculo con el procedimiento administrativo general, y las previsiones específicas en materia agraria.

  1. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro


    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  2. Implement on GAP of Chinese Material Medica and Promote the Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine%实施中药材GAP推进中药现代化




  3. Chinese Cooking.

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  4. Diagramas de energía, fuerza y materia = Diagrams of energy, force and matter

    Josep Maria Montaner


    Full Text Available ResumenEn este ensayo se va a tratar sobre arquitectura a partir de la definición de forma como “estructura esencial e interna, como construcción del espacio y de la materia”. Para ello, podemos establecer, como punto de partida, que el proceso de la arquitectura va de la energía, las fuerzas y la materia hacia la forma. Por tanto, teorizar sobre la forma en arquitectura nos lleva a reflexionar sobre tres fenómenos previos a su configuración: la energía, las fuerzas y la materia. Para seguir estos procesos físicos es útil remitirse al pensamiento postestructuralista de Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari, especialmente a su texto Mil Mesetas. Capitalismo y esquizofrenia (1980 y a conceptos como “rizoma” y “agenciamiento” y, sobre todo, utilizar la herramienta interpretativa y creativa del “diagrama”.Palabras claveenergía, fuerza, materia, forma, Deleuze, GuattariAbstractThis essay will deal on architecture from the defi nition of form as "critical and internal structure  as construction of space and matter." For that, we can establish, as a starting point, that the process of architecture goes from energy, forces and matter to form. Thus, theorizing about form in architecture leads us to refl ect on three prior phenomena to its confi guration: energy, forces and matter. To follow these physical processes is useful to refer the poststructuralist thought´s Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, especially his text A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1980 and concepts such as "rhizome" and "assemblage" and, above all, to use the creative and interpretative tool of "diagramme".Key wordsenergy, force, matter, form, Deleuze, Guattari

  5. [Diagnosis and integrative evaluation on soil fertility of three Chinese medicinal materials in GAP plots].

    Pan, Chaomei; Huang, Haibo; Zhan, Ruoting; Xu, Honghua; Liao, Guanrong


    The fertility of soil was diagnosed and integratively evaluated by modified Nemoro Index with eight indexes, i.e. pH, organic matter, total N, P, K and available N, P, K on three national Chinese medicinal materials GAP (Good Agricultural Practice) experimental plots of Pogostemon cablin, Citrus medica and Morinda officinalis in Guangdong. The results showed that the pH, organic matter and other major nutrient contents were low and imbalance. There are lots of nutritive disturbance factors. The level of soil integrative fertility in any of the plots was poor. PMID:12583155


    Violero-López, Ana Pilar


    El presente estudio, propone la materia de música en Educación Secundaria como alternativa terapéutica para ayudar a los alumnos con TDAH a afrontar este trastorno. El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), afecta entorno al 3-7% de la población infantil, en su mayoría varones. A pesar de que este porcentaje se encuentra por debajo de otros trastornos infantiles, los expertos calculan que por cada aula hay un alumno afectado con TDAH. Aunque durante la adolesce...

  7. Indices de Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia. Autores y materias (Años 1993-1997.

    Koro Mariezkurrena


    Full Text Available Continuando con la práctica iniciada hace 25 años de ir publicando cada quinquenio los índices de Munibe por autores y materias, a fin de facilitar la consulta de la revista, presentamos aquí el sexto conjunto. En los mismos incluimos los trabajos publicados tanto en los números ordinarios de la revista, como en los suplementos. Tal como se viene haciendo desde que la revista se dividió en dos, Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia y Munibe (Ciencias Naturales, estos índices se refieren a Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia.

  8. Development of automatic sample exchange and transfer system in iMATERIA

    IBARAKI Materials Design Diffractometer (iMATERIA) is a high-throughput powder diffractometer, and has a vacuum chamber in order to reduce a background from the air scattering. Each sample is typically measured in several minutes by used 1 MW pulsed proton beams, and must be placed in the vacuum chamber before being measured. The process of re-establishing the vacuum would become a bottleneck when samples are exchanged. To reduce exchange time, we developed an manufactured an automatic sample changer than can handle a large number of samples through the vacuum chamber. (author)

  9. Aprendizaje estratégico en la universidad. Una materia para aprender a aprender

    Bernardo GARGALLO LÓPEZ; Campos Aparicio, Carmen


    Diseñamos una asignatura de libre elección de cuatro créditos, denominada “Estrategias de aprendizaje y técnicas de estudio para estudiantes universitarios”. En este trabajo se valoran sus efectos sobre las estrategias de aprendizaje, los enfoques de aprendizaje y el rendimiento académico de estudiantes universitarios. Se usó para ello un diseño preexperimental con pretest y postest, tomándose medidas antes de comenzar la docencia de la materia y después de finalizarla. Los alumnos fueron ent...

  10. Informática: materia esencial en la educación obligatoria del siglo XXI

    Riesco Albizu, Miguel; Díaz Fondón, María Ángeles; Álvarez Gutiérrez, Dario; López Pérez, Benjamín; Cernuda del Río, Agustín; Juan Fuente, Aquilino Adolfo


    Es innegable la importancia que ha alcanzado la informática en la sociedad y ya es imprescindible para entender y tener éxito en el mundo actual. Sin embargo, en el currículo educativo de primaria y secundaria esta importancia no se ve reflejada, y la informática aparece como asignatura complementaria orientada a usuarios. Creemos que ha llegado el momento de que, al igual que en otros países avanzados, la informática dé el paso a materia troncal. Con la reciente reforma de la LOMCE ...

  11. La Informática como materia fundamental en un sistema educativo del siglo XXI

    Riesco Albizu, Miguel; Fondón, Marián; Álvarez, Darío; López, Benjamín; Cernuda, Agustín; Juan, Aquilino


    Es innegable la importancia que ha alcanzado la informática en la sociedad, y ya es imprescindible para entender y tener éxito en el mundo actual. Sin embargo, en el currículo educativo de primaria y secundaria esta importancia no se ve reflejada, y la informática aparece como asignatura complementaria orientada a usuarios. Creemos que ha llegado el momento de que, al igual que en otros países avanzados, la informática dé el paso a materia troncal. Con la reciente r...

  12. NaoXinTong Inhibits the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in db/db Mice

    Mengyang Liu; Quan Pan; Yuanli Chen; Xiaoxiao Yang; Buchang Zhao; Lifu Jia; Yan Zhu; Jihong Han; Xiaoju Li; Yajun Duan


    Buchang NaoXinTong capsule (NXT) is a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from 16 Chinese traditional medical herbs and widely used for treatment of patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in China. Formation of microaneurysms plays an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we investigated if  NXT can protect diabetic mice against the development of diabetic retinopathy. The db/db mice (~6 weeks old), a diabetic animal mod...

  13. Clinical and radiographical evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate, biodentine and propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary teeth

    Rakesh, Kumar; Richa, Khanna


    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine and Propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary dentition, both clinically and radiographically. Materials and Methods A total of 75 healthy 3 to 10 yr old children each having at least one carious primary molar tooth were selected. Random assignment of the pulpotomy medicaments was done as follows: Group I, MTA; Group II, Biodentine; Group III, Propolis. All the pulpotomized teeth were evaluated at 3, 6, and 9 mon clinically and radiographically, based on the scoring criteria system. Results The clinical success rates were found to be similar among the three groups at 3 and 6 mon where as a significant decrease in success rate was observed in Group III (84%) compared to both Group I (100%) and Group II (100%) at 9 mon. Radiographic success rates over a period of 9 mon in Groups I, II, and III were 92, 80, and 72%, respectively. Conclusions Teeth treated with MTA and Biodentine showed more favorable clinical and radiographic success as compared to Propolis at 9 mon follow-up. PMID:26587413

  14. Chinese astronomy

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher


    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  15. Chinese Confucianism

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher


    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  16. Materias primas vs materia gris

    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra


    Full Text Available Los alimentos y los combustibles, en la última década, sobre pasaron el límite de la demanda; la causa no es sólo la evolución demográfica, ni el cambio climático, también es el efecto de las emergentes y poderosas economías asiáticas, especialmente la China, que está aumentando la exigencia energética y consume más y mejores alimentos; 500 millones de ciudadanos chinos están en capacidad de requerirlos y de viajar por el mundo como turistas.

  17. Concepto y trascendencia del derecho de aprovechamiento en materia de aguas (Propiedad y Aprovechamiento

    Enrique Guerra Daneri


    Full Text Available La disciplina de las aguas se encuentra estructurada jurídicamente, sólo en base a dos derechos: el de propiedad y el de aprovechamiento. La caracterización que posee el agua como cosa, impide que puedan ejercerse otros derechos sobre ella.El punto de partida para explicar este fenómeno, radica en que el agua responde a dos hechos técnicos que ofician como fuente material o factor de calificación jurídica: el principio de territorialidad y la unidad del ciclo hidrológico. Estos dan motivo a su comportamiento universal y en ellos se asienta su disciplina, más allá de la regulación particular que cada derecho positivo quiera desarrollar, imponiendo una política en la materia.  En síntesis, el agua es un bien cuyas particularidades determinan que en definitiva, el derecho de propiedad sea desplazado en su trascendencia patrimonial por otro derecho que ocupa su lugar en jerarquía e individualidad: el derecho de aprovechamiento. Sin embargo y a pesar de los sólidos fundamentos que lo sustentan, la identidad de este derecho parece todavía opacada por los reflejos de una propiedad, que en materia de aguas, es inoperante.       

  18. de distribución de materia orgánica

    Héctor Rafael de las Cuevas Milán


    Full Text Available Como parte de las investigaciones que se llevan a cabo en el Centro de Mecanización Agropecuaria (CEMA, sobre el estudio de los procesos tecnológicos mecanizados para el abastecimiento de materia orgánica a frutales, se realizó un estudio cuyo objetivo es determinar los costos energéticos del sistema mecanizado de distribución de materia orgánica. Se modeló analíticamente el proceso tecnológico mediante un sistema automatizado, que permite determinar los gastos horarios (MJ/h y por área trabajada (MJ/ha, contemplando la energía secuestrada en materiales de construcción, fabricación, transporte, combustibles, lubricantes, reparación/mantenimientos y en mano de obra. Los resultados brindaron que los menores costos por unidad de área se obtuvieron para la variante tradicional hasta 0,9 km, (667,49 MJ/ha, siendo energéticamente más ventajosa la utilización de un coeficiente de serviciaje de 0,8, desde 0,9 hasta 5 km, con un valor promedio de 810,38 MJ/ha.

  19. Comunicación y aprendizaje de la ciencia en estudiantes Sordos: la materia y sus transformaciones

    Vázquez Martínez, Susana


    Esta investigación pretende contribuir al conocimiento de la enseñanza de las ciencias con alumnado Sordo, concretamente, sobre fenómenos relacionados con la transformación de la materia. Se han analizado las percepciones de profesores e intérpretes educativos sobre la enseñanza de las ciencias al colectivo de estudiantes Sordos, los modelos que utilizan para explicar la materia y sus transformaciones y los patrones de interacción de su discurso en el aula. Por último, se valora la implementa...

  20. Las competencias para el ejercicio profesional mediador : estudio de la actualidad formativa catalana en materia de mediación

    Iglesias Ortuño, Emilia Ángeles


    OBJETIVO GENERAL El objetivo general de la investigación es el de conocer la actualidad formativa en materia de mediación en España, particularmente en Cataluña y estudiar su composición, diversidad, estructura y proyección desde las perspectivas de expertos en la materia y entidades docentes. Seguidamente medir el impacto que ejerce la diversidad en la oferta formativa en mediación sobre la valoración y percepción de las competencias precisas para el ejercicio profesional en los mediador...

  1. Estrategias de tratamiento según las características de la materia prima y del producto

    Flotats Ripoll, Xavier


    Los residuos y subproductos orgánicos de los diferentes procesos de producción y consumo son un recurso valioso, como fuente de energía renovable, como fuente de materia orgánica para suelos, como fuente de nutrientes y como materia prima para la producción de sustratos orgánicos. En general, son la tipología de residuos que se produce en mayor cantidad en cualquier país industrial, y su gestión inadecuada presenta graves problemas de contaminación, desde contaminación de aguas co...

  2. Los límites de la protección social en materia de jubilación

    Morales Romo, Noelia


    El texto aborda las percepciones sobre las opciones y alternativas en materia de jubilación en España en un momento de difícil coyuntura económica mundial. A partir de numerosos datos cualitativos y cuantitativos se trata de responder a cuestiones fundamentales en relación a la protección social en materia de jubilación. Los aspectos fundamentales sobre los que versa el artículo son cuatro: la cobertura de las pensiones tratando especialmente la cuantía y los benefi ciarios, la...

  3. Hacia un modelo del aprovechamiento de las materias primas óseas en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

    Scheinsohn, Vivian Gabriela


    En este trabajo se propone un modelo para interpretar la historia del aprovechamiento de las materias primas óseas en Tierra del Fuego. Este modelo pretende ser un primer intento de aplicar conceptos relaciones con la Teoría de la Evolución al desarrollo de estas materias primas. Los datos que aquí se presentan, provenientes de algunos sitios fueguinos, no le otorgan valor explicativo al modelo, pero se señalan algunas vías posibles para su posterior ajuste y replanteo.

  4. Modelo para la certificación del coordinador en materia de seguridad y salud basado en sus competencias

    Ros Serrano, Antonio


    La figura del coordinador en materia de seguridad y salud en el sector de la construcción, aparecida en nuestra legislación a través de las trasposiciones de las Directivas Europeas, (en nuestro caso en el RD 1627/97 sobre disposiciones mínimas de seguridad y salud en las obras de construcción), se encuentra identificada, en cuanto a su posible contratación y actuación dentro de este sector, de forma diferente en distintos países de la Unión Europea. La coordinación en materia de seguridad y...

  5. Integración del inglés en materias de Anatomía

    Angulo Jerez, Antonia; Altavilla, Cesare; Ausó Monreal, Eva; Belloch Ugarte, Vicente José; Campello Blasco, Laura; Esquiva Sobrino, Gema; Fernández Sánchez, Laura; García Velasco, José Víctor; Gutiérrez Flores, Emilio; Noailles, Agustina


    En el curso 2012-13 iniciamos un proyecto de trabajo en red para favorecer la integración del inglés en 5 materias de Ciencias de la Salud. Dado que el aprendizaje de esta segunda lengua es una competencia básica transversal e instrumental en los Grados de la Universidad de Alicante, en el presente estudio pretendemos valorar el nivel de adquisición simultánea en lengua inglesa y española de nuevos términos anatómicos, así como el nivel de conocimientos genéricos de comprensión lectora y escr...

  6. Una perspectiva internacional sobre la formación en materia de seguridad y salud en el trabajo

    Félix Martín Daza


    El presente artículo tiene el propósito de explorar algunos de los retos más importantes de la formación en la seguridad y salud en el trabajo de los diferentes grupos interesados, así como para presentar los lineamientos de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo en esta materia.

  7. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List.

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were obtained,…

  8. Las diligencias preliminares en materia de propiedad intelectual tras la reforma operada por la Ley 21/2014

    Montesinos García, Ana


    Se analiza en este artículo la reforma operada en materia de diligencias preliminares en el ámbito de la propiedad inteletual por la ley 21/2014 por la que se modifica el texto refundido de lay de propiedad intelectual y la ley de enjuiciamiento civil.

  9. Bepaling van cadmium en lood in dierlijk materiaal met grafietoven atoomabsorptie spectrometrie in vergelijking met differentiele puls heroplossingsvoltametrie

    Wolters, T.C.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.


    Doel van het onderzoek was het toepasbaar maken van de ontsluiting van dierlijk materiaal met salpeterzuur in een magnetronoven gevolgd door detectie met grafietoven atoomabsorptie spectrometrie (GFAAS). Om het gestelde doel te bereiken zijn verassings- en atomisatiecurven opgenomen van cadmium en l

  10. Proposta per a la governança de risc de la falsificació de medicaments amb una eina de diagnosi basada en lògica difusa

    Bargalló i Alabart, Manuel


    La falsificació de medicaments és un problema inherent a la mateixa existència dels medicaments. Existeixen estudis de l'OMS que indiquen que en alguns països en vies de desenvolupament, entre el deu i el trenta per cent de les medicines que es venen poden ser falses, mentre que no arriba a l'u per cent en els països occidentals. Però darrerament s'ha detectat un augment significatiu d'incidents de falsificació de medicaments en els països desenvolupats, la qual indica que el model clàssic ...

  11. Chinese Dream


    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  12. First-order Derivative Spectrophotometry for the Determination of Vitamin C in Medicament


    A novel method for the determination of vitamin C(Vc) is proposed in this article. After the reaction with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent at ambient temperature, Vc solution was scanned at 750-1100 nm, and its first-order derivative spectrum were obtained from the original spectrum. The values of derivative selected at 995 nm were used for determination. It was proved that Vc could quickly react with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent within 5 min and the product was quite stable for a long time. The conditions required for this method is not very complicated, its precision and accuracy are similar to those of the iodometric titration described in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the limit of detection is 0.312μg/mL. The determination of the results of vitamin C tablet, pill, and injection demonstrates that this method has wide pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Ethnic Differences And Motivation Based On Maslow’s Theory At a MedicaL University

    Jagmohni Kaur Sidhu


    Full Text Available Introduction: Motivation in Malaysia is to a largeextent influenced by the value system amongst allMalaysians. Being able to motivate employees is one ofthe important keys to the success of the organization.In this paper, an attempt was made to look into theneeds of employees in organizations and in particular,the needs based on Maslow’s theory on motivation. Subjects and Methods: Employees which consisted ofboth academic and administrative employees of theInternational Medical University (IMU were surveyedusing a standard questionnaire. The aim of this studywas to compare which levels of Maslow’s hierarchy ofneeds theory had been fulfilled and which needs wereyet to be fulfilled in the different ethnic groups at IMU. Results: Amongst the males, the Chinese and Indianethnic groups placed most emphasis on the esteem needsand on self-actualization needs. The Malay males gaveimportance to Safety needs. Amongst the female ethnicgroups, all three groups placed most importance on theesteem needs and self-actualization needs. The Chinesefemales scored the lowest for the Basic needs comparedto the Malay and Indian females. The Indian femalesscored the lowest for Social needs.Conclusion: Organisations should play an importantrole in the motivation of employees. Human resourcedevelopment is an integral part in the development ofits employees.

  14. Avances en materia de regulación mercantil y civil del comercio electrónico en México y los aspectos fiscales del establecimiento permanente

    V. Ma. Antonieta Martin Granados


    A pesar de que en México se han realizado adiciones a la legislación en materia civil y mercantil relacionadas con el uso de medios electrónicos como instrumentos para realizar actos jurídicos, éstas resultan insuficientes, pues nada se ha hecho en materia procesal, penal y laboral, entre otras. En este trabajo se presentan, en materia fiscal, algunas consideraciones acerca del concepto de establecimiento permanente tanto en la legislación mexicana como en el Convenio Modelo (CM) de la Organi...

  15. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...



    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Wong, Kam-Cheung


    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  18. Effectiveness of N-acetyl cysteine, 2% chlorhexidine, and their combination as intracanal medicaments on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm

    Udayakumar Palaniswamy


    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacies of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC and assess their synergistic or antagonist action as intracanal medicament. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion test was performed with 2% CHX, NAC, and their combination against E. faecalis planktonic cells. The diameters of the zones of bacterial inhibition were measured and recorded for each solution. The assay was further extended to 2 weeks old E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Sixteen freshly extracted teeth were vertically sectioned into two halves resulting in a total of 32 samples. The samples were inoculated with bacterial suspension and incubated at 37°C for 2 weeks for biofilm formation. The samples were then divided into four experimental groups with 8 samples in each group. The samples were gently washed in saline and placed in culture wells containing the test solutions, i.e., 2% CHX, NAC, a combination of 2% CHX and NAC in 1:1 ratio, and a control group containing saline. The biofilm formed on the root canal surface were removed with a sterile scalpel and inoculated on blood agar plates to check for the formation of E. faecalis colonies. Statistical Analysis: For agar diffusion test, data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance and then by post-hoc Scheffe′s test to compare the antimicrobial efficacy between the groups. Statistical analysis was not done for the cultures obtained from the biofilm as there was no growth in all the three test groups except the control group, i.e., saline. Results: In agar diffusion test, among the three groups tested, 2% CHX and NAC showed almost equal zones of inhibition whereas maximum inhibition was shown by a combination of NAC and 2% CHX suggesting a synergistic action. The results obtained were highly significant (P < 0.001 for the combination of medicament when compared to individual test group. In culture analysis, which was done for the biofilm

  19. The Chinese Banking System

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian


    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  20. The use of traditional and novel techniques to determine the hardness and indentation properties of immature radicular dentin treated with antibiotic medicaments followed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    Yassen, Ghaeth H.; Al-Angari, Sarah S.; Platt, Jeffrey A.


    Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of intracanal antibiotic medicaments followed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the indentation properties and hardness of radicular dentin using a BioDent reference point indenter and a traditional microhardness technique, respectively. Materials and Methods: Specimens with intact root canal dentin surfaces and polished radicular dentin specimens were obtained from immature human premolars. Each type of specimen was randomly a...

  1. Evaluation of calcium ion, hydroxyl ion release and pH levels in various calcium hydroxide based intracanal medicaments: An in vitro study

    Punit Fulzele; Sudhindra Baliga; Nilima Thosar; Debaprya Pradhan


    Aims: Evaluation of calcium ion and hydroxyl ion release and pH levels in various calcium hydroxide based intracanal medicaments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate calcium and hydroxyl ion release and pH levels of calcium hydroxide based products, namely, RC Cal, Metapex, calcium hydroxide with distilled water, along with the new gutta-percha points with calcium hydroxide. Materials and Methods: The materials were inserted in polyethylene tubes and immersed in deionized wat...

  2. Određivanje sastava hlapljivih tvari i flavonoida u kori citrona (Citrus medica L. var. Corsican), za procjenu kakvoće likera

    Venturini, Nicolas; Barboni, Toussaint; Curk, Franck; Costa, Jean; Paolini, Julien


    U radu je ispitan sastav hlapljivih tvari i flavonoida u kori citrona (Citrus medica L. var. Corsican) uzgojenog na Korzici, različitog stupnja zrelosti izračunatog pomoću sume aktivnih temperatura. Razlike u stupnju razvoja plodova kvantitativno su određene plinskom kromatografijom, plinskom kromatografijom u kombinaciji s masenom spektrometrijom, te tekućinskom kromatografijom praćenom tandemskom masenom spektrometrijom. Identificirano je 30 hlapljivih komponenata eteričnog ulja dobivenog i...

  3. El ensayo Ars Medica de John Locke, y la influencia de sus ideas médicas sobre la filosofía empirista

    Sánchez González, Miguel Ángel


    John Locke’s essay Ars medica of 1669, is presented, analyzed and translated into Spanish. This essay shows the medical problems that prompted Locke´s philosophy and provides essential clues to understanding the motives, aims and characteristics of the empiricist`s theory of knowledge. Ideas originated in medicine that profoundly influenced subsequent Locke`s works were: 1) Trust in the perfectibility of science and elucidation of the role that philosophical thinking could play. 2) Rejection ...

  4. 佛手花抗氧化活性研究%Study on Antioxidative Activities of Flower of Cit rus medica

    杨新周; 郝志云; 杨子仙; 朱以常; 董毅; 林惠昆


    In order to further comprehensive utilization of flower of Citrus medica ,the scavenging activities of DPPH free radical and hydroxyl radical were determined ,and they were compared with quercetin ,kaempferol , caffeic acid ,rutin ,gallic acid and p-coumaric acid .The results showed that the scavenging activities of DPPH free radical was p-coumaric acid< extract from flower of Citrus medica< vanillic acid< rutin< caffeic acidmedicamedica had good antioxidant ac-tivity and could be a good natural antioxidant .%为进一步综合利用佛手花,该研究测定了其对DPPH自由基和羟自由基的清除能力,并与对照槲皮素、山奈酚、咖啡酸、芦丁、没食子酸和对香豆酸进行比较。结果表明:各物质清除DPPH自由基的能力为:对香豆酸<佛手花提取物<香草酸<芦丁<咖啡酸<没食子酸。清除羟自由基的能力为:芦丁<咖啡酸<佛手花提取物<山奈酚<槲皮素。说明佛手花提取物具有很好的抗氧化活性,是一种良好的天然抗氧化剂。

  5. La materia de Bretaña y los modelos historiográficos: el caso de la General estoria

    Gómez Redondo, Fernando


    Análisis de las circunstancias que propician la penetración de la materia de Bretaña en la Península Ibérica; su desarrollo se ajusta antes a las compilaciones historiográficas que a las obras de ficción, sostenida su verosimilitud por el valor que se otorga a la materia de la Antigüedad en la segunda mitad del siglo xiii. Este proceso se verifica en la General estoria, una crónica universal en la que se vierten los primeros núcleos de la Historia regum Britanniae de Geoffreoy of Monmouth, de...


    Néstor P. Sagüés


    Full Text Available El autor analiza la relación entre los tribunales nacionales e internacionales o supranacionales con competencia jurisdiccional vinculante en materia de derechos humanos, considerando la existencia de tres posiciones en la materia: la posición conflictual de la declaración de inejecutabilidad, la posición del seguimiento nacional y la del margen de apreciación.The author analyzes the relationship between national and international or supranational courts with binding jurisdiction over matters of human rights, reviewing three positions in this subject: the conflict perspective of declaration of non-executability, the position of national follow-up, and the doctrine of margin of appreciation.

  7. En defensa de la Historia como materia educativa / In defense of History as educational material

    Joaquín Prats2


    Full Text Available Resumen: El origen de la historiografía moderna es inseparable de su uso público. La Historia es una disciplina que, entre otras funciones sociales y educativas, ha contribuido a conformar la visión sobre la identidad social y política de las naciones. Pero tiene otras posibilidades más profundas, que es la formación de ciudadanos con una conciencia de pertenencia a un mundo amplio y multicultural y con espíritu crítico que le permita ejercer su derechos y deberes ciudadanos con plena conciencia. Desde su origen como materia escolar a la actualidad ha experimentado una importante transformación. Abstract: The origin of modern historiography is inseparable from public use. History is a discipline that, among other educational and social functions, has helped to shape the vision of social and political identity of nations. But there are other ways deeper, which is the formation of citizens with a sense of belonging to the world wide, multicultural and critical spirit to exercise its rights and civic duties conscientiously. From its origin as a school subject has now undergone a major transformation.

  8. La materia dei sogni Sbirciatina su un mondo di cose soffici (lettore compreso)

    Piazza, Roberto


    Dall’aria che respiriamo ai cibi di cui ci nutriamo, dai vestiti che indossiamo ai detersivi con cui li laviamo, dai colori con cui dipingiamo agli schermi su cui li guardiamo, la nostra realtà quotidiana brulica di cose troppo piccole per essere viste, ma pur sempre enormi rispetto ai mattoni di cui è fatto il mondo, gli atomi e le molecole. Oltre ad essere alla radice di molte tecnologie di oggi e di domani, questi piccoli personaggi, ingredienti primari di quelli che gli scienziati chiamano "materiali soffici", "sistemi sovramolecolari", o " fluidi complessi", ci permettono anche di esplorare i segreti con cui la materia si organizza spontaneamente, perché anche la Vita altro non è se non l’apoteosi di questa incredibile "Terra di Mezzo", a metà strada tra le molecole e l’Uomo. Sfruttando l’esperienza scientifica accumulata dall’autore nel corso di molti anni, questo libro si propone di guidare il lettore attraverso un lungo, ma non troppo faticoso viaggio nel mondo delle nanoparticelle, dei...

  9. Una perspectiva internacional sobre la formación en materia de seguridad y salud en el trabajo

    Félix Martín Daza


    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene el propósito de explorar algunos de los retos más importantes de la formación en la seguridad y salud en el trabajo de los diferentes grupos interesados, así como para presentar los lineamientos de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo en esta materia.

  10. Determinación de carbono orgánico en materias primas cerámicas en presencia de siderita, FeCO3

    Gazulla Barreda, María Fernanda; Gómez, Carmen M.; Rodrigo Carbonell, María Dolores; Orduña, Mónica


    La materia orgánica es una de las impurezas presentes en las materias primas utilizadas en la fabricación de pavimentos y revestimientos cerámicos. Durante el proceso de cocción, el carbono orgánico (Corgánico) puede producir la aparición de un núcleo negro conocido como “corazón negro”, que puede causar defectos en el producto final. Las materias primas cerámicas contienen Corgánico a nivel de mg·kg-1 (procedente de la materia orgánica) y carbono inorgánico (Cinorgánico) a nivel de porce...

  11. A medicação prescrita na internação hospitalar: o conhecimento do cliente

    Ana Carolina Guidorizzi Zanetti


    Full Text Available Erros no processo de administração de medicamentos são preocupações de enfermeiros e a sua ocorrência pode ser minimizada com a orientação do cliente quanto à terapia medicamentosa. Este estudo descritivo, teve como objetivo identificar o grau de informação de clientes hospitalizados, acerca dos medicamentos que lhes são prescritos. A metodologia utilizada foi a exploratória-descritiva. Foram entrevistados 76 clientes adultos, hospitalizados, entre 18 a 60 anos, sendo 69,7% do sexo feminino. Destacou-se dentre outros, que 28% não apresentavam conhecimento acerca do nome do primeiro medicamento prescrito e 55% não souberam referir a dosagem. Detectou-se um número razoável de clientes que desconheciam a medicação prescrita ou tinham conhecimento incorreto. Faz-se necessário a conscientização dos profissionais de enfermagem quanto à importância da orientação ao cliente acerca dos medicamentos durante a internação.

  12. Clinical and radiographic comparison of various medicaments used for pulpotomy in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial

    Goyal, Prachi; Pandit, I. K.; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monica; Goel, Richa; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh


    Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of ferric sulfate, glutaraldehyde, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as pulpotomy medicaments in primary molars. Materials and Methods: This was a perspective randomized clinical trial. A total of 90 molars from 42 children aged 4–8 years were selected for pulpotomy procedure. Teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups of 30 teeth each. Teeth in Group I were intended to be treated with ferric sulfate, Group II were intended to be treated with buffered glutaraldehyde and Group III with MTA. All the molars were evaluated clinically at 24 h and both clinically and radio graphically at 1, 3, and 6 months. The observations were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: After 1 month, there was no clinical finding observed in all the three groups. At 3 months postoperative evaluation, 13.3% of teeth in Group I and 12.5% of teeth in Group II had mobility. At 6 months interval, pain and sinus formation each was noted in 9.1% of primary teeth in Group I while periodontal ligament widening was reported in 66.7% of teeth in Group I and 85.7% of teeth in Group II. Conclusion: MTA exhibited overall best results as pulpotomy agent for primary molars followed by 15.5% ferric sulfate, whereas 2% buffered glutaraldehyde was found to be least effective as a pulpotomy agent. PMID:27403046

  13. Essential oil composition of Citrus medica L. Cv. Diamante (Diamante citron) determined after using different extraction methods.

    Gabriele, Bartolo; Fazio, Alessia; Dugo, Paola; Costa, Rosaria; Mondello, Luigi


    In this paper, we report the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile and the oxygenated heterocyclic fraction of citron (Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante (Diamante citron)). The fruits selected for the extraction were of three types: green citron of little size, green citron of big size, and yellow citron after 1 month from the harvest. The essential oils were extracted using three different methods. The nine samples of oil thus obtained were analyzed by high resolution GC (HRGC)-flame ionization detection (FID), HRGC-MS, and RP-HPLC. They differ only in the quantitative composition, while the qualitative profile was the same. The volatile fraction of every sample of oil is characterized by a high content of limonene, gamma-terpinene, and monoterpene aldehydes and a lower content of alpha- and beta-pinene and myrcene, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic aldehydes. Enantioselective (Es)-GC analysis of the extracts allowed the determination of the enantiomeric distribution of five terpenoid compounds; a prevalence of four dextrorotatory isomers was observed. Oxypeucedanin was the main component of the oxygenated heterocyclic fraction in the extracts of green fruits, while citropten was the major oxygenated compound in the oil obtained from yellow citron. PMID:19051190

  14. Information for Authors


    General Asian Journal ofAndrology (AJA) is the official publication of the Asian Society of Andrology sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Journal has been included in 11 international indexing systems, including BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CAB Health, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, Index Medicus, MEDLINE, PASCAL, Research Alert, and SCI Expanded. The Impact Factor is 1.064 and ranks third among the international andrology journals.

  15. Information for Authors


    1 General Asian Journal of Andrology (AJA) is the official publication of the Asian Society of Andrology sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Journal has been included in 11 international indexing systems, including BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CAB Health, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, Index Medicus, MEDLINE, PASCAL, Research Alert, and SCI Expanded. The Impact Factor is 0.827 and ranks third among the international andrology journals.

  16. The Advances in Research on the Pharmacological Effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi

    Zunting Pang


    Full Text Available Fructus Ligustri Lucidi is a well-known invigorator in Chinese materia medica with hepatoprotective effect, anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, and so on. And oleanolic acids are the major pharmacologically active components in Fructus Ligustri Lucidi. So it has great value in medical health, and may be developed to a complementary and alternative medicine through further research. In this paper, the advances in research on pharmacological effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi were summarized by reviewing the recent related literature.


    杨毅红; 周爽; 李霞


    @@ LI Shi-zhen, a great physician and natural-ist in the Ming Dynasty, says in his famousmedical book Ben Cao Gang Mu ( Compendiumof Materia Medica,),"moxibus-tion therapy may dredge meridians to cure manykinds of diseases including some severe lingeringdisorders". Moxibustion is an important compo-nent of traditional Chinese medicine. The authorof the present paper adopted moxibustion thera-py to treat some refractory diseases and achievedsatisfactory results.

  18. Amphiphilic graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with low molecular weight polyethylenimine for efficient gene delivery

    Duan XP; Xiao JS; Yin Q; Zhang ZW; Mao SR; Li YP


    Xiaopin Duan,1,2 Jisheng Xiao,2 Qi Yin,2 Zhiwen Zhang,2 Shirui Mao,1 Yaping Li21School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Center of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, ChinaBackground and methods: A new amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer (SP) was synthesized by conjugating poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with low molecular weight polyethyleneimine for gene delivery. Fourier transform infrared spectrum, 1H nuclea...

  19. Self-assembled lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery: preparation and functional evaluation

    Liu LY; Zhou CP; Xia XJ; Liu YL


    Liyao Liu, Cuiping Zhou, Xuejun Xia, Yuling Liu State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Novel Formulations, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Here, we investigated the formation and functional properties of self-assembled lecithin/chitosan nanoparti...

  20. PISA: números, estandarización de la conducta y la alquimia de las materias escolares

    Thomas S. Popkewitz


    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la red de prácticas que confieren inteligibilidad a la organización del conocimiento de las materias escolares que hace PISA. El programa PISA es tratado como un acontecimiento histórico. Su estudio consiste en hacer visible los principios que ordenan y clasifican los objetos “vistos” y que actúan sobre el “conocimiento práctico” de las materias escolares. La política de PISA, a mi juicio, son los principios que rigen lo que los chicos deberían conocer, cómo ese conocimiento se hace posible, y el estudio de la inclusión y exclusión incorporadas en estas prácticas. La primera parte analiza históricamente la transformación de los números en “hechos”, una presunción que posibilita las comparaciones de PISA. En la segunda parte, dirige la atención a los principios de las materias escolares que ordenan y clasifican los “hechos” de las mediciones de PISA.

  1. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  2. Soluciones concluidas en el MERCOSUR en materia de jurisdicción internacional: Análisis de los protocolos de Buenos Aires sobre jurisdicción internacional en materia contractual y de San Luis en materia de resp. civil emergente de accidentes de tránsito

    Eduardo Tellechea Bergman


    Full Text Available Contenido: Precisiones.  La jurisdicción en las relaciones privadas internacionales en el MERCOSUR. Necesidad de una regulación común a todos los estados parte. Protocolo de Buenos Aires sobre jurisdicción internacional en materia contractual. Protocolo de San Luis sobre responsabilidad civil emergente de accidentes de tránsito

  3. [History of incompability among medicinals of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa" and its modern recognition].

    Jiang, Chenxue; Bian, Yali; Fan, Xinsheng


    The allegation of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa", being one of the hypotheses of "18 antagonisms" in TCM pharmacology, is referring to the antagonistic action among the Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza and Radix Euphorbiae Kansui, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Flos Genkwa, and Sargassum when compounded together in a single recipe. By reviewing its history concerted with modern knowledge, it can be found that the theory of "seven emotions" was originated from Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica; while the Variorum of the Classic of Materia Medica firstly and definitely records that Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae is forbidden to be used with Radix Kansui, Flos Genkwa, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Sargassum together in a single formula. It was summarized into a Chinese poetic sentence as above-mentioned later. In the works of later ages, including Chinese Pharmacopoeia, A Great Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica, and China's Herbology, etc., all enhance the understanding of the prohibited combination of Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and its incompatible herbs. Nevertheless, there are discrepancies between the results of modern experimental and clinical studies on this problem, which, needless to say, should be resolved by further investigations. PMID:26420521




    Full Text Available Las aguas residuales hospitalarias se consideran como una de las principales fuentes de contaminantes emergentes, resultado de las diferentes actividades que allí se realizan y la excreción de las sustancias por los pacientes. Estudios han demostrado que estos componentes no son fácilmente removidos por medio de procesos de tratamiento convencionales como las plantas de tratamiento que emplean procesos biológicos. En este sentido el propósito de este trabajo consistió en evaluar la degradación de la materia orgánica presente en aguas hospitalarias reales aplicando ozono en diferentes condiciones de pH (3,0, 6,7, 10. Para esto se analizaron los valores de la UV254, la relación de biodegradabilidad DQO/DBO5 y el color (VIS436. Adicional a esto, se realizó un ensayo de toxicidad aguda, utilizando bulbos de cebolla común (Allium cepa L. Los resultados mostraron que con una dosis aplicada de ozono de 187 mgO3/h y valores de pH=10 la biodegradabilidad se aumento en un 70% y la toxicidad aguda se redujo en 62%, mientras que para valores de pH =3,0, se favoreció la remoción de la UV254 y el color. La aplicación de ozono demostró ser una alternativa viable para tratar efluentes hospitalarios como pretratamiento de un proceso biológico.

  5. Concepto de “materia laboral” Vigencia material de la ley Nº 18.572

    Mario Garmendia Arigón


    Full Text Available El artículo 7º de la Ley de Abreviación de los Procesos Laborales (Nº 18.572, del 13 de setiembre de 2009 define el “Ámbito de aplicación” utilizando la siguiente fórmula: “Con excepción de lo establecido en normas que prevean procedimientos especiales, en materia laboral el proceso se regirá por lo previsto en esta ley”.Es de hacer notar que el artículo 7º tiene una ubicación incorrecta dentro de la estructura general de la ley 18.572, pues aparece dentro del “Capítulo IV”, intitulado “Proceso laboral ordinario”, cuando, en realidad, su contenido no refiere solamente a esta última estructura procesal, sino a todas las disposiciones procesales consagradas en la ley. (…El análisis que se desarrolla a continuación está centrado, precisamente, en dicha expresión y, en particular, en la vinculación que existe entre el artículo 7º y el artículo 2º de la ley 18.5724, con el propósito de desentrañar si la aplicabilidad de las estructuras procesales que se consagraron en dicha ley queda sólo restringida a las Sedes laborales o si, por el contrario, corresponde entender  que las mismas también deben ser aplicadas por tribunales no pertenecientes a la jurisdicción laboral.

  6. Management of Chinese restaurant

    Cui , Longbo


    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  7. Litigación internacional en materia de patentes en Brasil: Análisis de la competencia judicial internacional y del arbitraje en materia de infracción y nulidad de patentes

    Gonçalves Paluma Rocha, Thiago


    RESUMEN: El foco principal de la investigación y de la tesis consiste en el análisis de los litigios internacionales en materia de patentes en Brasil. Actualmente, Brasil es la séptima economía del mundo, con el producto interno bruto (PIB) de aproximadamente U$2.200 millones . El creciente desarrollo comercial brasileño exige normas jurídicas eficientes que auxilien ese proceso de crecimiento de la economía del país, y que no se ponga como un coste a más a las relaciones comerciales. El sist...

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine, Calcium Hydroxide and Curcuma Longa Extract as Intracanal Medicament Against E.faecalis– An Invitro Study

    Nair, Rashmi; Asrani, Hemant


    Introduction The increase of potential side effects and safety concerns of conventional medicaments have led to the recent popularity of herbal alternative medications. The herbal products are known for its high antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine gel, Curcuma Longa and Calcium Hydroxide for elimination of E.faecalis bacteria in extracted teeth samples. Materials and Methods Ninety extracted single rooted intact teeth were taken for the study. Decoronation, removal of apices and chemomechanical preparation was done for all samples. These sterilized samples were then contaminated with pure culture of E.faecalis under laminar flow. The samples were incubated for a period of 21 days. The infected samples were assigned to 5 groups: Group I- Propolis; Group II- Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine gel; Group III- Calcium hydroxide; Group IV- Curcuma Longa; and control group- Saline. Efficacy of newer intracanal medicaments against E.faecalis were carried out in the samples at the end of 1, 2 & 5 days for each group with the help of colorimeter. Student paired t-test, ANOVA and multiple tukey test were used for statistical analysis. Results The value of optical density was statistically significant in all groups when compared to that of control group. Group I (Propolis) produced better antimicrobial efficacy followed by Chlorhexidine Metronidazole combination, Curcuma Longa and Calcium hydroxide. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Propolis showed better antimicrobial properties against E.faecalis than other medicaments. PMID:26673857

  9. Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

    Zhu PL; Pan SY; Zhou SF; Zhang Y.; Wang XY; Sun N; Chu ZS; Yu ZL; Ko KM


    Pei-Li Zhu,1 Si-Yuan Pan,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Yi Zhang,1 Xiao-Yan Wang,1 Nan Sun,1 Zhu-Sheng Chu,1 Zhi-Ling Yu,3 Kam-Ming Ko41Department of Pharmacology, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 4D...

  10. Assertive or antiquated: ProMedica vows to appeal loss against FTC as questions loom over whether mergers lead to efficiencies or clout.

    Carlson, Joe


    ProMedica vows to fight the feds over the acquisition of St. Luke's Hospital. Here is what they have to say. "The cost of healthcare is a real problem for all Americans, and the commission seeks to address this national problem by using all the tools Congress gave to us, and by devoting significant resources so that competition will enable market participants to deliver on the promises of cost-containment and continued excellence and innovation," says the FTC's Jon Leibowitz. PMID:22299225

  11. Analisis Komponen Kimia Minyak Atsiri Kulit Buah Jeruk Pepaya (Citrus Medica L var. Proper) dengan GC-MS dan Uji Antioksidan Menggunakan Metode DPPH

    Marsius, Sutrisno


    Had been analysis of chemical components essential oil kulit buah jeruk pepaya (C. Medica L var Proper) with Stahl distillation and GC-MS analysis. The dominant constituents of the essential oil such as D-Limonene (66,33%), 1,4-Cycloheksadiena (16,87%), Nerol (3,07%), β-Myrcene (1,94%), 2-β-Pinene (1,13%), α-Pinene (1,07%), 1,3,7-Octatriene (1,03%). Furthermore , the essential oil of kulit buah jeruk pepaya was determined antiokxidant activitesfound by the methode of radicals DPPH. IC50 value...

  12. Analisis Komponen Kimia Minyak Atsiri Kulit Jeruk Telur Buaya (Citrus medica L.) Secara GC-MS dan Uji Antioksidan Dengan Metode DPPH

    Silalahi, Grignard Natanael


    Essential oils of the rind of jeruk telur buaya (Citrus medica L) has been isolated with hydrodestillation method using Stahl. It hydrodestilled for ± 4-5 hours to produce essential oil 0.3064% (w/w). The chemical components of essential oil of rind of jeruk telur buaya were analyzed by GC-MS showed there are 14 compounds in which the main components are 1-limonene (70,46%). Antioxidant activity test has been done with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazil) method with IC50 values 873.39 mg/L.

  13. La cláusula general de competencia de los entes territoriales en materia económica

    Aníbal Zárate


    Full Text Available Si la autonomía territorial con que cuentan los entes locales para la “gestión de sus intereses” permite fundar, vía una cláusula general de competencia, las iniciativas económicas locales, esta fórmula aparece sujeta a los límites constitucionales y legales sobre las modalidades de intervención local, como lo sugiere el respeto de las normas nacionales en materia de competencia económica.

  14. Estudio de las herramientas de comunicación ascendente en materia de seguridad y salud en el trabajo.

    López Santiago, Aida


    El presente estudio tiene el objeto de analizar la participación, consulta e información relacionada con la prevención de riesgos laborales desde los niveles jerárquicos más bajos hacia los más altos, es decir, la comunicación vertical ascendente en materia preventiva dentro del ámbito de la empresa. La promoción de este tipo de comunicación dentro de la empresa permite conocer las opiniones de los afectados acerca del funcionamiento de la misma y canalizar sus iniciativas, facilita la ret...

  15. Comparación de disolventes para la extracción de materias grasas en hígado

    Carril González-Barros, S. T.


    Full Text Available The efficiency of different organic solvents for extraction the fat of pork and veal liver were compared. Soxhlet extraction for 8 hours with n-Hexane: dichloromethane (1:1 was selected. Cv% was 1.9%.

    Se compara la eficacia de extracción de la materia grasa con diferentes disolventes en hígado de cerdo y de ternera. Los resultados más satisfactorios se obtuvieron utilizando un soxhlet con una mezcla de hexano: diclorometano (50:50 durante 8 horas. Se obtuvo un Cv% de 1.9%.

  16. Análisis cognitivo de situaciones problema con sistemas de ecuaciones algebraicas en el contexto del balance de materia

    Elia Trejo Trejo; Patricia Camarena Gallardo


    En este artículo se informa una investigación en la que se realiza un análisis cognitivo a un grupo de enfoque, donde los estudiantes de una carrera técnica universitaria abordan los sistemas de ecuaciones algebraicas lineales en el contexto del balance de materia en situaciones problema de mezclas químicas. El análisis cognitivo del grupo de enfoque se fundamenta en las teorías de los Campos Conceptuales y en la Matemática en el Contexto de las Ciencias. Para el análisis se atienden, en part...

  17. Caracterización de la materia orgánica en suelos y sedimentos de ambientes estuarinos

    Santín Nuño, Cristina


    Los ambientes estuarinos, transicionales entre el medio acuático y terrestre, presentan unas características propias e irrepetibles además de cumplir un elevado número de funciones ecológicas y ambientales. Entre estas se puede destacar la de sus suelos y sedimentos como sumideros de carbono atmosférico. La elevada productividad de sus comunidades vegetales, en conjunción con condiciones geoquímicas que favorecen la lenta descomposición de la materia orgánica, hace que estos suelos y sediment...

  18. Análisis comparado en materia de obligaciones entre el derecho romano y el derecho moderno

    Luz María Martínez R. de C.; Flor María ávila H de P.


    Se realiza un estudio dogmático de los conceptos antiguo y moderno de la "obligación", con especial referencia al Derecho romano, así como a las fuentes y clasificación de las mismas. Del mismo modo, se analiza la influencia del derecho romano en el Código civil venezolano, en materia de obligaciones. En este sentido, la definición romana ha predominado en el Derecho Moderno, incluso en la actualidad se puede afirmar que ha permanecido incólume dentro sus concepciones fundamentales. El método...

  19. Principio de legalidad estricta en materia penal: breve historia y desvíos : El caso del terrorismo

    Pérez Duhalde, Ramiro


    Es menester recorrer con algún cuidado los antecedentes del principio de estricta legalidad en materia de represión penal por su indudable valor como garantía frente al poder punitivo estatal. Recordando su progreso desde la mera legalidad conquistada por la lucha popular en la República Romana, aunque la analogía no desaparecerá hasta que los postulados del Iluminismo y de la Revolución Francesa y su Declaración de 1789 impongan en gran parte del mundo la estricta legalidad. La magistral ...

  20. Buenas pr??cticas en el desarrollo de trabajo colaborativo en materias TIC aplicadas a la educaci??n

    Guti??rrez Esteban, Prudencia; R. Yuste Tosina; S. Cubo Delgado; M. Lucero Fustes


    Este trabajo presenta cuatro experiencias docentes de Buenas Pr??cticas en el uso de las Tecnolog??as de la Informaci??n y la Comunicaci??n en la Ense??anza Universitaria, en el ??mbito educativo, desarrolladas en materias impartidas durante el curso 2009/2010 en la Facultad de Educaci??n de la Universidad de Extremadura, centradas en el trabajo colaborativo y aut??nomo del alumnado como metodolog??a, la innovaci??n docente como filosof??a, el uso de las TIC aplicadas a...

  1. La cláusula general de competencia de los entes territoriales en materia económica

    Aníbal Rafael Zárate Pérez


    Full Text Available Si la autonomía territorial con que cuentan los entes locales para la “gestión de sus intereses” permite fundar, vía una cláusula general de competencia, las iniciativas económicas locales, esta fórmula aparece sujeta a los límites constitucionales y legales sobre las modalidades de intervención local, como lo sugiere el respeto de las normas nacionales en materia de competencia económica.

  2. La integración del Reglamento Europeo en materia sucesoria en el Derecho interregional español



    Full Text Available Article 38 of the European Regulation on succession matters alow the non-application of this Regulation to internal conflicts of laws. This paper specifies in which cases we are dealing with an internal conflict of laws and why we must understand that Spain use this possibility. El artículo 38 del reglamento Europeo en materia sucesoria permite excluir de su aplicación los conflictos internos. En este trabajo se precisa en qué casos estamos ante un conflicto interno y por qué debemos entender que España se acoge a esta posibilidad

  3. Influencia de los tratamientos mecánicos y térmicos en materias primas que contienen pirofilita

    Sánchez-Soto, Pedro José; Jiménez de Haro, María del Carmen; Pascual Cosp, José; Pérez Rodríguez, José Luis; Raigón Pichardo, M.


    [ES] En el presente trabajo se exponen y discuten resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la influencia de tratamientos térmicos, tratamientos mecánicos por molienda en seco, y su combinación, en materias primas que contienen pirofilita. En primer lugar, se estudia la influencia del tratamiento térmico en lo que respecta al desarrollo y evolución de las fases cristalinas (mullita y cristobalita) a partir de pirofilita deshidroxilada. Estos resultados se toman como base para analizar lo...

  4. Propuesta de evaluación del aprendizaje en materias científico-técnicas

    El Hamdouni Jenoui, R.; Jiménez Perálvarez, J.; Irigaray Fernández, C; Chacón Montero, J.


    El presente trabajo pretende mostrar un sistema de evaluación que se lleva acabo en materias científico-técnicas donde el contenido práctico es considerable. Se pretende considerar los distintos instrumentos y formas de evaluación del aprendizaje de los estudiantes. El objetivo principal de este trabajo pretende entender que examinar y calificar no son actos de menor importancia, sino que suponen una gran influencia en todo el proceso y pueden o no, ayudar y animar a los estudiantes en su pri...


    Carmen S. Mosquera


    Full Text Available La materia orgánica del suelo puede variar considerablemente en su estructura, composición y conformación, de acuerdo con el origen y la edad de los materiales que la constituyen. En la presente investigación se procedió a caracterizar, mediante el empleo de la espectroscopia infrarroja y la resonancia magnética nuclear en estado sólido, dos suelos inceptisoles (I01 y I02 y un histosol (H03 destinados al cultivo de cebolla larga, en el municipio de Aquitania-Boyacá, Colombia, a dos profundidades: 0 - 10 y 40 - 50 cm. Según los espectros infrarrojos, se detectó la presencia de grupos OH (debida posiblemente a fenoles, ácidos carboxílicos o alcoholes, grupos aromáticos y alifáticos. Los espectros de 13C-RMN en estado sólido con CPMAS evidenciaron el siguiente orden respecto a la cantidad de carbonos que conforman la materia orgánica del suelo: H03-0 = 100 y H03 -40 = 88, I02-0 = 23 y I02-40 = 0, y finalmente I01-0 = 17 y I01-40 = 12, confirmándose la disminución de carbonos en la materia orgánica a través del perfil del suelo, y además se estableció que el carbón resonante en la región delta = 108-50 ppm de los espectros (N – y O-alquilos y acetales dominó en toda la MOS obtenida; le siguió el carbón aromático (delta = 168-108 ppm para los suelos I01-0 y H03-40, y el carbón alifático (delta = 0-50 ppm para los suelos I01-40, I02-0 y H03-0. Finalmente, el carbónC=O( delta= 220-162 ppm fue el menos dominante en la materia orgánica del suelo en todos los tres suelos caracterizados.

  6. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Johnson, Georgia G.


    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  7. [Textual research on the literature sources, its related names and medicinal part of Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    Wang, Peng; Zhou, Yang; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Guo


    The "jin yin hua" (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) used in the clinic nowadays is the flower of honeysuckle, excluding its stem, leave, branch, vine or the whole plant. In the early time, the name of "ren dong" (honeysuckle) or "ren dong teng" (Caulis lonicerae) didn't refer exclusively to the flower of honeysuckle. A few early literature, such as Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) recorded briefly the flower, yet only mentions its time of blossom and shape without mentioning the medicinal use of its flower, nor the title of "jin yin hua", as the identification for this plant. Therefore, it cannot be regarded as the primary source of "jin yin hua". This research points out that the first appearance of the name of "jin yin hua" should be in Su shen liang fang (Su-Shen's Effective Prescriptions) of the Song Dynasty, and the first usage of the flower "jin yin hua" as a single drug was in Wai ke jing yao (Essence of External Diseases) of the Song Dynasty. Thus, the conclusion that "jin yin hua" is first seen in Xin xiu ben cao or lv chan yan ben cao (Mountainous Materia Medica) quoted in the ninth edition of teaching material of Traditional Chinese Pharmacology, and Chinese Materia Medica are all wrong and should be corrected accordingly. PMID:24060026

  8. Interações farmacológicas entre medicações clínicas e psiquiátricas Drug interactions among clinical and psychiatric drugs

    Marco Antonio Marcolin; Maria da Graça Cantarelli; Manoel Garcia Junior


    INTRODUÇÃO/JUSTIFICATIVA: Estudos apontam as reações adversas graves (ADR) como uma das seis causas de morte em pacientes hospitalizados nos EUA, sendo que das ADR, a mais freqüente inclui as Interações Medicamentosas (IM). MÉTODOS: foram cruzadas 20 medicações mais utilizadas em andares clínicos do Hospital Universitário São Lucas da PUCRS com 14 medicações mais utilizadas no Ambulatório de Depressão do HSL-PUCRS; pesquisou-se no Medline e Lilacs a partir de 1990. RESULTADOS: foram encontrad...

  9. UNAPAL -Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales

    Diosdado Baena García


    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  10. Unapal-Dorado, nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca para consumo en fresco

    Franco Alirio Vallejo C


    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2 se seleccionaron 11 familias promisorias teniendo en cuenta el contenido de materia seca, producción por planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco. Se realizaron dos ciclos de recombinación genética y selección ínter e intrapoblacional. Se escogieron cuatro familias las cuales fueron evaluadas en un ensayo de rendimiento en el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (Ceunp. La familia de mejor desempeño se evaluó comparativamente con otras seis, incluyendo el testigo comercial Unapal Bolo Verde, en pruebas regionales, en tres localidades del Valle del Cauca, durante dos semestres consecutivos (2008 B- 2009A. Por su excelente comportamiento en producción (15 kg/planta, contenido de materia seca (> 16%, 3.5 kg/fruto y 5 frutos/planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco, esta familia originó la nueva variedad de zapallo, conocida con el nombre comercial Unapal-Dorado.

  11. Unapal-Dorado, nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca para consumo en fresco

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio


    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2 se seleccionaron 11 familias promisorias teniendo en cuenta el contenido de materia seca, producción por planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco. Se realizaron dos ciclos de recombinación genética y selección ínter e intrapoblacional. Se escogieron cuatro familias las cuales fueron evaluadas en un ensayo de rendimiento en el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (Ceunp. La familia de mejor desempeño se evaluó comparativamente con otras seis, incluyendo el testigo comercial Unapal Bolo Verde, en pruebas regionales, en tres localidades del Valle del Cauca, durante dos semestres consecutivos (2008 B- 2009A. Por su excelente comportamiento en producción (15 kg/planta, contenido de materia seca (> 16%, 3.5 kg/fruto y 5 frutos/planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco, esta familia originó la nueva variedad de zapallo, conocida con el nombre comercial Unapal-Dorado.

  12. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Balachandran C


    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  13. Chinese varkens in Nederland

    Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.


    In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens

  14. Sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic and opioid medicament use and its co-occurrence with tobacco smoking and alcohol risk drinking in a community sample

    Ulbricht Sabina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic and opioid medicament (SO use and its relation to tobacco smoking and alcohol risk drinking is largely unknown. Prevalence data for SO intake and its co-occurrence with tobacco smoking and alcohol risk drinking considering age are presented. Methods Random general population sample of individuals aged 20–79 drawn from a mixed rural and urban area in Germany (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP. All medicament intake during the past 7 days prior to the interview was assessed according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification as part of an interview conducted in a health examination center. Results Among men, 3.0%, and among women 5.0% took SO. The proportion of SO users was higher (odds ratio 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.1–3.4 whereas the proportions of current cigarette smokers and alcohol risk drinkers without SO use were lower among individuals aged 60–79 compared to those aged 20–39. The proportion of individuals with smoking, alcohol risk drinking or SO use was also lower among those aged 60–79 compared to the 20–39 year olds. Conclusion Although proportions of SO users in older adult age are higher than in younger adult age there are less subjects with any of the 3 substance use behaviors at older adult age compared to age 20–39.

  15. Removal efficiency of calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament with RinsEndo system in comparison with passive ultrasonic irrigation, an in vitro study

    Abbass Ali Khademi


    Full Text Available Background: Different techniques have been introduced to improve removing the calcium hydroxide intra-canal dressing. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI and RinsEndo system in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal system. Materials and Methods: Access cavities were prepared in 50 single-rooted anterior teeth. Cleaning and shaping were done using the Flexmaster rotary system up to size no. 30, 6%. The canals were filled with injectable calcium hydroxide (calcipex. After 7 days, the calcium hydroxide were retrieved using RinsEndo system in Group 1 (n = 20, with PUI system in Group 2 (n = 20. In positive control group (n = 5, no irrigation was performed. In negative control group (n = 5, root canals were not filled with any medicament. Following the removal of the calcium hydroxide with these two systems, teeth were split buccolingually into two sections and every third of the root canals was evaluated under stereomicroscope (×30 to analyze the residual medicament in each segment. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P < 0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the removal of calcium hydroxide between RinsEndo and PUI at cervical (P = 0.67, middle (P = 0.51 and apical (P = 0.75 part of the root canals. Conclusion: None of the irrigation techniques was able to completely remove calcium hydroxide from the root canal system.

  16. Lupus induced by medicaments

    We describe a 55 years old female patient who consulted by fever syndrome, artralgias and the presence of high tittles positives antinuclear antibodies. She had arterial hypertension in treatment with captopril. We suspected the clinical diagnoses of drug-induced lupus; the withdraw of captopril was associated with the remission of the clinical and laboratory manifestations

  17. Eliminación biológica de amonio y materia orgánica en la potabilización de aguas

    Gil-Rodriguez, Manuel


    El proceso de potabilización de aguas comprende, operaciones de separación de materias por preoxidación, coagulación, sedimentación, filtraciones rápida y lenta, adsorción en carbón activo y desinfección final15,4. En este trabajo se propone la inclusión de una etapa de nitrificación para aguas, con un contenido en amonio moderadamente alto, que la incapacita para su potabilización, caso frecuente en las aguas disponibles de zonas de cultivos agrícolas intensivos. Las materias ...

  18. Importancia de las asignaturas y materias del currículum en la formación de los profesionales de enfermería

    Pérez Cañaveras, Rosa María; Juan Herrero, Joaquín de


    La relevancia de los contenidos del currículum ha sido objeto de estudio en Medicina, sin embargo no hay datos publicados referentes a las asignaturas y materias en la carrera de Enfermería. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el grado de importancia relativa que un buen número de asignaturas y materias de los actuales curricula de Enfermería, tienen en la formación de dichos profesionales. Este objetivo adquiere mayor relevancia dada la progresiva puesta en marcha de los nuevos planes ...

  19. La integración de la música en las materias científicas de 3º de ESO

    Roca-Montoya, Pablo


    Esta investigación es el resultado de un estudio realizado dentro del Trabajo Fin de Máster para la formación del profesorado impartido en la Universidad Internacional de la Rioja (UNIR), y pretende demostrar la conexión e importancia que tiene la materia de Música con otras materias del currículum de 3º de la ESO eminentemente científicas: Matemáticas, Física y Dibujo Técnico. Por lo general, a lo largo de la historia se ha otorgado una menor responsabilidad o trascendencia a los contenidos ...

  20. Retención de materia orgánica particulada gruesa en una quebrada de montaña tropical. bogota, colombia



    Se determinó el porcentaje de retención de tres fracciones de materia orgánica particulada gruesa (MOPG) y el efecto de la magnitud del caudal sobre la retención de la materia orgánica particulada (MOP), durante un período de cinco meses en tressectores de una quebrada tropical de montaña ubicada en los Cerros Orientales de Bogotá - Colombia. La condición tropical del sistema, mostró un patrón de caudal constante aunque pudo diferenciarse un período de alta y baja descarga. Los resultados mos...

  1. Ilícito penal e ilícito administrativo en materia de tráfico y seguridad vial

    Alastuey Dobón, Carmen; Escuchuri Aisa, Estrella


    Dado que la seguridad vial es objeto de protección tanto por parte del Derecho administrativo sancionador como por parte del Derecho penal, confluyen en la regulación de la materia ambos sectores del ordenamiento jurídico. El objeto del presente trabajo es llevar a cabo una aproximación a la forma en que se han delimitado por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia los ilícitos penales y administrativos en materia de tráfico y seguridad vial, así como exponer ciertas disfunciones que s...

  2. Chinese Food in America

    Jou, Diana T.


    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  3. Danish-accented Chinese

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...

  4. La acción del Estado colombiano en materia de derechos humanos: un camino en construcción

    Patricia Herrera Kit


    Full Text Available El presente documento se constituye en un avance de investigación cuyo enfoque está guiado por el interés de indagar sobre la función que desempeñan los derechos humanos en el Estado colombiano. De esta forma, a partir de la revisión del proceso de positivización e internacionalización de los derechos humanos y las dificultades que éste experimenta en la esfera internacional, el documento avanza en analizar algunos de los elementos que caracterizan la respuesta del Estado colombiano en la materia a partir de la Constitución de 1991.

  5. Ceremonia inaugural de la Cuarta Reunión de Ministros en materia de Seguridad Pública de las Américas

    Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA)


    En el presente documento se reproduce el discurso del Secretario General de la OEA, José Miguel Insulza, en la ceremonia inaugural de la cuarta Reunión de ministros en materia de seguridad pública de la Américas, 21 de noviembre de 2013, Medellín, República de Colombia.

  6. Parámetros de Transferencia de Materia en el Secado de Frutas Mass Transfer Parameters in Fruit Drying

    Sebastião R Ferreira


    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un modelo analítico para obtención de parámetros de transferencia de materia en el secado de frutas. El modelo considera la disminución del radio de las frutas durante el proceso de secado. Con el modelo matemático se predice simultánemente el coeficiente externo de transferencia de materia k m y la difusividad de agua en los frutos D AB. Para probar el modelo se obtuvo en forma expermental datos de masa de agua M A en la fruta versus el tiempo de secado t, además del radio inicial R0 y el radio al final del proceso Rf. Los valores obtenidos de D AB y k m son del mismo orden de magnitud de los calculados por un método numérico de la literatura. La metodología desarrollada, considerando disminución de volumen, puede ser empleada para evaluar parámetros de secado con exactitud razonable para cálculos en ingeniería.An analytical model was developed to determine mass transfer parameters during fruit drying. The model considers radius shrinkage during the drying process. With the mathematical model the external mass transfer coefficient k m and the water diffusivity D AB can be simultaneously evaluated. To test the model, experimental data of water mass M A versus drying time t, and the initial radius R0 and the radius at the end of the process Rf were determined. The values obtained for D AB and k m were of the same order of magnitude as those calculated by a numerical method from the literature. The proposed methodology, that considers volume shrinkage, can be used to estimate drying parameters with acceptable accuracy for engineering calculations.



    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school


    Venturini, Nicolas


    Ce travail de thèse, développé en partenariat avec la Société Mavela et l'INRA de Corse, est axé autour de l'étude de deux plantes traditionnellement utilisées en Corse pour la préparation de spiritueux (liqueur et eau de vie) : le myrte commun (Myrtus communis L.) et le cédrat (Citrus medica L). Le mémoire de thèse se décline en deux parties principales : * Une partie fondamentale visant à établir une méthodologie d'analyse des spiritueux par chromatographie liquide couplée à la spectrométri...

  9. Avaliação de ações ecologicamente sustentáveis no processo de medicação

    Patrícia de Oliveira Furukawa; Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm Cunha; Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves Pedreira


    RESUMO Objetivo: analisar ações sustentáveis do ponto de vista ambiental no processo de medicação, desde o recebimento da prescrição pela farmácia até o descarte de resíduos pela enfermagem. Método: estudo antes e depois realizado por meio da metodologia Lean Seis Sigma. A amostra constitui-se da quantidade e tipo de resíduos resultantes dos serviços de farmácia e de enfermagem de uma unidade clínica médico-cirúrgica. Resultados: após intervenção, obteve-se na farmácia uma redução de 74,8%...

  10. Productividad en materia seca y captura de carbono en un sistema silvopastoril y un sistema tradicional en cinco fincas ganaderas de piedemonte en el departamento de Casanare

    Estrella Cárdenas Castro


    Full Text Available El objetivo fue comparar, en cuanto a productividad en materia seca y captura de carbono, entre un sistema silvopastoril y un sistema tradicional en cinco fincas ganaderas de piedemonte del departamento de Casanare. En el lote experimental de cada finca se sembró una mezcla de cuatro especies de pastos, de los cuales Brachiaria brizantha fue la especie que tuvo un desarrollo exitoso en las cinco fincas, y con la cual se analizó su productividad en materia seca y captura de carbono. A los cinco meses después de la renovación de pastos en los lotes experimentales se obtuvo una productividad en materia seca entre 6,3 y 14,9 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 2,7 y 6,4 tCOT/ha; mientras que en los lotes tradicionales estuvo entre 4 y 5 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 1,7 y 2,9 tCOT/ha. A los 20 meses en los lotes experimentales se obtuvo una productividad en materia seca entre 12 y 13,7 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 4,1 y 4,5 tCOT/ha; mientras que en los lotes tradicionales estuvo entre 4,4 y 6,5 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 1,4 y 2,1 tCOT/ha. Esto indica que la renovación de praderas con pastos adecuados y el pastoreo de rotación favorecen la producción en materia seca y la captura de carbono.