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1

Highway toll and air pollution: evidence from Chinese cities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most highways in urban China are tolled to finance their construction. During the eight-day National Day holiday in 2012, highway tolls are waived nationwide for passenger vehicles. We use this to test highway tolls’ effect on air pollution. Using daily pollution and weather data for 98 Chinese cities in 2011 and 2012 and employing both a regression discontinuity design and differences-in-differences method with 2011 National Day holiday as a control, we find that eliminating tolls increase...

Fu, Shihe; Gu, Yizhen

2014-01-01

2

Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

3

Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few prior cohort studies exist in developing countries examining the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) with mortality. We examined the association of particulate air pollution with mortality in a prospective cohort study of 71,431 middle-aged Chinese men. Baseline data were obtained during 1990–1991. The follow-up evaluation was completed in January, 2006. Annual average PM exposure between 1990 and 2005, including TSP and PM10, were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with residential communities. We found significant associations between PM10 and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases; each 10 ?g/m3 PM10 was associated with a 1.6% (95%CI: 0.7%, 2.6%), 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8%, 2.9%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3%, 3.2%) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For TSP, we observed significant associations only for cardiovascular morality. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of particulate air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. -- Highlights: • There have been few air pollution cohort studies in developing countries. • PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in 71,431 Chinese men. • PM was not significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. -- PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in a cohort of 71,431 Chinese men

4

Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Students are introduced to the concept of air quality by investigating the composition, properties, atmospheric layers and everyday importance of air. They explore the sources and effects of visible and invisible air pollution. By learning some fundamental meteorology concepts (air pressure, barometers, prediction, convection currents, temperature inversions), students learn the impact of weather on air pollution control and prevention. Looking at models and maps, they explore the consequences of pollutant transport via weather and water cycles. Students are introduced to acids, bases and pH, and the environmental problem of acid rain, including how engineers address this type of pollution. Using simple models, they study the greenhouse effect, the impact of increased greenhouse gases on the planet's protective ozone layer and the global warming theory. Students explore the causes and effects of the Earth's ozone holes through an interactive simulation. Students identify the types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home, evaluating actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. By building and observing a few simple models of pollutant recovery methods, students explore the modern industrial technologies designed by engineers to clean up and prevent air pollution.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

5

Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China. PMID:24083613

Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

2013-11-01

6

Hazardous air pollutant formation from pyrolysis of typical Chinese casting materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical pyrolysis was conducted to evaluate the major hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from pyrolysis of bituminous coal and a furan binder, which are the two most commonly used casting materials for making green sand and furan no-bake molds in Chinese foundries. These two materials were flash pyrolyzed in a Curie-point pyrolyzer at 920 °C and slowly pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient temperature to 1000 °C with a heating rate of 30 °C/min. The emissions from Curie-point and TGA pyrolysis were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer/flame ionization detector. Thirteen HAP species were identified and quantified in the pyrolysis emissions of the two materials. The prominent HAP emissions were cresols, benzene, toluene, phenol, and naphthalene for the bituminous coal, whereas they were m,p,o-xylenes for the furan binder. Xylenesulfonic acid, the acidic catalyst in furan binder, was found to be the major source of xylene emissions. Thermogravimetry-mass spectrometer monitored the evolution of HAP emissions during TGA pyrolysis. For both of the casting materials, most of the emissions were released in the temperature range of 350-700 °C. PMID:21714543

Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Ying; Su, Lu; Li, Xiangyu; Duan, Lei; Wang, Chengwen; Huang, Tianyou

2011-08-01

7

Promoted Relationship of Cardiovascular Morbidity with Air Pollutants in a Typical Chinese Urban Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A large number of studies about effects of air pollutants on cardiovascular mortality have been conducted; however, those investigating association between air pollutants and cardiovascular morbidity are limited, especially in developing countries. Methods A time-series analysis on the short-term association between outdoor air pollutants including particulate matter (PM) with diameters of 10 µm or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and cardiovascular morbidity was conducted in Tianjin, China based on 4 years of daily data (2008–2011). The morbidity data were stratified by sex and age. The effects of air pollutants during the warm season and the cool season were also analyzed separately. Results Each increase in PM10, SO2, and NO2 by increments of 10 µg/m3 in a 2-day average concentration was associated with increases in the cardiovascular morbidity of 0.19% with 95 percent confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.08–0.31, 0.43% with 95% CI of 0.03–0.84, and 0.52% with 95% CI of ?0.09–1.13, respectively. The effects of air pollutants were more evident in the cool season than those in the warm season, females and the elderly were more vulnerable to outdoor air pollution. Conclusions All estimated coefficients of PM10, SO2 and NO2 are positive but only the effect of SO2 implied statistical significance at the 5% level. Moreover, season, sex and age might modify health effects of outdoor air pollutants. This work may bring inspirations for formulating local air pollutant standards and social policy regarding cardiovascular health of residents. PMID:25247693

Tong, Ling; Li, Kai; Zhou, Qixing

2014-01-01

8

Air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2on, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

9

Air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last decade that measurements to PM2.5 become more widely available. A key weakness of many studies is using fixed-site monitoring data and assuming everyone in a region had the same exposure. This ignores spatial variability, and does not take into account how individuals' exposures differ with pollution sources inside, outside, both at work, home and elsewhere. More recent efforts to model indicators of vehicular traffic, and residential distances to major roads and highway can allow for some of this spatial variability to be better controlled for. However, this still does not take into account differences in activity patterns. If the effect is small, these biases will compromise the ability to detect an association. In most situations, the resulting estimates tend to be biased toward the null (i.e., no effect). For misclassification of exposure the inability to adequately control for confounding variables may cause bias in either direction. Recent improvements in statistical methodology use measurements at fixed sites combined with residential histories to estimate individuals' cumulative exposures. They also recognize measurement errors associated with covariates in the analysis to improve estimates of effects. Other challenges include the fact that measurements of exposure and confounders can change over time and long term data are needed due to the anticipated latency interval between harmful exposures and development of cancer. PMID:21199603

Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

2010-01-01

10

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Questions concerning the adequacy of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's air pollution controls on the trans Alaska pipeline systems have been raised. In late 1986, the pipeline's oil producers began using a new process that condenses more of the natural gas liquids recovered from their oil fields, resulting in a greater amount of NGLS entering the pipeline and ultimately arriving at the Valdez terminal. These added NGLS increase the volatile organic compounds - a precursor to ozone - emitted from the terminal, raising the issue of whether air quality violations have occurred. The increase in volatile organic compounds and other changes to terminal facilities have led the State of Alaska and the Environmental Protection Agency to conclude that these are major modifications and, therefore, Alyeska should apply to the state for a new air quality control permit. Under the permit, the terminal would be monitored for volatile organic compounds and other air pollutants. Alyeska disagrees that the modifications warrant a new permit. This work reports on the status of the Valdez terminal dispute.

1989-01-01

11

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Questions concerning the adequacy of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's air pollution controls on the Trans Alaska Pipeline Systems have been raised. In late 1986, the pipeline's oil producers began using a new process that condenses more of the natural gas liquids recovered from their oil fields, resulting in a greater amount of NGLs entering the pipeline and ultimately arriving at the Valdez terminal. These added NGLs increase the volatile organic compounds-a precursor to ozone-emitted from the terminal, raising the issue of whether air quality violations have occurred. The increase in volatile organic compounds and other changes to terminal facilities have led the State of Alaska and the Environmental Protection Agency to conclude that these are major modifications and, therefore, Alyeska should apply to the state for a new air quality control permit. Under the permit, the terminal would be monitored for volatile organic compounds and other air pollutants. Aleyska disagrees that the modifications warrant a new permit, and the status of the Valdez terminal dispute is unsettled, although some progress is being made.

1988-01-01

12

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Questions concerning the adequacy of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's air pollution controls on the Trans Alaska Pipeline Systems have been raised. In late 1986, the pipeline's oil producers began using a new process that condenses more of the natural gas liquids recovered from their oil fields, resulting in a greater amount of NGLS entering the pipeline and ultimately arriving at the Valdez terminal. These added NGLS increase the volatile organic compounds - a precursor to ozone - emitted from the terminal, raising the issue of whether air quality violations have occurred. The increase in volatile organic compounds and other changes in terminal facilities have led the State of Alaska and the Environmental Protection Agency to conclude that these are major modifications and, therefore, Alyeska should apply to the state for a new air quality control permit. Alyeska disagrees that the modifications warrant a new permit, and the status of the Valdez terminal dispute is discussed in this paper.

1989-01-01

13

Effect of pet ownership on respiratory responses to air pollution in Chinese children: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies examining pet ownership as a risk factor for respiratory conditions have yielded inconsistent results. Little is known about whether or not pet ownership modifies the relationship between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. In order to evaluate the interaction between pet and air pollution on respiratory health in children, we recruited 30,149 children, aged 2-12 years, from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China. Parents of the children completed questionnaires that characterized the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illnesses and associated risk factors. Average ambient annual exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were estimated from monitoring stations in each of the 25 study districts. The results showed that among children without pets at home, there were statistically significant associations between both recent exacerbations of asthma among physician-diagnosed asthmatics and respiratory symptoms and all pollutants examined. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.26] to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.24-1.61) per 31 ?g m-3 for PM10, whereas, among children with pets at home, there were no effects or small effects for either asthma or the symptoms. The interactions between dog ownership and PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 were statistically significant, such that children with a dog at home had lower reporting of both current asthma and current wheeze. In conclusion, this study suggests that pet ownership decreased the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and asthma among Chinese children.

Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Dong, Guang-Hui; Ren, Wan-Hui; Simckes, Maayan; Wang, Jing; Zelicoff, Alan; Trevathan, Edwin

2014-04-01

14

Environmental Cooperation Among East Asian Countries to Reduce Chinese Air Pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the past years, there had been some environmental cooperation among East Asian countries to reduce air pollution emissions from China. However, the progress of cooperation has been under developed because of lacking financial support, poor design of planning, and weak economic incentives for the industries. In this paper, some practical approaches have been suggested. First, electric trade to make Asian Grid among countries will be good alternatives for the fossil fuel, such as coal, for China. Secondly, natural gas pipeline from West China to Siberian pipeline would change the whole energy mix in this area around 2010. Therefore, it is very promising area for the energy industries to involve in gas project and get rid of many institutional barriers from China. Lastly, environmental industry is growing fast in East Asian. In China, waste treatment and management, air pollution control, and water quality management are some promising areas for the future. Hence it is desirable for Korea, Japan and China to make a eco-fund or company to boost up environmental technology as well as environmental market size. (author). 34 refs., 1 fig., 13 tabs.

Kim, J.I. [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea)

2001-12-01

15

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Environmental Health Fetal Health and Development Transcript Does prenatal exposure to air pollution ...

16

Air Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

Barker, K.; And Others

17

Six Common Air Pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

The EPA's site about the six common air pollutants is a great resource for the public, or for anyone studying or teaching about air pollution and other environmental issues. Air pollution trends are outlined on the site and a brief backround shows highlights of air pollutant history including the Clean Air Act and different standards. This site is a great place to find the most recent information about air pollutants and quality in the U.S.

2008-11-25

18

Indoor Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

19

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the winter of 1988-1989, parents of 2,789 elementary school students completed standardized questionnaires. The students were 5-14 years of age and were from three urban districts and one suburban district of three large Chinese cities. The 4-y average ambient levels of ...

20

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Environmental Health Fetal ... of Health Page last updated on 14 November 2014

 
 
 
 
21

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Environmental Health Fetal Health and Development Transcript Does ...

22

Indoor air pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents an overview of indoor air pollution control. Asbestos, combustion-generated pollutants, and radon are among the problems considered. Source control, policy and regulatory considerations, and air quality diagnostics are discussed

23

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Science.gov (United States)

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Environmental Health Fetal Health and Development Transcript Does ...

24

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Environmental Health Fetal Health and Development Transcript Does ...

25

Effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health in three Chinese cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the winter of 1988--1989, parents of 2,789 elementary-school students completed standardized questionnaires. The students were 5--14 y of age and were from three urban districts and one suburban district of three large Chinese cities. The 4-y average ambient levels of total suspended particles in the three cities differed greatly during the period 1985--1988: Lanzhou, 1,067 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; urban Wuhan, 406 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; Guangzhou, 296 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; and suburban Wuhan, 191 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The authors constructed unconditional logistic-regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prevalences of several respiratory symptoms and illnesses, adjusted for district, use of coal in the home, and parental smoking status. There was a positive and significant association between total suspended particle levels and the adjusted odds ratios for couch, phlegm, hospitalization for diseases, and pneumonia. This association was derived from only the 1,784 urban children and, therefore, the authors were unable to extrapolate it to the suburban children. The results also indicated that parental smoking status was associated with cough and phlegm, and use of coal in the home was associated only with cough prevalence.

Qian, Z.; Chapman, R.S.; Tian, Q.; Chen, Y.; Lioy, P.J.; Zhang, J.

2000-04-01

26

Air Pollution Training Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

27

Air pollution and society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

Brimblecombe P.

2010-12-01

28

Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

29

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air ... to air pollution increase a child’s risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Researchers recruited more than 200 non-smoking pregnant ...

30

Air pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book presents theory and application data as related to air pollution control. A suitable background is provided relevant to behavior theories and control techniques for capturing gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The significant application data available are summarized and combined with the theories to provide a needed relation between the two. Numerous detailed example problems are worked throughout the book to serve as guides in the use of both the theoretical relationships and the data. General information on air pollution control is presented, with emphasis on what can be done to minimize pollution emissions while conserving energy. Problem areas of interest include particulate and gas control mechanisms, control devices, and control systems

31

Sensing Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about electricity and air pollution while building devices to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) by attaching VOC sensors to prototyping boards. In the second part of the activity, students evaluate the impact of various indoor air pollutants using the devices they made.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

32

Air Pollution and Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

33

Indoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

34

Air Pollution and Epigenetics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is a global problem with far-reaching environmental impacts. Exposure has been linked to a number of different adverse health effects. Understanding the impact of ambient air pollution is complicated given the diversity of both the pollutants involved as well as the complexity of associated diseases. While we see a positive correlation between levels of exposure and health issues, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are still under investigation. The study of epigenetic regulation as it relates to disease is emerging as an exciting new way to interpret the possible effects of ambient air pollution on DNA. In this review we provide an overview of epigenetic modifications as well as an analysis of how epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the adverse effects associated with the most common components of ambient air pollution.

Aleena Syed

2013-07-01

35

Indoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

36

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

37

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to air pollution increase a child’s risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Researchers recruited more than 200 ... widely used screening instruments were used to assess attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. After analyzing the data, the ...

38

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

2007-01-01

39

Indoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)d World countries. (author)

40

Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Respiratory Health and Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... CDC.gov . Healthy Places Share Compartir Respiratory Health & Air Pollution Transportation-related pollutants are one of the largest ... Motor vehicles contribute to more than 50% of air pollution in urban areas. The design of communities and ...

42

Air Pollution: What's the Solution?  

Science.gov (United States)

Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

2010-01-01

43

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

Ahmet Soysal

2007-06-01

44

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

Ahmet Soysal

2007-06-01

45

Exhaled carbon monoxide and its associations with smoking, indoor household air pollution and chronic respiratory diseases among 512 000 Chinese adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) level is positively associated with tobacco smoking and exposure to smoke from biomass/coal burning. Relatively little is known about its determinants in China despite the population having a high prevalence of smoking and use of biomass/coal. Methods The China Kadoorie Biobank includes 512 000 participants aged 30-79 years recruited from 10 diverse regions. We used linear regression and logistic regression methods to assess the associations of COex level with smoking, exposures to indoor household air pollution and prevalent chronic respiratory conditions among never smokers, both overall and by seasons, regions and smoking status. Results The overall COex level (ppm) was much higher in current smokers than in never smokers (men: 11.5 vs 3.7; women: 9.3 vs 3.2). Among current smokers, it was higher among those who smoked more and inhaled more deeply. Among never smokers, mean COex was positively associated with levels of exposures to passive smoking and to biomass/coal burning, especially in rural areas and during winter. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of air flow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio <0.7) for never smokers with COex at 7–14 and ?14 ppm, compared with those having COex <7, were 1.38 (1.31–1.45) and 1.65 (1.52–1.80), respectively (Ptrend <0.001). Prevalence of other self-reported chronic respiratory conditions was also higher among people with elevated COex (P <0.05). Conclusion In adult Chinese, COex can be used as a biomarker for assessing current smoking and overall exposure to indoor household air pollution in combination with questionnaires. PMID:24057999

Zhang, Qiuli; Li, Liming; Smith, Margaret; Guo, Yu; Whitlock, Gary; Bian, Zheng; Kurmi, Om; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Lv, Silu; Pang, Zhigang; Chen, Chunxing; Chen, Naying; Xiong, Youping; Peto, Richard; Chen, and Zhengming

2013-01-01

46

AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS  

Science.gov (United States)

A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ). Be...

47

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to air pollution increase a child’s risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Researchers recruited more than 200 non-smoking pregnant ... widely used screening instruments were used to assess attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. After analyzing the data, the researchers found that ...

48

Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

Science.gov (United States)

Indoor Air Pollution The Basics We usually think about air pollution as affecting the air outside. But there can be ... medical problems and chemicals contributing to indoor air pollution. Indoor Air Pollution (National Library of Medicine) - Links to an ...

49

Weather and air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relation between meteorological conditions and SO2 air pollution is discussed. The 1970-1973 SO2 levels at Kopisty bei Most in Czechoslovakia are reported, the effect of SO2 on front movement in a valley is examined, and the effect of rainfall on SO2 concentration is studied. Weather conditions that can lead to an increase in SO2 concentrations are investigated, and the nature and prediction of ground layer characteristics in the presence of SO2 are considered.

Papez, A.

1976-01-01

50

Changing air pollution in London  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the changing character of London air pollution over approximately the last thirty years. The killer smogs of earlier years have disappeared, only to be replaced by other pollutants. Levels of sulfur dioxide, smoke, and lead have been reduced, but nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels have increased. The emphasis for air pollution control is now on motor vehicles, particularly automobiles, which are now the main source of air pollution in London

51

Problem of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of air pollutants on plants are dependent on and modified by climatic, orographic, edaphic, and biotic factors; the synergism of pollutants; and differences in the sensitivity of individual plants and species. Sulfur dioxide and fluorine are the most dangerous pollutants for plants, but ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, bromine, iodine, hydrocyanic acid, ethylene, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, mercaptans, asphalt and tar vapors, mercury, and selenium can also inflict damage. Young leaves, sensitive to H/sub 2/S, nitrogen oxides, Cl, HCl, HCN, mercaptans, Hg, and sulfuric acid, are more resistant to SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ethylene, and selenium than older leaves. Damage is most serious when pollutants enter leaves simultaneously or alternately through epidermis and stomata. The yellow-to-brown coloration of leaves is usually a result of the precipitation of tanning. Plasmolysis is caused by SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, HNO/sub 3/, Br, asphalt and tar vapors, while photosynthesis is stimulated by traces of ammonia, HNO/sub 3/, and saturated hydrocarbons. Increased transpiration due to SO/sub 2/ and HCl and elevated permeability and osmosis due to SO/sub 2/ were observed. 9 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

Berge, H.

1964-01-01

52

The Federal Air Pollution Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

53

Air Pollution Control, Part I.  

Science.gov (United States)

Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

Strauss, Werner, Ed.

54

In Search of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

Beckendorf, Kirk

2006-01-01

55

China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

2014-02-01

56

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is one of the environmental problems that threaten the public health. The air is a gas mixture. Air pollution is defined as the existence in the amount of pollutants harmful to humans and other organisms in the atmosphere as a result of the natural or human activity thereby changing to the gas rates in the air. The negative effects of pollution-causing particles on the health are closely related to the chemical structure of particles, whether causing a fibrotic reaction, whether...

Ejder Kardesoglu; Murat Yalcin; Zafer Isilak

2011-01-01

57

Canadian perspectives on air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a general overview of the nature of the atmosphere and atmospheric pollution, the causes of air pollution are discussed, focusing on human activities related to energy production and consumption. The effects of air pollution on human health, plants, animals, materials, and climates are described. Data are presented on the sources, emissions, levels, and environmental/health effects of the six common air pollutants in Canada: airborne particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ground-level ozone, and hydrocarbons. Since the characteristics of toxic air pollutants are more difficult to describe because there are so many of them, the variety of approaches used in their study is illustrated by case studies involving lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, residential wood combustion, and localized industrial pollution. Several regional and global air pollution issues of importance to Canadians are examined: acid rain, pollution in the Arctic, ozone depletion in the stratosphere, the greenhouse effect or global warming, and atmospheric radioactivity. Finally, a discussion is presented of the significance of air pollution problems to the Canadian public and the efforts by government to prevent air pollution through legislation. 166 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.

Hilborn, J.; Still, M.

1990-09-01

58

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed

Wei Zhang

2014-04-01

59

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

2014-04-01

60

Air pollution control in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Imperial Government's approach to the control of air pollution in Iran is explained. The role of the Department of the Environment under the authority of the National Clean Air Regulations including control and abatement policies and programs implemented by the Department is described. The Department's approach of containment at the source using best practicable technology is also discussed. Programs include the establishment of a national air pollution surveillance network, promulgation of national industrial emission standards, control of mobile air pollution sources, and the establishment of ambient air quality standards.

Zerbonia, R.; Soraya, B.

1978-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

62

Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... Your Zip Code: Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution Living near a major roadway may expose you ... on the Health Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Traffic-Related Air Pollution: A Critical Review of the Literature on ...

63

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the environmental problems that threaten the public health. The air is a gas mixture. Air pollution is defined as the existence in the amount of pollutants harmful to humans and other organisms in the atmosphere as a result of the natural or human activity thereby changing to the gas rates in the air. The negative effects of pollution-causing particles on the health are closely related to the chemical structure of particles, whether causing a fibrotic reaction, whether having an amorphous shape and the aerodynamic diameters of particles. The particles larger than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter can not reach up to the alveoli, and can be removed by mucociliary system. If the particles are smaller than 10 microns, these particles can reach to the alveoli, and are closely associated with the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The concentration of these particles (PM10 is used as an indicator of pollution, and creates the basis for air quality index. Air pollution has several negative effects such as blood pressure changes, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress etc. In this review, the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system will be examined, and the importance of this issue will be emphasized. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 97-106

Ejder Kardesoglu

2011-02-01

64

Arctic haze and air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arctic haze is the phenomenon of large-scale industrial air pollution found all through the arctic air mass. Vertical profiles of air concentrations, obtained during several aircraft measurement programs in the Arctic, have offered the following explanation of arctic haze origin. Very long range, episodic transport of air masses over several thousand kilometers clearly affects the quality of arctic air during both summer and winter. Polluted air masses, carrying a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas have been identified in the arctic atmosphere at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km. The layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km can be traced to episodic transport of air masses from anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Pollution material in arctic haze is of submicron size and contains a substantial fraction of black carbon: it interacts strongly with solar radiation. In addition, sulfate and a wide range of heavy metals appear, affecting their natural geochemical cycles. They also serve as indicators of major source regions of emissions in the world. This paper discusses what happens to the haze-related pollutants in the Arctic, what is the contribution of natural sources to the arctic haze and what are local and global effects of arctic haze. Some indications are given of the research to be undertaken in a view to assess the role of the Arctic in global change of the environment

65

Study of air pollutant detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

1974-01-01

66

Air Pollution Assessment of Nitrobenzene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report assesses the potential of air pollution from nitrobenzene. Nitrobenzene is a pale yellow oily liquid with a characteristic bitter almond odor and a low volatility. In 1971, 690 million pounds were produced by seven companies, and yearly product...

J. Dorigan, J. Hushon

1976-01-01

67

Air pollution control in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A discussion covers the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act of 1974; the National Clean Air Regulation of 1975; industrial air pollution control, e.g., for oil refineries, ammonia plants, and sulfuric acid plants, which stresses containment based on the best practicable technology to prevent emissions at the source; air quality standards, the air pollution surveillance network; mobile source control including emission standards for new cars, an in-use vehicle inspection maintenance program; conversion of gasoline and diesel-fueled taxis and buses to gaseous fuels, improved traffic management, and increased use of public transportation.

Zerbonia, R.; Soraya, B.

1978-04-01

68

Priorities in air pollution abatement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of examples demonstrates why no sufficient measures for air pollution abatement had been taken in the past. Then these measures are considered under the aspect of health protection. In the following the authors give a survey of the ecological overall system. The main suggestions for this field are summarized in 6 points. Finally, a catalogue of four requirements for future methods of air pollution abatement is introduced the effect of which is discussed in detail.

Repenning, K.

1983-07-01

69

Air Pollution and the skin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

CHRISTINAVRETTOUANTONIOU

2014-05-01

70

Air Pollution Training Institute Virtual Classroom: Basic Air Pollution Meteorology  

Science.gov (United States)

This Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) course uses video presentations, text materials, and reading assignments to present basic meteorology, meteorological effects on air pollution, meteorological instrumentation, air quality modeling, and regulatory programs requiring a knowledge of meteorology. It consists of seven lessons that cover solar and terrestrial radiation, cyclones and anticyclones, wind speed and direction, atmospheric circulation, and many other topics. To finish the course, an online quiz is offered. Students may take the quiz for APTI Continuing Education Unit (CEU) credits; registration is required to receive CEU credits.

71

Associations of particulate air pollution and daily mortality in 16 Chinese cities: An improved effect estimate after accounting for the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

People typically spend most of their time indoors. We modeled the daily indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin using a set of exposure parameters, including the fraction of residences with air conditionings (AC), the fraction of time that windows are closed when cooling occurs for buildings with AC, the fractions of time that windows are open or closed for buildings with or without AC, the particle penetration factors, air change rates, and surface removal rate constant of PM10. We calculated the time-weighted average of the simulated indoor PM10 concentration of outdoor origin and the original recorded outdoor PM10 concentration. We then evaluated the acute effects of PM10 using traditional and amended exposure metrics in 16 Chinese cities. Compared with the original estimates, the new effect estimates almost doubled, with improved model fit and attenuated between-city heterogeneity. Conclusively, this proposed exposure assessment approach could improve the effect estimates of ambient particles. -- Highlights: •We accounted for the indoor exposure to ambient particles in time-series studies of 16 Chinese cities. •The proposed exposure assessment method generally doubled the effect estimates. •The proposed exposure assessment method increased the statistical assurance of a significant effect of PM10. •The proposed exposure assessment method improved the model fit with daily mortality. •The proposed exposure assessment method attenuated between-city heterogeneity of PM's effects. -- Accounting for the indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin in the exposure assessment could improve the effect estimates of ambient PM10

72

Increasing external effects negate local efforts to control ozone air pollution: a case study of Hong Kong and implications for other Chinese cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is challenging to reduce ground-level ozone (O3) pollution at a given locale, due in part to the contributions of both local and distant sources. We present direct evidence that the increasing regional effects have negated local control efforts for O3 pollution in Hong Kong over the past decade, by analyzing the daily maximum 8 h average O3 and Ox (=O3+NO2) concentrations observed during the high O3 season (September-November) at Air Quality Monitoring Stations. The locally produced Ox showed a statistically significant decreasing trend over 2002-2013 in Hong Kong. Analysis by an observation-based model confirms this decline in in situ Ox production, which is attributable to a reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the regional background Ox transported into Hong Kong has increased more significantly during the same period, reflecting contributions from southern/eastern China. The combined result is a rise in O3 and a nondecrease in Ox. This study highlights the urgent need for close cross-boundary cooperation to mitigate the O3 problem in Hong Kong. China's air pollution control policy applies primarily to its large cities, with little attention to developing areas elsewhere. The experience of Hong Kong suggests that this control policy does not effectively address secondary pollution, and that a coordinated multiregional program is required. PMID:25133661

Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Blake, Donald R; Xu, Zheng

2014-09-16

73

Air Pollution In Jammu City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aerial environment of the earth has been increasingly interfered by the activities of human beings and virtually it has become the bumping site for toxic materials produced by industrial, vehicular and urban emissions. We have introduced several toxic materials to our environment at a tremendous speed that has changed its physicchemical characteristics. The assumption that the “ nature will take care of pollutants” do not hold good anymore since the pollutants at present vary greatly in their quality as well as quantity. Throughout Asian air pollution is a significant threat to human health and the environment and our city is not the exception to this. Use of fossil fuel in transport, industrial, commercial and household sector contributes significant towards the air pollution. Solid waste disposal and its open burning also add air pollutants. In addition to gases, particles coming from variety of sources- vehicles, factories, construction sites, tilled fields, un-paved roads, stone crushers, burning of wood and fossil fuels also pollute the air. An average urban vehicle releases approximately 30-40 mg of particulate matter per mile travel. Forest fires and the contribution of biomass fuels also add pollutants.

Angelika Sharma

2013-09-01

74

Air pollution control. 3. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs

75

Volcanic Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon is a series of photographs of 'vog' or volcanic smog caused by the long-lasting eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Text included with the images describes how vog is created. An additional digitally enhanced map shows effects of trade winds on pollution concentration.

76

Leaves and Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Laposata, Matt

77

Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

78

Air pollution and allergic diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

Ring, J.

1987-03-13

79

Geostatistical models for air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

80

Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency. PMID:21440303

Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

82

Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

83

In Brief: Air pollution app  

Science.gov (United States)

A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

Showstack, Randy

2010-10-01

84

Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].  

Science.gov (United States)

Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air

Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

1971-01-01

85

Western Forests and Air Pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The West is defined in this case as the eleven conterminous states of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. Approximately one-third of the West is forested, primarily by coniferous forest types.

United States Environmental Protection Agency

1992-01-01

86

Air Pollution Control, Part II.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

Strauss, Werner, Ed.

87

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY  

Science.gov (United States)

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

88

Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2002-01-01

89

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)  

Science.gov (United States)

The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

90

Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke  

Science.gov (United States)

Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Jan 9,2014 Whether you live in a city where smog ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

91

Air pollution in Copenhagen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

92

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

93

Air pollution ranks as largest health risk  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-04-01

94

Pollution Law - Clean Air Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.)

95

Regional air pollution over Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO, indicating possible volcanic emissions from the Indonesian islands to the South and East and the Philippines to the North East. The regional pollution seems to be influenced by emissions from Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia and Peninsula Malaysia, and on occasion by anthropogenic emissions from Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, and China.

Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

2012-12-01

96

Slovenia air pollution master plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slovenia was the northernmost republic of Yugoslavia. It is now independent. It has a very high level of air pollution, this has damaged the forests - an important national resource. It also intends joining the European Union, so pollution levels must be brought down to EU standards. Firstly, current emissions must be accurately monitored, then EU pollution standards must be incorporated into national law. WHO guidelines are being used for SO2 control. Current Slovenian standards cover SO2, NOx and particulates. They are up to EU standards. Monitoring has been performed by the Hydrometeorological Institute of Slovenia (HM2). Data from these surveys are being used in air pollution control planning. Public health is of particular concern. The major sources of SO2 emissions are three coal fired power plants. Sostanj has recently been fitted with limestone injection systems, FGD was considered too expensive. Trboulje is more likely to be replaced than retrofitted, at Moste two units will be replaced while a third will be retrofitted with FGD. Wood, coal, gas-oil, natural gas and district heating are all used for domestic premises - domestic heating contributes 12% of SO2 emissions. There should be a switch to cleaner fuels. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

97

Urban structure and air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Representative driving cycles across the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan region illustrate a direct relationship to urban land use. Movement away from the central business district results in fewer traffic events, higher speeds, longer cruise periods and shorter stops. The consequent reduction in root mean square acceleration leads to a corresponding reduction in vehicle emission factors. Urban planning implications are pursued and highlight the importance of public transport as an option in reducing urban air pollution.

Lyons, T. J.; Kenworthy, J. R.; Newman, P. W. G.

98

Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

Evdokimova, Ekaterina

2011-01-01

99

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Approval of Air Pollution Emergency...1 ) The measures to voluntarily...emitting air pollutants...resultant reductions in hydrocarbons...Approval of Air Pollution Emergency Abatement...episodes, the measures to voluntarily...emitting air pollutants...resultant reductions in...

2010-07-01

100

Biofiltration for air pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An approach to enhance and optimize biofiltration for the treatment of volatile organic compounds and odorous emissions was presented. The efficiency, the process aspects, the technology application and limitations involved in biofiltration were also discussed. Biofiltration is effected by microorganisms that are attached to a basically inert, porous support matrix within the biofilter. Biofiltration is simply the use of microorganisms and their metabolic activities to remove volatile organic compounds and other compounds from air emissions. Biodegradation depends on microbial oxidation of compounds that act as a nutrient or energy source for the microorganisms. Biofiltration as an air pollution control technology is well suited to conditions where moderate air flows are contaminated with low concentrations of toxic or obnoxious compounds. The technology can be used to control volatile emissions from the manufacturing of chemicals, service industries, painting, sewage treatment, kraft pulping processes, oil and gas production facilities, and the food industry.

Coleman, R.N. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

1997-11-01

 
 
 
 
101

Air pollution measurement in Dhaka city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution in Dhaka City has become an alarming issue in recent days. Unless necessary measures are taken for the abatement of air pollution, it is going to bring adverse consequences inhuman lives. The aim of this work is to measure air pollutants of different parts of Dhaka City and also to determine breathing air quality. The field experiments revealed the concentrations of RDP (Respirable Dust Particle) suspended in air, Nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and Sulfur dioxides (So/sub 2/). A respirable dust sampler was employed to measure the concentrations of air pollutants. This work also covers an in depth study of types of air pollutants, sources, effects on human and materials and ways of controlling air pollution. This investigation is an endeavor to start a systematic collection of technical information with reliable chemical analysis using available equipment. (author)

102

Air pollution management in Sao Paulo City: A status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The air pollution management program of Sao Paulo is described. Areas discussed are air quality monitoring, the present status of air pollution, air pollution control administration, pollutant sources, air pollution effects on human health, air pollution control techniques, and the Brazilian automotive emission control program

103

Diagnosing vegetation injury caused by air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury is discussed. The sources, atmospheric chemistry, monitoring data, symptomatology, factors affecting plant response, injury threshold doses, air quality standards, relative sensitivity of plants, and leaf tissue analysis are discussed for major air pollutants. Among the pollutants discussed are: the photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides). Minor pollutants discussed in the same framework are chlorine, hydrogen chloride, ethylene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and mercury), particulates, and pesticides. Other subjects discussed include: interactions between pollutants and between pollutants and pathogens, mimicking symptoms, meteorology and air pollution injury, and basic diagnostic procedures of suspected air pollution injury to vegetation. 76 references, 128 figures, 28 tables.

1978-02-01

104

Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures.

Thoft-Christensen, Palle

2014-01-01

105

A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX  

Science.gov (United States)

A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

106

Plant response to polluted air  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field observations and controlled fumigation experiments have shown that plants differ in their response to atmospheric contamination by ethylene, herbicides, fluorides, sulfur dioxide, and smog, or oxidized hydrocarbons. Controlled experiments have also shown that plant response to air pollution varies with species and variety of plant, age of plant tissue, soil fertility levels, soil moisture, air temperatures during the prefumigation growth period, and presence of certain agricultural chemicals on leaves. The leaves of many plants; such as tomato, African marigold, fuchsia, pepper, and potato, become curved and malformed in the presence of ethylene, while those of cantaloupe, China aster, gardenia, Cattleya orchid, and snapdragon do not. Ethylene may cause serious damage to the sepals of orchids without injury to the petals or leaves.

Kendrick, J.B. Jr.; Darley, E.F.; Middleton, J.T.; Paulus, A.O.

1956-08-01

107

On a pollution look; Sur un air de pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author, who is director of the laboratory of atmospheric pollution studies of the French national institute of agronomical research (INRA), answers the questions of a journalist about: how to detect air pollution, what are its causes, what are its impacts on health and environment, and what are the existing protection means against atmospheric pollution. (J.S.)

Garrec, J.P.; Monchicourt, M.O.

2002-07-01

108

Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies show that particulate matter (PM) air pollution with PM10 or inhalable (thoracic) particles (mean aerodynamic diameter cardiovascular effects. Fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) particles (aerodynamic diameter cardiovascular outcomes associated with PM have been described, including the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory mediators from the lungs into the circulation, autonomic nervous system imbalance, and the direct actions on the heart and vasculature of ultrafine particles translocated into the systemic circulation. The induction of oxidative stress by these particles may be central to all of these putative pathways that trigger coagulation and thrombosis, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, arterial vasoconstriction, apoptosis, and hypertension. In chronic exposures these alterations favor the development and progression of atherosclerosis and possibly of hypertension in the long term, and in the short term acute exposures contribute to plaque instability, affect various traditional risk factors and trigger acute cardiovascular events (myocardial ischemia and infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden death), particularly in high-risk subjects. There are currently also significant concerns with the risks of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:19697799

Nogueira, J Braz

2009-06-01

109

Biological monitors of air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

110

Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

T.SUBRAMANI

2014-06-01

111

Air pollution model for point source  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mathematical models of air pollution have a broad practical application. They are irreplaceable wherever it is not possible to determine a state of air pollution by measuring of a noxious agent concentration. By creating of a suitable model of air pollution we can assess a state of the air quality but we also to predict the pollution that can occur at given atmospheric conditions. The created model is a suitable tool for controlling the activity of TEKO and for the evaluation of the quality o...

Jozef Ma?ala; Viliam Carach

2006-01-01

112

PUBLICATIONS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division produces and publishes highly specialized technical and scientific documents related to APTB's research. Areas of research covered include artificial intelligence, CFC destruction,...

113

Catalytic control of air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving the quality of our environment has become a growing concern in this country and around the globe. Research efforts in this field have recently been accelerated by the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act. This book reports on a symposium that is part of a continuing series on the surface science of catalysis. Including stationary and mobile source chapters alike in one volume allows the reader to note the similarities and differences between the two fields and possibly to apply ideas from one area to the other. The coverage is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as a survey of some of the most current topics of interest in this field. The intended audience for this book is the chemist or engineer interested in pollution control, or prevention, or both in the automotive, chemical, petroleum, and other industries, or otherwise involved in the environmental applications of catalysts

114

Air pollution model for point source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical models of air pollution have a broad practical application. They are irreplaceable wherever it is not possible to determine a state of air pollution by measuring of a noxious agent concentration. By creating of a suitable model of air pollution we can assess a state of the air quality but we also to predict the pollution that can occur at given atmospheric conditions. The created model is a suitable tool for controlling the activity of TEKO and for the evaluation of the quality of air in a monitored area of the city of Košice. A sufficient knowledge in the given field is a condition. The input data and information necessary for creating such a model of polluted air is another important factor.

Jozef Ma?ala

2006-12-01

115

Air pollution model for point source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mathematical models of air pollution have a broad practical application. They are irreplaceable wherever it is not possible to determine a state of air pollution by measuring of a noxious agent concentration. By creating of a suitable model of air pollution we can assess a state of the air quality but we also to predict the pollution that can occur at given atmospheric conditions. The created model is a suitable tool for controlling the activity of TEKO and for the evaluation of the quality of air in a monitored area of the city of Kosice. A sufficient knowledge in the given field is a condition. The input data and information necessary for creating such a model of polluted air is another important factor. (authors)

116

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

117

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

118

Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

2011-01-01

119

Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

Sproull, Wayne T.

120

Career Guide for Air Pollution Control  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

Baldwin, Lionel V.

1975-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

1978-01-01

122

Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agri...

Carlo Grignani; Laura Zavattaro; Francesco Alluvione; Chiara Bertora

2010-01-01

123

Air-Pollutant-Philic Plants for Air Remediation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this communication, we review our work over two decades on air-pollutant-philic plants that can grow with air pollutants as the sole nutrient source. We believe that such plants are instrumental in mitigating air pollution. Our target air pollutant has been atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and our work on this subject has consisted of three parts: Variation in plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants among naturally occurring plants, genetic improvement of plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants, and the plant vitalization effect of NO2. So far, an estimation of the half-life of nitrogen derived from NO2 uptake in plants belonging to the 217 taxa studied to date has shown no plants to be naturally occurring air-pollutant-philic. However, we found that an enormous difference exists in plants’ ability to uptake and assimilate atmospheric NO2. Future studies on the causes of this process may provide an important clue to aid the genetic production of plants that are effectively air-pollutant-philic. Both genetic engineering of the genes involved in the primary nitrate metabolism and genetic modification by ion-beam irradiation failed to make plants air-pollutant-philic, but mutants obtained in these studies will prove useful in revealing those genes critical in doing so. During our study on air-pollutant-philic plants, we unexpectedly discovered that prolonged exposure of plants to a sufficient level of NO2 activates the uptake and metabolism of nutrients that fuel plant growth and development. We named this phenomenon “the plant vitalization effect of NO2” (PVEON. Investigations into the mechanisms and genes involved in PVEON will provide an important clue to making plants air-pollutant-philic in the future.

Hiromichi Morikawa

2012-10-01

124

Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend their interests into the environmental field and to focus on this important area. PMID:16140836

Myers, I; Maynard, R L

2005-09-01

125

Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice. PMID:25285972

Huang, Yuh-Chin T

2014-10-01

126

POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollutant variability in the area represented by a stationary point monitoring site causes an uncertainty in representative sampling. This uncertainty has been determined for selected sites in the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) in St. Louis by using portable sampling and mon...

127

Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

1982-01-01

128

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...prevention of air pollution emergency episodes—4- and 8-hour carbon monoxide criteria...Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District's...1977, relating to carbon monoxide episodes...prevention of air pollution emergency episodes—4- and 8-hour carbon monoxide...

2010-07-01

129

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

...alert. An air pollution alert may be...average; (B) Carbon monoxide (CO...warning. An air pollution warning may be...average; (B) Carbon monoxide (CO...emergency. An air pollution emergency may...average; (B) Carbon monoxide...

2010-07-01

130

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all...application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the...

2010-07-01

131

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey...of the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District. (5) Bay Area...District. (6) Ventura County Air Pollution Control District. (7) San...

2010-07-01

132

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the...

2010-07-01

133

Influence of air pollution on birth weight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

Stankovi? Aleksandra

2011-01-01

134

Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

2014-11-01

135

BLUME - the Berlin air pollution monitoring network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report compiles the BLUME air pollution chracteristics obtained in winter 1987/88. Figures and tables summarize and compare the measuring results obtained for sulfur dioxide, airborne particles, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone. Air pollution in winter 1987/88 was not as critical as in the previous years. The 1987/88 mean sulfur dioxide concentrations were found to be the lowest values determined since BLUME measurements started in 1975, and the mean values obtained for airborne particles and for most of the remaining pollutants were lower than in the previous year. The causes of these relatively low pollutant concentrations are discussed. (orig./BBR)

136

Evaluation of air pollution trends in Istanbul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previously, SO{sub 2} and PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 {mu}m in size) concentration distributions had been investigated in order to assess air pollution in Istanbul during the winter season (November-March) in which the concentration of these pollutants had reached formidably high levels due to the consumption of low-quality fuels (mainly coal) for residential heating. In this study, the effect of the increased share of natural gas and high-quality coal consumption in residential areas on air pollution levels was investigated. Modelling employing the method of kriging by spherical interpolation was used to obtain the concentration distribution of these pollutants, and spatial distributions of concentrations were generated. The pollution map obtained by this method indicated that increased usage of natural gas and high-quality coal in residential areas significantly improved air quality.

Akkoyunlu, A.; Erturk, F. [Bhosphorus University, Istanbul (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2002-07-01

137

Event Processing in Air Pollution Monitoring Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is very necessary to detect the environmental conditions of remote places in real time in order to prevent natural disasters such as a flood, a typhoon, an earthquake, and breaks of an embankment. In this paper, we present the event processing in air pollution monitoring system by using geosensor network and spatial information. This system detects sign of air pollution, recognizes the pollution event, and provides the alarm message for predicted dangerous area in near future. The system utilizes sensor data abstraction, context model, and pollution spread model to recognize the pollution events. The designed event process is useful in a monitoring service such as a home network, pollution and ecosystem monitoring, battle field analysis with reconnaissance, and transportation control.

JongSuk Ruth Lee

2013-03-01

138

Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

139

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

1992-04-01

140

Air pollution in Karachi: a study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air population is a necessary adjunct to the advancement of civilisation. It was an offshoot or rapid industrialisation of Europe during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when most of the industrial plants coming up in the big industrial cities were based on the use of coal as a source of energy. This caused an enormous amount of air pollution. Air pollution therefore is a man made phenomenon which creates environmental degradation and it generally builds up over a period of time. Pollution of Karachi which was less than half a million at the time of partition of India has crossed ten million mark during the last decade. This rapid and more or less unplanned expansion of population of this teeming metropolis has entailed environmental degradation of Karachi. As this matter needs detailed and in depth monitoring we have limited our scope to the study of its effect on air pollution alone. (A.B.)

 
 
 
 
141

Air pollution, public health, and inflation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

Ostro, Bart David

1980-01-01

142

Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM?

Maura Lodovici; Elisabetta Bigagli

2011-01-01

143

WSN For Air Pollution Monitoring System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy consumption by sensor node in Wireless Network is one of the important factors in Air Pollution Monitoring System. The paper aims to compare energy consumption with and without Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ Data Aggregation Algorithm. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a developing technology which performs: sensing, gathering, measuring, transferring, etc. data to the database from the real world. The study emphasizes implementation, design and evaluation on WSN of Air Pollution Monitoring System to reduce energy consumption using Matlab tool.

Sonal O Talokar

2014-01-01

144

Impact of Air Pollution on Allergic Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The incidence of allergic diseases in most industrialized countries has increased. Although the exact mechanisms behind this rapid increase in prevalence remain uncertain, a variety of air pollutants have been attracting attention as one causative factor. Epidemiological and toxicological research suggests a causative relationship between air pollution and the increased incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other allergic disorders. These include ozone, nitrogen dioxide and, especially ...

Takizawa, Hajime

2011-01-01

145

Air quality complex index estimation of air pollution situations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To improve the regional system for assessment and management of the ambient air quality in the North-East Estonian region of oil shale mining and processing, as well as natural areas, the corresponding Air Quality Complex Index (AQI) has been elaborated. This method enables to generalize a large number of measured numerical values of concentrations of pollutants in case of multicomponential pollution fields and makes the results more easily understandable. The AQI is suitable for the real-time monitoring as well as for prediction of air quality values and pollution situations by calculated data. (author)

146

Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

147

Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

1999-01-01

148

Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

149

Legal aspects of transfrontier air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution deals with the technical developments and the necessary adaptation of the legal and social systems in the various states. The author first discusses provisions of international law with regard to giving proof of environmental pollution caused by a neighbour state. He then deals with the legal aspects of long-distance air pollution. Finally, the Federal German substantial air pollution control law and relevant licensing provisions are taken as an example to show how the Federal Republic of Germany comes up to the obligations set by international law, to provide for due protection of the environment in neighbour states. (orig./HSCH)

150

REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for sensing concentration of gases like CO2, NO2, CO and O2 are calibrated using appropriate calibration technologies. These pre-calibrated gas sensors are then integrated with the wireless sensor motes for field deployment at the campus and the Hyderabad city using multi hop data aggregation algorithm. A light weight middleware and a web interface to view the live pollution data in the form of numbers and charts from the test beds was developed and made available from anywhere on the internet. Other parameters like temperature and humidity were also sensed along with gas concentrations to enable data analysis through data fusion techniques. Experimentation carried out using the developed wireless air pollution monitoring system under different physical conditions show that the system collects reliable source of real time fine-grain pollution data.

Raja Vara Prasad Y

2011-06-01

151

AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)  

Science.gov (United States)

The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

152

Variance Design and Air Pollution Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution control authorities were forced to relax air quality standards during the winter of 1972 by granting variances. This paper examines the institutional characteristics of these variance policies from an economic incentive standpoint, sets up desirable structural criteria for institutional design and arrives at policy guidelines for…

Ferrar, Terry A.; Brownstein, Alan B.

1975-01-01

153

Pollution prevention incentives and responses in Chinese firms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pollution prevention (P2), which the Chinese define to include process changes, energy and water conservation, as well as materials reuse and recycling, stands in sharp contrast to the traditional approach to pollution control: generate waste and then treat it. Based on the authors study of 26 electroplating enterprises in four Chinese cities, the authors divided factors motivating firms to adopt P2 measures into three groups: economic incentives, environmental policy incentives, and individual and social incentives. The authors then used four variables to categorize an electroplating factory`s use of P2 as a response to these incentive: awareness of the P2 concept, leadership commitment of P2, presence of a P2 champion in the factory, and goals for P2. Firms they viewed as having a proactive environmental management strategy scored highest on all four variables and adopted the largest number of P2 measures. At the other extreme, firms using resistive strategies scored poorly on all four variables and never adopted P2 measures intentionally. Other firms used reactive strategies: they deliberately adopted P2 measures, but usually in the narrow context of a particular workshop or environmental medium. Only proactive firms viewed pollution prevention as a factory wide management strategy for enhancing profits while abating pollution. The authors analysis suggests actions that might increase the number of firms using proactive environmental management strategies.

Warren, K.A. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ortolano, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Rozelle, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1999-09-01

154

Air pollution in mega cities in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

155

Reflections on the Establishment of the Chinese Air Identification Zone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper Yinan Bao presents a very timely legal investigation into aspects of the current territorial dispute in the East China Sea. The author focuses on the Chinese Air Identification Zone and considers the issues regarding the legitimacy of the Chinese ADIZ and Chinese Aircraft Identification Rules. Drawing on previous comparable behaviour involving other countries and international relations, he makes the argument that this Zone is in accordance with international law.

Yinan Bao

2014-05-01

156

Pollutant dispersion models for issues of air pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14 papers entered separately into the data base were presented at the meeting for application-oriented dispersion models for issues of air pollution control. These papers focus on fields of application, availability of required input data relevant to emissions and meteorology, performance and accuracy of these methods and their practicability. (orig./PW)

157

Climatological variability in regional air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

158

78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2013-02-22

159

78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather...California SIP, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Rule 502...

2013-09-24

160

Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
161

Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

NONE

1997-07-01

162

Air pollution control policy in Switzerland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

1995-12-31

163

Air pollution sources, impact and monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improper management of socio-economic developmental activities has put a great stress on natural resources and eco-systems and has caused environmental degradation. Indiscriminate release of toxic substances into the atmosphere from power generation, industrial operations, transportation, incineration of waste and other operations has affected the quality of ambient air. Combustion of fossil fuel results in the emission of oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, particulate and organic compounds which affect the local, regional and global environment. Industrial operations release a wide variety of pollutants which directly affect the local environment. Operation of automobiles releases oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, traces of heavy metals and toxic polycyclic aromatic compounds whereas incineration of municipal waste releases particulate, acid fumes and photochemically reactive and odorous compounds. These air pollutants have varying impacts on health and environment. The intake of polluted air may produce various physiological disorders ranging from respiratory diseases to changes in blood chemistry. Therefore, the emission of pollutants should be controlled at the source and monitoring the levels of pollution should assess the quality of air. (author)

164

Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large forest under strong demographic pressure and under heavy impact of air pollution. Flow patterns induced by complex terrain in the center of Mexico induce strong interaction between the mega city and the rural areas in the Mexico Basin. In and out mesoscale transport to and from the neighboring valleys with cities already larger than one million inhabitants increase the complexity of air pollution processes. Fast urbanization in these valleys suggests even more complicated and full of concerns scenarios. Some recent results on these issues will be shown.

Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

2007-05-01

165

Methods for air pollutants determination in OKTA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'OKTA' Refinery of oil uses liquid fuel (crude oil) for producing energy which is necessary for the process of oil refining. If we want to know how it influences to the environment, especially the air, it is necessary to determine the pollutants in the air. The attending of the air's quality in 'OKTA' is determined with 3 methods: 1) The average smoke concentration per day in the air in the closeness of 'OKTA' is determined with Reflect-meter method. The results show low smoke value in the air. 2) The average concentration of sulphur dioxide per day in the air in the closeness of 'OKTA' is determined with p- rosaniline method. The results show low sulphur dioxide value in the air. 3) The average concentration of inert powder per day in the air in the closeness of 'OKTA' is determined with Gravimeter's method. The results show value lower than the maximal permitted concentration. According to the researches that were made and according to the obtained results, it can be concluded that 'OKTA' with its work does not influence to the air pollution. (Author)

166

Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO2, CO and O3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed by a law proposed by the Italian Ministries of Health and Environment. The relation of that index with some meteorological variables is analysed by the linear multiple partial correlation statistical method. Florence, Milan and Vicence were selected to show the correlation among the air pollution index and the daily thermic excursion, the previous day's air pollution index and the wind speed. During the January-March period the correlation coefficient reaches 0.85 at Milan. The deterministic methods of forecasting air pollution concentrations show very high evaluation errors and are applied on limited areas around the observation stations, as opposed to the whole urban areas. The global air pollution, instead of the concentrations at specific observation stations, allows the evaluation of the level of the sanitary risk regarding the whole urban population. (Author)

167

Air pollution monitoring in downtown Rome, Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper tables air pollution data indicating concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMTHC) and particulate matter measured in downtown Rome during the period, April 1990 - March 1991. These data are analyzed according to National Air Quality Standards. Correlations are developed for nitrous oxide, NMTHC and ozone concentration trends as a function of solar radiation intensity. Analysis of the data reveals that the concentrations of the primary pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide, were very high in the winter months when building heating systems were operating under stable weather conditions. In many cases, the concentrations of carbon monoxide exceeded ambient air quality standards. The paper also discusses the need for the development of limits for NMTHC concentrations and including these limits in the Air Quality Standards

168

Air pollution market expands worldwide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expansion of the electrostatic precipitator market is reported. The biggest expansion appears to have taken place in the power generation industry where 95 per cent of the coal-fired power plants are said to be using electrostatic precipitators for controlling emission of particulates. The pulp and paper and the cement industry are second and third behind the electric power industry, with metals and mining, and the chemical industry being the other members of the 'big five'. Wood particle driers and paint finishing facilities have recently shown substantial increases of using electrostatic precipitators. The use of wet precipitators has also shown significant increase, primarily as a means of reducing SO3 and heavy metals emitted from power plant stacks. Combined annual expenditure on operating electrostatic precipitators is reported to exceed US$ 12 billion. New purchases in 1999 are expected to reach US$ 1.3 billion. ABB, Lurgi, FLS and Mitsubishi are the principal suppliers, with several Chinese companies making their way into the top ten. China and the United States will be the top purchasing countries, but there will be expenditures in 80 countries and regions, many of them in developing countries

169

Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

Carlo Grignani

2010-03-01

170

Preliminary air pollution monitoring in San Miguel, Buenos Aires.  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive diffusion samplers were employed in San Miguel (Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area) for a preliminary air pollution monitoring. The highest loads were observed in downtown, compared with an urban background site. Total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) varied from 0.257 to 0.033 mg cm(-2) month(-1); dust was examined for particle nature and size distribution. A similar trend was observed for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and TSPM spatial distribution, suggesting that traffic is the major pollution source. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) values were low and rather homogeneous. Levels for the investigated pollutants are below EPA's guide line values. Geographic (flat area, near to Rio de La Plata) and climatologic factors (rainfalls and variable wind directions) contribute to disperse pollutants. PMID:11589496

Fagundez, L A; Fernández, V L; Marino, T H; Martín, I; Persano, D A; Rivarola Y Benítez, M; Sadañiowski, I V; Codnia, J; Zalts, A

2001-09-01

171

Semi-infinite air pollution control problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semi-infinite programming (SIP) problems arise in many engineering areas. Robot trajectory planning and optimal signal sets are two fine examples. Air pollution abatement problems, which are linear SIP problems, were proposed in the seventies by Gustafson and Kortanek [Analytical properties of some multiple-source urban diffusion models, Environment and Planning 4, pp. 31- 41, 1972]. Recent available tools for non-linear SIP allow the formulation of more general air control ...

Vaz, A. Ismael F.; Ferreira, E. C.

2004-01-01

172

Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

Corman, Rena

173

Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

174

Ionizing wet scrubber for air pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution control equipment manufacturers are continually developing sophisticated systems designed to dramatically reduce plant emissions. One such system, the ionizing wet scrubber (IWS), has demonstrated outstanding air pollution control characteristics while meeting the challenge of energy efficiency. The IWS system removes fine solid and liquid particulate down to 0.05 micron at high collection efficiencies and low energy comsumption. It also simultaneously removes noxious, corrosive and odor-bearing gases from flue gas streams as well as coarse particulate matter above 1 micron in diameter. Due to its simplified design and low pressure drop, operating energy costs of the IWS are only a fraction of those for alternative air pollution control equipment. Pressure drop through a single-stage IWS is only 0.5 to 1.5 in. Water (125 to 374 pa) column and is controlled primarily by pressure drop through the wet scrubber section. Total system energy usage is approximately 2.0-2.5 bhp/1,000 actual ft/sup 3//min (0.7-0.9 kw/m/sup 3//min) for a single-stage IWS and 4.0-5.0 bhp/1,000 actual ft/sup 3//min for a two-stage installation. These energy requirements represent a significant savings as opposed to other air pollution control systems such as Venturi scrubbers.

Sheppard, S.V.

1986-02-01

175

Air pollution control at a DOE facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

176

AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

Maja Nikoli?

2004-12-01

177

Air pollution effects on Quercus Ilex plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To test air pollution effects on natural forest vegetation, the soil chemistry and the floristic composition of two Quercus ilex L. woods in the Hyblean region (S-E Sicily), unequally exposed to air pollutants are compared. Acidification phenomena are investigated by the soil chemical changes between the trunk base areas, affected by stem flow water, and the surrounding soil, only influenced by canopy drip. Soil chemical changes, floristic poorness and direct damage to the Q. ilex leaves are only detected in the Climiti Mountains holm-oak woods, located near the Siracusa petrochemical complex, while they do not appear at Cava d'Ispica, sited far from any industry and seldom exposed to winds carrying pollutants

178

Air pollution modifies floral scent trails  

Science.gov (United States)

Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, ?-myrcene, and ?-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

179

A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen oxide (NOx. The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10, SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation

Yu-Bei Huang

2014-04-01

180

Sources of Indoor Air Pollution- Improving Indoor Air Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: source control, improved ventilation, and air cleaners. This site offers the reader some insights to improving air quality through increased ventilation, air cleaners for particle removal, and other common sense methods that may be employed. Many times the quality of the air in our homes and public or office buildings is marginal at best. The sources of indoor pollution may be outside of our ability to rectify or it may be as simple as adjusting the flame on our furnace or kitchen stove or maybe something as simple as opening a door or window. However, in many instances we have no control over the air quality because of the materials used in the construction of the building.

2007-01-21

 
 
 
 
181

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...shall request the public to stop all unnecessary driving...prevention of air pollution emergency episodes—4- and 8-hour...prevention of air pollution emergency episodes—Priority II particulate matter emergency episode contingency...

2010-07-01

182

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01...false California air pollution emergency plan. 52...274 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...274 California air pollution emergency plan....

2010-07-01

183

76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley...District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

2011-01-31

184

77 FR 25384 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2012-04-30

185

77 FR 35329 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2012-06-13

186

76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley...District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

2011-01-31

187

76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-11-01

188

Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

189

Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

190

Minority Neighborhoods Face Greater Exposure to Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... enable JavaScript. Minority Neighborhoods Face Greater Exposure to Air Pollution Researchers tracked areas in 6 states to find ... strategies for reducing racial/ethnic disparities in air pollution exposure and air pollution-related morbidity and mortality," the researchers wrote. ...

191

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the Sacramento County Air Pollution Control...1977, relating to carbon monoxide episodes...provisions of the Fresno County Air Pollution Control...1974, relating to carbon monoxide episodes...13) The Fresno County Air Pollution Control...relating to episodes for carbon monoxide and...

2010-07-01

192

Multiobjective air pollution monitoring network design  

Science.gov (United States)

The methodologies currently available to optimize the locations of air pollutant monitoring stations typically include a single pollutant and a single objective. In this paper, multiple objective functions are introduced that provide performance measures describing the spatial coverage of the network and its ability to detect violations of standards for multiple pollutants. An additional objective regarding the effect of data validity in the design is also considered. The objective functions are cast in a manner that permits considerable flexibility in the model formulation. The numerical difficulties associated with the formulation are discussed as are extensions of the basic framework. The basic model and its extensions have been applied to the design of a monitoring network for Tarragona, Spain.

Trujillo-Ventura, Arturo; Hugh Ellis, J.

193

Regional scale air pollution - Sources and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several independent types of information relating to the sources and effects of regional-scale air pollution are reviewed. Much of the information was obtained by in situ observations of plumes and field studies of individual pollution episodes. Attention is given to anthropogenic pollution sources in the U.S. (primarily fossil fuel combustion), rates of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ emission from such sources, ambient concentrations of sulfur compounds, the long-range transport of sulfate aerosol, and visibility trends in the eastern U.S. It is concluded that an episode of extreme haziness covering multistate regions of the eastern U.S. appeared to have been largely caused by secondary sulfate aerosol, that coal combustion and sulfate are only one factor in the production of optical effects, and that spatial and temporal aerosol trends and distributions of coal use, sulfate, light extinction, turbidity, and solar radiation exhibit reasonable internal consistency

194

Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

1996-12-01

195

75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY...Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. The...

2010-04-09

196

Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China: The Possibility and Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The air environmental pollutants exhausted by China have attracted the attention from the world, especially the neighboring countries including Japan. Japan has put forward a conceived model named Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China. This article analyzes the background and causations of air environmental pollution problems in China, and the efforts that Chinese government has made in energy conservation and lessening the pollutants exhaust of car. On this basis, we analyze the mutual interests and stance of the governments and car manufacturers in the aspect of establishing Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China, and consider that there will be further cooperation between Japan and China on air pollution problems in the governmental levels, and the operation can be expanded to be a multilateral frame which is among Korea, Japan, China and other East Asian countries. But at this stage, as for the aspect of car manufacturers in Japan and China, the bifurcation between these two countries decides that there is just a little possibility of establishing an alliance which focuses on solving the air pollution problems in China.

Lin Sun

2009-08-01

197

Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue. PMID:23632992

Özkaynak, Halûk; Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet

2013-01-01

198

Personal exposure of children to air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

199

Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular disease in urban communities. Acute exposure has been linked to a range of adverse cardiovascular events including hospital admissions with angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Long-term exposure increases an individual's lifetime risk of death from coronary heart disease. The main arbiter of these adverse health effects seems to be combustion-derived nanoparticles that incorporate reactive organic and transition metal components. Inhalation of this particulate matter leads to pulmonary inflammation with secondary systemic effects or, after translocation from the lung into the circulation, to direct toxic cardiovascular effects. Through the induction of cellular oxidative stress and proinflammatory pathways, particulate matter augments the development and progression of atherosclerosis via detrimental effects on platelets, vascular tissue, and the myocardium. These effects seem to underpin the atherothrombotic consequences of acute and chronic exposure to air pollution. An increased understanding of the mediators and mechanisms of these processes is necessary if we are to develop strategies to protect individuals at risk and reduce the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular disease. PMID:19029991

Mills, Nicholas L; Donaldson, Ken; Hadoke, Paddy W; Boon, Nicholas A; MacNee, William; Cassee, Flemming R; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E

2009-01-01

200

Space-Time Urban Air Pollution Forecasts  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution, like other natural phenomena, may be considered a space-time process. However, the simultaneous integration of time and space is not an easy task to perform, due to the existence of different uncertainties levels and data characteristics. In this work we propose a hybrid method that combines geostatistical and neural models to analyze PM10 time series recorded in the urban area of Lisbon (Portugal) for the 2002-2006 period and to produce forecasts. Geostatistical models have been widely used to characterize air pollution in urban areas, where the pollutant sources are considered diffuse, and also to industrial areas with localized emission sources. It should be stressed however that most geostatistical models correspond basically to an interpolation methodology (estimation, simulation) of a set of variables in a spatial or space-time domain. The temporal prediction of a pollutant usually requires knowledge of the main trends and complex patterns of physical dispersion phenomenon. To deal with low resolution problems and to enhance reliability of predictions, an approach based on neural network short term predictions in the monitoring stations which behave as a local conditioner to a fine grid stochastic simulation model is presented here. After the pollutant concentration is predicted for a given time period at the monitoring stations, we can use the local conditional distributions of observed values, given the predicted value for that period, to perform the spatial simulations for the entire area and consequently evaluate the spatial uncertainty of pollutant concentration. To attain this objective, we propose the use of direct sequential simulations with local distributions. With this approach one succeed to predict the space-time distribution of pollutant concentration that accounts for the time prediction uncertainty (reflecting the neural networks efficiency at each local monitoring station) and the spatial uncertainty as revealed by the spatial variograms. The dataset used consists of PM10 concentrations recorded hourly by 12 monitoring stations within the Lisbon's area, for the period 2002-2006. In addition, meteorological data recorded at 3 monitoring stations and boundary layer height (BLH) daily values from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Weather Forecast), ERA Interim, were also used. Based on the large-scale standard pressure fields from the ERA40/ECMWF, prevailing circulation patterns at regional scale where determined and used on the construction of the models. After the daily forecasts were produced, the difference between the average maps based on real observations and predicted values were determined and the model's performance was assessed. Based on the analysis of the results, we conclude that the proposed approach shows to be a very promising alternative for urban air quality characterization because of its good results and simplicity of application.

Russo, A.; Trigo, R. M.; Soares, A.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

202

Population Dynamics and Air Pollution : The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; SØrensen, Jan

2013-01-01

203

Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present.

Al-Hasaan, A.A. (Royal Scientific Society of Jordan, Amman (Jordan)); Dann, T.F.; Brunet, P.F. (Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1992-06-01

204

Air pollution related to sea transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sea transportation contributes only 1-2% of world CO2 emissions. Owing to the sulphur concentration in the bunker fuels, this transportation mode represents over 4% of the world SO2 emissions. In addition, NOx emissions are likely to exceed 7% of the world emissions. SO2 emissions in the North Sea and the Channel account for 15% of the whole French emissions, NOx emissions for about 10% and CO2 emissions for about 3%. There are several potential measures to reduce the emissions of ship engines - propelling engines or generator driving engines - improvement of fuel quality, by desulphurizing and prohibiting the use of noxious additives such as PCB; use of alternative fuels; engine optimizing; exhaust gas processing; use of new propelling systems. A new organisation of world marketing of fuels with low or high sulphur levels could also be set up. The Sea Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) discussed this problem during its meeting in 1990. The 73/78 MARPOL convention provides the IMO with an international juridical tool, especially designed for the preclusion of pollution due to sea transportation. It can address the issue of air pollution which requires a concerted approach between seaside countries and the drawing up of international regulations relating to the protection of the sea world. Fuel quality is already controlled by international standards drawn up by ISO. These standards should be improved to reduce air pollution due to sea transportation

205

Overview on the Air Pollution Issues of the City Clusters in China and its Control Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Mega-cities in China, such as Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Shanghai are located in three large city clusters, Bo-Hai Bay surrounding area, Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Yangtze River Delta. Like the rest of the coastal regions in China, these mega-cities have been experiencing fast economic developments and consequently serious environmental pollution. Air pollution in those areas is characterized by concurrent occurrence of high concentrations of multiple primary pollutants and secondary pollutants, which lead to the development of "air pollution complex" (perhaps typically Chinese) problem. Several campaigns of field experiments covering the regions such as PRD and Beijing City with surrounding areas have been conducted critically to understand the chemical and physical processes leading to the formation of regional scale air pollution since 2004. Some policy-relevant suggestions for air quality attainment have been made after these campaigns, specially the attainment of air quality during 2008 Beijing Olympic game, which has been attracted as an important concern worldwide. A scientific field campaign was conducted during August of 2007 for testing the control strategies suggested for air quality attainment in 2008-Olympic. An overview of the results of PRD and Beijing Campaigns will be presented.

Tang, X.

2007-12-01

206

Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention

207

Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR) and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI). Eight roadside tree species wer...

SULISTIJORINI; ZAINAL ALIM MAS’UD; NIZAR NASRULLAH; AHMAD BEY; SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO

2008-01-01

208

Analyses for new air pollution emission control system in Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution management has met a new era world-wide in terms of a new definitions of air pollutants and an application of the most advanced control technologies. Korea is located between two big countries with a high potential of air pollutant emission and has also suffered from deteriorated air quality across large cities and coastal areas with industrial complexes due to local air pollution sources. Through the eighties and nineties, Korea pursued air quality improvements by applying harsh fuel switching and clean fuel programs in addition to the fundamental application of control technologies especially in the field of particulate and sulfur dioxide emissions. There have, however, arisen more serious issues which should be tackled in the following decade. First of all, the air pollution problem with secondary air pollutants has become much harder to handle and to meet in the long run. Another issue is hazardous air pollutants which are considered to give serious health impacts, as well as oxidant formation by photochemical reaction in the ambient air. An analysis has been made to establish a basis for setting up new designation system of air pollutants. Both analysis of existing standards for setting up appropriate and more feasible emission standards and preparation of new standards for the new entry of pollutants have been undertaken for the second stage of air pollution management of Korea. In the coming twenty-first century standards were implemented to cope with demands both from the domestic side to improve air quality significantly, and those from the international side to contribute to the cooperative effort to reduce total air pollutant emissions. In this paper, some draft suggestions for air pollutant emission issues in Korea are given in terms of emission standards and achieving goals in the next decade.

Dong, J.I. [Univ. of Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Chung, Y.M.

1998-12-31

209

An Overview of Air Pollution Problem in Megacities and City Clusters in China  

Science.gov (United States)

China has experienced the rapid economic growth in last twenty years. City clusters, which consist of one or several mega cities in close vicinity and many satellite cities and towns, are playing a leading role in Chinese economic growth, owing to their collective economic capacity and interdependency. However, accompanying with the economic boom, population growth and increased energy consumption, the air quality has been degrading in the past two decades. Air pollution in those areas is characterized by concurrent occurrence of high concentrations of multiple primary pollutants leading to form complex secondary pollution problem. After decades long efforts to control air pollution, both the government and scientific communities have realized that to control regional scale air pollution, regional efforts are needed. Field experiments covering the regions like Pearl River Delta region and Beijing City with surrounding areas are critical to understand the chemical and physical processes leading to the formation of regional scale air pollution. In order to formulate policy suggestions for air quality attainment during 2008 Beijing Olympic game and to propose objectives of air quality attainment in 2010 in Beijing, CAREBEIJING (Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region) was organized by Peking University in 2006 to learn current air pollution situation of the region, and to identify the transport and transformation processes that lead to the impact of the surrounding area on air quality in Beijing. Same as the purpose for understanding the chemical and physical processes happened in regional scale, the fall and summer campaigns in 2004 and 2006 were carried out in Pearl River Delta. More than 16 domestic and foreign institutions were involved in these campaigns. The background, current status, problems, and some results of these campaigns will be introduced in this presentation.

Tang, X.

2007-05-01

210

Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ? The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ? Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ? The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ? Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern clim

211

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex...

Wei Zhang; Chao-Nan Qian; Yi-Xin Zeng

2014-01-01

212

Mortality and air pollution: lessons from statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross sectional studies which attempt to link persistent geographic differences in mortality rates with air pollution are reviewed. Some early studies are mentioned and detailed results are given for seven major contemporary studies, two of which are still in the publication process. Differences among the studies are discussed with regard to statistical techniques, trends in the results over time (1959 to 1974), and interpretation and use of the results. The analysis concludes that there are far too many problems with this technique to allow causality to be firmly established, and thus the results should not be used for cost benefit or policy analysis

213

Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, Ox, SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts

214

Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts. PMID:12854685

Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

2003-06-01

215

Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

Yu Shun-Zhang

2003-11-01

216

Degradation of air polluted by organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Mexican standard NOM-010-STPS-1994 it has been established concentrations of maximum permissible levels in workable air for styrene in the range 420-1710 mg/m3 and for xylene between 218-870 mg/m3. In this work it is studied a biological treatment (bio filtration) for air polluted by xylene and styrene where the microorganisms are adhered at synthetic fiber, these degrade to the organic compounds that across in gaseous state and they are mineralized toward CO2 and H2O. The characteristics of temperature, p H, concentration of organic compound and mineral parameters, as well as, the biomass quantity have been optimized for that bio filters efficiency were greater than those reported in other works. (Author)

217

EPA issues offshore air pollution regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that the Environmental Protection Agency has issued regulations equalizing offshore air pollution rules with onshore standards except in the Gulf of Mexico. The rules hold platforms and drilling rigs within 25 miles of states' seaward boundaries to the same state, local, and federal requirements as if they were located in the corresponding onshore areas. If EPA finds state regulations are adequate, it will delegate to the coastal state the implementation and enforcement authority for the OCS rules. Air emissions sources more than 25 miles offshore will be subject only to federal requirements. EPA said within 2 years the rules will result in significant benefits to certain onshore areas currently violating smog standards

218

San Juan, Puerto Rico Metropolitan Area Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

Science.gov (United States)

A summary report is presented of the emission inventory for the San Juan, Puerto Rico Metropolitan Area. The report provides estimates of the present levels of air pollutant emissions and status of their control. The pollutants, which include sulfur oxide...

D. S. Kircher

1971-01-01

219

THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

220

Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Study of urban air pollution in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

222

Elderly exposure to indoor air pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to characterize the indoor air quality in Elderly Care Centers (ECCs) in order to assess the elders' daily exposure to air pollutants. Ten ECCs hosting 384 elderly were selected in Lisbon and Loures. Firstly, a time-budget survey was created based on questionnaires applied in the studied sites. Results showed that in average elders spend 95% of their time indoors splitted between bedrooms and living-rooms. Therefore, a set of physical and chemical parameters were measured continuously during the occupancy period in these two indoor micro-environments and in the outdoor. Results showed that indoor was the main environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure living in ECCs. In the indoor, the principal micro-environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure varied between bedrooms and living-rooms depending not only on the characteristics of the ECCs but also on the pollutants. The concentrations of CO2, VOCt, O3 and PM10 exceeded the limit values predominantly due to the insufficient ventilation preconized in the studied sites.

Almeida-Silva, M.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Almeida, S. M.

2014-03-01

223

Air pollution control with semi-infinite programming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution control problems can be formulated as a semi-infinite programming (SIP) problem and we describe three main approaches. The first consists in optimizing an objective function while the pollution level in a given region is kept bellow a given threshold. In the second approach the maximum pollution level in a given region is computed and in the third an air pollution abatement problem is considered. These formulation allow to obtain the best control parameters and...

Vaz, A. Ismael F.; Ferreira, E. C.

2004-01-01

224

Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

Mark, Jason

2000-04-01

225

Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for un...

Wang J, Zhang X.

2010-01-01

226

Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

227

A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to moni...

Khedo, Kavi K.; Rajiv Perseedoss; Avinash Mungur

2010-01-01

228

Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

2001-01-01

229

Future challenges regarding personal exposure to air pollutants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of population exposure as a direct indicator of the impact of pollution on public health is a consequence of the fact that the final aim of air quality measurements is the protection of the individuals' health. This article presents a picture of the exposure to air pollutants in different environments: industrial hygiene, indoor pollution and air quality legislation. The reduction of the health risk of the population to air pollution exposure opens new challenges when defining exposure indicators, control strategies and an effective assessment human exposure.

Pascual Pérez Ballesta

2005-12-01

230

Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the ma...

Rizwan, Sa; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2013-01-01

231

Roadside particulate air pollution in Bangkok.  

Science.gov (United States)

Airborne fine particles of PM(2.5-10) and PM2.5 in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Ayutthaya were measured from December 22, 1998, to March 26, 1999, and from November 30, 1999, to December 2, 1999. Almost all the PM10 values in the high-polluted (H) area exceeded the Thailand National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of 120 microg/m3. The low-polluted (L) area showed low PM10 (34-74 microg/m3 in the daytime and 54-89 microg/m3 at night). PM2.5 in the H area varied between 82 and 143 microg/m3 in the daytime and between 45 and 146 microg/m3 at night. In the L area, PM2.5 was quite low both day and night and varied between 24 and 54 microg/m3, lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (65 microg/m3). The personal exposure results showed a significantly higher proportion of PM2.5 to PM10 in the H area than in the L area (H = 0.80 +/- 0.08 and L = 0.65 +/- 0.04). Roadside PM10 was measured simultaneously with the Thailand Pollution Control Department (PCD) monitoring station at the same site and at the intersections where police work. The result from dual simultaneous measurements of PM10 showed a good correlation (correlation coefficient: r = 0.93); however, PM levels near the roadside at the intersections were higher than the concentrations at the monitoring station. The relationship between ambient PM level and actual personal exposures was examined. Correlation coefficients between the general ambient outdoors and personal exposure levels were 0.92 for both PM2.5 and PM10. Bangkok air quality data for 1997-2000, including 24-hr average PM10, NO2, SO2, and O3 from eight PCD monitoring stations, were analyzed and validated. The annual arithmetic mean PM10 of the PCD data at the roadside monitoring stations for the last 3 years decreased from 130 to 73 microg/m3, whereas the corresponding levels at the general monitoring stations decreased from 90 to 49 microg/m3. The proportion of days when the level of the 24-hr average PM10 exceeded the NAAQS was between 13 and 26% at roadside stations. PCD data showed PM10 was well correlated with NO2 but not with SO2, suggesting that automobile exhaust is the main source of the particulate air pollution. The results obtained from the simultaneous measurement of PM2.5 and PM10 indicate the potential environmental health hazard of fine particles. In conclusion, Bangkok traffic police were exposed to high levels of automobile-derived particulate air pollution. PMID:12269671

Jinsart, Wanida; Tamura, Kenji; Loetkamonwit, Samarnchai; Thepanondh, Sarawut; Karita, Kanae; Yano, Eiji

2002-09-01

232

76 FR 60405 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento Municipal Air Quality Management District and...revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD),...

2011-09-29

233

76 FR 71922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...

2011-11-21

234

Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Ditas, F.; Wu, Z.; Hu, M.; Liu, X.; Mao, J.; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

2008-10-01

235

Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004-2006  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration (PM1 and PM10) by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Ditas, F.; Wu, Z.; Hu, M.; Liu, X.; Mao, J.; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

2008-06-01

236

Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration (PM1 and PM10 by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

N. Sugimoto

2008-06-01

237

Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

B. Wehner

2008-10-01

238

78 FR 21542 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District and South Coast Air...to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and South...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2013-04-11

239

77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...and air districts for evaluating air pollution control economics. 3....

2012-01-04

240

77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA...

2012-10-15

 
 
 
 
241

77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes and...

2012-04-12

242

Damage Costs for Air Pollution – 2006 (PDF 491 KB)  

estimates of emissions in the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory ..... (\\possibly because reduced visibility through poor air quality is now less of a \\problem than ..... The amount of life expectancy lost due to the acute effects of air \\pollution;.

243

AIR QUALITY POLLUTION DISCHARGE POINTS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Management, Air Quality Section in cooperation with the North Carolina Center for Geographical Information and Analysis developed the digital Air Quality Pollution Discharge Poi...

244

Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for unadapted and adapted persons according to logarithmic index evaluation method, combined with percentage of dissatisfaction and joint effect of indoor air pollution caused by these two kinds of sources.

Wang J., Zhang X.

2010-07-01

245

Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts, and content of mobile heavy metals. The volume of APC residue is presently increasing due to the increased focus on utilization of renewable energy sources, and thus occupation of new waste–to-energy plants. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions, however, most commercial solutions are concerned with deposition; e.g. in abandoned mines. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. Some main challenges are the extremely high soluble fraction together with the fact that many of the toxic elements are encapsulated in the particles rather than adsorbed to their surface.

Jensen, Pernille Erland

246

Air pollution, oxidative stress, and Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting millions of people worldwide and will continue to affect millions more with population aging on the rise. AD causality is multifactorial. Known causal factors include genetic predisposition, age, and sex. Environmental toxins such as air pollution (AP) have also been implicated in AD causation. Exposure to AP can lead to chronic oxidative stress (OS), which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Whereas AP plays a role in AD pathology, the epidemiological evidence for this association is limited. Given the significant prevalence of AP exposure combined with increased population aging, epidemiological evidence for this link is important to consider. In this paper, we examine the existing evidence supporting the relationship between AP, OS, and AD and provide recommendations for future research on the population level, which will provide evidence in support of public health interventions. PMID:22523504

Moulton, Paula Valencia; Yang, Wei

2012-01-01

247

Aviation air pollution studies in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aviation is an integral part of the infrastructure of the modern civilization. Air transport plays an important role in the global economy and has contributed enormously towards global integration. It supports commerce, tourism and private travel. These positive advantages of the aviation industry involve substantial costs to the environment. Aircraft emit large amounts of air pollutants, degrading air quality. Air pollution in and around airports worldwide is rapidly growing. ...

Al-wasity, Sukaina

2013-01-01

248

Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued i...

Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

2012-01-01

249

The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

250

Air Pollution Data for Model Evaluation and Application  

Science.gov (United States)

One objective of designing an air pollution monitoring network is to obtain data for evaluating air quality models that are used in the air quality management process and scientific discovery.1.2 A common use is to relate emissions to air quality, including assessing ...

251

Air pollution assessment of Salé's city (Morocco)  

Science.gov (United States)

Four sites were selected in Sale's city in Morocco in order to contribute in air pollution level assessment and determination of its effects on public health. The sites were selected so that they are close to the most important industrialized areas, they have a very high demographic density and they cover a heavy traffic. Two approaches of air sampling and subsequent analysis methods of elements in atmospheric aerosols have been performed. The first is a classical approach, which consists in sampling total airborne materials with a High Volume Sampler and analysing the samples using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The second is having its interest for studies relating effects of particles on human health. It consists in employing a Dichotomous Sampler to collect inhalable particles and the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for elemental analysis. With such system, it was possible to collect separately respirable and inhalable aerosols. The ED-XRF analysis method used is appropriate for monitoring airborne polluants in living and working areas with advantage of simple preparation, nondestructive nature, rapidity and suitable limits of detection. Using this method, it was possible to identify and quantify S, Ca, CI, Fe, Cu, and Pb. With Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis Method, we quantified Cd. This study have been completed by measuring NOx SO2 and solid suspended particles or airborne particulate matter (APM).

Bounakhla, M.; Fatah, A.; Embarch, K.; Ibn Majah, M.; Azami, R.; Sabir, A.; Nejjar, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.

2003-05-01

252

A Prognostics Framework for Health Degradation and Air Pollution Concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is known to cause a wide range of diseases that have led to countless cases of premature mortality. Although pollution in a massive scale is uncontrollable by individual inhabitant, the negative impact on health as a direct result on indoor air pollution can be reduced by appropriate preventive actions. Smart home technology allows ventilation to be controlled through condition-based monitoring of the air pollutant concentration in the room. This paper describes a prognostics framework that regulates in-room ventilation, the algorithm can be fed into a smart home control system for prevention of a number of respiratory diseases.

Bernard Fong

2012-02-01

253

Evaluation of air pollution in and outside the airport  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Calculations were performed by Specialists of airports ecological problems of National Aviation University have performed calculations, in basis which assessment of air pollution in vicinities airports Of Ukraine was defined. Also examination was performed in relation of size of airport sanitary - protection zone. Basic methods of reducing air pollution were recommended.

?.?. ??????????

2008-03-01

254

The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

1995-12-31

255

Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

256

Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

Giever, Paul M., Ed.

257

Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City  

Science.gov (United States)

Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

258

Canadian perspectives on air pollution. Perspective canadienne sur la pollution atmospherique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a general overview of the nature of the atmosphere and atmospheric pollution, the causes of air pollution are discussed, focusing on human activities related to energy production and consumption. The effects of air pollution on human health, plants, animals, materials, and climates are described. Data are presented on the sources, emissions, levels, and environmental/health effects of the six common air pollutants in Canada: airborne particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ground-level ozone, and hydrocarbons. Since the characteristics of toxic air pollutants are more difficult to describe because there are so many of them, the variety of approaches used in their study is illustrated by case studies involving lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, residential wood combustion, and localized industrial pollution. Several regional and global air pollution issues of importance to Canadians are examined: acid rain, pollution in the Arctic, ozone depletion in the stratosphere, the greenhouse effect or global warming, and atmospheric radioactivity. Finally, a discussion is presented of the significance of air pollution problems to the Canadian public and the efforts by government to prevent air pollution through legislation. 166 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.

Hilborn, J.; Still, M.

1990-09-01

259

PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

Unknown

2000-10-09

260

Monte Carlo Study of Particle Transport Problem in Air Pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The actual transport of the air pollutants is due to the wind. This normally called “advection of the air pollutants”. Diffusion and deposition are other two major physical processes, which take place during the transport of pollutants in the atmosphere. In this paper we study two classes of grid-free Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms for solving an elliptic boundary value problem, where the partial differential equation contains advection, diffusion and deposition parts. The grid-free MC...

Papancheva, R.; Gurov, T.; Dimov, I.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Air pollution and daily mortality in Inchon, Korea.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 1-year period (January 1995 to December 1995) in Inchon, Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality. Concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particles (PM10), and gaseous pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, were measured daily during the stu...

Hong, Y. C.; Leem, J. H.; Ha, E. H.

1999-01-01

262

Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of P...

Caldero?n-garciduen?as, Lilian; Franco-lira, Maricela; Henri?quez-rolda?n, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; Gonza?lez-maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-robles, Rafael; Villarreal-calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-moreno, Juan; Villarreal-calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-jardo?n, Ricardo; Medina-cortina, Humberto; Delgado-cha?vez, Ricardo

2010-01-01

263

Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

Niklas Berglind

2010-03-01

264

Human Health Cost of Air Pollution in Kazakhstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kazakhstan, like other former Soviet Republics, inherited a number of serious environmental problems. Air pollution is one of these serious problems, leading to significant environmental health effects on the population of Kazakhstan. This study provides a baseline analysis of health damages from air pollution, based on readily available information. Mean estimates of mortality risk attributable to air pollution are about 16,000 cases per year with a 95% confidence level of the risk not exceeding 25,500. Even taking into account all the uncertainties related to the collection and processing of primary data, as well as the application of risk analysis methodology, we conclude that air pollution in Kazakhstan constitutes a significant contribution to the environmental burden of diseases. In relative terms, the impact of air pollution on premature mortality in Kazakhstan is notably higher than in Russia and the Ukraine.

Ussen Kenessariyev

2013-07-01

265

Valuation Of Health Impacts Of Air Pollution In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper surveys the studies measuring the economic impacts of air pollution on health in India. Air pollution has potentially large impacts on the health and well-being of households, especially the poor families. The literature shows that the distribution of the impacts of air pollution is not uniform across the cross sections of societies. It notes that though there are some case studies on the valuation of health impacts of outdoor air pollution, there is rarely any study on the valuation of health outcomes of indoor air pollution which uses consumer choice or behavior models. It identifies that studies should focus on both individual specific characteristics as well as the neighborhood specifications and these studies should be dynamic as the static studies fails to capture the effects of change in socio-economic features on health outcomes.

Surender Kumar

2013-09-01

266

The health effects of exercising in air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities. PMID:24174304

Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

2014-02-01

267

Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines ofvehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants,such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others.Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impactsof the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoringalong different roads in the area of Ljubljana Municipality.

Matej Ogrin

2007-01-01

268

Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

Byoung-Ju Kim

2012-06-01

269

Interaction patterns of major air pollutants in Hong Kong territory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution in a metropolitan city like Hong Kong is a major obstacle to improve air quality and living environment due to the high population density and the vehicle emission increases. The high air pollutant levels impose harm to the human health and impair the city image. The characteristic analysis of air pollutants is very important and necessary to pollutant monitoring, forecasting and controlling. In this study, the interaction patterns of principle air pollutants, e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3), a secondary pollutant, are investigated based on the measured database in four selected areas, which covers two urban types (i.e. residential area, mixed residential/commercial/industrial area) in Hong Kong, during the period of 1999-2001. The study involves analyzing the chemical and physical properties, the characteristics of air pollutants and the factors affecting such interactions using statistical method. The results reveal several routines in urban air pollutants' variations, interaction and trends from macro aspect

270

Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women  

Science.gov (United States)

ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

271

Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: Measurements, health impacts, and interventions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nearly all China's rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in the country. Our objective in this review was to help elucidate the extent of this indoor air pollution health hazard. We reviewed approximately 200 publications in both Chinese- and English language journals that reported health effects, exposure characteristics, and fuel/stove intervention options. Observed health effects include respiratory illnesses, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, weakening of the immune system, and reduction in lung function. Arsenic poisoning and fluorosis resulting from the use of 'Poisonous' coal have been observed in certain regions of China. Although attempts have been made in a few studies to identify specific coal smoke constituents responsible for specific adverse health effects, the majority of indoor air measurements include those of only particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and/or nitrogen dioxide. These measurements indicate that pollution levels in households using solid fuel generally exceed China's indoor air quality standards. Intervention technologies ranging from simply adding a chimney to the more complex modernized bioenergy program are available, but they can be viable only with coordinated support from the government and the commercial sector.

Zhang, J.J.; Smith, K.R. [University of Medicine & Dentistry New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). School of Public Health

2007-06-15

272

Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to endogenize air pollution impacts within the EPPA model, allowing us to study potential economic effects and feedbacks. We find strong interaction between air pollution and economies, although precise estimates of the effects require further investigation and refined resolution of the urban scale chemistry model.

Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

2003-12-01

273

A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

2012-07-01

274

Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

1997-12-31

275

76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District...approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District...following local rules: Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control...

2011-05-06

276

76 FR 16696 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD...of nitrogen (NO X ), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

2011-03-25

277

76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410...Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was...

2011-03-17

278

76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410...Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was...

2011-04-18

279

76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD...harm human health and the environment. Section 110(a)...

2011-07-06

280

76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...disapproval of revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...359) * * * (i) * * * (E) Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

2011-05-31

 
 
 
 
281

77 FR 25109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Air pollution control, Environmental...

2012-04-27

282

76 FR 7142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-02-09

283

76 FR 60376 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento Municipal...revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Sacramento...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-09-29

284

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543...86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...to the Clean Air Act (42 U...Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2010-10-01

285

76 FR 28944 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-05-19

286

76 FR 67366 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento Metro...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-11-01

287

77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule 4352,...

2012-11-06

288

75 FR 3996 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD or District...Planning, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District; letter dated...

2010-01-26

289

75 FR 45082 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portion...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2010-08-02

290

76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD)...

2011-07-15

291

76 FR 68103 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District Rule 4692,...

2011-11-03

292

75 FR 27975 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2010-05-19

293

75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD),...

2010-05-05

294

75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-09-17

295

75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD),...

2010-05-05

296

78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...including San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD)....

2013-04-22

297

76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...

2011-05-24

298

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Science.gov (United States)

...watch by the Department of Air Pollution Control shall be actuated by a National...Alert Level. Source of air pollution Control action 1. Coal or oil-fired...Warning Level. Source of air pollution Control action 1. Coal or...

2010-07-01

299

77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2012-12-10

300

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

76 FR 44809 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-07-27

302

77 FR 66429 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2012-11-05

303

76 FR 40660 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) AGENCY...to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion...for the following terms: Air Pollution Control Officer, Board,...

2011-07-11

304

76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...

2011-05-24

305

78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion...rules, however, provide for Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO)...

2013-01-31

306

75 FR 69002 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD)...

2010-11-10

307

78 FR 37130 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2013-06-20

308

78 FR 922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2013-01-07

309

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926...and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July...

2010-01-01

310

76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-08-23

311

76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No....

2011-05-09

312

75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No....

2010-05-21

313

76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-09-14

314

75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2010-03-22

315

76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-07-28

316

77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2012-04-26

317

76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-06-24

318

75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-09-23

319

76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-05-06

320

75 FR 1716 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...authority to regulate sources of air pollution. The fee provision of CAA...

2010-01-13

 
 
 
 
321

77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...tailored to the nature of the air pollution sources in each state. The...

2012-08-20

322

Air pollution sources in Canada: Power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of the air pollution issues associated with thermal power plants. In 1988, 21.9 of electricity in Canada was generated with fossil fuels. This accounted for 280 kilotonnes of NOx, ca 14% of Canada's total emissions. To control the projected increase in NOx emissions due to rising electricity consumption, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) are considering changing the source performance standards for power plants, and are also considering controlling daily NOx emissions from certain power plants in the Lower Fraser Valley and the Windsor-Quebec corridor where high levels of ground-level ozone are reported. Of the seven provinces, Manitoba and Quebec are the least reliant on fossil fuel electrical generation. Provincial utilities in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are the heaviest users of coal, and therefore have the toughest burden of SO2 reduction. Other emissions from power plants include carbon monoxide (56,000 tonnes or 0.5%), particulate matter (100,000 tonnes or 6%), and volatile organic compounds (2620 tonnes or 0.1%). Mercury vapour from coal is also a potential problem emission from fossil-fuel power plants. 11 refs., 1 tab

323

The air pollution index system in Hong Kong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

1995-12-31

324

Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement

325

Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 ?g m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2010-11-01

326

Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Part I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered, with an emphasis on those indoor air quality problems of greatest concern at present: passive exposure to tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from gas-fueled cooking stoves, formaldehyde exposure, radon daughter exposure, and the diverse health problems encountered by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The review concludes by briefly addressing assessment of indoor air quality, control technology, research needs, and clinical implications. 243 references

327

Evaluation to the aspen for the air pollution monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspen is not often used in bio monitoring programs, but when it is, several interacting and confounding variables have to be considered. Biomass of leaves, and height changes are not easy linked with air pollution, whereas dry weight and leaf abscission are. Visible injury diagnosis and crown thinning are useful records for bio monitoring programs to consider, but skill and understanding of air pollution effects versus seasonal effects are very important. Understanding of actual air pollution symptoms and elemental ratios are especially important. Clonal response and heritability is discuses below, and has to be considered in any bio monitoring program. Above all, integration of aspen response with other key variables is key

328

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01...false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes...1639 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency...

2010-07-01

329

40 CFR 52.1934 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01...false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes...1934 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...1934 Prevention of air pollution emergency...

2010-07-01

330

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01...false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes...2227 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency...

2010-07-01

331

Phytometer of buckwheat as an indicator of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is well known that the growth of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is resistant to inferior environmental conditions, but very sensitive to a polluted atmosphere. It is possible that buckwheat has favorable characteristics as phytometer for measuring air pollution. Young plants of buckwheat were grown in small cups in a water culture. Plants having three leaves were transferred to different places, both in an air polluted area and in an un-polluted area, for a period of 7 days, in order to compare the Relative Growth Rate (RGR) at their setting places. The buckwheat phytometer for measuring air pollution, utilized the following samples for statistical significance: 20 plants with 4 cups per one place according to their coefficient of variance of dry matter weight per pot. It was observed that the RGR showed the values of 20-27% per day in an un-polluted place and of 12-18% per day in a polluted place. The results of growth analysis based on dry matter increment after placement showed that the RGR depression was mainly owing to a decrease in the Net Assimilation Rate and the Leaf Area Ratio was not sensitive for a polluted atmosphere. The Net Assimilation rate depends on photosynthetic activity of leaves, therefore, the NAR depression may be due to an inhibition of photosynthesis by polluted air. 5 references, 11 figures, 8 tables.

Tsuno, Y.; Sato, T.; Kiyasu, M.

1976-03-01

332

Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM(10) exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. PMID:21925714

Hien, P D; Loc, P D; Dao, N V

2011-11-01

333

Air pollutants and epidermal traits in ricinus communis l  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the effects of natural air pollutants on foliar epidermal and cuticular features of Ricinus communis L., 85 mature leaves of the plant were studied. The leaf samples were collected from four populations in an unpolluted environment and from one population in a polluted environment. While there was no significant qualitative differences in the epidermal features of healthy and polluted populations of R. communis, electron microscopic studies showed that stomatal openings and cuticular striations were more conspicuous in the leaves from the polluted environment. A correlation between idiblast frequency and pollution was also observed. (12 photos, 12 references, 4 tables)

Yundus, M.; Ahmad, K.J.; Gale, R.

1979-11-01

334

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AIR POLLUTANTS, AS PARAMETERS OF COMPLEX AIR QUALITY INDICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human health is essentially influenced by air quality. Atmospheric air in residential areas contains many pollutants. The monitoring and the plain publishing of the measured values are important both for the authorities and the public. Air quality is often characterized by constructing air quality indices, and these indices are used to inform the public. The construction of an advanced air quality index is usually done by averaging the measured data usually in time and space; hereby important aspects of the data can be lost. All known indices contain only chemical pollutants, while certain biological pollutants can enhance the effects of the chemical pollutants and vice versa. In this paper we discuss the importance of integrating biological pollutants into air quality indices. In order to increase efficacy of these indices to the civil society we aim to introduce geographic information system (GIS methods into publishing air quality information.

TEKLA EÖTVÖS

2007-12-01

335

40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the following air pollution sources: (1) Air pollution sources that do...pollutants into the atmosphere from any manufacturing...pollutants into the atmosphere from any manufacturing...except for air pollution sources...

2010-07-01

336

Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.

COHEN AARON J

1997-01-01

337

Particulate Matter Air Pollution, Its Influence on Life Quality and the Means of Reducing Indoor Air Pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents serious and every day increasing problem – particulate matter air pollution (PM10, PM2.5 and discusses particulate matter effect on humans health and life quality. Research reveals legal acts regulating the limit values of particulate matter. Following the requirements of the EU directives and national legislation, limit values applicable in the assessment of particulate matter concentrations are given. Recent research shows that most of their time people spent indoors, and therefore indoor air pollution may be even higher than that outdoors and this is the reason why indoor air pollution is being investigated. In conclusion, this article gives the means of reducing particulate matter air pollution indoors which are 3 main indoor air quality improvement strategies. Article in Lithuanian

Agn? Matuliauskait?

2011-04-01

338

The Association of Air Pollution and Emergency Medical Service Seeking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are some reports on the association between air pollution and myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and mortality due to cardiac problems in susceptible individuals. We aimed to evaluate the association of air pollution and the emergency visits due to cardiovascular diseases, in a specialized heart hospital in Tehran.Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Patients admitted to the emergency ward of Tehran Heart Center were consecutively included. Records of meteorological data for the study period were obtained from Air Quality Control Company that monitors the concentration of air pollutants through its several stations including one near to Tehran Heart Center. The principal component analysis was used to examine the association between daily air pollution level and the number of patients admitted as a result of unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmia.Results: The principal component score -reflecting the daily air pollution level- was higher on the admission date of the patients who died in hospital compared to that of the patients who discharged alive from the hospital and the difference was statistically significant. After adjustment for the effect of age, sex, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes, a statistically significant relationship between principal component score and the unstable angina and arrhythmia was detected in patients referred to the emergency department.Conclusion: Air pollution was associated with the unstable angina and arrhythmia in patients referred to the emergency department of Tehran Heart Center, adjusted for the effect of other risk factors.

Mohammad Ali Najafi

2009-09-01

339

Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km2 area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution coment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations

340

Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
341

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population

Dana Loomis

2014-04-01

342

Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

Batterman, S.A.

1981-08-01

343

Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

1995-12-31

344

Biofiltration: an innovative air pollution control technology for VOC emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and public sector sources. Control efficiencies of more than 90 percent have been achieved for many common air pollutants. Due to lower operating costs, biofiltration can provide significant economic advantages over other APC technologies if applied to off-gases that contain readily biodegradable pollutants in low concentrations. Environmental benefits include low energy requirements and the avoidance of cross media transfer of pollutants. This paper reviews the history and current status of biofiltration, outlines its underlying scientific and engineering principles, and discusses the applicability of biofilters for a wide range of specific emission sources. PMID:1958341

Leson, G; Winer, A M

1991-08-01

345

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the prevention of air pollution emergency episodes—Priority II particulate matter emergency episode contingency plan. ...preplanned abatement strategies, and a Priority I particulate matter emergency episode contingency plan....

2010-07-01

346

Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

347

Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

348

Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems. Volume 2. Ambient Air Specific Methods (Interim Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

This document represents Volume II of a 5-volume quality assurance (QA) handbook series dedicated to air pollution measurement systems. Volume II is dedicated to the Ambient Air Quality Surveillance Program and the data collection activities of that progr...

1994-01-01

349

Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in th...

Gostin, Irina Neta

2009-01-01

350

Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using more robust estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national level. We also take into account the urbanization rate and the average household size neglec...

Neumayer, Eric

2004-01-01

351

Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM10 exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and s a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: ? Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. ? 24-h concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. ? Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. ? Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. ? Close pollution-meteorology association serve as a basis for warning and forecasting.

352

AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the impact of three “criteria” air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother’s residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. Our work offers three important innovations: First, we use the exact addresses of mothers to select those closest to air monitors to improve the accuracy of air quality exposure. Second, we include maternal fixed effects to control for unobserved characteristic...

Currie, Janet; Neidell, Matthew; Schmieder, Johannes

2009-01-01

353

Particulate air pollution in Šiauliai city  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air polution is one of the most important problems in Lithuania and all over the world. Air polution causes hudge harm to environment and to all egzisting organizms. Particulate air polution is one of hazardous part especialy in the bigger citys. This master degree‘s work represents the research data on the concentration volumes of the solid particles and heavy metals in the environmental air in Šiauliai city in 2007. The concentration analysis of solid particles in the environmental air, ...

Marozas, Nerijus

2008-01-01

354

Detection of Air Pollutant Using Zigbee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe use of ZigBee, sensor nodes, GPS to construct distributed system for urban airpollution monitoring and control. Zigbee module and pollution server is interfaced with GPS system todisplay real-time pollutants levels and there location on a 24h/7 days basis.

Darshana N. Tambe

2013-08-01

355

Detection of Air Pollutant Using Zigbee  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we describe use of ZigBee, sensor nodes, GPS to construct distributed system for urban airpollution monitoring and control. Zigbee module and pollution server is interfaced with GPS system todisplay real-time pollutants levels and there location on a 24h/7 days basis.

Tambe, Darshana N.; Nikita Chavan

2013-01-01

356

ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...

357

The state of transboundary air pollution: 1989 update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This sixth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the seventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 21 to 24 November 1989. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country by country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two is an executive summary of the 1988 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests which was established by the Executive Body for the Convention in 1985. A total of 25 countries participated in the survey, conducted in accordance with common guidelines laid down in an ECE manual on methodologies and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Parts three and four describe the effects of mercury and some other heavy metals related to the long-range atmospheric transport of pollution. The section on mercury describes the environmental effects and the causes of mercury pollution in air and atmospheric deposition, including its sources and its transport from forest soils into fresh water and aquatic organisms. The section dealing with other heavy metals (such as asbestos, cadmium and lead) describes the process of atmospheric transport and deposition, the effects on forest ecosystems, ground water, surface water and agricultural products. Refs, figs and tabs

358

Cardiovascular effects of air pollution: what to measure in ECG?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidemiologic evidence indicates that air pollution adversely affects the cardiovascular system, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms of such an association are unknown. Although potential mechanisms of deleterious effects of air pollution may involve response of the respiratory system, immunologic response, or coagulation abnormalities, the cardiovascular system seems to be the common end point of these pathways. Cardiovascular response to any ...

Zareba, W.; Nomura, A.; Couderc, J. P.

2001-01-01

359

The Association of Air Pollution and Emergency Medical Service Seeking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: There are some reports on the association between air pollution and myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and mortality due to cardiac problems in susceptible individuals. We aimed to evaluate the association of air pollution and the emergency visits due to cardiovascular diseases, in a specialized heart hospital in Tehran.Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Patients admitted to the emergency ward of Tehran Heart Center were consecutively included. Records of meteorologica...

Mohammad Ali Najafi; Reza Hamidian; Saeed Sadeghian; Soheil Saadat

2009-01-01

360

Association of Human Mortality with Air Pollution of Hong Kong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to investigate the general statistical association of air pollution with the cardiovascular and respiratory mortality of the elderly in Hong Kong. Based on six years of measurements including the major air pollutant concentrations (PM10, SO2, NO, NO2, O3, CO, ambient temperature, and mortality (respiratory, cardiovascular between 2005 and 2010, correlation analysis was carried out in annual, monthly and weekly time scales. From an annual perspective, it was found that the air pollution species may pose a constant effect on the respiratory and the cardiovascular mortality during the studied period since the elderly mortality rates and the air pollution annual concentrations show obvious constant trends. From a monthly time scale, it was found that NO2 and CO have high positive cross correlation with the respiratory mortality of the following 1 to 2 months. In addition, PM10 and CO also have similar delayed influence on the cardiovascular mortality. Among these four pollutants, only CO was found to exhibit high statistical association in the weekly time scale and it is most related to the cardiovascular mortality of the week after next. Therefore, it was concluded that the effect of air pollution on the elderly mortality of Hong Kong should be cumulative. This study implies that the establishment of weekly or monthly air quality indices is necessary for health implications.

Ka-In Hoi

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies.

Tracey J. Woodruff

2010-06-01

362

Assessing Vulnerability of Women to Indoor Air Pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study an attempt has been made to identify the factors that have contributed to vulnerability of women to indoor air pollution and suggests suitable measures for its intervention. The study is based on primary sources of data collected with the help of questionnaire interviews from a sample of 2,101 women respondents belonging from different income groups, from Aligarh city. Information regarding their cooking conditions (4 factors, cooking related exposures (4 factors, housing (3 factors and health conditions (3 factors were collected. Total 14 factors linked with women vulnerability to indoor air pollution were identified. Indoor air pollutants were monitored in the cooking area and with different fuel usages to assess the indoor air quality. The results show that women are vulnerable to indoor air pollution but there was difference in the levels of vulnerability among the women belonging to different income groups. It was the lower income women who were most vulnerable because they were using biomass fuels/chulhas, cooking in a multipurpose room, spending long hours in kitchen, they were more exposed to smoke, heat, pollutants and the conditions were exacerbated because they were living in sub-standard housing, in one room leading to congestion/crowding and with no ventilation. They were suffering most from various problems and specific diseases like respiratory infections (ALRI, AURI, COPD, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, perinatal mortality, low birth weight, cataract and eye irritation associated with indoor air pollution.

Abha Lakshmi Singh

2012-11-01

363

76 FR 30545 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutants: Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaning Facilities...National Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning...

2011-05-26

364

76 FR 30604 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...  

Science.gov (United States)

...112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities: State of Maine...Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaning Facilities (``Dry...

2011-05-26

365

Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. PMID:22196520

Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

2012-01-01

366

Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

1989-01-01

367

California’s Agriculture-Related Local Air Pollution Policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is a critical environmental issue for California, which has some of the nation’s most polluted air basins and also the nation’s most stringent set of state and local air quality standards. This paper reviews my previous work in Lin (2011, in which I examine the effects of agriculture-related local regulations in California on air quality, as measured by the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards, by exploiting the natural variation in policy among the different air districts in California. Agricultural burning policies and penalty fees reduce the pollution from CO. Other policies such as the prohibition on visible emission, fugitive dust, particulate matter, nitrogen and the reduction of animal matter are correlated with higher levels of CO. Regulations on orchard and citrus heaters have no significant effect on the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards.

C.-Y. Cynthia Lin

2013-07-01

368

The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of r anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

369

Gap in air pollution reduction measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The air quality dossier in the Netherlands requires drastic cleaning of the vehicles fleet. However, the present measures are too much focused on the installation and use of soot filters. Other options to improve the air quality are discussed

370

Traffic air pollution and risk of death from bladder cancer in Taiwan using petrol station density as a pollutant indicator.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the relationship between air pollution and risk of death from bladder cancer, a matched cancer case-control study was conducted using deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1997 through 2006. Data for all eligible bladder cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of individuals who died from causes other than cancer or diseases associated with genitourinary problems. The controls were pair matched to the cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data for the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from the two major petroleum supply companies, Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) and Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC). The petrol station density (per square kilometer) (PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in ambient evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to PSD in their residential municipality. The present study showed that individuals who resided in municipalities with high PSD levels were at an increased risk of death from bladder cancer compared to subjects living in municipalities with a low PSD level; however, the differences are not statistically significant. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of vehicular air pollutant emissions in the etiology of bladder cancer development. PMID:19953417

Ho, Chi-Kung; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Chun-Yuh

2010-01-01

371

Impact of air temperature, relative humidity, air movement and pollution on eye blinking  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and pollution on occupants’ eye blink frequency (BF) was examined. In total sixty subjects participated in eight 4 hour experiments without and with facially applied air movement under individual control of the subjects. Air movement of either polluted room air supplied isothermally or clean and cool air was used. Eye blinking video record for the last 15 min of each exposure were analysed. The increase of the room air temperature and relative humidity from 23 °C and 40% to 26 °C and 70% or to 28 °C and 70% decreased the BF. At temperature of 26 °C and relative humidity of 70% facially applied flow of polluted room air didn’t have significant impact on BF in comparison without air movement. The increase of BF due to decrease of temperature and humidity and increase of velocity may be compensated due to the increase in air cleanness.

Melikov, Arsen Krikor

2011-01-01

372

IJERPH | Special Issue : Bioprocesses for Air Pollution Control  

...es/profesorado-qfeq/ quimica-fisica-e-enxeneria-quimica-i/christian-kennes E-Mail: kennes@udc.es Interests: waste gas treatment; wastewater treatment; fermentation technology; biodegradation; bioconversion; biofuels; biorefinery Special Issue Information Dear Colleague, Air pollution has become a major concern worldwide. Different technologies are available for the removal of volatile pollutants, based either on mass-transfer of the pollutants from one phase to another or on the destruction of the pollutants. Bioprocesses belong to the latter group of technologies. Bioreactors allow the complete removal of odors and other volatile compounds from ...

373

Photochemical and other air pollutants in the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1975, together with the State Institute of Public Health and the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, The Institute of Phytopathological Research continued investigations on incidence of air pollution throughout the Netherlands. Culture vessels with indicator plants were placed on 31 test plots of the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network. During the growing season from May until October, the indicator plants were inspected weekly for typical symptoms of air pollution. Until July, photochemical air pollution by ozone caused less injury to Spinacia oleracea than in the preceding year. On Nicotiana tabacum there was as much injury as in 1974, especially in the 33rd, 36th and 37th week, all over the country. An increasing number of injurious effects by peroxyacetyl nitrate was observed on Petunia nyctaginiflora, Poa annua and Urtica urens. Medicago sativa, Fagopyrum esculentuma nd Petunia nyctaginiflora, indicator plants for the pollutants SO2, NO/sub x/ and ethylene, showed little and Solanum tuberosum, possible indicator plant for ethylene and ozone, no injury in 1975. Finally air pollution by HG occurred on the same scale as in 1974, as shown by Tulipa gesneriana in spring and Gladiolus gandavensis in summer. These results corresponded with the figures for F from the limed paper method. As in 1974, data on injury to the plants and from the limed paper method showed a decline from south to north.

Floor, H.

1976-01-01

374

India’s urban environment: air and water pollution and pollution abatement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on air and water pollution in India’s cities, provides empirical evidence to demonstrate the seriousness of the challenges, discusses the relevant policies of national and local government that are used to address the challenges, discusses relevant political economy issues related to introducing pollution taxes or other policies which are aimed at “green” cities.

Sridhar, Kala S.; Kumar, Surender

2012-01-01

375

Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources.

2011-01-01

376

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS: IN CANINE SPECIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The Clean Air Act of 1970 as amended in 1977 requires that a comprehensive data base be established to assess human health effects caused by air pollution from mobile sources. The spectrum of potential toxic effects can be viewed from two perspectives: The first is the identifica...

377

Air pollution and neonatal deaths in São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Air pollution has been associated with health effects on different age groups. The present study was designed to assess the impact of daily changes in air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particle matter (PM10)) on total number of daily neonatal deaths (those that occur between the first and the 28 [...] th days of life) in São Paulo, from January 1998 to December 2000, since adverse outcomes such as neonatal deaths associated with air pollution in Brazil have not been evaluated before. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used and nonparametric smooth functions (loess) were adopted to control long-term trend, temperature, humidity, and short-term trends. A linear term was used for holidays. The association between air pollutants and neonatal deaths showed a short time lag. Interquartile range increases in PM10 (23.3 µg/m³) and SO2 (9.2 µg/m³) were associated with increases of 4% (95% CI, 2-6) and 6% (95% CI, 4-8), respectively. Instead of adopting a two-pollutant model we created an index to represent PM10 and SO2 effects. For an interquartile range increase in the index an increase of 6.3% (95% CI, 6.1-6.5) in neonatal deaths was observed. These results agree with previous studies performed by our group showing the deleterious effects of air pollutants during the perinatal period. The method reported here represents an alternative approach to analyze the relationship between highly correlated pollutants and public health problems, reinforcing the idea of the synergic effects of air pollutants in public health.

C.A., Lin; L.A.A., Pereira; D.C., Nishioka; G.M.S., Conceição; A.L.F., Braga; P.H.N., Saldiva.

2004-05-01

378

Air pollution and neonatal deaths in São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution has been associated with health effects on different age groups. The present study was designed to assess the impact of daily changes in air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particle matter (PM10 on total number of daily neonatal deaths (those that occur between the first and the 28th days of life in São Paulo, from January 1998 to December 2000, since adverse outcomes such as neonatal deaths associated with air pollution in Brazil have not been evaluated before. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used and nonparametric smooth functions (loess were adopted to control long-term trend, temperature, humidity, and short-term trends. A linear term was used for holidays. The association between air pollutants and neonatal deaths showed a short time lag. Interquartile range increases in PM10 (23.3 µg/m³ and SO2 (9.2 µg/m³ were associated with increases of 4% (95% CI, 2-6 and 6% (95% CI, 4-8, respectively. Instead of adopting a two-pollutant model we created an index to represent PM10 and SO2 effects. For an interquartile range increase in the index an increase of 6.3% (95% CI, 6.1-6.5 in neonatal deaths was observed. These results agree with previous studies performed by our group showing the deleterious effects of air pollutants during the perinatal period. The method reported here represents an alternative approach to analyze the relationship between highly correlated pollutants and public health problems, reinforcing the idea of the synergic effects of air pollutants in public health.

Lin C.A.

2004-01-01

379

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45 Section 923...Acts. Such requirements must be the water pollution control and air pollution control requirements applicable to such...

2010-01-01

380

Evaluation of the impact of air pollution on health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, an important number of studies, carried out in different cities, have found that, even bellow air quality levels considered as safe, increases in the levels of air pollution are associated with harmful effects on health. Epidemiology has played a major role in the evaluation of the impact of air pollution on health, since it provides proofs of the association among human populations within natural conditions. Also, toxicology and clinical sciences provide convincing proofs on the etiopathogenic mechanisms of such associations.The purpose of the evaluation of impact on health is to quantify the expected number of people whose health is affected due to a specific exposure situation. In Europe, since three years ago, the APHEIS project, with 26 participating cities, has established an environmental health surveillance system which includes a database of air pollution and health. This is aimed at quantifying the effects of air pollution on public health at local, national and European levels, as well as distributing standardised reports about air pollution impact on public health.

Ferrán Ballester Díez

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Seasonal ARIMA for Forecasting Air Pollution Index: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Both developed and developing countries are the major reason that affects the world environment quality. In that case, without limit or warning, this pollution may affect human health, agricultural, forest species and ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the monthly and seasonal variations of Air Pollution Index (API at all monitoring stations in Johor. Approach: In this study, time series models will be discussed to analyze future air quality and used in modeling and forecasting monthly future air quality in Malaysia. A Box-Jenkins ARIMA approach was applied in order to analyze the API values in Johor. Results: In all this three stations, high values recorded at sekolah menengah pasir gudang dua (CA0001. This situation indicates that the most polluted area in Johor located in Pasir Gudang. This condition appears to be the reason that Pasir Gudang is the most developed area especially in industrial activities. Conclusion: Time series model used in forecasting is an important tool in monitoring and controlling the air quality condition. It is useful to take quick action before the situations worsen in the long run. In that case, better model performance is crucial to achieve good air quality forecasting. Moreover, the pollutants must in consideration in analysis air pollution data.

Muhammad H. Lee

2012-01-01

382

Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry deposition of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) to trees can be spatially quantified. Employing nationally available road network, traffic volume, air pollutant emission/measurement and meteorological data, the developed system provides a framework for the U.S. city managers to identify spatial patterns of urban forest and locate potential areas for future urban forest planting and protection to improve air quality. To exhibit the usability of the framework, a case study was performed for July and August of 2005 in Baltimore, MD. - Highlights: ? A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed. ? The developed system enhances the functionality of i-Tree Eco. ? The developed system employs nationally available input datasets. ? The developed system is transferable to any U.S. city. ? Future planting and protection spots were visually identified in a case study. - Employing nationally available datasets and a GIS, this study will provide urban forest managers in U.S. ciurban forest managers in U.S. cities a framework to quantify and visualize urban forest structure and its air pollution removal effect.

383

The role of total exposure in air pollution control strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the need for total exposure considerations to be incorporated into existing air quality programs in order to ensure the most effective protection of public health. New information, i.e., high indoor concentrations of some air pollutants and longer exposure times indoors, has demonstrated the importance of taking into account all important microenvironments when assessing risk and determining the best control strategies. Best control strategies are developed for several pollutants through application of three criteria: reduction of public health risk; relative effectiveness of the control strategies; and social and political feasibility. Examples presented illustrate the need for, and the feasibility of, integration of indoor and outdoor air quality strategies.

Girman, J.R.; Wesolowski, J.J. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA)); Jenkins, P.L. (California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (USA))

1989-01-01

384

Severe ozone air pollution in the Persian Gulf region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently it was discovered that over the Middle East during summer ozone mixing ratios can reach a pronounced maximum in the middle troposphere. Here we extend the analysis to the surface and show that especially in the Persian Gulf region conditions are highly favorable for ozone air pollution. Model results indicate that the region is a hot spot of photo-smog where air quality standards are violated throughout the year. Long-distance transports of air pollution from Europe, the Middle East, natural emissions and stratospheric ozone conspire to bring about high background ozone mixing ratios. This provides a hotbed to indigenous air pollution in the dry local weather conditions, which are likely to get worse in future.

J. Lelieveld

2008-09-01

385

Smoke and mirrors - the politics and culture of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the coal factory chimneys in Manchester, England in the late nineteenth century to the smog hanging over Los Angeles, USA in the late twentieth century, air pollution has long been one of the greatest threats to our environment. In this important collection of original essays, the leading environmental scientists and social scientists examine the politics of air pollution policies and help us to understand the ways these policies have led to, idiosyncratic, effective, ineffective, and even disastrous choices about what we choose to put into and take out of the air. Offering historical, contemporary and cross-national perspectives, this volume provides a refreshing new approach to understanding how air pollution policies have evolved over time.

E. Melanie DuPuis (ed.) [University of California (United States)

2004-01-15

386

Air pollution in urban area of Foligno (Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work shows the air pollution levels, based on air's quality laws, detected around the urban area of the city of Foligno (Perugia-Italy)). The preliminary study done, has shown a general result of a good quality of the air, even if there were some excesses of the Attention Levels, during situations not alarming, as these situations occurred in particular conditions, characterized by intense traffic and unfavorable meteorological conditions

387

Policy considerations in developing air pollution strategies: A US perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines the air quality management approach to air pollution control as applied in the US, emphasizing situations in which theory and practical experience have differed. Particular emphasis is placed on the development and application of tropospheric ozone policy, including an overview of past failures and successes, recommended improvements, and the new approach embodied in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The paper concludes with a brief summary of emerging science/policy concerns in ozone strategy

388

Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

2005-07-01

389

Mobile air monitoring data-processing strategies and effects on spatial air pollution trends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data analysis with complex second-by-second multipollutant data varying as a function of time and location. Data reduction and filtering techniques are often applied to deduce trends, such as pollutant spati...

Brantley, H. L.; Hagler, G. S. W.; Kimbrough, S.; Mukerjee, S.; Neas, L. M.

2014-01-01

390

Energy use and air pollution in Indonesia. Supply strategies, environmental impacts and pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book summarises the results of the ''Markal Study'', which is part of the scientific cooperation between the Indonesian and German governments. The nine chapters cover: an introduction to Indonesia and the objectives of the study; demographic and economic developments; fast increasing domestic energy use; pollution development on Jawa in the case of insufficient control; risks for ecosystems on Jawa; health risks from air pollution; pollution development and control cost in the case of reduced emissions, carbon dioxide emission analysis, and final recommendations for air quality management. A bibliography of the project reports on which the book is based as well as other sources is presented. (UK)

391

Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its reactivity with the adjacent surfaces, in addition to the crack geometry and pressure difference. Infiltrating air can also travel through wall cavities, where the penetration of particles and ozone is predicted to vary substantially, depending mainly on whether air flow passes through fiberglass insulation. For ozone, its reactivity with the insulation materials is also an important factor. The overall pollutant penetration factor is governed by the flow-weighted average from all air leakage pathways. Large building leaks would strongly influence the overall penetration factor, because they permit much larger flow.

Liu, De-Ling

2002-09-01

392

Air Pollution Induced Asthma and Alterations in Cytokine Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent decades, clinicians and scientists have witnessed a significant increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The factors underlying this phenomenon are clearly complex; however, this rapid increase in the burden of atopic disease has occurred in parallel with rapid industrialization and urbanization in many parts of the world. Consequently, more people are exposed to air pollutants than at any point in human history. Worldwide increases in allergic respiratory disease have mainly been observed in urban communities. Epidemiologic and clinical investigations have suggested a strong link between particulate air pollution and detrimental health effects, including cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based summary of the effects of air pollutants on asthma, focusing on particulate matter PMs, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs, and ozone as major air pollutants. An overview of observational and experimental studies linking these pollutants with asthma will be provided, followed by consideration of the mechanisms underlying pollutant induced immune response and inflammation. The cytokine response will be viewed in depth and a brief discussion of future research and clinical directions is provided.

Massoumeh Ebtekar

2006-05-01

393

Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality  

Science.gov (United States)

The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

2012-04-01

394

Air pollution projection methodologies: Integrating emission projections with energy forecasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes extensions of end-use energy demand forecasting models to project air pollution emissions. Energy demand forecasting is a maturing field in which the end-use forecasting model is becoming the standard tool. Air pollution emission projection techniques have developed independently of energy demand forecasting even though a considerable portion of air pollution emissions comes from fuel combustion. Considerable benefits can be obtained by jointly producing energy demand and emission projections from common data bases using an integrated modeling system. Such integrated modeling allows better understanding of the growth of energy-related emissions over time, and of the role of demand-side management in reducing these emissions. This paper presents results of initial efforts at the California Energy Commission to integrate emission projections and energy demand forecasting models. The Los Angeles basin, which is regulated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District, is used to assess three control strategies. These efforts have resulted in successfully projecting that portion of air pollution emissions arising from stationary fuel combustion by end-users. The stationary fuel combustion portion (excluding powerplants) of total emission sources is over 30% for NOx, but lesser amounts for other criteria pollutants. Full integration of energy demand forecasting and emission projections from stationary sources requires additional researchonary sources requires additional research in emission inventories, improved emission factors, and integrated model development. Some follow-up efforts which seem promising are recommended

395

Air pollutant intrusion into the Wieliczka Salt Mine  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wieliczka Salt Mine World Cultural Heritage Site contains many rock salt sculptures that are threatened by water vapor condensation from the mine ventilation air. Gaseous and particulate air pollutant concentrations have been measured both outdoors and within the Wieliczka Salt Mine, along with pollutant deposition fluxes to surfaces within the mine. One purpose of these measurements was to determine whether or not low deliquescence point ionic materials (e.g., NH4NO3) are accumulating on surfaces to an extent that would exacerbate the water vapor condensation problems in the mine. It was found that pollutant gases including SO2 and HNO3 present in outdoor air are removed rapidly and almost completely from the air within the mine by deposition to surfaces. Sulfur isotope analyses confirm the accumulation of air pollutant-derived sulfur in liquid dripping from surfaces within the mine. Particle deposition onto interior surfaces in the mine is apparent, with resulting soiling of some of those sculptures that have been carved from translucent rock salt. Water accumulation by salt sculpture surfaces was studied both experimentally and by approximate thermodynamic calculations. Both approaches suggest that the pollutant deposits on the sculpture surfaces lower the relative humidity (RH) at which a substantial amount of liquid water will accumulate by 1% to several percent. The extraordinarily low SO2 concentrations within the mine may explain the apparent success of a respiratory sanatorium located deep within the mine.

Salmon, L.G.; Cass, G.R.; Kozlowski, R.; Hejda, A.; Spiker, E. C.; Bates, A.L.

1996-01-01

396

Nuclear methods used to compare air pollution in a city and a pollution-free area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison study was made between city pollution and open-area pollution in order to be able to distinguish between air pollution whose source is urban activity (i.e. industry, transportation, etc.) and that in an area free of man's activities. The comparison was made between Beersheba, a city in the south of Isreal, and a spot in the desert, 40 km south of the city. The meteorological conditions at the two places are the same, and it is reasonable to assume that the background pollution (the dust that covers the area), is the same in both places. Neutron activation analysis was used for pollution detection; it is clear that certain elements cannot be detected by this means, though they may be known to exist in the air; hence, certain trace elements of the dust could be detected, but not, for example, the major components such as Ca and Si. The results are classified as typical urban pollutants and non-urban pollutants. Weather condition dependence was also investigated. The major source of urban pollution in Beersheba is bromine, which exists in the air in large quantities. The other urban pollutants are Zn, Cr, and Sb; these elements are found mainly in the city, in smaller quantities than bromine. The concentration of these elements is greatly reduced at night due to cessation of work in industry and reduced vehicular movement. The effect of weather and a seasonal dependence are clearly indicated (e.g. when the wind velocity increases and its direction is from the east, pollution in Beersheba rises). At the end of the winter the air is clearer than at the end of the summer. (author)

397

76 FR 71886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0845...County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District...County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD...miscellaneous metal parts and products....

2011-11-21

398

78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District and South Coast Air Quality...SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and...

2013-04-11

399

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...Vermont), Director, Air, Pesticides and Toxics...Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma,...

2010-07-01

400

78 FR 72609 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...  

Science.gov (United States)

...during normal business hours at the Air Protection Division, U.S. Environmental...Section 129 of the CAA regulates air pollutants that include organics...Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Aluminum, Fertilizers, Fluoride,...

2013-12-03

 
 
 
 
401

Combustion engine. [for air pollution control  

Science.gov (United States)

An arrangement for an internal combustion engine is provided in which one or more of the cylinders of the engine are used for generating hydrogen rich gases from hydrocarbon fuels, which gases are then mixed with air and injected into the remaining cylinders to be used as fuel. When heavy load conditions are encountered, hydrocarbon fuel may be mixed with the hydrogen rich gases and air and the mixture is then injected into the remaining cylinders as fuel.

Houseman, J. (inventor)

1977-01-01

402

Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

SULISTIJORINI

2008-09-01

403

A zooming technique for wind transport of air pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a local grid refinement or zoom is often required. For the wind transport part of the models, i.e.\\ for finite volume discretizations of the transport equation, we propose a zoom technique that is pos...

Berkvens, P. J. F.; Botchev, M. A.; Lioen, W. M.; Verwer, J. G.

1999-01-01

404

Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

Aleksic, Nenad M.; Bala?, Nedeljko

405

Planetary-wave behavior and arctic air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt was made to relate episodes of air pollution at Barrow, Alaska, containing vanadium, to the behavior of planetary waves in middle and high latitudes. A stationarity index for planetary waves is defined as the ratio between amplitudes computed from monthly mean maps and the mean amplitudes computed on a daily basis and averaged over the same month, irrespective of phase angle. Longitude-time sections of 500-mb height anomalies at various latitudes are related to vanadium pollution episodes at Barrow.

Reiter, E R

1979-01-01

406

REMOTE SENSING OF AIR POLLUTION BY LIDAR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent progresses in remote sensing of atmospheric pollution using the Lidar technique are presented. 2D and 3D analysis of NO, NO2, SO2, and O3 were performed at high sensitivity under emission and immission conditions. Most attractive results were obtained over large urban areas like Lyon, Stuttgart, Zürich, Geneva and Berlin. New Lidar systems, based on self-developed Flashlamp-pumped Ti:Sapphire lasers are also presented.

Wolf, J.

1991-01-01

407

Urban air pollution and asthma in children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the relationship between atmospheric pollution and emergency hospital admission for asthma among children resident in Turin in the period 1997-1999, using a case-control design. On the basis of the primary diagnosis, pediatric patients (< 15 years old) resident in Turin and admitted for asthma were defined as cases (n(1) = 1,060); age-matched patients admitted for causes other than respiratory diseases or heart diseases were defined as controls (n(2) = 25,523). Nitroge...

Cavallo, Franco; Migliaretti, Giuseppe

2004-01-01

408

Air pollution induces heritable DNA mutations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hundreds of thousands of people worldwide live or work in close proximity to steel mills. Integrated steel production generates chemical pollution containing compounds that can induce genetic damage (1, 2). Previous investigations of herring gulls in the Great Lakes demonstrated elevated DNA mutation rates near steel mills (3, 4) but could not determine the importance of airborne or aquatic routes of contaminant exposure, or eliminate possible confounding factors such as nutritional status an...

Somers, Christopher M.; Yauk, Carole L.; White, Paul A.; Parfett, Craig L. J.; Quinn, James S.

2002-01-01

409

Air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past decade, an increasing body of scientific evidence has accrued associating outdoor air pollution with certain types of cancer. Ambient air, particularly in densely populated urban environments, contains a variety of known human carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene and benzene, inorganic compounds (e.g., arsenic and chromium, and radionuclides. Now, it is well recognized that urbanization and lung cancer mortality are linked. This association could arise from differences in the distributions of other lung cancer risk factors, such as smoking and occupational exposures, by degree of urbanization, etc. Air pollution has positively been associated with lung cancer mortality and cardiopulmonary disease mortality, but not with mortality from other causes combined. New studies will need to develop and apply improved epidemiologic methods and to compare the effect of exposure to the pollutant mixtures on lung cancer in different cities while effectively controlling confounding factors including cigarette smoking and diet.

Niki? Dragana

2005-01-01

410

Diesel engines and air pollution: facts and figures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traffic densities and resulting air pollution, in any country are directly related to the degree of urbanization and the size and characteristics of the transportation sector. In Lebanon, the car ownership rate is among the highest in the world and its consequence is the drastic deterioration in ambient air quality in Greater Beirut and other organized regions. In this article, features of diesel engines are described. The environmental impacts of diesel engines, in relation of petrol engines are briefly presented. Pollutants provocated by diesel fuel, due to its contents in Carbon , Sulfur and gaseous emissions (noise level, smoke, Carbon Monoxide emissions, smell) as well as the economical aspects are given in comparison with petrol engines. Conclusion is given that diesel engines will help in reducing air pollution caused by transport sector in Lebanon, only if some required vehicles conditions are satisfied

411

Dispersion modeling of air pollutants in the atmosphere: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

Modeling of dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere is one of the most important and challenging scientific problems. There are several natural and anthropogenic events where passive or chemically active compounds are emitted into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemical species can have serious impacts on our environment and human health. Modeling the dispersion of air pollutants can predict this effect. Therefore, development of various model strategies is a key element for the governmental and scientific communities. We provide here a brief review on the mathematical modeling of the dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several model tools and strategies, namely Gaussian, Lagrangian, Eulerian and CFD models. We especially focus on several recent advances in this multidisciplinary research field, like parallel computing using graphical processing units, or adaptive mesh refinement.

Leel?ssy, Ádám; Molnár, Ferenc; Izsák, Ferenc; Havasi, Ágnes; Lagzi, István; Mészáros, Róbert

2014-09-01

412

Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In xerophytes, like conifers, the epicuticular wax is well developed. Especially in and around stomatal entrances, a thick wax coating is present. Epicuticular waxes are modified by changes in plant growth conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, irradiance, and wind, or acid rain. The fine structure of epicuticular waxes, their chemistry, and ecophysiological function are modified, especially in evergreen, long-lived conifer needles with characteristic crystalline wax structures. During needle flushing and development, wax structure is easily modified. Acid rain-treated Scots pine needles had 50% less epicuticular waxes in early August. Pollution-induced delayed development, destruction, and disturbances have been identified in many plant species. The structural changes in wax crystals are known. Acid rain or polluted air can destroy the crystalloid epicuticular waxes in a few weeks. In Pinus sylvestris, the first sign of pollution effect is the fusion of wax tubes. In Picea abies and P. sitchensis, modifications of crystalloid wax structure are known. In Californian pine trees phenomena of recrystallization of wax tubes on second-year needles were observed after delayed epicuticular wax development in Pinus ponderosa and P. coulteri. Thus, the effects of air pollutants are modified by climate. Accelerated senescence of leaves and needles have been associated with natural and anthropogenic stresses. The accelerated erosion rate of epicuticular waxes has been measured under air pollution conditions. Many short-term air pollution experiments have failed to show any structural changes in epicuticular wax structures. The quantity and quality of needle waxes grown in open-top chambers, glass houses, or polluted air before treatment, differ from field conditions and make it difficult to detect effects of any treatment. (orig.)

413

Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax structure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In xerophytes, like conifers, the epicuticular wax is well developed. Especially in and around stomatal entrances, a thick wax coating is present. Epicuticular waxes are modified by changes in plant growth conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, irradiance, and wind, or acid rain. The fine structure of epicuticular waxes, their chemistry, and ecophysiological function are modified, especially in evergreen, long-lived conifer needles with characteristic crystalline wax structures. During needle flushing and development, wax structure is easily modified. Acid rain-treated Scots pine needles had 50% less epicuticular waxes in early August. Pollution-induced delayed development, destruction, and disturbances have been identified in many plant species. The structural changes in wax crystals are known. Acid rain or polluted air can destroy the crystalloid epicuticular waxes in a few weeks. In Pinus sylvestris, the first sign of pollution effect is the fusion of wax tubes. In Picea abies and P. sitchensis, modifications of crystalloid wax structure are known. In Californian pine trees phenomena of recrystallization of wax tubes on second-year needles were observed after delayed epicuticular wax development in Pinus ponderosa and P. coulteri. Thus, the effects of air pollutants are modified by climate. Accelerated senescence of leaves and needles have been associated with natural and anthropogenic stresses. The accelerated erosion rate of epicuticular waxes has been measured under air pollution conditions. Many short-term air pollution experiments have failed to show any structural changes in epicuticular wax structures. The quantity and quality of needle waxes grown in open-top chambers, glass houses, or polluted air before treatment, differ from field conditions and make it difficult to detect effects of any treatment. (orig.)

Huttunen, S. [Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

1994-12-31

414

Temporal variability of air-pollutants over Abu Dhabi, UAE  

Science.gov (United States)

Air quality, the measure of the concentrations of gaseous pollutants and size or number of particulate matter, is one of the most important problems worldwide and has strong implications on human health, ecosystems, as well as regional and global climate. The levels of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), etc. show an alarming increase in urban cities across the world and in many cases, the concentrations have grown well above the World Health Organization's guidelines for ambient air-quality standards. Here, we present the periodic fluctuations observed in the concentrations of air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, O3, CO, H2S, NMHC (Non methane Hydro Carbon) and VOC (volatile organic compounds) based on the measurements collected during the period 2008-2010 at Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (24.42oN, 54.61oE, 7m MSL). The measurements were carried out using an Air Quality Monitoring System (AQM60). All these pollutant species showed statistical periodic: diurnal, monthly, seasonal and annual variations. Diurnally, all the species, except ozone, depicted an afternoon low and nighttime/early morning high, attributed to the dynamics of the local atmospheric boundary layer. Whereas, an opposite pattern with daytime high and nighttime low was observed for O3, as the species is formed in the troposphere by catalytic photochemical reactions of NOx with CO, CH4 and other VOCs. Seasonally, the pollutants depicted higher values during summer and relatively lower values during winter, associated with changes in synoptic airmass types and/or removal processes. Concentrations of all the gaseous pollutants are within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) throughout the year, whereas the PM10 often exceeded the limits, especially during dust storm episodes.

Ghedira, H.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Beegum S, N.

2013-12-01

415

Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in the assimilatory cells, especially from palisade parenchyma. The necrotic areas shows hypertrophied assimilatory cells with thick walls and tannin deposits. Solid deposits are present on both on upper and lower epidermis.

Irina Neta GOSTIN

2009-05-01

416

Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM{sub 10} exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: {yields} Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. {yields} 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. {yields} Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. {yields} Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. {yields} Close pollution-meteorology association serve as a basis for warning and forecasting.

Hien, P.D., E-mail: pdhien@gmail.com [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet str. Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, P.D.; Dao, N.V. [National Hydro-Meteorological Center, 62-A2 Nguyen Chi Thanh str. Hanoi (Viet Nam)

2011-11-01

417

Estimates concerning air pollution by sulphur dioxide in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global pollution impact commits the world community to conceive the necessary measures for its evaluation and control. The Avoiding Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Treaty is one of these instruments to which Romania adhered as early as 1979. The present paper tries to approach the problem of the SO2 emissions in Romania and to estimate their dynamics up to the year 2000. It also presents the main technical, legislative and economic measures that could contribute to the reduction of the SO2 pollution level. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 21 refs

418

Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

1997-12-31

419

Air pollution in Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reykjavik, with its 110,000 inhabitants, is the capital of Iceland, a volcanic island in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, located far away from the continents of Europe and America. Icelanders enjoy non-polluting central heating from natural geothermal heat and electricity from hydroelectric station which is relatively inexpensive. In Iceland there are only three relatively large scale aluminium and ferrosilicon factories as the major air-contaminating industry. The only pollution from the combustion of fuel in Iceland is from the fishing fleet, fishmeal factories and car traffic. The concentrations of main polluting gases has been measured systematically in Reykjavik since 1990. It is apparent that the main source of pollution in Reykjavik is from car traffic. However, pollution originating from continental Europe and America has been observed. High background ozone concentration in the air, especially in late winter months has a profound effect on the concentration of nitrogen oxides from car traffic. The nitrogen monoxide in car exhaust react with the high background ozone and is converted to nitrogen dioxide. In calm winterdays when the background ozone is high the exhausted nitrogen monoxide concentration tends to escalate causing the nitrogen dioxide to exceed the air quality limits. The high background ozone thus seem to play important role in the effect of emissions from car traffic on the air quality in Reykjavik. (Author)

Benjaminsson, Jon [Reykjavik City Dept. of Hygiene and Environmental Control, Div. of Environmental Control, Reykjavik (Iceland)

1999-07-01

420

Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
421

Association between air pollution and ischemic cardiovascular emergency room visits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study observed the relationship between air pollutants and ischemic cardiac diseases such as angina and acute myocardial infarction in a representative cardiovascular center emergency room in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Daily emergency room admissions to the Institute of the Heart of the university of Sao Paulo, as well as data concerning daily air pollutant levels and meteorological variables, were collected from January 1994 to august 1995. Generalized additive Poisson regressions were fitted to the logarithm of the expected values of total emergency room visits due to angina or acute myocardial infarction, controlling for smooth functions of season and weather and indicators for days of the week. All investigated pollutants were positively associated with ischemic cardiovascular disease emergency room visits, and the time lags were relatively short, but only CO presented in effect that was statistically significant. An interquartile range increase n CO was associated with an increase of 6.4% (95% CI: 0.7-12.1) in daily angina or acute myocardial infarction emergency room visits. This result did not change when estimates were done using linear models and natural cubic plines. This study showed that air pollution has a role in cardiovascular morbidity in Sao Paulo, reinforcing the necessity for air pollutant mission-controlling polices in urban areas

422

An Analytical Air Pollution Model with Time Dependent Eddy Diffusivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution transport and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled by the advection-diffusion equation, that is, essentially, a statement of conservation of the suspended material in an incompressible flow. Many models simulating air pollution dispersion are based upon the solution (numerical or analytical of the advection-diffusion equation assuming turbulence parameterization for realistic physical scenarios. We present the general time dependent three-dimensional solution of the advection-diffusion equation considering a vertically inhomogeneous atmospheric boundary layer for arbitrary vertical profiles of wind and eddy-diffusion coefficients. Numerical results and comparison with experimental data are shown.

Tiziano Tirabassi

2013-07-01

423

Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in southeast Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and important they were. I also investigate whether the mortality effects were persistent or whether they represented a short-term, mortality-harvesting effect. The results show that the smoke haze from the fires had a deleterious effect on the health of the population in Malaysia. PMID:11852832

Sastry, Narayan

2002-02-01

424

40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...air pollutant, air pollution source, ambient air, British thermal...silvicultural burning, fuel, major source, marine vessel, mobile source, motor vehicle, new air pollution...nonroad engine, nonroad vehicle, open burning, owner or...

2010-07-01

425

Air quality in the municipality of Loznica: The characteristics of the main air polluters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Researches of existing environmental state represent the basis of the researches for the needs of planning new activities or increasing existing activities in space, but also the basis for population’s health research and protection and maintains of areas with important natural and cultural-historic values. Investigations of air pollution and air quality fall into group of basic activities during describing and evaluating the total environmental state in certain area. This paper identifies the main sources of air pollution in the municipality of Loznica and, according to results of measured values of air pollutants (emission and imission values, concludes about air quality. It also proposes in the end mitigation measures for improvement of the air quality, and therefore of entire environment.

Obradovi? Danijela

2007-01-01

426

A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. Inthis paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN for air pollution monitoring inMauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution isbecoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system namedWireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS to monitor air pollution inMauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposedsystem makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order toimprove the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithmnamed Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ. The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminateduplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reducethe amount of data to be transmitted to the sink and thus saving energy. For better power management weused a hierarchical routing protocol in WAPMS and caused the motes to sleep during idle time.

Kavi K. Khedo

2010-05-01

427

AIR POLLUTANTS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS IN IRAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigations have been carried out on the indoor air pollution in .different workshops of food processing plants in Iran. In order to evaluate the exposure of workers to the three most commonly used indices of air pollution ten food processing plants representing ten groups of food industry with 2.816 workers were selected. Air borne contamination of different origins such cotton seed. Barley, wheat flour salt and different spices sugar an1 beans dust were measured in 237, work places. Here contamination was 8-9 times higher than the proposed T.L. V. for in.3rt dust in 12% of sampling sites Carbon monoxide, measured in 94 sampling site in 69 different work places, which was higher than 50 P .P.M1. in 13% of samples and sulfur-bearing air pollutants determined in 87 different workshop where 103 samples were collected showed the existence of oxides of' sulfur in 34 samples in six industries. The results are presented and the reasons of the existence of these air pollutants are discussed.

F. Akbarkhanzadeh

1979-07-01

428

Air pollution, emission 1990-1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Emission data are presented for all man-made sources of eight different pollutants in the period 1990-1998. Data are given for combustion and processes per main activity. For mobile sources only the total emission of a few activities is given. The contribution of different policy target groups in the Netherlands to the total emission of 1998 is also presented. The Dutch emission level for carbon dioxide can be presented in four different ways. The basic sources and related calculation methods are explained. 8 refs

429

Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future.

Müller Daniel

2011-12-01

430