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Sample records for chinese air pollution

  1. Forecasting the Chinese energy demand and air pollution emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C.W. [Korea Gas Corporation, Songnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.I [POSCO Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.W.; Chung, K.S. [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    This study looks into the current conditions of environmental pollution of China, which face serious environmental pollution, and estimates air pollution up to year 2010. China, world`s third largest energy consumer, uses coal as its main energy source, thus air pollution is getting serious. Respiratory diseases of Chinese has become the number one among ten causes of death, and takes up 27% of total death causes. It also causes serious problems to surrounding country, Korea, since Chinese pollutants causing serious damages are entering to the sky of Korea in large-scale. In the UNFCCC of 1997, advanced countries established voluntary target of carbon dioxide reduction, and decided the means such as emission rights trading system, joint carryout and net reduction method. According to these, it intends to provide basic data on anticipated environmental cooperation among Northeast Asian countries and basic environmental information on policy establishment. 32 refs., 1 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Highway toll and air pollution: evidence from Chinese cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shihe; Gu, Yizhen

    2014-01-01

    Most highways in urban China are tolled to finance their construction. During the eight-day National Day holiday in 2012, highway tolls are waived nationwide for passenger vehicles. We use this to test highway tolls’ effect on air pollution. Using daily pollution and weather data for 98 Chinese cities in 2011 and 2012 and employing both a regression discontinuity design and differences-in-differences method with 2011 National Day holiday as a control, we find that eliminating tolls increase...

  3. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  4. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  5. Short-term effect of ambient air pollution on COPD mortality in four Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Wang, Cuicui; Cao, Dachun; Wong, Chit-Ming; Kan, Haidong

    2013-10-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity; however, few studies have examined the short-term effect of air pollution specifically on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity world wide. In this analysis, we examined the associations between daily air pollution levels [particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and COPD mortality in four Chinese cities. We used Poisson regression models with natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trends of COPD mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We did a meta-analysis to obtain the 4-city average estimates. Air pollution (PM10, SO2, and NO2) was found to be associated with increased risk of COPD mortality in these four cities. Using the random-effects model, an increase of 10 ?g m-3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 0.78% (95% CI, 0.13-1.42), 1.30% (95% CI, 0.61-1.99), and 1.78% (95% CI, 1.10-2.46) increase of COPD mortality, respectively. The concentration-response curves indicated linear associations without threshold. Only NO2 remained significant in the multi-pollutant models. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-city study in Asian developing region to report the short-term effect of air pollution on COPD mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effects of air pollution on COPD mortality for high exposure settings typical in developing countries.

  6. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Biology

    The Phoenix metropolitan area, like many large cities, has problems with air pollution at certain times of the year. You can do a simple experiment to determine some of the factors that affect air pollution.

  7. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  8. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students are introduced to the concept of air quality by investigating the composition, properties, atmospheric layers and everyday importance of air. They explore the sources and effects of visible and invisible air pollution. By learning some fundamental meteorology concepts (air pressure, barometers, prediction, convection currents, temperature inversions), students learn the impact of weather on air pollution control and prevention. Looking at models and maps, they explore the consequences of pollutant transport via weather and water cycles. Students are introduced to acids, bases and pH, and the environmental problem of acid rain, including how engineers address this type of pollution. Using simple models, they study the greenhouse effect, the impact of increased greenhouse gases on the planet's protective ozone layer and the global warming theory. Students explore the causes and effects of the Earth's ozone holes through an interactive simulation. Students identify the types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home, evaluating actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. By building and observing a few simple models of pollutant recovery methods, students explore the modern industrial technologies designed by engineers to clean up and prevent air pollution.

  9. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2on, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  10. Effect of pet ownership on respiratory responses to air pollution in Chinese children: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Dong, Guang-Hui; Ren, Wan-Hui; Simckes, Maayan; Wang, Jing; Zelicoff, Alan; Trevathan, Edwin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies examining pet ownership as a risk factor for respiratory conditions have yielded inconsistent results. Little is known about whether or not pet ownership modifies the relationship between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. In order to evaluate the interaction between pet and air pollution on respiratory health in children, we recruited 30,149 children, aged 2-12 years, from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China. Parents of the children completed questionnaires that characterized the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illnesses and associated risk factors. Average ambient annual exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were estimated from monitoring stations in each of the 25 study districts. The results showed that among children without pets at home, there were statistically significant associations between both recent exacerbations of asthma among physician-diagnosed asthmatics and respiratory symptoms and all pollutants examined. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.26] to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.24-1.61) per 31 ?g m-3 for PM10, whereas, among children with pets at home, there were no effects or small effects for either asthma or the symptoms. The interactions between dog ownership and PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 were statistically significant, such that children with a dog at home had lower reporting of both current asthma and current wheeze. In conclusion, this study suggests that pet ownership decreased the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and asthma among Chinese children.

  11. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  12. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  13. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the winter of 1988-1989, parents of 2,789 elementary school students completed standardized questionnaires. The students were 5-14 years of age and were from three urban districts and one suburban district of three large Chinese cities. The 4-y average ambient levels of ...

  14. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barletta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses, we focused on characterizing the VOC composition of these different pollution plumes. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HCFC-134a.

    Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some of the Chinese plumes, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution in the Chinese pollution plumes and the correlations among selected compounds, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than the use of a single gas, to be used as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  15. Indoor air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents an overview of indoor air pollution control. Asbestos, combustion-generated pollutants, and radon are among the problems considered. Source control, policy and regulatory considerations, and air quality diagnostics are discussed

  16. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  17. Effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health in three Chinese cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Z.; Chapman, R.S.; Tian, Q.; Chen, Y.; Lioy, P.J.; Zhang, J.

    2000-04-01

    During the winter of 1988--1989, parents of 2,789 elementary-school students completed standardized questionnaires. The students were 5--14 y of age and were from three urban districts and one suburban district of three large Chinese cities. The 4-y average ambient levels of total suspended particles in the three cities differed greatly during the period 1985--1988: Lanzhou, 1,067 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; urban Wuhan, 406 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; Guangzhou, 296 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; and suburban Wuhan, 191 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The authors constructed unconditional logistic-regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prevalences of several respiratory symptoms and illnesses, adjusted for district, use of coal in the home, and parental smoking status. There was a positive and significant association between total suspended particle levels and the adjusted odds ratios for couch, phlegm, hospitalization for diseases, and pneumonia. This association was derived from only the 1,784 urban children and, therefore, the authors were unable to extrapolate it to the suburban children. The results also indicated that parental smoking status was associated with cough and phlegm, and use of coal in the home was associated only with cough prevalence.

  18. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Weinheimer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses we characterized their VOC composition and we compared their background levels with those obtained during the 2004 INTEX-A mission. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HFC-134a.

    Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some Chinese plume samples, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution and correlations within the Chinese pollution plumes and applying principal component analysis (PCA, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than a single gas, as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  19. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  20. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  1. Air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book presents theory and application data as related to air pollution control. A suitable background is provided relevant to behavior theories and control techniques for capturing gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The significant application data available are summarized and combined with the theories to provide a needed relation between the two. Numerous detailed example problems are worked throughout the book to serve as guides in the use of both the theoretical relationships and the data. General information on air pollution control is presented, with emphasis on what can be done to minimize pollution emissions while conserving energy. Problem areas of interest include particulate and gas control mechanisms, control devices, and control systems

  2. Sensing Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about electricity and air pollution while building devices to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) by attaching VOC sensors to prototyping boards. In the second part of the activity, students evaluate the impact of various indoor air pollutants using the devices they made.

  3. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  4. IMMUNOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such ...

  5. Air Pollution and Epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Aleena Syed; Kinjal Hew; Arunima Kohli; Greg Knowlton; Nadeau, Kari C.

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is a global problem with far-reaching environmental impacts. Exposure has been linked to a number of different adverse health effects. Understanding the impact of ambient air pollution is complicated given the diversity of both the pollutants involved as well as the complexity of associated diseases. While we see a positive correlation between levels of exposure and health issues, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are still under investigation. The study of epigenetic regulation a...

  6. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  7. UK Air Pollution Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourly updates of levels of benzyne, 1-3 butadiene, ozone, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles in Britain's air are accessible at the UK Air Pollution Bulletin Website. Provided by the United Kingdom Department of Transport, Environment and the Regions, this site gives air quality information along with yearly average concentrations of the above-mentioned chemicals, graphical summaries, historical summaries, and maps and information about monitoring sites. The data pages are arranged in a versatile way so that users can view information by geographic site, pollutant, or year. Daily, weekly, and annual summaries of pollutant concentrations are available.

  8. Air pollution V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, H.; Brebbia, C.A. [eds.] [Wessex Institute of Technology Southampton (United Kingdom); Tirabassi, T. [ed.] [Istituto per lo Studio dei Fenomeni Fisici e Chimici della Bassa ed Alta Atmosfera (C.N.R.), Bologna (Italy)

    1997-12-31

    The physical and chemical processes that take place during an air pollution episode are, nowadays, better understood. The modelling of these processes continues to grow and great success has been achieved on the development of efficient and economical monitoring devices. This volume presents and discusses advances on monitoring, modelling, management and understanding of air pollution problems. Particular attention is given to new developments in computational and experimental techniques, as well as to health problems. (author)

  9. Chinese atmospheric pollution measured from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-04-01

    In recent decades, China's struggles with air pollution have become a public health issue. Beijing is one of the most polluted places in the world, and air pollution levels were particularly bad in January 2013: Visibility was down to 100 meters, and rates of respiratory illness soared. In the region, air pollution is often worse in the winter.

  10. Chinese Sulphur Dioxide Emissions and Local Environment Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2014-01-01

    During the last 30 years Chinese economy has increased rapidly. The pollution of air in many Chinese cities exceeds both national and international standards due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and increased energy consumption. At present China becomes the highest sulphur dioxide emitter in the world due to its reliance on coal for energy generation. The Government of China has taken different steps to reduce sulphur dioxide and succeeded from the 11th Five-Year Plan. Breathing in s...

  11. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

  12. Respiratory Health and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Places Share Compartir Respiratory Health & Air Pollution Transportation-related pollutants are one of the largest ... Motor vehicles contribute to more than 50% of air pollution in urban areas. The design of communities and ...

  13. Air Pollution: What's the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

  14. Air Pollution and Your Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... corner of the player. Air Pollution and Your Brain HealthDay April 24, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Brain Diseases Environmental Health Transcript A common type of ...

  15. Concept of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Babe

    This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) is intended to help environmental science students connect the real-world problem of air pollution to the application of math, science, technical and critical thinking knowledge and skill concepts. The activity should take about 90 minutes of class time to complete, and requires a few easily obtainable materials. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  16. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Air Pollution and the skin

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTINAVRETTOUANTONIOU

    2014-01-01

    The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides, particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants ma...

  18. Changing air pollution in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the changing character of London air pollution over approximately the last thirty years. The killer smogs of earlier years have disappeared, only to be replaced by other pollutants. Levels of sulfur dioxide, smoke, and lead have been reduced, but nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels have increased. The emphasis for air pollution control is now on motor vehicles, particularly automobiles, which are now the main source of air pollution in London

  19. Allergic diseases and air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Suh-young; Chang, Yoon-seok; Cho, Sang-heon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbat...

  20. In Search of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  1. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  2. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  3. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  4. Outdoor air pollution and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R

    2014-05-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  5. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra-vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disea...

  6. Understanding Air: Air Pollution and Modeling Pollutants with LEGO® Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2012-06-15

    In this lesson, students learn about the chemical reactions that release various pollutants into the atmosphere and what happens when pollutants in the air are exposed to sunlight. They model incomplete combustion using LEGO bricks, and explore the connection between air quality and environmental health.

  7. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed

  8. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions. PMID:19210902

  9. ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

  10. Exercise Beneficial Even in Polluted Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution, according to a new study from Denmark. The findings show that air pollution should not ... to note that the study's findings pertain to Denmark and other areas with similar air pollution levels. ...

  11. Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... User Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease Diane R. Gold , MD, ... greenheart/ . 7 Previous Section Next Section What Is Air Pollution? Air pollution is a mixture of gases and ...

  12. Arctic haze and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctic haze is the phenomenon of large-scale industrial air pollution found all through the arctic air mass. Vertical profiles of air concentrations, obtained during several aircraft measurement programs in the Arctic, have offered the following explanation of arctic haze origin. Very long range, episodic transport of air masses over several thousand kilometers clearly affects the quality of arctic air during both summer and winter. Polluted air masses, carrying a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas have been identified in the arctic atmosphere at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km. The layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km can be traced to episodic transport of air masses from anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Pollution material in arctic haze is of submicron size and contains a substantial fraction of black carbon: it interacts strongly with solar radiation. In addition, sulfate and a wide range of heavy metals appear, affecting their natural geochemical cycles. They also serve as indicators of major source regions of emissions in the world. This paper discusses what happens to the haze-related pollutants in the Arctic, what is the contribution of natural sources to the arctic haze and what are local and global effects of arctic haze. Some indications are given of the research to be undertaken in a view to assess the role of the Arctic in global change of the environmentctic in global change of the environment

  13. Air pollution control in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to rapid spurt in industrialization in India, people were used to inhale pure air containing about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and some carbon dioxide. But afterwards this composition of pure air was disturbed as a result of increased economic activities. Air, now a days also contains sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides etc., etc. which are extremely harmful for human health. Virulence of air pollution was realised in late eighties after Bhopal Gas Tragedy (BGT) and an effective air quality management started taking shape in India afterwards. The basic components of air quality management are legislation and regulations, emission inventory, air quality standards and monitoring, air dispersion models and installation of pollution control equipment which are being discussed in this paper. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Air pollution V. Modelling, monitoring and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, H.; Tirabassi, T.; Brebbia, C.A. [eds.] [Wessex Institute of Technology, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    Papers are presented under the following section headings: air pollution management; turbulence modelling at small and meso scales; wind flow and dispersion modelling; air pollution modelling; air pollution modelling and experiments; data analysis; and observations; urban air pollution; emission inventories; monitoring and laboratory studies; chemistry of air pollution; transport pollution; and health problems. Two papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  15. Air Pollution and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTINAVRETTOUANTONIOU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  16. Air Pollution Training Institute Virtual Classroom: Basic Air Pollution Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) course uses video presentations, text materials, and reading assignments to present basic meteorology, meteorological effects on air pollution, meteorological instrumentation, air quality modeling, and regulatory programs requiring a knowledge of meteorology. It consists of seven lessons that cover solar and terrestrial radiation, cyclones and anticyclones, wind speed and direction, atmospheric circulation, and many other topics. To finish the course, an online quiz is offered. Students may take the quiz for APTI Continuing Education Unit (CEU) credits; registration is required to receive CEU credits.

  17. Increasing external effects negate local efforts to control ozone air pollution: a case study of Hong Kong and implications for other Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Blake, Donald R; Xu, Zheng

    2014-09-16

    It is challenging to reduce ground-level ozone (O3) pollution at a given locale, due in part to the contributions of both local and distant sources. We present direct evidence that the increasing regional effects have negated local control efforts for O3 pollution in Hong Kong over the past decade, by analyzing the daily maximum 8 h average O3 and Ox (=O3+NO2) concentrations observed during the high O3 season (September-November) at Air Quality Monitoring Stations. The locally produced Ox showed a statistically significant decreasing trend over 2002-2013 in Hong Kong. Analysis by an observation-based model confirms this decline in in situ Ox production, which is attributable to a reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the regional background Ox transported into Hong Kong has increased more significantly during the same period, reflecting contributions from southern/eastern China. The combined result is a rise in O3 and a nondecrease in Ox. This study highlights the urgent need for close cross-boundary cooperation to mitigate the O3 problem in Hong Kong. China's air pollution control policy applies primarily to its large cities, with little attention to developing areas elsewhere. The experience of Hong Kong suggests that this control policy does not effectively address secondary pollution, and that a coordinated multiregional program is required. PMID:25133661

  18. Urban air pollution and atmospheric diffusion research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Datong; Whitney, Joseph B.; Yap, David

    1987-11-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in China as a result of that country's efforts in the last 30 years to become a great industrial power. The burning of coal, which currently provides over 70% of all China's energy needs, is a major source of air pollution. Because Chinese coal is high in sulfur and ash content and because most combustion devices in China have low efficiencies, SO2 and particulate emissions are a serious problem and are comparable to or exceed those found in many countries that are much more industrialized. Although most coal is burned in North China, acid precipitation is most severe in South China because of the lack of buffering loess dust found in the former region. The Chinese government has already taken major steps to mitigate air pollution, such as relocating polluting industries, supplying coal with lower sulfur content, using gas instead of coal for residential heating, and levying fines on industries that exceed pollution standards. Atmospheric environmental impact assessment (AEIA) is also required for all major new projects. This article describes three types of mathematical diffusion models and field and wind-tunnel experiments that are used in such assessments. The Chinese authorities believe that a range of technological, managerial, locational, and behavioral changes must be effected before the air of Chinese cities can be significantly improved.

  19. Air Pollution In Jammu City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aerial environment of the earth has been increasingly interfered by the activities of human beings and virtually it has become the bumping site for toxic materials produced by industrial, vehicular and urban emissions. We have introduced several toxic materials to our environment at a tremendous speed that has changed its physicchemical characteristics. The assumption that the “ nature will take care of pollutants” do not hold good anymore since the pollutants at present vary greatly in their quality as well as quantity. Throughout Asian air pollution is a significant threat to human health and the environment and our city is not the exception to this. Use of fossil fuel in transport, industrial, commercial and household sector contributes significant towards the air pollution. Solid waste disposal and its open burning also add air pollutants. In addition to gases, particles coming from variety of sources- vehicles, factories, construction sites, tilled fields, un-paved roads, stone crushers, burning of wood and fossil fuels also pollute the air. An average urban vehicle releases approximately 30-40 mg of particulate matter per mile travel. Forest fires and the contribution of biomass fuels also add pollutants.

  20. AIR POLLUTION AND RESPIRATORY DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern about polluted air in our urban and industrial areas began gathering momentum shortly after World War II. At that time it seemed obvious that clean air, like clean water, clean food, and a clean body, was a worth while goal in itself, requiring no further justification. B...

  1. Air pollution control

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasides, George A.

    1994-01-01

    There are many different views as to what constitutes pollution of the atmosphere. To some people pollution implies the increase, or even decrease of any atmospheric constituent from the value that would have existed without human activity. Given that our planent atmoshere has undergone profound changes in its constitution throughout its lifetime and the volcanic errotions forest fires and sand storms cause marked local and regional variations in atmospheric constit...

  2. Volcanic Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenomenon is a series of photographs of 'vog' or volcanic smog caused by the long-lasting eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Text included with the images describes how vog is created. An additional digitally enhanced map shows effects of trade winds on pollution concentration.

  3. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  4. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  5. Air-Pollutant-Philic Plants for Air Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromichi Morikawa; Misa Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    In this communication, we review our work over two decades on air-pollutant-philic plants that can grow with air pollutants as the sole nutrient source. We believe that such plants are instrumental in mitigating air pollution. Our target air pollutant has been atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and our work on this subject has consisted of three parts: Variation in plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants among naturally occurring plants, genetic improvement of plants’ abilities to m...

  6. Leaves and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-16

    In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

  7. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  8. Geostatistical models for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

  9. In Brief: Air pollution app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  10. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

  11. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Barry A; Brook, Robert; Arden Pope, C

    2015-05-01

    An escalating body of epidemiologic and clinical research provides compelling evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease and the triggering of acute cardiac events. There are 3 potential mediating pathways that have been implicated, including "systemic spillover," autonomic imbalance, and circulating particulate matter constituents. Further support that the increased morbidity and mortality attributed to air pollution comes from studies demonstrating the adverse cardiovascular effects of even brief periods of exposure to secondhand smoke. Accordingly, persons with known or suspected cardiovascular disease, the elderly, diabetic patients, pregnant women, and those with pulmonary disease should be counseled to limit leisure-time outdoor activities when air pollution is high. Recognizing the insidious and pervasive nature of air pollution, and the associated odds ratios and population attributable fractions for this widely underappreciated chemical trigger of acute cardiovascular events, may serve to maximize the potential for cardiovascular risk reduction by addressing at least a portion of the 10%-25% incidence of coronary disease that is unexplained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25882781

  12. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  13. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Zip Code: Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution Living near a major roadway may expose you ... Especially Dangerous for Breathing below. The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ...

  14. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Jan 9,2014 Whether you live in a city where smog ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  15. Mercury Air Pollution Reflected in Ocean Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercury Air Pollution Reflected in Ocean Fish, Study Says Concentrations in ... mercury in the open ocean is fallout from air pollution, especially from coal-fired power plants and artisanal ...

  16. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies. PMID:25838615

  17. Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Michelle L.; Caldero?n-garciduen?as, Lilian

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution...

  18. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO, indicating possible volcanic emissions from the Indonesian islands to the South and East and the Philippines to the North East. The regional pollution seems to be influenced by emissions from Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia and Peninsula Malaysia, and on occasion by anthropogenic emissions from Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, and China.

  19. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a givenveral elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  20. Slovenia air pollution master plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenia was the northernmost republic of Yugoslavia. It is now independent. It has a very high level of air pollution, this has damaged the forests - an important national resource. It also intends joining the European Union, so pollution levels must be brought down to EU standards. Firstly, current emissions must be accurately monitored, then EU pollution standards must be incorporated into national law. WHO guidelines are being used for SO2 control. Current Slovenian standards cover SO2, NOx and particulates. They are up to EU standards. Monitoring has been performed by the Hydrometeorological Institute of Slovenia (HM2). Data from these surveys are being used in air pollution control planning. Public health is of particular concern. The major sources of SO2 emissions are three coal fired power plants. Sostanj has recently been fitted with limestone injection systems, FGD was considered too expensive. Trboulje is more likely to be replaced than retrofitted, at Moste two units will be replaced while a third will be retrofitted with FGD. Wood, coal, gas-oil, natural gas and district heating are all used for domestic premises - domestic heating contributes 12% of SO2 emissions. There should be a switch to cleaner fuels. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

  1. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is a...

  2. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, A. J.; Pope, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung ca...

  3. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a lot of reasons why emissions of air pollutants have to be reduced. Acid deposition and its consequences are among them, but they are not the only ones. This paper presents the comprehensive legal basis of air pollution control policy in Switzerland as well as the overall air pollution control strategy. The present situation with respect to air pollution is discussed. A list of implemented and planned measures is given as well as emission trends of major air pollutants from 1950 to 2010. 6 refs., 1 fig

  4. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Vara Prasad Y; Mirza Sami Baig; Mishra, Rahul K.; Rajalakshmi, P.; Desai, U. B.; Merchant, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN) on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for ...

  5. Air pollution management in Sao Paulo City: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air pollution management program of Sao Paulo is described. Areas discussed are air quality monitoring, the present status of air pollution, air pollution control administration, pollutant sources, air pollution effects on human health, air pollution control techniques, and the Brazilian automotive emission control program

  6. Air pollution measurement in Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution in Dhaka City has become an alarming issue in recent days. Unless necessary measures are taken for the abatement of air pollution, it is going to bring adverse consequences inhuman lives. The aim of this work is to measure air pollutants of different parts of Dhaka City and also to determine breathing air quality. The field experiments revealed the concentrations of RDP (Respirable Dust Particle) suspended in air, Nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and Sulfur dioxides (So/sub 2/). A respirable dust sampler was employed to measure the concentrations of air pollutants. This work also covers an in depth study of types of air pollutants, sources, effects on human and materials and ways of controlling air pollution. This investigation is an endeavor to start a systematic collection of technical information with reliable chemical analysis using available equipment. (author)

  7. Air pollution and mortality in Barcelona.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunyer, J.; Castellsague?, J.; Sa?ez, M.; Tobias, A.; Anto?, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Studies conducted in Barcelona reported a short term relation between daily air pollutant values and emergency department admissions for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and asthma. Air pollution in Barcelona is mainly generated by vehicle exhaust and is below the World Health Organization air quality guidelines. The acute relation between air pollution and mortality was assessed. DESIGN: Daily variations in total mortality, mortality in subjects older ...

  8. Diagnosing vegetation injury caused by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    The structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury is discussed. The sources, atmospheric chemistry, monitoring data, symptomatology, factors affecting plant response, injury threshold doses, air quality standards, relative sensitivity of plants, and leaf tissue analysis are discussed for major air pollutants. Among the pollutants discussed are: the photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides). Minor pollutants discussed in the same framework are chlorine, hydrogen chloride, ethylene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and mercury), particulates, and pesticides. Other subjects discussed include: interactions between pollutants and between pollutants and pathogens, mimicking symptoms, meteorology and air pollution injury, and basic diagnostic procedures of suspected air pollution injury to vegetation. 76 references, 128 figures, 28 tables.

  9. Explorative forecasting of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma?ska, D.; Wojtylak, M.

    2014-08-01

    In the paper a model to predict immission concentrations of PM10, SO2, O3 for a selected number of forward time steps is proposed. The proposed model (e-APFM) is an extension of the Air Pollution Forecasting Model (APFM). APFM requires historical data for a large number of points in time, particularly weather forecast, meteorological and pollution data. e-APFM additionally requires information about the wind direction in sectors and meteorological station. This information also permits pollution at meteorological stations for which we do not have the necessary data (in particular the data about pollution) to be forecast. The experimental verification of the proposed model was conducted on the data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management in Poland over a period of two years (between January 2011 and December 2012). Experiments show that the e-APFM method has lower deviations between the measured and predicted concentrations compared to the APFM method for the first day and similar deviations for the next two days (for hourly values) and for the first day and mostly worse for the second and third day (for daily values).

  10. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures.

  11. A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

  12. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Ditas, F.; Wu, Z.; Hu, M.; Liu, X.; Mao, J.; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based...

  13. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  14. Radioactive pollution of atmospheric air at ground level in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of studies on radioactive pollution of the atmospheric air at the ground level in Poland during 1975-1977. The methods of sample collection and measurements are described. The mean monthly values of concentration of the following radioisotopes were determined: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 125Sb, 131J, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce. The analysis of each particular artificia radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland results from Chinese nuclear explosions is given. The equivalent doses received by the lungs, bones and the whole body as a result of inhaling radioactive isotopes from the air are determined. (author)

  15. Air Pollution Costs in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Strukova, Elena; Golub, Alexander; Markandya, Anil

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents estimation of the health losses from urban air pollution in Ukraine. The methodology developed by US EPA and adjusted in Russia for Eastern European transition countries was applied for health risk assessment. PM2.5 was identified as the major source of human health risk, based on experience from the Russian studies. In the absence of reliable computed concentrations of PM2.5, the study was based on monitoring data of total suspended particle (TSP) emissions in Ukraine. Add...

  16. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3–10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5–1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12–24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  17. Motor Vehicles Air Pollution in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    George Odhiambo; A M Kinyua, C. K. Gatebe And J. Awange

    2010-01-01

    Air quality monitoring in most developing countries is not routinely conducted, and in some urban areas such information does not even exist, though signs of deteriorating air quality and health problems related to air pollution are visible. By measuring air pollutants (i.e., Nitrogen Oxides, ozone, suspended particulates matter (PM10), and trace elements e.g. lead), this study investigated air quality in Nairobi, one of the largest cities in eastern Africa and the capital of Kenya. Sampling ...

  18. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries. PMID:21714382

  19. Air pollution problem in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H.

    1964-10-01

    Air pollution in the United States as a problem affecting health, as well as man's enjoyment of his property, was first noted in 1912 in the reports of the investigators at the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. The Selby copper smelter incident in 1915 was among the first episodic air pollution events documented. The US Public Health Service studied carbon monoxide buildup in vehicular tunnels in 1928 and 1929. the Donora (Pennsylvania) pollution episode, where 17 people died, occurred in 1949. It and the onset of smog conditions in the Los Angeles area really initiated broad public awareness of air pollution as a public health hazard in the USA. The symptoms of air pollution-related injuries are discussed, the role of the US Public Health Service in dealing with air pollution, and the effect of the Clean Air Act of 1963 are discussed. 26 references.

  20. Biological aspects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ten Houten, J.G.

    1973-06-01

    Studies on the effects of air pollutants, such as automotive exhaust components, sulfur dioxide, hydrofluoric acid, and ozone, on plants, animals, and humans are reviewed. Very high susceptibility of spinach and lettuce to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate was observed. Nitrogen oxides cause leaf burns in certain plants, while nitrogen dioxide interferes with growth processes in tomatoes in concentrations as low as 0.25 ppm. Ethylene in above-normal concentrations has similar effect on tomatoes. Necrosis of lead tissues due to the action of SO/sub 2/ was observed. The acidification of the soil and of surface water bodies, a process most acute in Sweden due to SO/sub 2/, interferes with the lives of certain plant and animal species. Lichens were determined to be most sensitive to SO/sub 2/ of all plants. Leaf burns and inhibition of the cis-aconitase in Fresia and Gladiolus species due to hydrofluoric acid was evidenced. This pollutant also tends to reduce bee populations in polluted areas. 11 references.

  1. Biological monitors of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

  2. Air pollution and asthma severity in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rage, Estelle; Siroux, Vale?rie; Ku?nzli, Nino; Pin, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that exposure to air pollution affects asthma, but the effect of air pollution on asthma severity has not been addressed. The aim was to assess the relation between asthma severity during the past 12 months and home outdoor concentrations of air pollution. METHODS: Asthma severity over the past 12 months was assessed in two complementary ways among 328 adult asthmatics from the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGE...

  3. Emission scenario model for regional air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Karvosenoja, Niko

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution emissions are produced in a wide variety of sources. They often result in detrimental impacts on both environments and human populations. To assess the emissions and impacts of air pollution, mathematical models have been developed. This study presents results from the application of an air pollution emission model, the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model, that covers the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), non-methane volatile or...

  4. Outdoor Air Pollutants and Patient Health

    OpenAIRE

    Laumbach, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Almost 160 million persons live in areas of the United States that exceed federal health-based air pollution standards. The two air pollutants that most commonly exceed standards are ozone and particulate matter. Ozone and particulate matter can harm anyone if levels are sufficiently elevated, but health risk from air pollution is greatest among vulnerable populations. Both ozone and particulate matter can cause pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function, and exacerbation of asthma and c...

  5. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the pres...

  6. Ozone, air pollution, and respiratory health.

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    Of the outdoor air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act of 1970 (and recently revised in 1990), ozone has been the one pollutant most difficult to control within the federal standards. The known human health effects are all on the respiratory system. At concentrations of ozone which occur during summer air-pollution episodes in many urban metropolitan areas of the United States, a portion of the healthy population is likely to experience symptoms and reversible effects on lung function, ...

  7. Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

  8. Air pollution model for point source

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Ma?ala; Viliam Carach

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical models of air pollution have a broad practical application. They are irreplaceable wherever it is not possible to determine a state of air pollution by measuring of a noxious agent concentration. By creating of a suitable model of air pollution we can assess a state of the air quality but we also to predict the pollution that can occur at given atmospheric conditions. The created model is a suitable tool for controlling the activity of TEKO and for the evaluation of the quality o...

  9. Air pollution and COPD in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments. PMID:25694818

  10. Air pollution and COPD in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments. PMID:25694818

  11. Strong air pollution causes widespread haze-clouds over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianzhong; Chen, Yue; Wang, Wei; Yan, Peng; Liu, Hongjie; Yang, Suying; Hu, Zhijin; Lelieveld, Jos

    2010-09-01

    North China (Huabei in Chinese) is a geographical region located between 32°N and 42°N latitude in eastern China, including several provinces and large municipalities (e.g., Beijing and Tianjin). In the past decades the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate. Among the multiple causes aerosol pollution is expected to play a particularly important role. To investigate this, a field measurement campaign was performed in April-May 2006 as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China. Here we report the first aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases, aerosols, and clouds over this part of China, a region strongly affected by both natural desert dust and pollution smog. We observed very high concentrations of gaseous air pollutants and haze particles, partly together with nonprecipitating stratiform clouds. The clouds were characterized by numerous droplets, much smaller than in a less-polluted atmosphere. Our data reveal that the highly efficient coating of dust particles by pollution acids provides the predominant source of cloud condensation nuclei. The pollution-enhanced activation of dust particles into droplets is shown to be remarkably efficient so that clouds even form below 100% relative humidity. Contrary to previous analyses, we find that the haze particles influence the spectral shape of the cloud droplet size distribution such that the indirect climate cooling effect of aerosols on clouds is increased. The widespread haze, combined with low clouds, diminishes air quality and exerts an unusually strong cooling forcing on climate.

  12. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    International trade affects global air pollution and transport by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services and by potentially altering the total amount of global emissions. Here we analyze the trade influences by combining an economic-emission analysis on China’s bilateral trade and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. Our focused analysis on US air quality shows that Chinese air pollution related to production for exports contributes, at a maximum on a daily...

  13. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  14. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  15. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. Samples of different species of lichens were collected in clean areas (native forest), analysed and transplanted to the Santiago Metropolitan Area. In addition, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area for comparison purposes. The preparation of the samples was done under controlled, cryogenic conditions and analysed by neutron activation analysis and solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry. As part of the routine QA/QC procedures, the analytical laboratories, participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. The present paper describes the activities carried out within the framework of this project. (author)

  16. Catalytic control of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the quality of our environment has become a growing concern in this country and around the globe. Research efforts in this field have recently been accelerated by the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act. This book reports on a symposium that is part of a continuing series on the surface science of catalysis. Including stationary and mobile source chapters alike in one volume allows the reader to note the similarities and differences between the two fields and possibly to apply ideas from one area to the other. The coverage is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as a survey of some of the most current topics of interest in this field. The intended audience for this book is the chemist or engineer interested in pollution control, or prevention, or both in the automotive, chemical, petroleum, and other industries, or otherwise involved in the environmental applications of catalysts

  17. Children´s vulnerability to air pollutants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim

    Beijing : organising comittee, 2001. s. -. [Joint WHO/ IPA Seminar on Air Pollution and Children´s Health. 10.09.2001-11.09.2001, Beijing] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : air pollution * human population Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  18. HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This handbook was prepared to provide a methodology for determining the performance and cost of air pollution control techniques used to reduce the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from commercial/industrial sources. arious control techniques that may be applicable to differ...

  19. AIR POLLUTION ASPECTS OF SLUDGE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration offers the opportunity to reduce municipal sludge to a sterile landfill and remove offensive factors, but it also has the potential to be a significant contributor to the air pollution problem in an urban community. This publication explains the air pollution problem...

  20. Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Maura Lodovici; Elisabetta Bigagli

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM?

  1. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Grignani; Laura Zavattaro; Francesco Alluvione; Chiara Bertora

    2010-01-01

    The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agri...

  2. Plants as air-pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuse, B.J.D.

    This paper deals with the use of plants as biological indicators of air pollution. The author acquaints the reader with some sensitive methods of air pollution monitoring which are based on the use of plants. Some of the pollutants considered are sulfur dioxide, ozone, fluorides, chlorine, ethylene, and carbon dioxide. Some of the indicator plants discussed are alfalfa, buckwheat, clovers, gladiolus, june grass, petunia, nettle, rye grass, spinach, tobacco, and tulips.

  3. Event Processing in Air Pollution Monitoring Application

    OpenAIRE

    JongSuk Ruth Lee; Kumwon Cho; Dong Gyu Lee; Yang Koo Lee; Youngmi Lee; Keun Ho Ryu; Kwang Woo Nam; Silvia Nittel; Kate Beard

    2013-01-01

    It is very necessary to detect the environmental conditions of remote places in real time in order to prevent natural disasters such as a flood, a typhoon, an earthquake, and breaks of an embankment. In this paper, we present the event processing in air pollution monitoring system by using geosensor network and spatial information. This system detects sign of air pollution, recognizes the pollution event, and provides the alarm message for predicted dangerous area in near ...

  4. Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuh-Chin T

    2014-10-01

    Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice. PMID:25285972

  5. Air pollution: UNCED convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to United Nations papers delineating the Organization's convention on climate change and strategies concerning the protection of the earth's atmosphere, this booklet presents four papers expressing the views of Italian and American strategists. The central theme is the establishment of current global air pollution trends, the determination of suitable air pollution limits, and the preparation of feasible socio-economic strategies to allow industrialized and developing countries to work together effectively to achieve the proposed global air quality goals

  6. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    OpenAIRE

    Weinheimer, A. J.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Mckeachie, R. J.; Novak, B. J.; Midyett, J. R.; Yang, M.; Blake, N. J.; Baker, A. K.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Atlas, E. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B) aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air ...

  7. In Search of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk Beckendorf

    2006-02-01

    Using EPA and NOAA websites, students are able to view pollution inventories (the amounts and kinds of pollution released in a given location) and follow pollution along its estimated path of travel. This inquiry based lesson guides students in the use of the websites and what data to collect while cultivating critical thinking skills.

  8. Model-based air pollution characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateu, J. [Universitat Jaume I, Dept. of Mathematics (Spain); Alvarez, C.; Sanfeliu, T. [Universitat JaumeI, Dept. of Experimental Sciences (Spain); Jordan, M.M. [Universitat Miguel Hernandez, Elche, Dept. of Experimental Sciences (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Controlling and looking for possible sources of air pollution has become a relevant goal in our increasingly degraded environment. In this paper we set up the fundamentals to propose, build and further develop a model to control and measure air pollution. The model is based on modem applied statistical techniques. Particularly, locally weighted nonparametric regression procedures proved to better fit the empirical data giving a more detailed information concerning the pollution development. The dependence on past events has been determined by means of dynamic time series models. The ares of study has been selected to represent a mediterranean area, so that our conclusions can be easily generalized to mediterranean polluted environments. (authors)

  9. BLUME - the Berlin air pollution monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles the BLUME air pollution chracteristics obtained in winter 1987/88. Figures and tables summarize and compare the measuring results obtained for sulfur dioxide, airborne particles, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone. Air pollution in winter 1987/88 was not as critical as in the previous years. The 1987/88 mean sulfur dioxide concentrations were found to be the lowest values determined since BLUME measurements started in 1975, and the mean values obtained for airborne particles and for most of the remaining pollutants were lower than in the previous year. The causes of these relatively low pollutant concentrations are discussed. (orig./BBR)

  10. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River Air...as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. We are...

  11. Event Processing in Air Pollution Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongSuk Ruth Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is very necessary to detect the environmental conditions of remote places in real time in order to prevent natural disasters such as a flood, a typhoon, an earthquake, and breaks of an embankment. In this paper, we present the event processing in air pollution monitoring system by using geosensor network and spatial information. This system detects sign of air pollution, recognizes the pollution event, and provides the alarm message for predicted dangerous area in near future. The system utilizes sensor data abstraction, context model, and pollution spread model to recognize the pollution events. The designed event process is useful in a monitoring service such as a home network, pollution and ecosystem monitoring, battle field analysis with reconnaissance, and transportation control.

  12. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  13. China's response to the air pollution shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Peter; Cheng, Enjiang; English, Alex; Sun, Fanghong

    2014-05-01

    Faced with serious air pollution, China is aggressively reshaping its energy system, building on recent progress with renewables and on available supplies of gas. This should help contain global warming and provide new impetus to climate change negotiations.

  14. Air pollution, public health, and inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostro, Bart David

    1980-01-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

  15. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  16. WSN For Air Pollution Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Talokar, Sonal O.; Manjusha Deshmukh

    2014-01-01

    Energy consumption by sensor node in Wireless Network is one of the important factors in Air Pollution Monitoring System. The paper aims to compare energy consumption with and without Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ) Data Aggregation Algorithm. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a developing technology which performs: sensing, gathering, measuring, transferring, etc. data to the database from the real world. The study emphasizes implementation, design and evaluation on WSN of Air Pollution ...

  17. Air Pollution, Smoking, and Plasma Homocysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, Ida; Grillo, Paolo; Hou, Lifang; Lanzani, Guido; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel David

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Air pollution exposure induces short-term inflammatory changes that may determine hyperhomocysteinemia, particularly in the presence of a preexisting proinflammatory status such as that found in cigarette smokers. Objective: We examined the relation of air pollution levels with fasting and postmethionine-load total homocysteine (tHcy) in 1,213 normal subjects from Lombardia, Ita...

  18. Human health effects of air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Folinsbee, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database. This review will emphasize studies of humans but will also draw on findings from the other disciplines. Air pollutants have been shown to cause responses rang...

  19. Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters, and so to estimate their contribution on air pollution situation in this city. Overall measurement results indicate a critical situation of air pollution in this city, where pollutant concentrations exceed international recommendations. Because of in Albania these types of studies are very rare; the air pollution assessment in the capital city Tirana has an enormous importance not only for this city but also in general for entire the country.

  20. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  1. Interactions between particulate air pollution and temperature in air pollution mortality time series studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987-1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate air pollution-temperature response surfaces and by stratifying the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality by temperature. Evidence that the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality may depend on temperature is found. However, the results were sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom used in the confounder adjustments, the particulate air pollution exposure measure, and how the effects of temperature on mortality are modeled. The results were less sensitive to the estimation method used--generalized linear models and natural cubic splines or generalized additive models and smoothing splines. The results of this study suggest that in community particulate air pollution mortality time series studies the possibility of an interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature should be considered

  2. Legal aspects of transfrontier air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution deals with the technical developments and the necessary adaptation of the legal and social systems in the various states. The author first discusses provisions of international law with regard to giving proof of environmental pollution caused by a neighbour state. He then deals with the legal aspects of long-distance air pollution. Finally, the Federal German substantial air pollution control law and relevant licensing provisions are taken as an example to show how the Federal Republic of Germany comes up to the obligations set by international law, to provide for due protection of the environment in neighbour states. (orig./HSCH)

  3. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Vara Prasad Y

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for sensing concentration of gases like CO2, NO2, CO and O2 are calibrated using appropriate calibration technologies. These pre-calibrated gas sensors are then integrated with the wireless sensor motes for field deployment at the campus and the Hyderabad city using multi hop data aggregation algorithm. A light weight middleware and a web interface to view the live pollution data in the form of numbers and charts from the test beds was developed and made available from anywhere on the internet. Other parameters like temperature and humidity were also sensed along with gas concentrations to enable data analysis through data fusion techniques. Experimentation carried out using the developed wireless air pollution monitoring system under different physical conditions show that the system collects reliable source of real time fine-grain pollution data.

  4. AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

  5. Photographs of plants damaged by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Plant damage by air pollutants are displayed in hundreds of photographs. Pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone cause necrosis between veins of leaves, hydrogen fluoride causes necrosis at the edges of leaves. Oxidants such as aldehydes and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) cause the formation of silver-grey color on the backs of leaves. At lower pollutant concentrations, chlorosis of leaves or invisible injuries such as plant growth retardation occurs. Plants weak in resistance to SO/sub 2/ are alfalfa, barley, cotton, marvel-of-Peru, rhubarb, cosmos, and sweet pea; those strong in resistance are musk melon, citrus, fruits, celery, and chrysanthemum. The resistance to SO/sub 2/ increases as the humidity decreases. The threshold value of HF was several ppb using gladiolus as the indicator plant. The resistances of plants to air pollutants depend not only on the plant and pollutant, but also on meteorological conditions and planting conditions.

  6. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. PMID:25108840

  7. Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Summary The public has long been interested in understanding what pollutants are in the air they breathe so they can best protect their environmental health and welfare. The current air quality monitoring network consists of discrete stations with expensive equipment ...

  8. Air Pollution In Jammu City

    OpenAIRE

    Angelika Sharma; Anil Raina

    2013-01-01

    The aerial environment of the earth has been increasingly interfered by the activities of human beings and virtually it has become the bumping site for toxic materials produced by industrial, vehicular and urban emissions. We have introduced several toxic materials to our environment at a tremendous speed that has changed its physicchemical characteristics. The assumption that the “ nature will take care of pollutants” do not hold good anymore since the pollutants at present vary greatly ...

  9. Relating air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases Occurrences

    OpenAIRE

    Teodoro, M. F.; Garcia, J. N.; Coelho, L. M.; Carvalho, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the impact of air pollution on children's health in Portugal. In particular, we focus our attention on the city of Barreiro. We use the general linear methods (GLM), taking advantage of all the ease of handling and analyzing data in order to relate air quality and health. We relate levels of air pollution and incidence of entries from children with symptoms of respiratory problems in the pediatric urgency service at the hospital of Barreiro. It was not easy to obtain ...

  10. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health impact, is particulate matter (PM) of which road traffic is a major source. Therefore, the health effects of traffic-related air pollution have been under considerable scrutiny. We examined in vivo t...

  11. Pollutant dispersion models for issues of air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14 papers entered separately into the data base were presented at the meeting for application-oriented dispersion models for issues of air pollution control. These papers focus on fields of application, availability of required input data relevant to emissions and meteorology, performance and accuracy of these methods and their practicability. (orig./PW)

  12. Pollution prevention and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  13. Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. (Medical Coll. of Ohio, Toledo, OH (United States). Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

    1994-03-01

    Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

  14. Climatological variability in regional air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

  15. the role of industry in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

  16. Air Pollution in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

    Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the model's performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.

  17. Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess the characteristics of air pollutants. The discussions in this work are based upon measurements performed at Abbassiya site as a case study. The nature of the contributing sources has been investigated and some attempts have been made to indicate the role played by neighboring regions in determining the air quality at the site mentioned. The results hint that, wind direction was found to have an influence not only on pollutant concentrations but also on the correlation between pollutants. As expected, the pollutants associated with traffic were at highest ambient concentration levels when wind speed was low. At higher wind speeds, dust and sand from the surrounding desert was entrained by the wind, thus contributing to ambient particulate matter levels. We also found that, the highest average concentration for NO2 and O3 occurred at humidity |40% indicative for strong vertical mixing. For CO, SO2 and PM10 the highest average concentrations occurred at humidity above 80% occurred at humidity above 80%

  18. Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of Chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2014-06-01

    Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of stove operation, beyond those evaluated with the WBT. PMID:24784418

  19. Air pollutants and the leaf cuticle. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percy, K.E. [ed.] [Natural Resources Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Canadian Forest Service - Maritimes Region; Cape, J.N. [ed.] [Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Penicuik (United Kingdom); Jagels, R. [ed.] [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Forest Ecosystem Science; Simpson, C.J. [ed.] [Natural Resources Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Canadian Forest Service - Maritimes Region

    1994-12-31

    The leaf surface forms the interface between plants and a deteriorating atmospheric environment. It is, therefore, the first point of contact between plants and air pollutants and presents an effective barrier to pollutant entry. Outermost surfaces of leaves are covered by a thin, lipoidal, non-living membrane called a cuticle. Cuticle integrity is essential to plant survival and has many essential functions, including the prevention of excessive water loss, regulation of solute uptake and protection of sensitive underlying photosynthetic tissues against harmful irradiation such as enhanced UV-B resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion. The physicochemical properties of the cuticle vary greatly between and within species. They are known to be sensitive to change through natural and anthropogenic influences. This book comprises contributions made to a NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop ``Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle`` held October 4-9, 1993 in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The objective of the ARW was to bring together for the first time international expertise on the subject of air pollutant interactions with the cuticle. In order to facilitate a state-of-science review, the ARW was structured around four themes. They were as follows: 1. Cuticular physicochemical characteristics, physiological, regulatory, and protective roles. 2. Effects, mechanisms, and consequences of air pollutant interaction with leaf cuticles. 3. Non-anthropogenic and environmental influences on the cuticle and potential of the cuticle for biomonitoring and critical levels mapping. 4. New developments in experimental methodology and analytical techniques. (orig./vhe)

  20. Effects of air pollution on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, G.

    1965-01-01

    Weather, automobile exhaust, waste dumps and industrial activities are major factors in the creation of air pollution problems. The first indication of an air pollution problem is often the injury that appears on comparatively sensitive vegetation. Sulfur dioxide causes both acute and chronic plant injury. Plants especially sensitive to SO/sub 2/ are alfalfa, cosmos, sweet pea, bachelor's button, and blackberry. Fluoride causes characteristic injury on plants. Plants sensitive to fluoride injury are gladiolus, azalea, tulip, and young needles of pine. Ethylene damage to plants was initially noted in greenhouses using artificial gas for heating. Orchids and carnations are sensitive to ethylene. Ozone is highly reactive and causes typical spotting injury to the upper surface of leaves. PAN causes injury to vegetation, especially petunia and lettuce. Other pollutants also cause plant injury. Mercury vapor, chlorine gas, ammonia, H/sub 2/S, CO, and nitrogen oxides are minor hazards. Susceptibility of vegetation to air pollution depends on various things such as variety of plants, amount of moisture available to the plants, temperature, and amount of sunlight during the period of air pollution. 8 references.

  1. Air pollution sources, impact and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improper management of socio-economic developmental activities has put a great stress on natural resources and eco-systems and has caused environmental degradation. Indiscriminate release of toxic substances into the atmosphere from power generation, industrial operations, transportation, incineration of waste and other operations has affected the quality of ambient air. Combustion of fossil fuel results in the emission of oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, particulate and organic compounds which affect the local, regional and global environment. Industrial operations release a wide variety of pollutants which directly affect the local environment. Operation of automobiles releases oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, traces of heavy metals and toxic polycyclic aromatic compounds whereas incineration of municipal waste releases particulate, acid fumes and photochemically reactive and odorous compounds. These air pollutants have varying impacts on health and environment. The intake of polluted air may produce various physiological disorders ranging from respiratory diseases to changes in blood chemistry. Therefore, the emission of pollutants should be controlled at the source and monitoring the levels of pollution should assess the quality of air. (author)

  2. Alternative analysis of the transboundary air pollution problems in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won

    The recently increasing industrialization and urbanization in Northeast Asia has led to a large volume of air pollutants being emitted in this region. The growth rate of the total emissions is still increasing alarmingly. China has been the major contributor to the total emissions of air pollutants in Northeast Asia. Westerly winds, a unique regional meteorological phenomenon, prevail throughout the year, and the long- range transport of air pollutants is propelled by those winds. As a result, nations in Northeast Asia are very concerned about potential problems with long-range transport of air pollutants from foreign sources. This is because air pollutants emitted from one nation's ground facilities and mobile sources travel hundreds or even thousands of miles by the effects of air pressure and wind drift, and can bring damage to other nations' ecosystems and human health. For example, Korea is located in the eastern part of the region and it can be significantly affected by the air pollutants transported from China. This dissertation research deals with the transboundary air pollution problem between China and Korea. Among many problems related to transboundary air pollution, this study concentrates on the following two issues: (1)Firstly, the negative consequences of transboundary air pollution from China at industrial sites in Korea; and (2)Secondly, the prediction of the future impact of China's sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions on the air quality in Korea. The results of the case study in Chapter 3 show evidence of the negative impacts of the transboundary air pollution in Korea. The production loss in Korea is an example of the negative impact brought about by transboundary movement of Chinese air pollutants. The runs of the computer aided simulation model in Chapter 4 show projected emission trends in China and Korea until the year 2010. The simulation results show that the total amount of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions in China and Korea will continue to increase at high rates, which means more and more of those air pollutants are projected to be transported from China into Korea. The total amount of Chinese emissions was more than ten times, in the case of sulfur dioxides, and one hundred times, in the case of the nitrogen oxides, the amount of the Korean emissions during the years from 1990 through 1996. Therefore, a small portion of the Chinese emissions, if transported into Korea, will cause a great increase of the concentration level of those air pollutants in Korea. The simulation model shows several scenarios of policy options which are effective in slowing down the growth rates of the Chinese and Korean emissions, and thus the growth rates of the amount of air pollutants to be transported from China into Korea. The findings of this study will be useful in raising public awareness in China and Korea, and will provide public policy makers with grounds for future environmental policy generation and cooperation in order to control air pollution and the transboundary air pollution problems in both nations.

  3. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, C. A.; Bates, D. V.; Raizenne, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respira...

  4. Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving cargo. The air quality impacts of ports are significant, with particularly large emissions of diesel exhaust, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides. The health effects of these air pollutants to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. In children, there are links with asthma, bronchitis, missed school days, and emergency room visits. The significance of these environmental health impacts requires aggressive efforts to mitigate the problem. Approaches to mitigation encompass a range of possibilities from currently available, low-cost approaches, to more significant investments for cleaner air. Examples of the former include restrictions on truck idling and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuel; the latter includes shore-side power for docked ships, and alternative fuels. A precautionary approach to port-related air pollution would encourage local production of goods in order to reduce marine traffic, greener design for new terminals, and state-of-the art approaches erminals, and state-of-the art approaches to emissions-control that have been successfully demonstrated at ports throughout the world

  5. Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO2, CO and O3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed by a law proposed by the Italian Ministries of Health and Environment. The relation of that index with some meteorological variables is analysed by the linear multiple partial correlation statistical method. Florence, Milan and Vicence were selected to show the correlation among the air pollution index and the daily thermic excursion, the previous day's air pollution index and the wind speed. During the January-March period the correlation coefficient reaches 0.85 at Milan. The deterministic methods of forecasting air pollution concentrations show very high evaluation errors and are applied on limited areas around the observation stations, as opposed to the whole urban areas. The global air pollution, instead of the concentrations at specific observation stations, allows the evaluation of the level of the sanitary risk regarding the whole urban population. (Author)

  6. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Grignani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  7. Semi-infinite air pollution control problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, A. Ismael F.; Ferreira, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    Semi-infinite programming (SIP) problems arise in many engineering areas. Robot trajectory planning and optimal signal sets are two fine examples. Air pollution abatement problems, which are linear SIP problems, were proposed in the seventies by Gustafson and Kortanek [Analytical properties of some multiple-source urban diffusion models, Environment and Planning 4, pp. 31- 41, 1972]. Recent available tools for non-linear SIP allow the formulation of more general air control ...

  8. Human exposure to urban air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Bostro?m, C. E.; Alme?n, J.; Steen, B.; Westerholm, R.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic....

  9. Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.

    OpenAIRE

    Fre?, R.; Bruynseraede, P.; Kretzschmar, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an...

  10. Simulation experiments on photochemical air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Loebel, J.; Schurath, U.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of photo-oxidants by irradiation of No/sub x/ and several hydrocarbons in synthetic and in urban air with artificial sunlight has been studied in a 425 l glass reactor. The formation of ozone, PAN and NO and the decomposition of NO/sub x/ and hydrocarbons have been measured and related to the initial precursor concentrations. The results are discussed with respect to a control strategy of photochemical air pollution. 9 references, 14 figures.

  11. Air pollution and floristic biodiversity; Pollution atmospherique et biodiversite floristique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grub, A.; Bungener, P.; Contat, F.; Nussbaum, S.; Endtner, V.; Fuhrer, J. [Station Federale de Recherches en Agroecologie et Agriculture (FAL), Liebefeld-Berne (Switzerland). Institut de Recherches en Protection de l' Environnement et en Agriculture (IUL)

    1999-06-01

    The number of reports on negative effects of air pollution on biodiversity is increasing. Here, examples from the literature are presented which concern effects of fluoride, deposition of nitrogen, and ozone. Today, nitrogen loads and levels of tropospheric ozone seem to be most relevant forms of air pollution affecting species diversity of the flora. Results from recent investigations of ozone effects at Liebefeld indicate that the loss of floristic diversity in permanent meadows is possible because of the high relative sensitivity of some typical species. Further studies will be necessary to validate the results obtained from experiment with single plants at the level of the intact plant community in the field, and to identify the critical level of ozone to protect the floristic biodiversity of meadows. (authors)

  12. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  13. Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

  14. HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

  15. Human health effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampa, Marilena [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: kampa@med.uoc.gr; Castanas, Elias [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: castanas@med.uoc.gr

    2008-01-15

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O{sub 3}), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed.

  16. HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

  17. Effects of air pollution on vascular thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tabor, Caroline Mary

    2011-01-01

    Increases in air pollution, especially the particulate component, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, possibly through increases in thrombogenic mechanisms. The research presented in this thesis addresses the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) increase thrombogenicity by impairing the release of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) from vascular endothelial cells, thus inhibiting the endogenous fibrinolytic mechanisms that promote thrombus brea...

  18. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

  19. AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Nikoli?

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

  20. Air pollution effects on Quercus Ilex plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test air pollution effects on natural forest vegetation, the soil chemistry and the floristic composition of two Quercus ilex L. woods in the Hyblean region (S-E Sicily), unequally exposed to air pollutants are compared. Acidification phenomena are investigated by the soil chemical changes between the trunk base areas, affected by stem flow water, and the surrounding soil, only influenced by canopy drip. Soil chemical changes, floristic poorness and direct damage to the Q. ilex leaves are only detected in the Climiti Mountains holm-oak woods, located near the Siracusa petrochemical complex, while they do not appear at Cava d'Ispica, sited far from any industry and seldom exposed to winds carrying pollutants

  1. A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bei Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen oxide (NOx. The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10, SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation

  2. A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Bei; Song, Feng-Ju; Liu, Qun; Li, Wei-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10), SO(2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation. PMID:24636232

  3. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, H.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Metrology of gaseous air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, J.

    2009-07-01

    The need for mutual recognition of accurate measurement results made by competent laboratories has been very widely accepted at the international level e.g., at the World Trade Organization. A partial solution to the problem was made by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) in setting up the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA), which was signed by National Metrology Institutes (NMI) around the world. The core idea of the CIPM MRA is to have global arrangements for the mutual acceptance of the calibration certificates of National Metrology Institutes. The CIPM MRA covers all the fields of science and technology for which NMIs have their national standards. The infrastructure for the metrology of the gaseous compounds carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen monoxide (Norway), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O{sub 3}) has been constructed at the national level at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The calibration laboratory at the FMI was constructed for providing calibration services for air quality measurements and to fulfil the requirements of a metrology laboratory. The laboratory successfully participated, with good results, in the first comparison project, which was aimed at defining the state of the art in the preparation and analysis of the gas standards used by European metrology institutes and calibration laboratories in the field of air quality. To confirm the competence of the laboratory, the international external surveillance study was conducted at the laboratory. Based on the evidence, the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES) designated the calibration laboratory at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) as a National Standard Laboratory in the field of air quality. With this designation, the MIKES-FMI Standards Laboratory became a member of CIPM MRA, and Finland was brought into the internationally-accepted forum in the field of gas metrology. The concept of 'once measured - everywhere accepted' is the leading theme of the CIPM MRA. The calibration service of the MIKES-FMI Standards Laboratory realizes the SI traceability system for the gas components, and is constructed to enable it to meet the requirements of the European air quality directives. In addition, all the relevant uncertainty sources that influence the measurement results have been evaluated, and the uncertainty budgets for the measurement results have been created. (orig.)

  5. 76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

  6. Air Pollution Linked to Increased Stroke Risk, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Air Pollution Linked to Increased Stroke Risk, Study Says Narrowed ... Preidt Friday, March 6, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Carotid Artery Disease Stroke FRIDAY, March 6, 2015 ( ...

  7. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution- Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: source control, improved ventilation, and air cleaners. This site offers the reader some insights to improving air quality through increased ventilation, air cleaners for particle removal, and other common sense methods that may be employed. Many times the quality of the air in our homes and public or office buildings is marginal at best. The sources of indoor pollution may be outside of our ability to rectify or it may be as simple as adjusting the flame on our furnace or kitchen stove or maybe something as simple as opening a door or window. However, in many instances we have no control over the air quality because of the materials used in the construction of the building.

  8. RESPONSE OF STEM GROWTH AND FUNCTION TO AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollutants can result in reduced stem growth, changes in wood density, and/or deposition of pollutants in the stem. everal recent reviews summarize the known effects of air pollutants on plant growth and function including trees. ir pollutants may also change the ...

  9. Air pollutants and the leaf cuticle. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaf surface forms the interface between plants and a deteriorating atmospheric environment. It is, therefore, the first point of contact between plants and air pollutants and presents an effective barrier to pollutant entry. Outermost surfaces of leaves are covered by a thin, lipoidal, non-living membrane called a cuticle. Cuticle integrity is essential to plant survival and has many essential functions, including the prevention of excessive water loss, regulation of solute uptake and protection of sensitive underlying photosynthetic tissues against harmful irradiation such as enhanced UV-B resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion. The physicochemical properties of the cuticle vary greatly between and within species. They are known to be sensitive to change through natural and anthropogenic influences. This book comprises contributions made to a NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop ''Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle'' held October 4-9, 1993 in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The objective of the ARW was to bring together for the first time international expertise on the subject of air pollutant interactions with the cuticle. In order to facilitate a state-of-science review, the ARW was structured around four themes. They were as follows: 1. Cuticular physicochemical characteristics, physiological, regulatory, and protective roles. 2. Effects, mechanisms, and consequences of air pollutant interaction with leaf cuticles. 3. Non-anthropogenic and enveaf cuticles. 3. Non-anthropogenic and environmental influences on the cuticle and potential of the cuticle for biomonitoring and critical levels mapping. 4. New developments in experimental methodology and analytical techniques. (orig./vhe)

  10. Gene by Environment Interaction and Ambient Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Romieu, Isabelle; Moreno-macias, Hortensia; London, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have clearly shown that air pollution is associated with a range of respiratory effects. Recent research has identified oxidative stress as a major biologic pathway underlying the toxic effect of air pollutants. Genetic susceptibility is likely to play a role in response to air pollution. Genes involved in oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are logical candidates for the study of the interaction with air pollutants. In this article we use the example of asthma, a...

  11. Real-Time Air Pollutants Rendering based on Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Demin Wang; Yan Huang; Weitao Li

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for realistic real-time rendering of air pollutants based on image processing. The air pollutants’ variable density can create many shapes of mist what can add a realistic environment to virtual scene. In order to achieve a realistic effect, we further enhance thus obtained air pollution data getting from monitor in spatial domain. In the proposed method we map the densities of air pollutants to different gray levels, and visualize them by blending those gra...

  12. Valuation Of Health Impacts Of Air Pollution In India

    OpenAIRE

    Surender Kumar; and Paramjit

    2013-01-01

    This paper surveys the studies measuring the economic impacts of air pollution on health in India. Air pollution has potentially large impacts on the health and well-being of households, especially the poor families. The literature shows that the distribution of the impacts of air pollution is not uniform across the cross sections of societies. It notes that though there are some case studies on the valuation of health impacts of outdoor air pollution, there is rarely any study on the valuati...

  13. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution and population health” is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are s...

  14. Basic mechanisms for adverse cardiovascular events associated with air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Michael T

    2015-02-01

    Air pollution is a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the epidemiologic association between air pollution exposures and exacerbation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established, the mechanisms by which these exposures promote CVD are incompletely understood. This review provides an overview of the components of air pollution, an overview of the cardiovascular effects of air pollution exposure, and a review of the basic mechanisms that are activated by exposure to promote CVD. PMID:25552258

  15. The Role of Air Pollutants in Initiating Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-01-01

    Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where expos...

  16. Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

    Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

  17. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, ?-myrcene, and ?-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  18. Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China: The Possibility and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The air environmental pollutants exhausted by China have attracted the attention from the world, especially the neighboring countries including Japan. Japan has put forward a conceived model named Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China. This article analyzes the background and causations of air environmental pollution problems in China, and the efforts that Chinese government has made in energy conservation and lessening the pollutants exhaust of car. On this basis, we analyze the mutual interests and stance of the governments and car manufacturers in the aspect of establishing Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China, and consider that there will be further cooperation between Japan and China on air pollution problems in the governmental levels, and the operation can be expanded to be a multilateral frame which is among Korea, Japan, China and other East Asian countries. But at this stage, as for the aspect of car manufacturers in Japan and China, the bifurcation between these two countries decides that there is just a little possibility of establishing an alliance which focuses on solving the air pollution problems in China.

  19. Motor Vehicles Air Pollution in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Odhiambo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring in most developing countries is not routinely conducted, and in some urban areas such information does not even exist, though signs of deteriorating air quality and health problems related to air pollution are visible. By measuring air pollutants (i.e., Nitrogen Oxides, ozone, suspended particulates matter (PM10, and trace elements e.g. lead, this study investigated air quality in Nairobi, one of the largest cities in eastern Africa and the capital of Kenya. Sampling was done once a week from February to April 2003. Hourly average concentrations of NOx and O3 were measured using a technique that is based on "chemilumiscent" reaction at a site connecting two main highways in Nairobi (University and Uhuru from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. PM10 was collected using “Gent” Stacked Filter Unit (SFU air sampler fitted with nucleopore filters (0.4 and 8.0 mm pore size for fine and coarse filters, respectively that were analyzed for trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF technique. An automatic vehicle counter was used for determining the vehicle density at the sampling site. Results show that most pollutants, for example, lead (0.05 1 to 1.106 µg/m3, bromine (LLD to 0.43 µg/m3, NO2 (0.011-0.976 ppm, NO (0.001-0.2628 ppm and O3 (LLD-0.1258 ppm are within the WHO guidelines. PM10 levels (66.66 - 444.45 µg/m3 were above the WHO guidelines for most of the days, with coarse particulate accounting for more than 70%. Strong correlation (r = 0.966 between fine (0.4 µm particulates, NOx, and motor vehicle density, indicate the importance of traffic as a common source for both fine particulates and NOx.

  20. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  1. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  2. Fighting corrosion in air pollution control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that materials is the name of the game for corrosion prevention in air pollution control equipment. Whether the system is already in place, a retrofit, are specified for a new power pant, preventing corrosion is critical, because such deterioration easily undermines reliability. Hence, materials can heavily influence power plant compliance to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, perhaps the most vulnerable area to corrosion, are expected to be the method of choice for sulfur removal in many power plants in the near term. Components of these systems have various degrees of susceptibility to corrosion and related problems

  3. Air pollution in a city street

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and ...

  4. Air pollution in a city street. 1965.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and ...

  5. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, H. S.

    1995-01-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated not only in the United States, but also in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the United States, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more rece...

  6. Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byeong-jae; Kim, Bumseok; Lee, Kyuhong

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5 and PM10) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, f...

  7. Correcting agglomeration economies: How air pollution matters

    OpenAIRE

    Drut, Marion; Mahieux, Aure?lie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to correct standard measures of agglomeration economies in order to account for air pollution generated by commuting. This paper examines the impact of nitrogen oxide (NOX) on worker productivity. NOX emissions are primarily released by the transportation sector. Literature on agglomeration economies is abundant and highlights the positive role of density on productivity. Nevertheless, this literature does not take into account the environmental impact generated by a b...

  8. Air Pollution, Oxidative Stress, and Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Moulton, Paula Valencia; Yang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting millions of people worldwide and will continue to affect millions more with population aging on the rise. AD causality is multifactorial. Known causal factors include genetic predisposition, age, and sex. Environmental toxins such as air pollution (AP) have also been implicated in AD causation. Exposure to AP can lead to chronic oxidative stress (OS), which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Whereas AP plays a role in ...

  9. Satellite data for the air pollution mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Lucien; Basly, Ludovic; Baleynaud, Jean-michel

    1998-01-01

    This article investigates the potentials of satellite imagery for the mapping of air quality parameters. Concentrations of black particulates, sulphur dioxide and other pollutants measured in the city of Nantes with ground stations were compared to coincident Landsat TM6 data (thermal infrared band data). The black particulates concentration and the apparent temperature from satellite data are highly correlated. Finally, it is demonstrated that the spatial distribution of the black particulat...

  10. Air pollution control escalate equipment costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fiscal year 1994, this author used the Bernard J. Steigerwald Opportunity for Independent Study, sponsored by US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (Research Triangle Park, N.C.), to develop a group of quarterly indexes for adjusting or escalating air pollution control costs from one period to another. In all, nine indexes were developed, one equipment cost index (ECI) for each of nine control device categories. For convenience to the reader, additional indexes for two other equipment categories--available as part of the Producer Price Indexes compiled by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics--are also presented here. These 11 indexes--collectively known as the Vatavuk Air Pollution Control Cost Indexes (VAPCCI)--can be used to escalate costs from the initial (base) period (first quarter 1994) forward to any quarter in the future. To date, final indexes have been calculated (and are presented at the end of this article) for the second, third, and fourth quarters of 1994, and first quarter 1995; preliminary indexes are provided for second quarter 1995. Quarterly updates of these cost indexes will be computed as soon as the required input data become available. To date, no other set of cost indexes has been developed for such a wide array of pollution-control devices

  11. Assessing health effects of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jane V.

    Exposure to elevated concentrations of ambient air pollutants causes adverse human health effects. Two modes or methods of study are generally relied on to quantify the relationships between pollutants and specific effects. These are: human clinical experiments and epidemiological (or community exposure) studies. (Animal toxicological studies can be used to indicate the existence of an effect, but not the rate of the effect in humans.) Each method has limitations as a basis for quantifying the level of adverse effects anticipated in a given human population as a result of exposure. Consequently, care must be taken in deciding which studies are appropriate for assessment of health impacts in a population. Some limitations are inherent in the method. Epidemiological studies, for example, depend on adequate community monitoring and the ability to associate a cohort with ambient data. Clinical studies often do not represent the complex mix of pollutants in the atmosphere. Consequently, construction of dose/exposure-response functions is challenging. Another common complication in quantifying expected health impacts of a pollutant mix is lack of adequate ambient monitoring data coupled with little or no knowledge of a population's time and activity profiles. This paper summarizes the difficulties inherent in constructing estimates of health effects in populationsliving in densely populated and polluted areas and suggests approaches to making initial limited estimates. An example of the level of effort required to conduct a sophisticated study, using relatively rich databases, is given based on work done in the Southern California region.

  12. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution : The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; SØrensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  13. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabari?, Z.; Grabari?, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 ?g ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 ?g ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (? 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related compounds are in use.

  14. Overview on the Air Pollution Issues of the City Clusters in China and its Control Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.

    2007-12-01

    Mega-cities in China, such as Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Shanghai are located in three large city clusters, Bo-Hai Bay surrounding area, Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Yangtze River Delta. Like the rest of the coastal regions in China, these mega-cities have been experiencing fast economic developments and consequently serious environmental pollution. Air pollution in those areas is characterized by concurrent occurrence of high concentrations of multiple primary pollutants and secondary pollutants, which lead to the development of "air pollution complex" (perhaps typically Chinese) problem. Several campaigns of field experiments covering the regions such as PRD and Beijing City with surrounding areas have been conducted critically to understand the chemical and physical processes leading to the formation of regional scale air pollution since 2004. Some policy-relevant suggestions for air quality attainment have been made after these campaigns, specially the attainment of air quality during 2008 Beijing Olympic game, which has been attracted as an important concern worldwide. A scientific field campaign was conducted during August of 2007 for testing the control strategies suggested for air quality attainment in 2008-Olympic. An overview of the results of PRD and Beijing Campaigns will be presented.

  15. Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM10), while the associations with SO2 and NO2 are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs

  16. Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

  17. Air pollution related to sea transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea transportation contributes only 1-2% of world CO2 emissions. Owing to the sulphur concentration in the bunker fuels, this transportation mode represents over 4% of the world SO2 emissions. In addition, NOx emissions are likely to exceed 7% of the world emissions. SO2 emissions in the North Sea and the Channel account for 15% of the whole French emissions, NOx emissions for about 10% and CO2 emissions for about 3%. There are several potential measures to reduce the emissions of ship engines - propelling engines or generator driving engines - improvement of fuel quality, by desulphurizing and prohibiting the use of noxious additives such as PCB; use of alternative fuels; engine optimizing; exhaust gas processing; use of new propelling systems. A new organisation of world marketing of fuels with low or high sulphur levels could also be set up. The Sea Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) discussed this problem during its meeting in 1990. The 73/78 MARPOL convention provides the IMO with an international juridical tool, especially designed for the preclusion of pollution due to sea transportation. It can address the issue of air pollution which requires a concerted approach between seaside countries and the drawing up of international regulations relating to the protection of the sea world. Fuel quality is already controlled by international standards drawn up by ISO. Thnternational standards drawn up by ISO. These standards should be improved to reduce air pollution due to sea transportation

  18. Statistical analysis of acute health effects of air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Amne; Johansen, Tine

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with statistical methods and the application of these on the association between ambient air pollution in Copenhagen during the years 2003-2009 and stroke incidents occurring in the city. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the exposure to air pollution is a risk factor for experiencing a stroke. Air pollutants treated are particulate matter measured as PM10, PM2.5, and PM7?800nm, and the traffic pollutant NO2. Air pollution data is given as a...

  19. Indoor air pollution in a Kenyan village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafula, E M; Onyango, F E; Thairu, H; Boleij, J S; Hoek, F; Ruigewaard, P; Kagwanja, S; De Koning, H; Pio, A; Kimani, E

    1990-01-01

    In April 1986, a study was carried out within rural households in Maragua area, Muranga District, Republic of Kenya, to assess the degree of indoor air pollution and to find its relationship, if any, to acute respiratory infections (ARI) among children aged below 5 years within the study. This study was carried out within an ongoing aetiological and epidemiological community study on ARI as a collaborative effort between the Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi; the Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University; the Department of Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University, Wagenigen, The Netherlands; the World Health Organization; and the Ministry of Health, Republic of Kenya. Repeated 24 hour measurements of respirable suspended particles (RSP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), were carried out in 36 randomly selected houses where most of the cooking was done on open fires using firewood and crop residues as fuel. Data on house characteristics and activity in the study were gathered by questionnaire. The mean of 24 hour average RSP concentration (1400mg/m3), average during the 7 hours of daily burning (3000-4000mg/m3), and evening peak levels (up to 3600mg/m3) indicate that deleterious health effects due to exposure to excessive levels of toxic pollutants in smoke from biomass combustion are likely to occur especially among pre-school children and women. Concentrations of selected polycyclic hydrocarbons in the particulate material were found to be high. It was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between the indoor air pollution and episodes of ARI partly because of small sample size and also the more or less homogeneous nature of pollution among all the households. PMID:2354674

  20. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  1. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, Ox, SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impactsd health impacts

  2. Coordination of air pollution abatement programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a presentation of a study the author computed as a consultant for the Ministry of the Environment. Due to growth of the energy production capacity Finland is reaching a situation where it will be impossible to hold on the long term goals of the air pollution control. The main obstacle will be enormous costs. The author prefers an option in which economic incentives are used to suppress the growth of the energy capacity and traffic volume. The report also recommends a long-term national strategy by which the international competitive ability in Finland would be based upon low-energy commodities

  3. EPA issues offshore air pollution regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Environmental Protection Agency has issued regulations equalizing offshore air pollution rules with onshore standards except in the Gulf of Mexico. The rules hold platforms and drilling rigs within 25 miles of states' seaward boundaries to the same state, local, and federal requirements as if they were located in the corresponding onshore areas. If EPA finds state regulations are adequate, it will delegate to the coastal state the implementation and enforcement authority for the OCS rules. Air emissions sources more than 25 miles offshore will be subject only to federal requirements. EPA said within 2 years the rules will result in significant benefits to certain onshore areas currently violating smog standards

  4. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  5. Effects of air pollutants on lemons and naval oranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.R.

    1968-01-01

    The effects of photochemical oxidant and fluoride air pollutants on lemon and orange trees were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments. Trees exposed to the pollutants show increased lead drop and decreased fruit yield in comparison to controls.

  6. The stakes of air pollution in the field of transport

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The main pollutants are listed for today and the future according to the progression of air quality, as measured in France and in the European Union during the 90's, to the progression of pollutant emissions of road transport in France, as calculated for the period 1970-2020, and to the progression of public concern regarding air pollution and environment. These pollutants are headed by carbon dioxide, followed by nitrogen oxides and fine particulates. The stakes in terms of technology and tr...

  7. Strong association between air pollution and stroke mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to air pollution is linked to a higher risk of anxiety and stroke, according to two studies. In a review of the evidence on air pollution and stroke, researchers from the University of Edinburgh analysed 103 observational studies covering 28 countries. The review looked at gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen and ozone) and particulate matter (particles or droplets of pollutants such as smoke, dust and soot). PMID:25850478

  8. Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wang J, Zhang X.

    2010-01-01

    Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for un...

  9. The role of air pollutants in initiating liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-06-01

    Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where exposure to air pollutants was involved in liver toxicity, focusing on how particulate matter (PM) or carbon black (CB) may be translocated from lung to liver and what liver diseases are closely associated with these air pollutants. PMID:25071914

  10. Air pollution - Trends in Austria 1980 - 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian federal environmental office (Umweltbundesamt) carries out an annual inventory of the air pollution to fulfill obligatory duties derived from national and international agreements (UNFCCC; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto-protocol, EU monitoring mechanism (Decision 93/389/EWG). This inventory includes the anthropogenic emissions for the period 1980 - 2002 and the steps followed to reduce them. It is divided into 11 parts as follows: 1. summary, 2. inventory basis, 3. greenhouse gases (emissions trends 1990-2002, actual development 2001-2, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide, F- gases (SF6, partial fluorinated hydrocarbons, total fluorinated hydrocarbons), 4. ozone promoters (nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, methane), 5. acidification and eutrophication (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides), 6. dust, 7. heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury), 8. persistent organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxine, hexachlorobenzene), 9. pollution trends by sectors (power generation, traffic, industry, agriculture), 10. international comparison of Austrian emissions (greenhouse gases, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons without methane, ammonia, carbon monoxide), 11. bibliography and an appendix. Data were collected following the guidelines by the International panel on climate exchange and the EMEP/CORINAIR emission inventory guidebook. Those chapters which are in the INIS subjeThose chapters which are in the INIS subject scope were treated individually. 36 ref., 30 tabls., 74 figs. (nevyjel)

  11. Air pollution detection using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbula, Jan; Kopacková, Veronika

    2011-11-01

    The quality of the environment has a great impact on public health while air quality is a major factor that is especially relevant for respiratory diseases. PM10 (particulate matter below 10 ?) particles are among the most dangerous pollutants, which enter the lower respiratory tract and cause serious health problems. Obtaining reliable air pollution data is limited to a number of ground measuring stations and their spatial location. We used an alternative approach and created statistical models that employed remotely sensed imageries. To establish empirical relationships, we used multi-temporal (2006-2009) MODIS aerosol optical thickness data (product MOD04, Level 2) and the PM10 ground mass concentrations. The north-western part of the Czech Republic (namely the Karlovarský and the Ustecký regions) was chosen as a test site, as all the different types of cultural landscape (forest-economical, agricultural, mining, and urban) can be found within one MODIS scene. This study was focused on the various aspects as follows (i) analysis of MODIS AOT / stationary PM10 time-series trend between 2006-2009, (ii) establishing a linear relationship between PM10 and AOT values for each station and (iii) evaluation of a spatial relationship of the annual mean AE (Ångstrom Exponent) and PM10 values.

  12. Study of urban air pollution in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

  13. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M. [Toronto Public Health, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Genc; Zeynep Zadeoglulari; Fuss, Stefan H.; Kursad Genc

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's dise...

  15. Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods.

    OpenAIRE

    O Neill, Marie S.; Jerrett, Michael; Cohen, Aaron J.; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan Ian; Schwartz, Joel David

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of ...

  16. Air pollution and non-respiratory health hazards for children

    OpenAIRE

    Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a global health issue with serious public health implications, particularly for children. Usually respiratory effects of air pollutants are considered, but this review highlights the importance of non-respiratory health hazards. In addition to short-term effects, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with low birth weight, increase in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-commu...

  17. International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO)

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Tracey J.; Parker, Jennifer D.; Kate Adams; Bell, Michelle L.; Ulrike Gehring; Svetlana Glinianaia; Eun-Hee Ha; Bin Jalaludin; Rémy Slama

    2010-01-01

    Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the p...

  18. Human Health Cost of Air Pollution in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Ussen Kenessariyev; Alexander Golub; Michael Brody; Askhat Dosmukhametov; Meiram Amrin; Aya Erzhanova; Dinara Kenessary

    2013-01-01

    Kazakhstan, like other former Soviet Republics, inherited a number of serious environmental problems. Air pollution is one of these serious problems, leading to significant environmental health effects on the population of Kazakhstan. This study provides a baseline analysis of health damages from air pollution, based on readily available information. Mean estimates of mortality risk attributable to air pollution are about 16,000 cases per year with a 95% confidence level of the risk not exce...

  19. Foreign experience of determining crop yield losses from air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    ??????, ????? ??????????; ??????, ????? ?????????; Marekha, Iryna Serhiivna; ???????, ???? ???????????; ???????, ???? ??????????; Diadechko, Alla Mykolaivna

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that crops can be injured by air pollutants. Air pollution is a major stress causing yield losses in California crops. Statewide monitoring indicates that ozone, the main component of air pollution, is transported from urban to agricultural areas, many of which lie within or near high-ozone regions. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/13455

  20. Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Jason

    2000-04-01

    Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

  1. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  2. Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, SA; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 ?g/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution. PMID:23559696

  3. Generalized additive model of air pollution to daily mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of air pollution with daily mortality due to cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and old age (65 or older) in Seoul, Korea was investigated in 1999 using daily values of TSP, PM10, O3, SO2, NO2, and CO. Generalized additive Poisson models were applied to allow for the highly flexible fitting of daily trends in air pollution as well as nonlinear association with meteorological variables such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed. To estimate the effect of air pollution and weather on mortality, LOESS smoothing was used in generalized additive models. The findings suggest that air pollution levels affect significantly the daily mortality. (orig.)

  4. The effects of air pollution on the health of children

    OpenAIRE

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-vargas, Alvaro R.

    2006-01-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence.

  5. Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health”

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan, Sa; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the ma...

  6. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes and...

  7. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA...

  8. 77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...and air districts for evaluating air pollution control economics. 3....

  9. Roadside particulate air pollution in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinsart, Wanida; Tamura, Kenji; Loetkamonwit, Samarnchai; Thepanondh, Sarawut; Karita, Kanae; Yano, Eiji

    2002-09-01

    Airborne fine particles of PM(2.5-10) and PM2.5 in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Ayutthaya were measured from December 22, 1998, to March 26, 1999, and from November 30, 1999, to December 2, 1999. Almost all the PM10 values in the high-polluted (H) area exceeded the Thailand National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of 120 microg/m3. The low-polluted (L) area showed low PM10 (34-74 microg/m3 in the daytime and 54-89 microg/m3 at night). PM2.5 in the H area varied between 82 and 143 microg/m3 in the daytime and between 45 and 146 microg/m3 at night. In the L area, PM2.5 was quite low both day and night and varied between 24 and 54 microg/m3, lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (65 microg/m3). The personal exposure results showed a significantly higher proportion of PM2.5 to PM10 in the H area than in the L area (H = 0.80 +/- 0.08 and L = 0.65 +/- 0.04). Roadside PM10 was measured simultaneously with the Thailand Pollution Control Department (PCD) monitoring station at the same site and at the intersections where police work. The result from dual simultaneous measurements of PM10 showed a good correlation (correlation coefficient: r = 0.93); however, PM levels near the roadside at the intersections were higher than the concentrations at the monitoring station. The relationship between ambient PM level and actual personal exposures was examined. Correlation coefficients between the general ambient outdoors and personal exposure levels were 0.92 for both PM2.5 and PM10. Bangkok air quality data for 1997-2000, including 24-hr average PM10, NO2, SO2, and O3 from eight PCD monitoring stations, were analyzed and validated. The annual arithmetic mean PM10 of the PCD data at the roadside monitoring stations for the last 3 years decreased from 130 to 73 microg/m3, whereas the corresponding levels at the general monitoring stations decreased from 90 to 49 microg/m3. The proportion of days when the level of the 24-hr average PM10 exceeded the NAAQS was between 13 and 26% at roadside stations. PCD data showed PM10 was well correlated with NO2 but not with SO2, suggesting that automobile exhaust is the main source of the particulate air pollution. The results obtained from the simultaneous measurement of PM2.5 and PM10 indicate the potential environmental health hazard of fine particles. In conclusion, Bangkok traffic police were exposed to high levels of automobile-derived particulate air pollution. PMID:12269671

  10. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-12-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. PMID:23274234

  11. Monitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ?50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  12. AIR QUALITY POLLUTION DISCHARGE POINTS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Management, Air Quality Section in cooperation with the North Carolina Center for Geographical Information and Analysis developed the digital Air Quality Pollution Discharge Poi...

  13. Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, X. [Institute of HVAC and GAS Engineering, College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2010-07-01

    Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for unadapted and adapted persons according to logarithmic index evaluation method, combined with percentage of dissatisfaction and joint effect of indoor air pollution caused by these two kinds of sources.

  14. Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J., Zhang X.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for unadapted and adapted persons according to logarithmic index evaluation method, combined with percentage of dissatisfaction and joint effect of indoor air pollution caused by these two kinds of sources.

  15. Cadastre of air polluters for city of Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a review of the condition with harmful articles emission in the air from industrial, energetic and communal emitters on the area of city Skopje is presented. The results of researches taken in the period 1994-1996, as a second phase of the project: 'Cadastre of air polluters and map of air pollution of Republic of Macedonia' are given. The level of data processing represents a base for prognosis of expected air pollution of city of Skopje, with what a possibility of air quality control will be provided. (author)

  16. Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued i...

  17. Lichens as integrating air pollution monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioindication using epiphytic lichens has developed rapidly in the last decades. Both mapping of lichen vegetation and multielement analysis of Hypogymnia physodes collected on a national scale were used. A simple method based on the assessment of the cover and frequency of crustose, foliose and fruticose lichens on different tree species was performed in 1991 and 1995 and the so-called Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) was calculated, providing a picture of the general air quality in the country. However, by analysis of lichen material using k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis detailed information about its composition and levels of pollutants was obtained. In the present work an attempt to combine the IAP results with the quantitative levels of certain trace elements together with available results for SO2 in the atmosphere using multivariate statistical methods is presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts, and content of mobile heavy metals. The volume of APC residue is presently increasing due to the increased focus on utilization of renewable energy sources, and thus occupation of new waste–to-energy plants. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions, however, most commercial solutions are concerned with deposition; e.g. in abandoned mines. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. Some main challenges are the extremely high soluble fraction together with the fact that many of the toxic elements are encapsulated in the particles rather than adsorbed to their surface.

  19. AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT BY FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier transform spectroscopy substantially reduces the limitations on infrared methods of pollution measurement. EPA has used long path cells and Fourier transform spectrometers for pollutant measurement both in the laboratory and in the field. Labile pollutants are best measur...

  20. Influence of air pollution on cultivated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaart, A.J.; Spierings, F.H.F.G.; van Raay, A.; Wolting, H.G.

    1971-01-01

    Fumigation of tomato plants during the complete growth period with 0.1 ppm NO2 resulted in a gradually increasing discoloration of the plants starting from the lowest leaves on upwards. The yield of the plants was less by 8%. In a similar fumigation experiment with a concentration of 0.9 ppb HF carried out with eight varieties of freesia, the plants with the heaviest injury had almost no flowers and a much lower yield of corns. Potatoes, variety Bintje, fumigated during some hours with 0.1 ppm ethylene, showed curling up of the margins of the young leaves. In the urbanized area west of Rotterdam, epinastic symptoms on potato and carrot leaves appearing during some hours, pointed to air pollution with ethylene. In the first half of October lettuce in glasshouses was damaged; with the aid of the characteristic symptoms on Poa annua and Urtica urens it could be demonstrated that PAN (peroxyacetylnitrate) was the cause of the trouble. With regard to the second aluminum factory in the south-west of The Netherlands, starting production in 1971, preliminary measurements of HF pollution have been carried out. The other aluminium factory in the northeastern part of The Netherlands, caused no damage to the agricultural crops in the surroundings of the plant. From the flower bulbs cultivated in the environment of the steel factory, west of Amsterdam the gladiolus plants showed increased HF injury on the leaves, probably as a consequence of application of a new method in steel production.

  1. Influence of air pollution on cultivated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F.H.F.G.; Van Rayy, A.; Wolting, H.G.

    1968-01-01

    Narcissus fumigated with HF during a short period reacted with a necrotic injury of the leaves followed by a yellow discoloration around this necrotic tissue. Lilium tigrinum appeared to be very sensitive to HF. Young tomato plants in an active state of development reacted much stronger to ethylene than slower growing plants. In the glass district of the Westland which is surrounded by industries, towns and highways, alfalfa, freesia and tobacco showed injury symptoms which were caused by SO/sub 2/, HF and ozone respectively. Urtica urens did not show any damage which could have been caused by peroxyacetyl nitrate. By means of microscopical investigation the various dust fractions on apples grown in the vicinity of cement factories were quantitatively analyzed. The percentages of the fractions could be determined and a positive correlation established between the dust on the apples and the pollution material produced by the cement factories. Simultaneous measurements of HF air pollution at different places proved that the installation of a scrubber in a superphosphate factor was effective; it resulted in a considerable decrease of crop injury.

  2. Air pollution and risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot study among other things was intended to establish and to test a suitable sampling instrument, to develop quantification concepts in order to derive from the large amount of detailed sets of data the appropriate exposure measures, and to determine the distribution pattern of the main risk factors. The approach chosen for epidemiological screening was a case-control study covering a total each of 194 lung cancer cases, hospital controls, and population controls drawn in the Lands of North Rhine-Westfalia and northern Germany. This case-control approach proved to be feasible in principle. In particular, the sampling instrument for description of the risk factors 'occupation', 'smoker', and 'air pollution' proved to be suitable in combination with data in other potential influencing factors. The concepts chosen for a quantification of these factors yielded exposure measures appropriately reducing the large dimension of data of the questionnaire, without however completely exploiting it. The data ascertained within the framework of the pilot study allow to make a risk assessment for only two factors, namely 'smoker' and 'occupation'. For the index of the overall occupational exposure, covering contributions from exposure to asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chronium, PAH, and radionuclides, a relative risk of 1.8 was determined. The study indicated that there is a link between occupational exposure to asbestos or PAH, and the occurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilotccurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilot study did not give an answer to the question of whether air pollution contributes to the formation of bronchial carcinoma. This question will have to be solved by a more extensive study. (orig./MG)

  3. Prospective Study of Particulate Air Pollution Exposures, Subclinical Atherosclerosis, and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Joel D.; Adar, Sara D.; Allen, Ryan W.; Barr, R. Graham; Budoff, Matthew J.; Burke, Gregory L.; Casillas, Adrian M.; Cohen, Martin A.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Jacobs, David R.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Larson, Timothy V.; Liu, Sally Lee-jane

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) was initiated in 2004 to investigate the relation between individual-level estimates of long-term air pollution exposure and the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MESA Air builds on a multicenter, community-based US study of CVD, supplementing that study with additional participants, outcome measurements, and state-of-the-art air pollution exposure assessments of ...

  4. Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

    1987-06-01

    100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

  5. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...Mountain Counties Air Basin portions of...and classified as severe nonattainment for...County portion) Air Basins. The Sacramento...and classified as severe nonattainment for...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  6. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Congenital Anomalies in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Schembari, Anna; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Salvador, Joaquin; Nazelle, Audrey; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Basagan?a, Xavier; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A recent meta-analysis suggested evidence for an effect of exposure to ambient air pollutants on risk of certain congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the effects of traffic-related air pollutants with sufficient spatial accuracy.

  7. Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

  8. COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

  9. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern air pollution regulation is first and foremost motivated by concerns about the effects of air pollutants on human health and secondarily by concerns about its effects on ecosystems, cultural artifacts, and quality of life values such as visibility. This order of priority ...

  10. The contribution of air pollution to heritage management policy strategies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    Paris : ADEME, 2007. s. 16-17 [Joint workshop of the EU project Cult-Strat - The protection of cultural heritage from air pollution. 15.03.2007-16.03.2007, Paris /Louvre Palace/] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : architectural heritage * air pollution * conservation strategy Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  11. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

  12. Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Manny

    Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

  13. Decrease in Air Pollution Tied to Healthier Lungs in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Decrease in Air Pollution Tied to Healthier Lungs in Children Long-term ... 2015) Wednesday, March 4, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Children's Health Lung Diseases WEDNESDAY, March 4, 2015 ( ...

  14. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  15. Air pollution assessment of Salé's city (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounakhla, M.; Fatah, A.; Embarch, K.; Ibn Majah, M.; Azami, R.; Sabir, A.; Nejjar, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.

    2003-05-01

    Four sites were selected in Sale's city in Morocco in order to contribute in air pollution level assessment and determination of its effects on public health. The sites were selected so that they are close to the most important industrialized areas, they have a very high demographic density and they cover a heavy traffic. Two approaches of air sampling and subsequent analysis methods of elements in atmospheric aerosols have been performed. The first is a classical approach, which consists in sampling total airborne materials with a High Volume Sampler and analysing the samples using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The second is having its interest for studies relating effects of particles on human health. It consists in employing a Dichotomous Sampler to collect inhalable particles and the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for elemental analysis. With such system, it was possible to collect separately respirable and inhalable aerosols. The ED-XRF analysis method used is appropriate for monitoring airborne polluants in living and working areas with advantage of simple preparation, nondestructive nature, rapidity and suitable limits of detection. Using this method, it was possible to identify and quantify S, Ca, CI, Fe, Cu, and Pb. With Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis Method, we quantified Cd. This study have been completed by measuring NOx SO2 and solid suspended particles or airborne particulate matter (APM).

  16. Air pollution and daily mortality in Inchon, Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y. C.; Leem, J. H.; Ha, E. H.

    1999-01-01

    The association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 1-year period (January 1995 to December 1995) in Inchon, Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality. Concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particles (PM10), and gaseous pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, were measured daily during the stu...

  17. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Caldero?n-garciduen?as, Lilian; Franco-lira, Maricela; Henri?quez-rolda?n, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; Gonza?lez-maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-robles, Rafael; Villarreal-calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-moreno, Juan; Villarreal-calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-jardo?n, Ricardo; Medina-cortina, Humberto; Delgado-cha?vez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of P...

  18. Vehicular Air Pollution Modeling For Diesel Driven Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Arul Selvan, S.; Lakshmi, Dr S.

    2014-01-01

    Pollution in air is generated by the developments, which typically occur as the country gradually shifts towards industrialization, due to city growth, increasing traffic, rapid economic development, and higher levels of energy consumption. Indian cities are among the most polluted cities in the world. The main source of air pollution in Indian metropolitan cities is petrol and diesel driven vehicles. They particularly emit CO, CO2, HC, NOX and O2. The growing vehicular population has resulte...

  19. Real-Time Air Pollutants Rendering based on Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for realistic real-time rendering of air pollutants based on image processing. The air pollutants’ variable density can create many shapes of mist what can add a realistic environment to virtual scene. In order to achieve a realistic effect, we further enhance thus obtained air pollution data getting from monitor in spatial domain. In the proposed method we map the densities of air pollutants to different gray levels, and visualize them by blending those gray levels with background images. The proposed method can also visualize large-scale air pollution data from different viewpoints in real-time and provide the resulting image with any resolution theoretically, which is very important and favorable for the Internet transmission.

  20. Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Berglind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

  1. Valuation Of Health Impacts Of Air Pollution In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the studies measuring the economic impacts of air pollution on health in India. Air pollution has potentially large impacts on the health and well-being of households, especially the poor families. The literature shows that the distribution of the impacts of air pollution is not uniform across the cross sections of societies. It notes that though there are some case studies on the valuation of health impacts of outdoor air pollution, there is rarely any study on the valuation of health outcomes of indoor air pollution which uses consumer choice or behavior models. It identifies that studies should focus on both individual specific characteristics as well as the neighborhood specifications and these studies should be dynamic as the static studies fails to capture the effects of change in socio-economic features on health outcomes.

  2. Invited commentary: assessment of air pollution and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is a serious public health issue worldwide, with multiple risk factors, such as severe mental illness, alcohol abuse, a painful loss, exposure to violence, or social isolation. Environmental factors, particularly chemical and meteorological variables, have been examined as risk factors for suicide, but less evidence is available on whether air pollution is related to suicide. In this issue of the Journal, Bakian et al. ( publish findings from a study that found a short-term increased risk of suicide associated with increased air pollution. This study bolsters a small body of research linking air pollution exposure to suicide risk. If the association between air pollution and suicide is confirmed, it would broaden the scope of the already large disease burden associated with air pollution. PMID:25673818

  3. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  4. Impact of urbanization on the air pollution “holiday effect” in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pei-Hua; Chou, Chia; Chou, Charles C.-K.

    2013-05-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of the “holiday effect”, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between the holiday (Chinese New Year) and non-holiday periods during 1994-2008, and its association with the degree of urbanization in Taiwan are examined. Daily surface measurements of six major pollutants from 54 monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration are used. Holiday effects are found for almost all air pollutants in all divisions and individual stations. A widespread holiday effect with consistent signs suggests a high degree of urbanization over Taiwan. Holiday effects are stronger in the west than in the east, due to urban-rural differences, and have a distinct north-south difference in the west, due to different emission sources. In the spatial distribution, as the population (motor vehicle) number in the division increases, holiday effects of NOx, CO and NMHC are intensified. Holiday effects of pollutants can also be stronger when the associated dominant anthropogenic sources in the division have larger emissions. Both imply the association of a stronger holiday effect with a higher degree of urbanization in the division. In the temporal variation, on the other hand, holiday effects and pollutant concentrations tend to weaken and reduce in almost all the urban divisions for all six pollutants except O3. These weakening trends imply possible contributions of other effects, such as the mature state of urbanization for the urban division, the effective pollution-control measures and behavioral pattern changes.

  5. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring...

  6. A technical overview of air pollution problems and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution is a well known phenomenon experienced in every day life. The air we breathe consist of gases and aerosol particles on which pollutants such as toxic elements and bacteria reside. These microscopic particles are transported to long distances from the source of origin the direction and magnitude of which depends upon the prevailing meteorological conditions. In order to assess the impact of air pollution, systematic studies are carried out which consist of: 1) sampling of air, 2) measurement of pollutants, 3) identification of pollutant source and 4) adoption of control methods. Each of these topics are fairly exhaustive and their understanding requires accurate scientific approach. An overview of these topic has been presented in this talk. Air samples are best collected by filtering air through suitable medium and analyses are carried out by diverse analytical techniques. Source identifications is a very important step which is done either by emission modeling or receptor modeling techniques. A general survey of these techniques, especially receptor modeling is presented in this talk. The control of air pollution is carried out by using carried devices and the processes especially developed for this purpose. Air pollution has given rise to a number of global problems such as depletion of stratospheric ozone, acid rain and greenhouse effect, which are being tackled on international scale. These problems have been discussed very briefly and a summary of i discussed very briefly and a summary of international efforts has been presented. (author)

  7. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution...SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Placer County...

  8. 78 FR 21542 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...411) * * * (i) * * * (G) Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

  9. 78 FR 922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...Imperial County Air Pollution Control District...Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... contributes to effects that are harmful to human health and the environment, including premature...or environmental effects with practical...protection, Air pollution control,...

  10. 76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...

  11. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  12. 78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of...California including San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD)....

  13. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

  14. 76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410...Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was...

  15. 76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410...Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was...

  16. 76 FR 75795 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ...County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection...County Air Pollution Control District...not take effect. ADDRESSES...cannot take effect until 60...CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  17. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection...County Air Pollution Control District...not take effect. ADDRESSES...cannot take effect until 60...CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  18. 76 FR 60376 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...Barbara Air Pollution Control District...AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Barbara Air Pollution Control District...not take effect. ADDRESSES...cannot take effect until 60...CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  19. Air pollution as it affects orchids at the New York Botanical Garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adderley, L.

    1965-08-01

    A general discussion of the effects of air pollution on orchids is presented, along with ameliorative measures. One orchid, Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, is suggested as an air pollution bioassay tool, in that it is extremely sensitive to air pollution.

  20. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

  1. 77 FR 2228 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  2. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  3. 75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ...Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  4. 75 FR 60623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...2008) \\2\\; and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD)...

  5. 77 FR 66429 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  6. 75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  7. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  8. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No....

  9. 76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  10. 75 FR 1716 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...authority to regulate sources of air pollution. The fee provision of CAA...

  11. 77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...tailored to the nature of the air pollution sources in each state. The...

  12. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  13. 77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule...

  14. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No....

  15. 77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  16. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active...

  17. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

  18. Impact of energy conversion procedures in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an overview on air pollution , its causes , its effects and methods of control. Pollution caused essentially by transportation sector and vehicles, different kinds of power plants (thermal power plants, cement, iron power plants, industrial power plants, natural factors as volcans), effects of electricity sectors. Pollutants (elements, CO2, CO, NO, Lead, Ozone, Chlorofluorcarbone) with sources of pollution such as fuel oil, fossil fuels and their effects are presented in tables. Monitoring data on CO2 has been implemented in some towns in Lebanon (Gieh, Zouk, Chikka, etc.) some data on pollutants and pollution due to transportation sector in Lebanon are given. Methods of air pollution control for the two sectors are presented

  19. Photochemical and other air pollutions in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floor, H.

    1975-01-01

    Together with the State Institute of Public Health and the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, the Institute of Phytopathological Research continued investigations on incidence of air pollution in the country. The main purpose is to measure the effects of air pollution on indicator plants and to detect over the years which components separately or perhaps together damage indicator plants. In 1974, the network of experimental fields in the Netherlands was completed. From April until October, 29 fields were inspected weekly for typical symptoms of air pollution. Just as in the preceding year O3 caused most injury of the photochemical air pollutants, as shown by Spinacia oleracea and Nicotiana tabacum. Other photochemical air pollutants like PAN, and the pollutants SO2, NO/sub x/ and ethylene caused little injury to the indicator plants Urtica urens, Poa annua, Medicago sativa, Petunia nyctaginiflora and Solanum tuberosum. Symptoms of damage on Tulipa gesneriana, Gladiolus gandavensis and Freesia refracta indicated air pollution by HF in all experimental fields, but especially in the south of the country. The F determination in the air by means of the limed paper method established the results with the indicator plants.

  20. Review of air pollution and its health impact in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tri-Tugaswati, A

    1993-10-01

    Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Indonesia. Since 1978, the government of Indonesia has had a commitment to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide air quality data for the Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS Programme)--The WHO/UNEP Project, in which certain cities from all over the world have been selected. Air quality as part of the WHO/UNEP project is monitored with respect to pollutants like SPM, SO2 and NOx. The result of the monitoring indicates that SPM and NOx are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as O(x), H2S, NH3, and CO are also monitored in several big cities in Indonesia. The air pollution mainly comes from land transportation, industrial emissions, and a densely populated residential area where most people perform their activities. Review of the air pollution in Indonesia was based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Indonesia which covered air pollutants such as SPM, SO2, NOx, CO, O(x), and NH3 from 1978 until the latest available data in 1989. This review also discusses health impact investigations conducted in the community, especially from the exposure to SPM, CO, and lead from motor vehicle exhaust. PMID:8404780

  1. Air pollutants targeted by radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemists at the Commerce Department's National Bureau of Standards (NBS) are answering questions about where certain atmospheric contaminants originate by refining a method best known for determining the age of archeological objects. Called radiocarbon dating, the method allows NBS scientists to examine air samples and determine whether contaminants come from naturally occurring or manmade sources-or a combination of the two. Making these distinctions is important to federal and state environmental agencies, which identify industrial sources of pollution for regulatory action. An overbalance of atmospheric carbon can cause a number of environmental problems. In methane's case, high levels are of concern to environmental agencies because of greenhouse properties. Methane also has been implicated as a possible contributor to changes in the ozone layer that protects the Earth from excessive ultraviolet light. Levels of methane have been increasing at an annual rate of about one percent over the last decade. This has caused concern in the environmental community, which hopes to determine just where the elevated levels are coming from. The NBS research is aimed at definitively pinpointing sources of methane and other atmospheric contaminants

  2. Air pollution sources in Canada: Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the air pollution issues associated with thermal power plants. In 1988, 21.9 of electricity in Canada was generated with fossil fuels. This accounted for 280 kilotonnes of NOx, ca 14% of Canada's total emissions. To control the projected increase in NOx emissions due to rising electricity consumption, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) are considering changing the source performance standards for power plants, and are also considering controlling daily NOx emissions from certain power plants in the Lower Fraser Valley and the Windsor-Quebec corridor where high levels of ground-level ozone are reported. Of the seven provinces, Manitoba and Quebec are the least reliant on fossil fuel electrical generation. Provincial utilities in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are the heaviest users of coal, and therefore have the toughest burden of SO2 reduction. Other emissions from power plants include carbon monoxide (56,000 tonnes or 0.5%), particulate matter (100,000 tonnes or 6%), and volatile organic compounds (2620 tonnes or 0.1%). Mercury vapour from coal is also a potential problem emission from fossil-fuel power plants. 11 refs., 1 tab

  3. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 ?g m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

  4. Evaluation to the aspen for the air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspen is not often used in bio monitoring programs, but when it is, several interacting and confounding variables have to be considered. Biomass of leaves, and height changes are not easy linked with air pollution, whereas dry weight and leaf abscission are. Visible injury diagnosis and crown thinning are useful records for bio monitoring programs to consider, but skill and understanding of air pollution effects versus seasonal effects are very important. Understanding of actual air pollution symptoms and elemental ratios are especially important. Clonal response and heritability is discuses below, and has to be considered in any bio monitoring program. Above all, integration of aspen response with other key variables is key

  5. Aerosol and air pollution study by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis technique was used in air pollution and aerosol elemental content and size distribution investigations. Air pollution samples were collected on Whatman 41 paper filters which were activated along with known quantities of standards in a flux of approximately 1013 nxcm-2xs-1. The activity of the samples was measured with a 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and analyzed with the computer program JANE, which identified the isotopes and found their quantities by normalization with the standard measurement results. Correlation between the various elements, in particular those belonging to dust from the desert and those considered typical urban air pollution, is investigated. (author)

  6. Controlled clinical studies of air pollutant exposure: evaluating scientific information in relation to air quality standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, J. D.; Linn, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    In controlled clinical studies, volunteers are deliberately exposed to specific air pollutants under conditions simulating ambient exposures, and health-related responses are documented. Studies of the health risks of air pollution need to be scientifically rigorous and clearly relevant to "real-world" pollution exposures. Their results should be confirmed by independent replication if they are to be used as a basis for air quality regulations. Well-designed controlled clinical studies readil...

  7. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AIR POLLUTANTS, AS PARAMETERS OF COMPLEX AIR QUALITY INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEKLA EÖTVÖS

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human health is essentially influenced by air quality. Atmospheric air in residential areas contains many pollutants. The monitoring and the plain publishing of the measured values are important both for the authorities and the public. Air quality is often characterized by constructing air quality indices, and these indices are used to inform the public. The construction of an advanced air quality index is usually done by averaging the measured data usually in time and space; hereby important aspects of the data can be lost. All known indices contain only chemical pollutants, while certain biological pollutants can enhance the effects of the chemical pollutants and vice versa. In this paper we discuss the importance of integrating biological pollutants into air quality indices. In order to increase efficacy of these indices to the civil society we aim to introduce geographic information system (GIS methods into publishing air quality information.

  8. Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COHEN AARON J

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.

  9. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population. PMID:24694836

  10. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Loomis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population

  11. Study on particulate matter air pollution in Beijing with MODIS aerosol level 2 products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.

    2004-09-01

    In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal levels are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving polluting factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS level 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air pollution index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air pollution episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air pollution control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the pollution sources from inner city can't fully solve the pollution problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the pollution situation in Beijing.

  12. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km2 area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution coment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations

  13. The Association of Air Pollution and Emergency Medical Service Seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Najafi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are some reports on the association between air pollution and myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and mortality due to cardiac problems in susceptible individuals. We aimed to evaluate the association of air pollution and the emergency visits due to cardiovascular diseases, in a specialized heart hospital in Tehran.Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Patients admitted to the emergency ward of Tehran Heart Center were consecutively included. Records of meteorological data for the study period were obtained from Air Quality Control Company that monitors the concentration of air pollutants through its several stations including one near to Tehran Heart Center. The principal component analysis was used to examine the association between daily air pollution level and the number of patients admitted as a result of unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmia.Results: The principal component score -reflecting the daily air pollution level- was higher on the admission date of the patients who died in hospital compared to that of the patients who discharged alive from the hospital and the difference was statistically significant. After adjustment for the effect of age, sex, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes, a statistically significant relationship between principal component score and the unstable angina and arrhythmia was detected in patients referred to the emergency department.Conclusion: Air pollution was associated with the unstable angina and arrhythmia in patients referred to the emergency department of Tehran Heart Center, adjusted for the effect of other risk factors.

  14. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  15. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  16. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  17. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  18. Impact of air pollution on prevalence of rhinitis in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keles, N.; Ilicali, O.C.; Deger, K.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of air pollution on the prevalence of rhinitis in a metropolitan of Turkey, Istanbul was investigated Until 1994, coal was used for both domestic heating and industrial processes in the city. Consequently, sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulate concentrations in the ambient air exceeded limits of air-quality standards. In recent years, especially during the early 1990s, hazardous air pollution levels were reached in Istanbul. The incidence of rhinitis before and after the installation of a natural-gas network in a polluted area of the city is evaluated. In 1994, 62.5% of the individuals studied suffered from rhinitis, compared with 51% of the sample in 1996 (p {lt} 0.05). Age, gender, smoking status, heating source, and household crowding significantly affected this outcome. The findings strengthened the role of pollutant levels as risk factors for rhinitis.

  19. COMPARISON OF BIOINIDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO GENOTOXIC INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to complex mixtures of genotoxic indoor air pollutants can be assessed using several different bioanalytical methods. xternal exposure can be assessed using micromutagenesis methods to measure human exposure to mutagens. nternal exposure and dose can be assessed us...

  20. Air pollution as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Xiaoquan; Patel, Priti; Puett, Robin; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies in both humans and animals suggest that air pollution is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which air pollution mediates propensity to diabetes is not fully understood. While a number of epidemiologic studies have shown a positive association between ambient air pollution exposure and risk for T2DM, some studies have not found such a relationship. Experimental studies in susceptible disease models do support this association and suggest the involvement of tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM such as the immune system, adipose, liver, and central nervous system. This review summarizes the epidemiologic and experimental evidence between ambient outdoor air pollution and T2DM. PMID:25628401

  1. MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

  2. EYE IRRITATION AS AN EFFECT OF PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationships between eye irritation and oxidant concentrations in the atmosphere have been reviewed. Eye irritation is considered relative to symptoms associated with health effects of photochemical air pollution. Some of the chemical, physiological and psychological aspects...

  3. Analysis of air pollution data in Kawasaki City, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washio, Y.

    1976-09-17

    Air pollution monitoring activities at Kawasaki City, Japan during 1969 through 1974 are discussed. Data are presented on sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, CO, and suspended particulates in relation to weather conditions.

  4. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  5. California’s Agriculture-Related Local Air Pollution Policy

    OpenAIRE

    -y Cynthia Lin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is a critical environmental issue for California, which has some of the nation’s most polluted air basins and also the nation’s most stringent set of state and local air quality standards. This paper reviews my previous work in Lin (2011), in which I examine the effects of agriculture-related local regulations in California on air quality, as measured by the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards, by exploiting the natural variation in policy among the different ...

  6. AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Neidell, Matthew; Schmieder, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of three “criteria” air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother’s residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. Our work offers three important innovations: First, we use the exact addresses of mothers to select those closest to air monitors to improve the accuracy of air quality exposure. Second, we include maternal fixed effects to control for unobserved characteristic...

  7. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM10 exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and s a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: ? Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. ? 24-h concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. ? Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. ? Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. ? Close pollution-meteorology association serve as a basis for warning and forecasting.

  8. Air pollution - What is the cost to society ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives an overview of present knowledge regarding the cost to society from air pollution. The main areas treated are Biological richness and Natural resources, Health, and Materials. The main pollutants involved are sulfur oxides, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia and ground level ozone

  9. APPLICATIONS OF DECISION THEORY TECHNIQUES IN AIR POLLUTION MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study applies methods of operations research to two basic areas of air pollution modeling: (1) the generation of wind fields for use in models of regional scale transport, diffusion and chemistry; and (2) the application of models in studies of optimal pollution control strat...

  10. The state of transboundary air pollution: 1989 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the seventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 21 to 24 November 1989. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country by country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two is an executive summary of the 1988 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests which was established by the Executive Body for the Convention in 1985. A total of 25 countries participated in the survey, conducted in accordance with common guidelines laid down in an ECE manual on methodologies and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Parts three and four describe the effects of mercury and some other heavy metals related to the long-range atmospheric transport of pollution. The section on mercury describes the environmental effects and the causes of mercury pollution in air and atmospheric deposition, including its sources and its transport from foreng its sources and its transport from forest soils into fresh water and aquatic organisms. The section dealing with other heavy metals (such as asbestos, cadmium and lead) describes the process of atmospheric transport and deposition, the effects on forest ecosystems, ground water, surface water and agricultural products. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Bioindication of air pollution in Niš by using epiphytic lichens

    OpenAIRE

    Stamenkovi? S.; Cvijan Mirko V.

    2003-01-01

    Bioindication of air pollution in the city of Niš, by using epiphytic lichens, was performed for the first time in 1992. In this paper the authors present the results of repeated investigations in 2002, by using new, modern method, and their comparison with the former investigations. In repeated investigations, on 59 investigated spots, the authors established the presence of 42 lichen taxa, 3 zones with different air pollution level ("lichens desert", "transitional zone" and "normal zone") ...

  12. The Unusual Suspects: Air Pollution Components and Associated Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Strak, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to investigate which physical, chemical or oxidative characteristics of ambient PM have the most consistent associations with acute cardio-respiratory effects in human volunteers. During the first phase of the RAPTES project (“Risk of Airborne Particles: a Toxicological-Epidemiological hybrid Study”) eight sites in the Netherlands that differed in local PM emission sources were chosen for extensive air pollution characterization. The measured air pollutants inclu...

  13. Past development and prospects for air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until 1959, the Industrial Code formed the legal basis for clean air measures. Increasingly severe environmental pollution, especially in the Ruhr mining district, finally resulted in the first Technical Code on Clean Air in 1964. But not until 1974 came the Federal Act for the Protection against Nuisances into being. It led to a reorientation and substantial cuts in, especially, SO2 and NOx pollution. An extension to include the ozone problem will be indispensable. (DG)

  14. Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution: How Bad Is It?

    OpenAIRE

    Backes, Carl H.; Nelin, Timothy; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of air pollution have been shown to contribute to an enormity of adverse health outcomes worldwide, which have been observed in clinical, epidemiological, and animal studies as well as in vitro investigations. Recently, studies have shown that air pollution can affect the developing fetus via maternal exposure, resulting in preterm birth, low birth weight, growth restriction, and potentially adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. This review will provide a ...

  15. Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Chun Lin; Shih-Kuan Yang; Kuan-Chia Lin; Wen-Chao Ho; Wu-Shiun Hsieh; Bih-Ching Shu; Pau-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3...

  16. An Analytical Air Pollution Model with Time Dependent Eddy Diffusivity

    OpenAIRE

    Tiziano Tirabassi; Marco Túllio Vilhena; Daniela Buske; Gervásio Annes Degrazia

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution transport and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled by the advection-diffusion equation, that is, essentially, a statement of conservation of the suspended material in an incompressible flow. Many models simulating air pollution dispersion are based upon the solution (numerical or analytical) of the advection-diffusion equation assuming turbulence parameterization for realistic physical scenarios. We present the general time dependent three-dimensional soluti...

  17. Validation of a 3-D hemispheric nested air pollution model

    OpenAIRE

    Frohn, L. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Brandt, J.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.

    2003-01-01

    Several air pollution transport models have been developed at the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark over the last decade (DREAM, DEHM, ACDEP and DEOM). A new 3-D nested Eulerian transport-chemistry model: REGIonal high resolutioN Air pollution model (REGINA) is based on modules and parameterisations from these models as well as new methods.

    The model covers the majority of the Northern Hemisphere with currently one nest implemented. The horizontal...

  18. Proceedings of the international conference on residential air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the International conference on Residential Air Pollution are presented. The perceptions and aspirations of residents with regard to clean air was the main theme of the conference. Emphasis was also placed on the pollution and effects brought about by the domestic burning of fuels for heating and cooking in third world environments. Only two papers were indexed for INIS. The remaining papers were considered to be outside the subject scope of INIS

  19. International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J. Woodruff

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies.

  20. Meteorological Conditions Favouring Development of Urban Air Pollution Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Finardi, Sandro; Beekmann, Matthias; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Mahura, Alexander; Ginsburg, Alexander; Mažeikis, Adomas

    2013-04-01

    The causes of urban air pollution episodes are complex and depend on various factors including emissions, meteorological parameters, topography, atmospheric chemical processes and solar radiation. The relative importance of such factors is dependent on the geographical region, its surrounding emission source areas and the related climatic characteristics, as well as the season of the year. The key pollutants are PM10, PM2.5, O3 and NO2, as these cause the worst air quality problems in European cities. The main aim of this study realised within the MEGAPOLI project was to describe and quantify the influence of meteorological patterns on urban air pollution especially high-level concentrations air pollution episodes in megacities. Several European urban agglomerations and megacities, including the Po Valley, Helsinki, London, Paris, Moscow, Vilnius, were considered in the study. The study also carried out analysis of meteorological patterns leading to urban air pollution episodes considered by the development of suitable indicators linking particular meteorological conditions/ parameters to increased air pollution levels in the urban areas. These indicators constitute a useful tool for regulators in suggesting effective policies and mitigation measures. Finally, a combination of modelling and analysis of observations data can allow both the quality assurance of the new parameterisations as well as the verification of input emissions.

  1. Impact of air pollution on fertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, Víctor; González-Comadrán, Mireia; Solà, Ivan; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Carreras, Ramón; Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has gained considerable interest because of the multiple adverse effects reported on human health, although its impact on fertility remains unclear. A systematic search was performed to evaluate the impact of air pollutants on fertility. Controlled trials and observational studies assessing animal model and epidemiological model were included. Occupational exposure and semen quality studies were not considered. Outcomes of interest included live birth, miscarriage, clinical pregnancy, implantation, and embryo quality. Ten studies were included and divided into two groups: animal studies and human epidemiological studies including the general population as well as women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET). Results from this systematic review suggest a significant impact of air pollution on miscarriage and clinical pregnancy rates in the general population, whereas among subfertile patients certain air pollutants seem to exert a greater impact on fertility outcomes, including miscarriage and live birth rates. Besides, studies in mammals observed a clear detrimental effect on fertility outcomes associated to air pollutants at high concentration. The lack of prospective studies evaluating the effect of air pollution exposure in terms of live birth constitutes an important limitation in this review. Thus, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25212280

  2. A comparison of self reported air pollution problems and GIS-modeled levels of air pollution in people with and without chronic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nafstad Per; Næss Øyvind; Madsen Christian; Piro Fredrik; Claussen Bjørgulf

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore various contributors to people's reporting of self reported air pollution problems in area of living, including GIS-modeled air pollution, and to investigate whether those with respiratory or other chronic diseases tend to over-report air pollution problems, compared to healthy people. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Oslo Health Study (2000–2001) were linked with GIS-modeled air pollution data from the Norwegian Institute of Air Research. Multivariate reg...

  3. California’s Agriculture-Related Local Air Pollution Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Cynthia Lin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a critical environmental issue for California, which has some of the nation’s most polluted air basins and also the nation’s most stringent set of state and local air quality standards. This paper reviews my previous work in Lin (2011, in which I examine the effects of agriculture-related local regulations in California on air quality, as measured by the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards, by exploiting the natural variation in policy among the different air districts in California. Agricultural burning policies and penalty fees reduce the pollution from CO. Other policies such as the prohibition on visible emission, fugitive dust, particulate matter, nitrogen and the reduction of animal matter are correlated with higher levels of CO. Regulations on orchard and citrus heaters have no significant effect on the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards.

  4. The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of r anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

  5. Impact of air temperature, relative humidity, air movement and pollution on eye blinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Lyubenova, Velina S.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and pollution on occupants’ eye blink frequency (BF) was examined. In total sixty subjects participated in eight 4 hour experiments without and with facially applied air movement under individual control of the subjects. Air movement of either polluted room air supplied isothermally or clean and cool air was used. Eye blinking video record for the last 15 min of each exposure were analysed. The increase of the room air temperature and relative humidity from 23 °C and 40% to 26 °C and 70% or to 28 °C and 70% decreased the BF. At temperature of 26 °C and relative humidity of 70% facially applied flow of polluted room air didn’t have significant impact on BF in comparison without air movement. The increase of BF due to decrease of temperature and humidity and increase of velocity may be compensated due to the increase in air cleanness.

  6. Review: Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, William E.; Covert, David S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Namekata, Tsukasa; Kim, Yoon Shin

    Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, SO 2 which is a highly water soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorption occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO 2 or O 3) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared with pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where ms and mm often determine success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.

  7. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAPS Quality Assurance audits were conducted under this Task Order in continuation of the audit program previously conducted under Task Order No. 58. Quantitative field audits were conducted of the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) Air Monitoring Stations, Local Air Monitorin...

  8. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

  10. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production Compliance Requirements § 63.2850 How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission...

  11. Photochemical and other air pollutants in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floor, H.

    1976-01-01

    In 1975, together with the State Institute of Public Health and the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, The Institute of Phytopathological Research continued investigations on incidence of air pollution throughout the Netherlands. Culture vessels with indicator plants were placed on 31 test plots of the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network. During the growing season from May until October, the indicator plants were inspected weekly for typical symptoms of air pollution. Until July, photochemical air pollution by ozone caused less injury to Spinacia oleracea than in the preceding year. On Nicotiana tabacum there was as much injury as in 1974, especially in the 33rd, 36th and 37th week, all over the country. An increasing number of injurious effects by peroxyacetyl nitrate was observed on Petunia nyctaginiflora, Poa annua and Urtica urens. Medicago sativa, Fagopyrum esculentuma nd Petunia nyctaginiflora, indicator plants for the pollutants SO2, NO/sub x/ and ethylene, showed little and Solanum tuberosum, possible indicator plant for ethylene and ozone, no injury in 1975. Finally air pollution by HG occurred on the same scale as in 1974, as shown by Tulipa gesneriana in spring and Gladiolus gandavensis in summer. These results corresponded with the figures for F from the limed paper method. As in 1974, data on injury to the plants and from the limed paper method showed a decline from south to north.

  12. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  13. RESPIRATORY EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HOUSEHOLD AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute and chronic respiratory diseases impose a huge public health burden in the developing world. A large and growing body of scientific evidence indicates that household air pollution exposures contribute substantially to this burden. The most important source of indoor air p...

  14. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS: IN CANINE SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act of 1970 as amended in 1977 requires that a comprehensive data base be established to assess human health effects caused by air pollution from mobile sources. The spectrum of potential toxic effects can be viewed from two perspectives: The first is the identifica...

  15. Air ICP uses for instantaneous monitoring of airborne pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the development of a pure AIR-ICP which breathes in and excites the analysed air without sample dilution, allowed the application of this technique to the real time analysis of airborne metallic pollutants. First results obtained on airborne Beryllium in a laboratory and a test-site apparatus are presented in this paper

  16. Odors and Air Pollution: A Bibliography with Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The annotated bibliography presents a compilation of abstracts which deal with odors as they relate to air pollution. The abstracts are arranged within the following categories: Emission sources; Control methods; Measurement methods; Air quality measurements; Atmospheric interaction; Basic science and technology; Effects-human health;…

  17. Pollutant Dispersion in a Developing Valley Cold-Air Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemel, Charles; Burns, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Pollutants are trapped and accumulate within cold-air pools, thereby affecting air quality. A numerical model is used to quantify the role of cold-air-pooling processes in the dispersion of air pollution in a developing region of enhanced cooling within an Alpine valley under decoupled stable conditions. Results indicate that the negatively buoyant downslope flows transport and mix pollutants into the valley to depths that depend on the temperature deficit of the flow and the ambient temperature structure inside the valley. Along the slopes, pollutants are generally entrained above the region of enhanced cooling and detrained within the region of enhanced cooling largely above the ground-based inversion layer. The ability of the region of enhanced cooling to dilute pollutants is quantified. The analysis shows that the downslope flows fill the valley with air from above, which is then largely trapped within the region of enhanced cooling and that dilution depends on where the pollutants are emitted with respect to the positions of the top of the ground-based inversion layer and region of enhanced cooling, and on the slope wind speeds. Over the lower part of the slopes, the concentrations averaged across the region of enhanced cooling are proportional to the slope wind speeds where the pollutants are emitted, and diminish as the region of enhanced cooling deepens. Pollutants emitted within the ground-based inversion layer are largely trapped there. Pollutants emitted farther up the slopes detrain within the region of enhanced cooling above the ground-based inversion layer, although some fraction, increasing with distance from the top of the slopes, penetrates into the ground-based inversion layer.

  18. Seasonal ARIMA for Forecasting Air Pollution Index: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Both developed and developing countries are the major reason that affects the world environment quality. In that case, without limit or warning, this pollution may affect human health, agricultural, forest species and ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the monthly and seasonal variations of Air Pollution Index (API at all monitoring stations in Johor. Approach: In this study, time series models will be discussed to analyze future air quality and used in modeling and forecasting monthly future air quality in Malaysia. A Box-Jenkins ARIMA approach was applied in order to analyze the API values in Johor. Results: In all this three stations, high values recorded at sekolah menengah pasir gudang dua (CA0001. This situation indicates that the most polluted area in Johor located in Pasir Gudang. This condition appears to be the reason that Pasir Gudang is the most developed area especially in industrial activities. Conclusion: Time series model used in forecasting is an important tool in monitoring and controlling the air quality condition. It is useful to take quick action before the situations worsen in the long run. In that case, better model performance is crucial to achieve good air quality forecasting. Moreover, the pollutants must in consideration in analysis air pollution data.

  19. Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry deposition of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) to trees can be spatially quantified. Employing nationally available road network, traffic volume, air pollutant emission/measurement and meteorological data, the developed system provides a framework for the U.S. city managers to identify spatial patterns of urban forest and locate potential areas for future urban forest planting and protection to improve air quality. To exhibit the usability of the framework, a case study was performed for July and August of 2005 in Baltimore, MD. - Highlights: ? A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed. ? The developed system enhances the functionality of i-Tree Eco. ? The developed system employs nationally available input datasets. ? The developed system is transferable to any U.S. city. ? Future planting and protection spots were visually identified in a case study. - Employing nationally available datasets and a GIS, this study will provide urban forest managers in U.S. ciurban forest managers in U.S. cities a framework to quantify and visualize urban forest structure and its air pollution removal effect.

  20. Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Jozwicka, M.; Pulles, T. (TNO, Delft (Netherlands)); Odeh, N. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This report comprises two separate complementary parts that address the links between CCS implementation and its subsequent impacts on GHG and air pollutant emissions on a life-cycle basis: Part A discusses and presents key findings from the latest literature, focusing upon the potential air pollution impacts across the CCS life-cycle arising from the implementation of the main foreseen technologies. Both negative and positive impacts on air quality are presently suggested in the literature - the basis of scientific knowledge on these issues is rapidly advancing. Part B comprises a case study that quantifies and highlights the range of GHG and air pollutant life-cycle emissions that could occur by 2050 under a low-carbon pathway should CCS be implemented in power plants across the European Union under various hypothetical scenarios. A particular focus of the study was to quantify the main life-cycle emissions of the air pollutants taking into account the latest knowledge on air pollutant emission factors and life-cycle aspects of the CCS life-cycle as described in Part A of the report. Pollutants considered in the report were the main GHGs CO{sub 2}, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the main air pollutants with potential to harm human health and/or the environment - nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). (Author)

  1. Indoor Air Pollution Aggravates Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Gyo-Boong; Jung, Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Most of researches on the impact of indoor air pollutants on atopic dermatitis (AD) have been based upon animal models, in vitro experiments and case-control studies. However, human data to elucidate the role of indoor air pollution on worsening symptoms of pre-existing AD from a longitudinal study are scarce. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of indoor air pollution on AD symptoms in children. We surveyed 30 children with AD in a day-care centre, which moved to a new building during the study. These children stayed there for 8 hours a day Monday through Friday, and their daily symptom scores were recorded. Indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels were continuously measured 24 hours a day for 12 months (Period 1 to 4). Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Compared to the period before moving (Period 1), concentrations of indoor air pollutants mostly increased after moving (Period 2) and decreased by natural ventilation and bake-out (Periods 3 and 4). The rate of positive AD symptom increased from 32.8% (Period 1) up to 43.8% (Period 2) and 50.5% (Period 3), then decreased to 35.4% in Period 4 (P < 0.0001). When the delayed effects of indoor air pollutants on AD symptoms 2 days later were evaluated, AD symptoms significantly increased by 12.7% (95% CI: -0.01 to 27.1) as toluene levels increased by 1 ppb (P = 0.05). In conclusion, indoor air pollutants increase the risk of AD aggravation in children and toluene in the indoor environment might act as an aggravating factor. PMID:25781186

  2. Study on air pollution around China's largest oil refinery complex using multielements in biomonitors and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different kinds of plant leaves, Chinese white poplar, arborvitae and pine needle have been sampled from different places, Yanshan Oil refinery complex, Capital Iron and Steel Factory and Badachu, a control place in Beijing, as bio-monitors for air pollution studies. Each sample was divided into two parts, washed and unwashed, 31 trace elements, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Sb, Sm, U, W, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th and Zn have been determined by using KO method of instrument neutron activation analysis techniques with a long irradiation in the 15MW Heave Water Research Reactor, China Institute of Atomic Energy. The results indicated that: 1) the concentration of trace elements in unwashed samples are much higher than that in washed samples; 2) the area of capital iron and steel factory is polluted heavily, and Yanshan oil refinery complex area is polluted moderately, 3) All the three kinds of plant leaves can be used as air pollution biomonitors, because they can absorb some trace elements from the air pollutants. Aspen is good for monitoring in particular seasons and Pine needle is better than arborvitae for yearly monitoring; 4) Elements of As, Cd, Hg, Co, Rb, Sb, W and Zn are highly absorbed by Chinese white poplar. Pine needle is sensitive to absorb the elements of Br, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sc, Cs and rear earth elements, but arborvitae is very sensitive for the absorption of Sr. (author)

  3. Air pollution and sick-leaves - is there a connection? A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anett C.; Selte, Harald K.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years a growing number of studies have been discussing the relationship between air pollution and human health. The evidence in the literature for adverse health effects of several pol-lutants seems convincing. In our article we are concerned with to which extent these health effects in turn induce sick-leaves or other kinds of reduced labour productivity, which is important for as-sessment of air pollution costs. We analyse the association between sick-leaves in a large office in O...

  4. Air pollution impacts from demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-polluting emission rates and energy-efficiency ratings vary widely among power plants, depending on location, age and whether the power plant is repowered. Traditional regulations require installation of specified emission control equipment that varies among power plants. These regulations do not specify that utilities first dispatch the cleanest power plants as demand varies from peak to off-peak periods. This empirical analysis shows, for 2 years out of 20, that demand-side management (DSM) programs increase air pollution. One reason for this result is that regulations require installation of specific emission-control technology but do not provide the incentive to take actual emissions or their air quality impacts into account when operating the system. For certain types of air pollutants and in some regions, regulatory programs now include markets for tradable emission credits. Such programs may alter this incentive. (author)

  5. Severe ozone air pollution in the Persian Gulf region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently it was discovered that over the Middle East during summer ozone mixing ratios can reach a pronounced maximum in the middle troposphere. Here we extend the analysis to the surface and show that especially in the Persian Gulf region conditions are highly favorable for ozone air pollution. Model results indicate that the region is a hot spot of photo-smog where air quality standards are violated throughout the year. Long-distance transports of air pollution from Europe, the Middle East, natural emissions and stratospheric ozone conspire to bring about high background ozone mixing ratios. This provides a hotbed to indigenous air pollution in the dry local weather conditions, which are likely to get worse in future.

  6. Heavy Metal Pollution Enhances Soil Respiration and Reduces Carbon Storage in a Chinese Paddy Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Genxing; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Yongzhuo; Smith, Pete; Crowley, David; Zheng, Jufeng

    2010-05-01

    China's paddy soils are crucial both for food security through high cereal productivity, and for climate mitigation through high soil carbon storage. These functions are increasingly threatened by widespread heavy metal pollution, resulting from rapid industrial development. Heavy metal-polluted soils generally have a reduced microbial biomass and reduced soil respiration, as well as reduced functional diversity through changes in microbial community structure. Here we show that heavy metal pollution enhances soil respiration and CO2 efflux from a Chinese rice paddy soil, and leads to a soil organic carbon (SOC) loss, which is correlated with a decline in the fungal-to-bacterial ratio of the reduced soil microbial community. The pollution-induced SOC loss could offset 70% of the yearly SOC increase from China's paddy soils. Thus, heavy metal pollution impacts long term productivity and the potential for C sequestration in China's paddy soils.

  7. Air pollution in urban area of Foligno (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the air pollution levels, based on air's quality laws, detected around the urban area of the city of Foligno (Perugia-Italy)). The preliminary study done, has shown a general result of a good quality of the air, even if there were some excesses of the Attention Levels, during situations not alarming, as these situations occurred in particular conditions, characterized by intense traffic and unfavorable meteorological conditions

  8. Policy considerations in developing air pollution strategies: A US perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the air quality management approach to air pollution control as applied in the US, emphasizing situations in which theory and practical experience have differed. Particular emphasis is placed on the development and application of tropospheric ozone policy, including an overview of past failures and successes, recommended improvements, and the new approach embodied in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The paper concludes with a brief summary of emerging science/policy concerns in ozone strategy

  9. Economic damages of ozone air pollution to crops using combined air quality and GIS modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachokostas, Ch; ????????????, ?.; Nastis, S.; Achillas, Ch; Kalogeropoulos, K.; Karmiris, I.; Moussiopoulos, ?.; Chourdakis, E.; Banias, G.; Limperi, N.; ???????, ?.; ????????, ?.; ???????????????, ?.; ?????????, ?.; ?????????????, ?.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at presenting a combined air quality and GIS modelling methodological approach in order to estimate crop damages from photochemical air pollution, depict their spatial resolution and assess the order of magnitude regarding the corresponding economic damages. The analysis is conducted within the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece, a Mediterranean territory which is characterised by high levels of photochemical air pollution and considerable agricultural activity. Ozone concentra...

  10. Energy use and air pollution in Indonesia. Supply strategies, environmental impacts and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book summarises the results of the ''Markal Study'', which is part of the scientific cooperation between the Indonesian and German governments. The nine chapters cover: an introduction to Indonesia and the objectives of the study; demographic and economic developments; fast increasing domestic energy use; pollution development on Jawa in the case of insufficient control; risks for ecosystems on Jawa; health risks from air pollution; pollution development and control cost in the case of reduced emissions, carbon dioxide emission analysis, and final recommendations for air quality management. A bibliography of the project reports on which the book is based as well as other sources is presented. (UK)

  11. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling

    2002-09-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its reactivity with the adjacent surfaces, in addition to the crack geometry and pressure difference. Infiltrating air can also travel through wall cavities, where the penetration of particles and ozone is predicted to vary substantially, depending mainly on whether air flow passes through fiberglass insulation. For ozone, its reactivity with the insulation materials is also an important factor. The overall pollutant penetration factor is governed by the flow-weighted average from all air leakage pathways. Large building leaks would strongly influence the overall penetration factor, because they permit much larger flow.

  12. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: Prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

    OpenAIRE

    Raaschou-nielsen, O.; Andersen, Zj; Beelen, R.; Samoli, E.; Stafoggia, M.; Weinmayr, G.; Hoffmann, B.; Fischer, P.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mj; Brunekreef, B.; Xun, Ww; Katsouyanni, K.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Sommar, J.; Forsberg, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations. Methods: This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects used data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries. Baseline addresses were geocoded and we assessed air pollution by land-use regression models for particulate mat...

  13. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. PMID:24552771

  14. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality...taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Antelope...

  15. 76 FR 60405 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento Municipal Air Quality...SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Sacramento...

  16. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management District...boilers, stationary internal combustion engines...Rule 242, Stationary Internal Combustion...

  17. 76 FR 67366 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...Placer County Air Pollution Control District and...Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...the Placer County Air Pollution Control District...rule will not take effect. ADDRESSES: Submit...Air-4), U.S. Environmental Protection...

  18. 76 FR 54993 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD...sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990...that is classified as Severe-15 under both the 1-hr...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  19. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...Vermont), Director, Air, Pesticides and Toxics...Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma,...

  20. Climatic effects of air pollutants over china: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) and aerosols are major air pollutants in the atmosphere. They have also made significant contributions to radiative forcing of climate since preindustrial times. With its rapid economic development, concentrations of air pollutants are relatively high in China; hence, quantifying the role of air pollutants in China in regional climate change is especially important. This review summarizes existing knowledge with regard to impacts of air pollutants on climate change in China and defines critical gaps needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. Measured monthly, seasonal, and annual mean surface-layer concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China are compiled in this work, with the aim to show the magnitude of concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China and to provide datasets for evaluation of model results in future studies. Ground-based and satellite measurements of O3 column burden and aerosol optical properties, as well as model estimates of radiative forcing by tropospheric O3 and aerosols are summarized. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated climate change driven by tropospheric O3 and/or aerosols in China; the predicted sign and magnitude of the responses in temperature and precipitation to O3/aerosol forcings are presented. Based on this review, key priorities for future research on the climatic effects of air pollutants in China are highlighted.

  1. Air pollution projection methodologies: Integrating emission projections with energy forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes extensions of end-use energy demand forecasting models to project air pollution emissions. Energy demand forecasting is a maturing field in which the end-use forecasting model is becoming the standard tool. Air pollution emission projection techniques have developed independently of energy demand forecasting even though a considerable portion of air pollution emissions comes from fuel combustion. Considerable benefits can be obtained by jointly producing energy demand and emission projections from common data bases using an integrated modeling system. Such integrated modeling allows better understanding of the growth of energy-related emissions over time, and of the role of demand-side management in reducing these emissions. This paper presents results of initial efforts at the California Energy Commission to integrate emission projections and energy demand forecasting models. The Los Angeles basin, which is regulated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District, is used to assess three control strategies. These efforts have resulted in successfully projecting that portion of air pollution emissions arising from stationary fuel combustion by end-users. The stationary fuel combustion portion (excluding powerplants) of total emission sources is over 30% for NOx, but lesser amounts for other criteria pollutants. Full integration of energy demand forecasting and emission projections from stationary sources requires additional researchonary sources requires additional research in emission inventories, improved emission factors, and integrated model development. Some follow-up efforts which seem promising are recommended

  2. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people (?60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection

  3. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AIR POLLUTANTS, AS PARAMETERS OF COMPLEX AIR QUALITY INDICES

    OpenAIRE

    TEKLA EÖTVÖS; LÁSZLÓ MAKRA

    2007-01-01

    Human health is essentially influenced by air quality. Atmospheric air in residential areas contains many pollutants. The monitoring and the plain publishing of the measured values are important both for the authorities and the public. Air quality is often characterized by constructing air quality indices, and these indices are used to inform the public. The construction of an advanced air quality index is usually done by averaging the measured data usually in time and space; hereby important...

  4. Air Pollutants and Health: An Epidemiologic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    A ten year study, being conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health in six cities since 1974, is a survey of children and adults for the health effects of pollutant levels. The environment is being monitored for: (1) sulfur dioxide, (2) sulfates, and (3) respirable particulates. (BT)

  5. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULISTIJORINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

  6. The distribution of air pollution in Canada: Exploring injustices

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Heather

    2006-01-01

    The environmental justice movement initiated an interest amongst academics to explore this topic empirically. Researchers attempted to determine if harms attributed to pollution and toxic wastes were disproportionately distributed to poor minority groups. This thesis explores air pollution exposure and its relationship to socioeconomic status in a Canadian context. A brief discussion on current social, economic, and political factors and its relationship to corporate violence and environmenta...

  7. Environmental pressure group strength and air pollution : an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Seth; Neumayer, Eric

    2005-01-01

    There is an established theoretical and empirical case-study literature arguing that environmental pressure groups have a real impact on pollution levels. Our original contribution to this literature is to provide the first systematic quantitative test of the strength of environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) on air pollution levels. We find that ENGO strength exerts a statistically significant impact on sulfur dioxide, smoke and heavy particulates concentration levels in a cros...

  8. Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Hamers, T. H. M.

    2002-01-01

    Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of (long-range) airborne transport. It has a heterogeneous composition in time and space and consists of many known and unknown compounds. Given the unknown chemical identity and toxicity of many constituents of this mix...

  9. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Bala?, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  10. Dispersion modeling of air pollutants in the atmosphere: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leel?ssy, Ádám; Molnár, Ferenc; Izsák, Ferenc; Havasi, Ágnes; Lagzi, István; Mészáros, Róbert

    2014-09-01

    Modeling of dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere is one of the most important and challenging scientific problems. There are several natural and anthropogenic events where passive or chemically active compounds are emitted into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemical species can have serious impacts on our environment and human health. Modeling the dispersion of air pollutants can predict this effect. Therefore, development of various model strategies is a key element for the governmental and scientific communities. We provide here a brief review on the mathematical modeling of the dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several model tools and strategies, namely Gaussian, Lagrangian, Eulerian and CFD models. We especially focus on several recent advances in this multidisciplinary research field, like parallel computing using graphical processing units, or adaptive mesh refinement.

  11. Air pollution mortality: harvesting and loss of life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari

    This article concerns the interpretation of epidemiological studies of air pollution mortality and the choice of indicators for quantifying the impact, for communication with policymakers. It is shown that the total mortality impact (measured by cohort studies) can only be quantified in terms of loss of life expectancy (LLE), not number of premature deaths. Time-series (TS) studies of mortality observe only acute impacts, that is, deaths due to short-term exposure ("acute mortality"); they allow the estimation of a number of deaths without providing any information on the LLE per death. However, even if the average loss per death is as long as 6 mo, acute mortality is only a very small percentage of the total mortality attributable to air pollution. Estimates of the population-average LLE due to air pollution are provided, for acute mortality, total adult mortality, and infant mortality. PMID:16024496

  12. Analysis of air pollutants by PIXE: The second decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas A.

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of air pollution by PIXE was the earliest and one of the most successful applications of the technique. In the first decade that followed the pioneering paper of Johansson et al. in 1970 [1], many innovative programs grew up around the technique. By 1980, five of the six largest PIXE groups in the world listed analyses of air pollutants as their most numerous sample type [2], with more than 30000 analyses in the year 1979 alone. The purpose of this article is to examine the role of PIXE in air pollution in the second decade, to see to what degree the bright promises of the 1970s have been realized, to examine the reasons for the successes and the failures, and to attempt to use this information to predict the role of PIXE in the next decade.

  13. Diesel engines and air pollution: facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traffic densities and resulting air pollution, in any country are directly related to the degree of urbanization and the size and characteristics of the transportation sector. In Lebanon, the car ownership rate is among the highest in the world and its consequence is the drastic deterioration in ambient air quality in Greater Beirut and other organized regions. In this article, features of diesel engines are described. The environmental impacts of diesel engines, in relation of petrol engines are briefly presented. Pollutants provocated by diesel fuel, due to its contents in Carbon , Sulfur and gaseous emissions (noise level, smoke, Carbon Monoxide emissions, smell) as well as the economical aspects are given in comparison with petrol engines. Conclusion is given that diesel engines will help in reducing air pollution caused by transport sector in Lebanon, only if some required vehicles conditions are satisfied

  14. Air pollution model and neural network: an integrated modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that neural networks can work as universal approximators of non-linear functions and they have become a useful tool either where any precise phenomenological model is available or when uncertainty complicates the application of deterministic modelling as, for example, in environmental systems. Usually, N N models are using as regression tool. We have developed an integrated modelling system coupling an air dispersion model with a neural network method both to simulate the influence of important parameters on air pollution models and to minimize the input neural net variables. In our approach, an optimised 3-Layer Perception is used to filter the air pollution concentrations evaluated by means of the non-Gaussian analytical model ADMD. We applied this methodology to the well known Indianapolis urban data set which deals with a release of pollutants from an elevated emission source.

  15. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In xerophytes, like conifers, the epicuticular wax is well developed. Especially in and around stomatal entrances, a thick wax coating is present. Epicuticular waxes are modified by changes in plant growth conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, irradiance, and wind, or acid rain. The fine structure of epicuticular waxes, their chemistry, and ecophysiological function are modified, especially in evergreen, long-lived conifer needles with characteristic crystalline wax structures. During needle flushing and development, wax structure is easily modified. Acid rain-treated Scots pine needles had 50% less epicuticular waxes in early August. Pollution-induced delayed development, destruction, and disturbances have been identified in many plant species. The structural changes in wax crystals are known. Acid rain or polluted air can destroy the crystalloid epicuticular waxes in a few weeks. In Pinus sylvestris, the first sign of pollution effect is the fusion of wax tubes. In Picea abies and P. sitchensis, modifications of crystalloid wax structure are known. In Californian pine trees phenomena of recrystallization of wax tubes on second-year needles were observed after delayed epicuticular wax development in Pinus ponderosa and P. coulteri. Thus, the effects of air pollutants are modified by climate. Accelerated senescence of leaves and needles have been associated with natural and anthropogenic stresses. The accelerated erosion rate of epicuticular waxes has beeerosion rate of epicuticular waxes has been measured under air pollution conditions. Many short-term air pollution experiments have failed to show any structural changes in epicuticular wax structures. The quantity and quality of needle waxes grown in open-top chambers, glass houses, or polluted air before treatment, differ from field conditions and make it difficult to detect effects of any treatment. (orig.)

  16. Stopping air pollution at its source; Clean Air Program explanatory notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    An Ontario government review of its air pollution control program found that Regulation 308, the principal regulation relating to air pollution control, needed updating to provide additional protection to the people and environment. These explanatory notes provide a summary of the discussion paper, which presents an overview of the proposed amendments to Regulation 308 and a summary of objectives, in order to stimulate comments and criticism. The notes list the objections to the old regulation and briefly describe the objectives of the proposed amendments in the areas of emission limits, classification of contaminants, levels of pollution control, and ambient air standards. Definitions of terms and phraseology are also included.

  17. Influence of air pollution on the forest trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honjyo, T.; Senoo, T.; Shiono, Y.

    1980-11-01

    As the synthetical index of the tree vitality, we investigated the infrared bi-band ratio (R/G) of the leaf of SUGI (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), which based on the characteristics of the spectral reflectances, so as to clarify the influence of air pollution on the forest trees. Moreover, we examined some factors, those were supposed to concern the vitality, volume increments, chemical elements, and their distribution. Results were as follows; 1) The bi-band ratio had a positive correlationship between air pollution, and the trees, in the polluted areas, showed the vital decay. 2) Total sulfur contents in the leaf also had a positive correlationship between air pollution. 3) High contents of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) were found at the outer bark of the trees, in the polluted areas. It was assumed that this was caused by the catchement of the floating dust. 4) Potassium contents of the inner bark, in the polluted areas, were lower than the control. 22 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Temporal variability of air-pollutants over Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedira, H.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Beegum S, N.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality, the measure of the concentrations of gaseous pollutants and size or number of particulate matter, is one of the most important problems worldwide and has strong implications on human health, ecosystems, as well as regional and global climate. The levels of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), etc. show an alarming increase in urban cities across the world and in many cases, the concentrations have grown well above the World Health Organization's guidelines for ambient air-quality standards. Here, we present the periodic fluctuations observed in the concentrations of air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, O3, CO, H2S, NMHC (Non methane Hydro Carbon) and VOC (volatile organic compounds) based on the measurements collected during the period 2008-2010 at Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (24.42oN, 54.61oE, 7m MSL). The measurements were carried out using an Air Quality Monitoring System (AQM60). All these pollutant species showed statistical periodic: diurnal, monthly, seasonal and annual variations. Diurnally, all the species, except ozone, depicted an afternoon low and nighttime/early morning high, attributed to the dynamics of the local atmospheric boundary layer. Whereas, an opposite pattern with daytime high and nighttime low was observed for O3, as the species is formed in the troposphere by catalytic photochemical reactions of NOx with CO, CH4 and other VOCs. Seasonally, the pollutants depicted higher values during summer and relatively lower values during winter, associated with changes in synoptic airmass types and/or removal processes. Concentrations of all the gaseous pollutants are within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) throughout the year, whereas the PM10 often exceeded the limits, especially during dust storm episodes.

  19. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually in good agreement with so called "heat islands" revealed over cities due to mobile observations. From 50 to 75% of all cases temperature growth over cities makes up from 0 to 1 ° C, while in large cities there is substantial proportion of higher values of temperature growth - from 4 to 12% is in the range 2-3 ° C of the temperature rise, and almost as many (from 4 to 9%) cases reveal temperature increase of more than 3 ° C. Air quality level was assessed on base of new approach elaborated at OIAP to assess air quality in Russian cities. It accounts for both world famous methods and official Russian legislation. General level of air pollution in Russian cities is low or moderate mostly due to favorable location and climate conditions. Extreme concentrations can happen in warm period because of wild and anthropogenic fires and other severe pollution cases. Most of high concentrations within cities during TROICA campaigns were observed near railway stations where influence of local pollution sources (diesel trains, train stoves, boiler rooms and so on) is very large.

  20. Emission of toxic air pollutants from biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion of biomass for power generation, home heating, process steam generation, and waste disposal constitutes a major source of air pollutants nationwide. Emissions from hog-fueled boilers, demolition wood-fired power plants, municipal waste incinerators, woodstoves, fireplaces, pellet stoves, agricultural burning, and forestry burning have been characterized for a variety of purposes. These have included risk assessment, permitting, emission inventory development, source profiling for receptor modeling, and control technology evaluations. From the results of the source characterization studies a compilation of emission factors for criteria and non-criteria pollutants are presented here. Key among these pollutants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, priority pollutant metals, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and PM10 particles. The emission factors from the biomass combustion processes are compared and contrasted with other pollutant sources. In addition, sampling and analysis procedures most appropriate for characterizing emissions from the biomass combustion sources are also discussed

  1. Urban air pollution and asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Franco; Migliaretti, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between atmospheric pollution and emergency hospital admission for asthma among children resident in Turin in the period 1997-1999, using a case-control design. On the basis of the primary diagnosis, pediatric patients (< 15 years old) resident in Turin and admitted for asthma were defined as cases (n(1) = 1,060); age-matched patients admitted for causes other than respiratory diseases or heart diseases were defined as controls (n(2) = 25,523). Nitroge...

  2. Gene–Air Pollution Interactions in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    London, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors interact to cause asthma. However, genetic studies have generally ignored environmental factors and environmental studies have generally ignored genetics. Thus, there are few examples from the literature of specific gene–environment interactions in relation to asthma. The clearest examples of genetic interactions for inhaled pollutants exist for endotoxin, environmental tobacco smoke, and ozone. Endotoxin–genetic interactions in asthma are the focus of tw...

  3. Air pollution more dangerous than nuclear risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reported view of the United Kingdom Engineering Council is that in order to make a significant contribution towards helping reduce the effects of environmental pollution and global warming, the country must press ahead with new plans to introduce and develop skills in nuclear power technology for the design of standard low-cost nuclear power plants for widespread implementation in the United Kingdom and developing countries. (author)

  4. Air pollution induces heritable DNA mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, Christopher M.; Yauk, Carole L.; White, Paul A.; Parfett, Craig L. J.; Quinn, James S.

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of people worldwide live or work in close proximity to steel mills. Integrated steel production generates chemical pollution containing compounds that can induce genetic damage (1, 2). Previous investigations of herring gulls in the Great Lakes demonstrated elevated DNA mutation rates near steel mills (3, 4) but could not determine the importance of airborne or aquatic routes of contaminant exposure, or eliminate possible confounding factors such as nutritional status an...

  5. Assessment of air pollution impacts on vegetation in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botha, A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Field surveys and biomonitoring network experiments were conducted in selected areas in South Africa to assess possible air pollution damage to vegetation. During field surveys, atmospheric fluoride was identified as an important pollutant that damaged vegetation in residential areas north of Cape Town. Gaseous air pollutants, including acid deposition and acidic mist, probably play a major role in the development of characteristic air pollution injury symptoms observed on pine trees in the Eastern Transvaal area. The impact of urban air pollution in the Cape Town area was evaluated by exposing bio-indicator plants in a network of eight biomonitoring network stations from June 1985 to May 1988. Sensitive Freesia and Gladiolus cultivars were used to biomonitor atmospheric fluoride, while a green bean cultivar was used as a biomonitor of atmospheric sulfur dioxide and ozone. At one location, bio-indicator plants were simultaneously exposed in a biomonitoring network station, open-top chambers, as well as in open plots. The responses of plants grown under these different conditions were compared.

  6. Bioassay of complex mixtures of indoor air pollutants. Chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewtas, J.; Claxton, L.; Mumford, J.; Lofroth, G.

    1990-01-01

    There are several strategies for conducting bioassay studies of indoor air pollutant mixtures. One approach is to generate indoor pollutants from sources under laboratory conditions suitable for human, animal, or in vitro bioassay studies. This approach was used extensively to evaluate tobacco smoke and to a lesser extent for other indoor combustion sources such as kerosene heaters. A second approach is to simulate these complex mixtures by simpler mixtures of pure chemicals which can be used in biological studies. The third approach, which is described in more detail here, is to use bioassays in the direct evaluation of complex mixtures of indoor air pollutants. The mixtures of organics found indoors from combustion sources, building materials, household products and human activities are extremely complex. They consist of thousands of components which are not well characterized or quantified. Many of these mixtures and certain components are potential human carcinogens. The development of short-term bioassays to detect mutagens and potential carcinogens has facilitated studies of complex mixtures including air pollutants and combustion emissions. Chapter 7 will focus on the development and application of bacterial mutagenicity assays to complex mixtures of indoor air pollutants.

  7. Association between air pollution and ischemic cardiovascular emergency room visits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study observed the relationship between air pollutants and ischemic cardiac diseases such as angina and acute myocardial infarction in a representative cardiovascular center emergency room in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Daily emergency room admissions to the Institute of the Heart of the university of Sao Paulo, as well as data concerning daily air pollutant levels and meteorological variables, were collected from January 1994 to august 1995. Generalized additive Poisson regressions were fitted to the logarithm of the expected values of total emergency room visits due to angina or acute myocardial infarction, controlling for smooth functions of season and weather and indicators for days of the week. All investigated pollutants were positively associated with ischemic cardiovascular disease emergency room visits, and the time lags were relatively short, but only CO presented in effect that was statistically significant. An interquartile range increase n CO was associated with an increase of 6.4% (95% CI: 0.7-12.1) in daily angina or acute myocardial infarction emergency room visits. This result did not change when estimates were done using linear models and natural cubic plines. This study showed that air pollution has a role in cardiovascular morbidity in Sao Paulo, reinforcing the necessity for air pollutant mission-controlling polices in urban areas

  8. Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

  9. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D., E-mail: pdhien@gmail.com [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet str. Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, P.D.; Dao, N.V. [National Hydro-Meteorological Center, 62-A2 Nguyen Chi Thanh str. Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-11-01

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM{sub 10} exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: {yields} Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. {yields} 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. {yields} Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. {yields} Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. {yields} Close pollution-meteorology association serve as a basis for warning and forecasting.

  10. Particulate air pollution and hospitalization for asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K.; Spinks, J.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Chinese University, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, N.T., (Hong Kong))

    1992-05-01

    Age-specific quarterly asthmatic hospital discharge rates in Hong Kong during 1983 to 1989 were examined in relation to mean levels of six pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), total suspended particles (TSP), respiratory suspended particles (RSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Discharges from the hospital of children under 14 years of age represented 56% of 33,952 discharges recorded in all age groups. Trends of adult hospitalization rates over time remained stable during the study period. In children, however, there was an increase in these rates, particularly marked in the age group of 1 to 4 years. Univariate analysis revealed a strong correlation between quarterly mean TSP and hospital discharge rate for the 1 to 4-year-old children (r = .62, P less than .001). In the 5 to 14-year-old age group, there was an inverse relationship between hospital discharge rate and sulfur dioxide level (r = -.38, P less than .05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis, controlling for confounding variables (seasonal and annual trends of asthma hospitalizations) confirmed these relationships. A highly significant linear regression equation was derived between hospitalization rate for ages 1 to 4 years and total suspended particles (P less than .001). The highly significant correlation between pollution and asthmatic hospitalization rate for the 1 to 4-year-old group suggests that young children are vulnerable to the adverse environmental effects of pollution. Auditing these relationships offers a logical basis for approaching control.

  11. Framing air pollution epidemiology in terms of population interventions, with applications to multi-pollutant modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Reid, Colleen E.; Tager, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiology continues moving toward the study of mixtures and multi-pollutant modeling. Simultaneously, there is a movement in epidemiology to estimate policy-relevant health effects that can be understood in reference to specific interventions. Scaling regression coefficients from a regression model by an interquartile range (IQR) is one common approach to presenting multi-pollutant health effect estimates. We are unaware of guidance on how to interpret these effect estimates as an intervention. To illustrate the issues of interpretability of IQR-scaled air pollution health effects, we analyzed how daily concentration changes in two air pollutants (NO2 and PM2.5; nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5?m) related to one another within two seasons (summer and winter), within three cities with distinct air pollution profiles (Burbank, California; Houston, Texas; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). In each city-season, we examined how realistically IQR-scaling in multipollutant lag-1 time-series studies reflects a hypothetical intervention that is possible given the observed data. We proposed 2 causal conditions to explicitly link IQR-scaled effects to a clearly defined hypothetical intervention. Condition 1 specified that the index pollutant had to experience a daily concentration change of greater than one IQR, reflecting the notion that the IQR is an appropriate measure of variability between consecutive days. Condition 2 specified that the co-pollutant had to remain relatively constant. We found that in some city-seasons, there were very few instances in which these conditions were satisfied (e.g., 1 day in Pittsburgh during summer). We discuss the practical implications of IQR scaling and suggest alternative approaches to presenting multi-pollutant effects that are supported by empirical data. PMID:25643106

  12. Are children safe indoor from outdoor air pollution? A short review

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Pipere; Giovanni Ghirga

    2012-01-01

    Background: Air pollution is a serious threat to children health. Given that children spend over 80% of their time indoors, understanding transport of pollutants from outdoor to indoor environments is important for assessing the impact of exposure to outdoor pollution on children health. The most common advice given during a smoke pollution episode is to stay indoors. How well this works depends on how clean the indoor air is and how pollutants from outdoor air contribute to pollutants load i...

  13. Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan

    2002-02-01

    I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and important they were. I also investigate whether the mortality effects were persistent or whether they represented a short-term, mortality-harvesting effect. The results show that the smoke haze from the fires had a deleterious effect on the health of the population in Malaysia. PMID:11852832

  14. An Analytical Air Pollution Model with Time Dependent Eddy Diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Tirabassi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution transport and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled by the advection-diffusion equation, that is, essentially, a statement of conservation of the suspended material in an incompressible flow. Many models simulating air pollution dispersion are based upon the solution (numerical or analytical of the advection-diffusion equation assuming turbulence parameterization for realistic physical scenarios. We present the general time dependent three-dimensional solution of the advection-diffusion equation considering a vertically inhomogeneous atmospheric boundary layer for arbitrary vertical profiles of wind and eddy-diffusion coefficients. Numerical results and comparison with experimental data are shown.

  15. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  16. Air Pollution and In-Hospital Mortality of Ischemic Heart Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saadat, S.; Sadeghian, S.; Hamidian, R.; Najafi, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the in-hospital mortality of ischemic heart disease patients in Tehran as a polluted metropolis. A cross sectional study conducted in Tehran heart center. We compared two separate exposure levels of air pollutants in patients expired in hospital (n = 23) versus patients discharged alive (n = 1219). The first was air pollutants daily mean concentration at the date of admission and the second was air pollutants daily mean concentrat...

  17. AIR POLLUTANTS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarkhanzadeh

    1979-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations have been carried out on the indoor air pollution in .different workshops of food processing plants in Iran. In order to evaluate the exposure of workers to the three most commonly used indices of air pollution ten food processing plants representing ten groups of food industry with 2.816 workers were selected. Air borne contamination of different origins such cotton seed. Barley, wheat flour salt and different spices sugar an1 beans dust were measured in 237, work places. Here contamination was 8-9 times higher than the proposed T.L. V. for in.3rt dust in 12% of sampling sites Carbon monoxide, measured in 94 sampling site in 69 different work places, which was higher than 50 P .P.M1. in 13% of samples and sulfur-bearing air pollutants determined in 87 different workshop where 103 samples were collected showed the existence of oxides of' sulfur in 34 samples in six industries. The results are presented and the reasons of the existence of these air pollutants are discussed.

  18. Recognition, evaluation, and control of indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution is typically associated with terms sick building syndrome, tight building syndrome, building related illness, and problem building. Indoor air pollution is a relatively new public health concern (approximately 15 years old) although this issue is an age-old problem dating back to prehistoric times when humans came to live indoors. This presentation summarizes indoor air quality issues in order to provide you with usable information concerning the recognition and evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and the subsequent control measures which can be used for maintaining or improving the indoor air environment for better occupant health and comfort control. Why has the subject become so vocalized in the last fifteen years? Why the sudden interest and awareness concerning indoor air quality issues? During the last half of the 1970's and all of the 1980's, buildings were built or remodeled to minimize air handling, heating, and cooling costs, often limiting the amount of outside air brought into the buildings to near minimums. Paralleling these developments, complaints related to modern buildings increased. The new terms tight building syndrome, sick building syndrome, and indoor air quality became widely used by health and safety professionals and subsequently by newspaper columnist and the general public

  19. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future.

  20. Urban Climate and Air Pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Jenny

    2011-05-15

    Africa has recently been singled out by UN Habitat as the fastest urbanizing continent in the world. The most extreme case was found in the Sahelian city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, where the population is expected to almost double over the next ten years. It is well known that the rapid growth of an urban area is among the most important anthropogenic impacts on the environment, and that it has a profound impact on both the urban climate and air quality. Few studies have been focused on cities in the Sahel region, and the lack of information may consequently hinder adaptation to the extreme urbanization rates of these often heavily polluted cities. The main objective of this thesis was to study the nature of, and relationship between, urban climate and air pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Specific objectives were to; examine spatial variations in daily temperature and humidity patterns during early dry season with focus on effects of different land cover; to examine the influence of atmospheric stability on the intra-urban air temperature patterns, the urban wind field and on air pollution levels; and to examine spatial variations in air pollution levels. An additional objective was to document the status and potential development of synoptic meteorological stations in Burkina Faso. Empirical data used in analyses were collected during five field studies between 2003 and 2010. Meteorological and air pollution parameters were measured at fixed sites and through car traverses in areas of different land cover, activity, traffic density and road surface. The most distinct features in thermal patterns found in Ouagadougou were strong intra-urban nocturnal cool islands in vegetated areas, caused by evening evaporative cooling by the vegetation. Extremely stable nocturnal atmospheric conditions were observed during 80 % of days examined in early dry season, during which spatial patterns in temperature and humidity as well as in air pollution were most pronounced. An intra-urban thermal breeze generating almost opposite wind directions within the city was found during all extremely stable nights. Air pollution situation in Ouagadougou were characterized by; important spatial variations, high pollution levels in general, and extreme levels of coarse particles, commonly exceeding WHO air quality guidelines in all areas. Important sources were re-suspension of road dust, transported dust, traffic and biomass burning. Documentation of meteorological stations show that observations were made by well trained staff following a strict set of procedures. However, many risk factors potentially affecting data quality were found, such as many manual steps in data handling and limited funding for maintenance of the instrument park. In contrast to the many studies identifying urban built structure as most important land cover parameter for the nocturnal urban climate, vegetation was the dominating parameter in Ouagadougou. The strong influence of vegetation shown in this study should be carefully considered in all urban climate studies, especially in (semi) arid regions. In urban-rural comparisons, this is particularly important for the location of the rural area where vegetation often is dominant. The high frequency of extremely stable atmospheric conditions and the intra-urban thermal wind system show a very restricted ventilation of the urban air and limited dispersion of urban-derived pollutants. Large spatial differences in pollution levels found in the city are likely to create important differences in exposure situation within the population. When using data from synoptic meteorological stations in Burkina Faso, the many risk factors found should be considered. Findings presented in this thesis could used in order to increase comfort and health in urban planning, as well as in development of strategies for air pollution mitigation in this region, especially when considering the ongoing extremely rapid urban growth. The information of status and potential development of observational data may be valuable for more reliable pred

  1. Progress in the prevention and control of air pollution in 1988: Report to congress. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of this study: air quality trends, monitoring, and modeling; air pollution research programs; development of national ambient air; quality standards; assessment and control of toxic air pollutants; status of air quality management programs; control of stationary source emissions; stationary source compliance; control of mobile source emissions; stratospheric ozone protection; indoor air quality; acid deposition; radon assessment and remediation; litigation

  2. Air pollution, emission 1990-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission data are presented for all man-made sources of eight different pollutants in the period 1990-1998. Data are given for combustion and processes per main activity. For mobile sources only the total emission of a few activities is given. The contribution of different policy target groups in the Netherlands to the total emission of 1998 is also presented. The Dutch emission level for carbon dioxide can be presented in four different ways. The basic sources and related calculation methods are explained. 8 refs

  3. 77 FR 20625 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Action on Clean Air Act Grants to the Idaho Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ...EPA-R10-OAR-2012-0211; FRL-9655-5] Air Pollution Control: Proposed Action on Clean...for recurrent expenditures for air pollution control programs will be less...of its CAA- related continuing air pollution control program. IDEQ's...

  4. Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution in Homes with Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Michelle L.; Anna Ruth Pickett

    2011-01-01

    Infants spend most of their indoor time at home; however, residential air quality is poorly understood. We investigated the air quality of infants’ homes in the New England area of the U.S. Participants (N = 53) were parents of infants (0–6 months) who completed telephone surveys to identify potential pollutant sources in their residence. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?0.5 µm (PM0.5), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs...

  5. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources

    OpenAIRE

    Müller Daniel; Klingelhöfer Doris; Uibel Stefanie; Groneberg David A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exp...

  6. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and he...

  7. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures.

  8. INDUSTRIAL GUIDE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual is intended as a set of guidelines for companies that are not yet fully involved in a corporate program of environmental control. The information is presented for plant managers, engineers, and other industrial personnel responsible for plant compliance with air pollu...

  9. Air pollution studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic properties of industrial and urban aerosols which were collected in various places in Poland are studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Data concerning the concentration of iron in atmospheric air and the size of iron containing particles as determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy is discussed. (Auth.)

  10. An Integrated Agent-Based Framework for Assessing Air Pollution Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Don Gunasekera; David Newth

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution has considerable impact on human health and the wellbeing. Thus many regions of the world have established air pollution standards to ensure a minimum level of air quality. Precise assessment of the health and socio-economic impacts of air pollution is, however, a complex task; indeed, methods based within an epidemiological tradition generally underestimate human risk of exposure to polluted air. In this study, we introduce an agent-based modeling approach to ascertaining the i...

  11. Air pollution biomonitoring using terrestrial mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial-temporal concentration of elements harmful for life has been investigated using terrestrial mosses of the Hypnum cupressiforme species. The results obtained have been implemented with elements of soil collected in the same area, for a wider information. Concerning the mosses, the investigated elements are: Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ti, V, and Zn. The elements investigated on soil samples, collected only once, are: As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb. The results obtained allowed to identify an area of about 100 Kmq, located North-West with regard to La Spezia city (Italy), where the concentrations are higher than the remaining area. In the smaller investigation area, a surface of 0,12 kmq was found where the fall out rate for Pb is 0,21 g m-2 y-1, a value three times greater than the maximal european value tested in Rumania area (Ruehling, 1994). Mosses, which are highly efficient indicators of atmospheric pollution, have permitted to identify anthropogenic polluted areas and to evaluate the fall out rate

  12. Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air Pollution at Levels below Current Air Quality Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Malmqvist, Ebba; Jakobsson, Kristina; Tinnerberg, Ha?kan; Rignell-hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies have estimated associations between air pollution and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications.Objective: We investigated whether low-level exposure to air pollution is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia.Methods: High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999-2005 was linked to individual-level exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Model...

  13. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

  14. Urban Air Pollution by Nanoparticles in Ostrava Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution harms human health and the environment. Ostrava's agglomeration and its immediate vicinity suffer regular exceeding of air pollution limits due to its geomorphologic location and present heavy industry. Maximum exceedances of air quality standards and especially PM10 which 24 hour limit value is in EU 50?g.m-3, must not be exceeded more than 35 days per year. This limit is being still often exceeded. In the year 2011 such as situation occurred 126 times. It is very important then for identify sources of air pollution to find out maximum information about air borne dust, like size distribution, chemical composition of individual size fractions, morphology of particulate matter together with other parameters like meteorological conditions, year season etc. Our measurement started two years ago. We focus on the critical situation when there are values of PM10 over a long period above the limit. In winter season it is so called inversion. By default, during the campaign it is measured size distribution of air born dust in range 5.6 nm ?560nm by FMPS and using the sampler NanoId are collected samples in range 1nm – 35?m in 12 size fractions for chemical analysis and morphological observations. This contribution deals with results of size distributions only.

  15. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.P.; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Woodrow Wilson School of Public & Internal Affairs

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the 'willingness-to-pay' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger.

  16. Air-cleaner technologies for indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensor, D.S.; Viner, A.S.; Hanley, J.T.; Lawless, P.A.; Ramanathan, K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes methodologies for the particle-size-dependent performance measurement of air cleaners. It discusses the use of laser-optical particle counters and condensation-nucleus counters with preseparators in evaluating air cleaners. The selection of a challenge aerosol is particularly important; materials include nebulized dissolved solids in water or low-vapor-pressure organics. Another area of increased attention is the generation of ozone by electronic air cleaners. Ozone production rates from a wire-plate-electrode configuration are summarized. Activated carbon adsorbents have been used in commercial air cleaners to remove organic materials. The absorption of low concentrations (below 200 ppb) of materials such as benzene and acetaldehyde obtained in laboratory isotherm experiments is reviewed.

  17. Lichens, a unique forage resource threatened by air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are the primary winter forage for most mainland caribou and reindeer herds in North America and for the majority of domestic and wild reindeer in Siberia and northern Europe, collectively totaling in excess of 5 million animals. Lichens represent a unique forage resource throughout much of the circumpolar North that cannot effectively be replaced by vascular plants. Lichens are particularly sensitive to the effects of air pollution. The increased pace of exploitation and processing of minerals and petroleum resources throughout the circumpolar North, with associated introduction of pollution products into the atmosphere has already resulted in losses of lichens and their reduced productivity in extensive areas adjacent to large metallurgical complexes in the Taimyr of Siberia, on the Kola Peninsula, and in adjacent parts of Finland. Losses of terricolous lichens in the Taimyr from pollution generated by the Norilsk metallurgical complex have been nearly complete within a 300 000 ha area closest to the pollution source and damage and reduced growth extends over an area in excess of 600 000 ha. The Arctic also is a sink for atmospheric pollution generated in the heavily industrialized north temperate regions of the world. Assessment of the effects on lichens of this global scale increase in air pollution is difficult because of the lack of representative controls.

  18. Multifractal analysis of air pollutants time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mu\\u00F1oz Diosdado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminaci ? on atmosf ? erica es un problema importante en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de M ? exico (ZMCM. Las concentraciones de ozono, di ? oxido de azufre, mon ? oxido de carbono, di ? oxido de nitr ? ogeno y part ? ?culas PM10 (menores a 10 micr ? ometros se han medido en aproximadamente treinta estaciones de monitoreo en diferentes lugares de la ciudad desde 1986, aunque los datos antes de 1990 no son confiables. Cada hora, un valor de concentraci ? on se mide. En este trabajo se ha aplicado el formalismo multifractal de Chhabra y Jensen al an ? alisis de las series de tiempo de contaminantes del aire de la ZMCM. Se encuentra que estas series son multifractales, lo cual revela un nuevo nivel de complejidad caracterizado por el rango amplio de dimensiones fractales para caracterizar la din ? amica de las series de tiempo de los contaminantes del aire. Se discute acerca de la importancia de este hecho.

  19. Influence of industrial air pollution on crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F.H.F.G.

    1957-01-01

    In an industrial area several varieties of tulips were injured by gases; other varieties were injured to a much lesser extent. This experience in the field has been tested in fumigation chambers with HF and SO2. The air in the chambers (+/- 280 cubic feet) was replaced every one or two minutes. It was found that Parrot-tulips, injured by the gases in that industrial area, were also injured by a very low concentration of HF in the chambers, whereas another variety (Preludium), which was less sensitive to the gases in the field, was not injured in the same experiments with HF. Fumigating with SO2 resulted in the same sensitivity to SO2 of both varieties of tulips. The sensitivity of these tulip varieties has been compared with that of tomato and cucumber plants; at 13 ppb (0.013 ppm) Hf in 7 hours the Parrot-tulip was the only one which was injured (injury 1 cm down from the tip). With a higher concentration (0.2 ppm in 6 hours) Preludium was also injured, tomato and cucumber plants were not. In some areas, where the possibility of gas damage to crops exists, indicator plants for HF injury (Snowprincess-gladiolus), and indicator plants for SO2 injury (alfalfa) were used in experimental fields at different distances from the factories. Near some of these fields a HF and a SO2 absorption apparatus were placed, which absorb the HF resp. SO2 from the air. After one month exposure to the air the absorbent from each apparatus is replaced, and the HF- resp. SO2 content of the absorbent analyzed in the laboratory. Together with the analysis of the leaf samples from the trial plots for HF and SO2 content and the extent of injury of the gladiolus and alfalfa on the different fields it gives an impression of the contamination of the air with HF or SO2.

  20. Biomarkers: New breakthroughs in the world of air pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session aims are to show the use of biomarkers in better understanding health effects derived from air pollution and to provide updates on the utility of new biomarker techniques including ?omics?-type of analyses. Presentations that focus on improved use of biomarkers of...

  1. Floristic summary of plant species in the air pollution literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J P

    1996-01-01

    A floristic summary and analysis was performed on a list of the plant species that have been studied for the effects of gaseous and chemical air pollutants on vegetation in order to compare the species with the flora of North America north of Mexico. The scientific names of 2081 vascular plant species were extracted from almost 4000 journal articles stored in two large literature databases on the effects of air pollutants on plants. Three quarters of the plant species studied occur in North America, but this was only 7% of the total North American flora. Sixteen percent and 56% of all North American genera and families have been studied. The most studied genus is Pinus with 70% of the North American species studied, and the most studied family is the grass family, with 12% of the species studied. Although Pinus is ranked 86th in the North American flora, the grass family is ranked third, indicating that representation at the family level is better than at the genus level. All of the top ten families in North America are represented in the top 20 families in the air pollution effects literature, but only one genus (Lupinus) in the top ten genera in North America is represented in the top thirteen genera in the air pollution literature. PMID:15091376

  2. Lung Cancer and Indoor Air Pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Nathaniel Rothman of the National Cancer Institute discusses Lung Cancer and Indoor Air Pollution in China. Presentation was part of Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations, a scientific symposium honoring 50 years of visionary leadership by Dr. Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., hosted by NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

  3. A STUDY OF WINTER AIR POLLUTANTS AT FAIRBANKS, ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An air pollution monitoring program was initiated by the Arctic Environmental Research Station (AERS). Ambient monitoring was done throughout the winters of 76-77 and 77-78 at the Fairbanks Post Office and on the AERS roof. Indoor-outdoor monitoring was done at the new State Buil...

  4. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...that the emission control actions are fully...specific emission control actions for interdistrict...particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide and particulate...particulate matter and/or sulfur dioxide and particulate...activities causing dust emissions including...nearby Air Pollution Control District,...

  5. Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution in Homes with Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Bell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants spend most of their indoor time at home; however, residential air quality is poorly understood. We investigated the air quality of infants’ homes in the New England area of the U.S. Participants (N = 53 were parents of infants (0–6 months who completed telephone surveys to identify potential pollutant sources in their residence. Carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?0.5 µm (PM0.5, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs were measured in 10 homes over 4–7 days, and levels were compared with health-based guidelines. Pollutant levels varied substantially across homes and within homes with overall levels for some homes up to 20 times higher than for other homes. Average levels were 0.85 ppm, 663.2 ppm, 18.7 µg/m3, and 1626 µg/m3 for CO, CO2, PM0.5, and TVOCs, respectively. CO2, TVOCs, and PM0.5 levels exceeded health-based indoor air quality guidelines. Survey results suggest that nursery renovations and related potential pollutant sources may be associated with differences in urbanicity, income, and presence of older children with respiratory ailments, which could potentially confound health studies. While there are no standards for indoor residential air quality, our findings suggest that additional research is needed to assess indoor pollution exposure for infants, which may be a vulnerable population.

  6. HANDBOOK ON CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: HAP MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper is based on an examination of engineering design and study type (+/- 30%) cost estimation procedures for 10 add-on control techniques for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). he examination updated and revised the first edition of the EPA's HAP manual to reflect advances in...

  7. Economic growth, international trade and air pollution. A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzes the impact of economic growth and international trade on the level of air pollution. This is done by the estimation of the Structural Equation Model with two factors describing the structure of economic activity and air pollution intensity. It is further assumed that there is causal link between these two factors and that they are influenced by per capita income, international trade intensity and the Freedom House Index. The estimation results suggest that in the developing countries analyzed both international trade and per capita income lead to changes in the structure of economic activity and - as a consequence - to the increase in air pollution. In addition, the estimation results suggest that the impact of economic growth on air pollution intensity varies between the developing and developed countries. In the developing countries, this impact occurs through the change of the structure of economic activity, while in the developed countries, this impact is mainly direct and occurs through the sum of the scale effect and income effect. The positive sign of this impact suggests the dominance of the scale effect over the income effect. (author)

  8. Economic growth, international trade and air pollution. A decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukla-Gryz, Anna [Department of Economics, Warsaw University (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    This study analyzes the impact of economic growth and international trade on the level of air pollution. This is done by the estimation of the Structural Equation Model with two factors describing the structure of economic activity and air pollution intensity. It is further assumed that there is causal link between these two factors and that they are influenced by per capita income, international trade intensity and the Freedom House Index. The estimation results suggest that in the developing countries analyzed both international trade and per capita income lead to changes in the structure of economic activity and - as a consequence - to the increase in air pollution. In addition, the estimation results suggest that the impact of economic growth on air pollution intensity varies between the developing and developed countries. In the developing countries, this impact occurs through the change of the structure of economic activity, while in the developed countries, this impact is mainly direct and occurs through the sum of the scale effect and income effect. The positive sign of this impact suggests the dominance of the scale effect over the income effect. (author)

  9. Floristic summary of plant species in the air pollution literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    A floristic summary and analysis was performed on a list of the plant species that have been studied for the effects of gaseous and chemical air pollutants on vegetation in order to compare the species with the flora of North America north of Mexico. The scientific names of 2081 vascular plant species were extracted from almost 4000 journal articles stored in two large literature databases on the effects of air pollutants on plants. Three quarters of the plant species studied occur in North America, but this was only 7% of the total North American flora. Sixteen percent and 56% of all North American genera and families have been studied. The most studied genus is Pinus with 70% of the North American species studied, and the most studied family is the grass family, with 12% of the species studied. Although Pinus is ranked 86th in the North American flora, the grass family is ranked third, indicating that representation at the family level is better than at the genus level. All of the top ten families in North America are represented in the top 20 families in the air pollution effects literature, but only one genus (Lupinus) in the top ten genera in North America is represented in the top thirteen genera in the air pollution literature.

  10. AIR POLLUTION MODELS AS DESCRIPTORS OF CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problem of air pollution modeling is treated beginning from a philosophical standpoint, in which a model is viewed as a universal statement and a complementary set of singular statements from which specific cause-effect relationships are deduced; proceeding to the formulation...

  11. Early childhood lower respiratory illness and air pollution.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Baker, R. J.; Yap, P.S.; Dostál, Miroslav; Joad, J.P.; Lipsett, M.; Greenfield, T.; Herr, C.E.W.; Beneš, I.; Shumway, R.H.; Pinkerton, K.E.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 115, ?. 10 (2007), s. 1510-1518. ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * particulate matter Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2007

  12. Texas refinery air pollution emissions are being severely underestimated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria region of southeastern Texas is home to heavy industrial investment in oil refining and petrochemical production. Pollutants emanating from the factories and refineries have repeatedly caused the region to fail national and state-level tests for air quality and ground-level ozone.

  13. Determination of air pollution using the analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of determining air pollution (gas, dust, etc.) using analytical methods are demonstrated. Measuring techniques modified by the ZfI and the advanced equipment developed for this purpose are described, and their parameters and characteristics given. Practical experiences are evaluated using examples of application, and these are discussed with a view to possible future developments. (author)

  14. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of application of lichens and mosses as biomonitors of air pollution have been presented. The neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy have been used for trace element content determination in lichens and mosses taken from different regions of Europe

  15. Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Air Pollution Model

    OpenAIRE

    Xijian Wang; Lite Zhao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the problem of the two-dimensional air pollution model. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is called the semidiscrete formulation. We show the existence and uniqueness of the ODE system and provide the error estimates for the numerical error.

  16. Bringing air pollution into the climate change equation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As countries gear up for a major round of international climate talks next year in Paris, the growing problem of air pollution is fast becoming a vital part of the climate change and health debate. Fiona Fleck talks to Marit Viktoria Pettersen. [...

  17. Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Air Pollution Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Lite; Hou, Qinzhi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the problem of the two-dimensional air pollution model. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is called the semidiscrete formulation. We show the existence and uniqueness of the ODE system and provide the error estimates for the numerical error.

  18. Peat-fire-related air pollution in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Izumi; Putra, Erianto Indra; Yulianti, Nina; Vadrevu, Krishna

    2014-12-01

    The past decade marked record high air pollution episodes in Indonesia. In this study, we specifically focus on vegetation fires in Palangkaraya located near a Mega Rice Project area in Indonesia. We analyzed various gaseous air pollution data such as particulate matter (PM10), SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 study region. We also conducted elemental analysis at two different sites. Results from 2001 to 2010 suggested the longest hazardous air pollution episode during 2002 lasting about 80 days from mid-August to late-October. Maximum peak concentrations of PM10, SO2, CO, and O3 were also observed during 2002 and their values reached 1905, 85.8, 38.3, and 1003×10(-6) gm(-3) respectively. Elemental analysis showed significant increase in concentrations during 2011 and 2010. Satellite retrieved fires and weather data could explain most of the temporal variations. Our results highlight peat fires as a major contributor of photochemical smog and air pollution in the region. PMID:25087200

  19. Vehicular Air Pollution Modeling For Diesel Driven Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Arul selvan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pollution in air is generated by the developments, which typically occur as the country gradually shifts towards industrialization, due to city growth, increasing traffic, rapid economic development, and higher levels of energy consumption. Indian cities are among the most polluted cities in the world. The main source of air pollution in Indian metropolitan cities is petrol and diesel driven vehicles. They particularly emit CO, CO2, HC, NOX and O2. The growing vehicular population has resulted in increased air pollution, which in turn has affected the people’s health, who live along the transportation corridors. Increase in vehicular population, has resulted in decrease in quality of air and the environment. There are several health impacts that are associated with respiratory infections, asthma etc,. A number of studies have been done by the foreign countries, but this is not suitable for the Indian cities. This may be due to heterogeneity of vehicles, multiplicity of modes and the difference in geometrics of road. Therefore the need arises to study about the emission rates. In this study, equipment by the name five gas analyzer is used to find out the emission rates of different types of vehicles under static and dynamic conditions. The factor considered under static conditions is the age of the vehicles. Whereas under dynamic condition factors considered are the road roughness, age of the vehicle and speed. From the emission rates a linear regression model is developed using SPSS software and sensitivity analysis is being carried out.

  20. Projection of greenhouse gases and air pollutants 2011-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines the expected greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2 but also methane and nitrous oxide) and air pollutants in the period 2011 up to and including 2015. Attention is paid to whether or not the Netherlands will comply with the mandatory European and international regulations.

  1. Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from the Great Smog of 1950s in LONDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyong Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the prolonged, severe smog that blanketed many Chinese cities in first months of 2013, living in smog has become “normal” to most people living in mainland China. This has not only caused serious harm to public health, but also resulted in massive economic losses in many other ways. Tackling the current air pollution has become crucial to China’s long-term economic and social sustainable development. This paper aims to find the causes of the current severe air quality and explore the possible solutions by reviewing the current literature, and by comparing China’s air pollution regulations to that of the post London Killer Smog of 1952, in the United Kingdom (UK. It is hoped that China will learn the lesson from the UK, and decouple its economic growth from the detrimental impact of environment. Policy suggestions are made.

  2. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ? Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ? Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ? “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ? A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ? Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Sociantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

  3. Regional and Global Perspective of Megacity Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; Mena, M. A.

    2007-05-01

    Megacities are leading drivers of economic and environmental change. Fueled by high population growth and vibrant economies, energy consumption in megacities are large and growing. In Asia megacities are projected to account for ~40% of their country's GNP (gross national product) by 2030. Because fossil fuels will provide much of this energy, emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates could dramatically increase. Without strong intervention the situation will inevitably worsen. The motorization of urban environments all around the world has produced local smog in hundreds of cities. In aggregate, pollution from megacities and surrounding areas can grow to create regional and global problems. The current interest in transboundary and hemispheric transport of pollutants reflect this. The pressing environmental problems of urban pollution and climate change are closely linked megacity problems sharing common causes and solutions. The fact that air pollution problems and greenhouse gas emissions arise largely from fossil fuel combustion and the important role of aerosols in both air pollution and climate change are illustrative examples. Globally many megacities represent atmospheric brown cloud hotspots; regions with large aerosol radiative forcing of the atmosphere and surface (dimming), with annual mean surface dimming in most tropical mega cities exceeding 20 Wm-2, equivalent to reducing solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere by more than 10%. The increase in solar energy absorbed by aerosols over the atmosphere of some of these mega cities is comparable to the heat input by energy consumption. Thus in addition to contributing to regional and global climate change, the atmospheric forcing may also contribute to the urban heat island effect. In this paper the impacts of megacities on regional and global pollution are discussed, drawing upon finding from current international activities including MILAGRO, ABC, and GURME.

  4. Biodiesel – a Real Solution for Reducing Air Pollution ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODAGIU Antonia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic emissions made up of high levels of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and particulate matter determineserious pollution in urban high agglomerations. One solution in reducing atmospheric pollution is represented byfinding not pollutant alternatives to classic fuel used for urban vehicles and one valuable solution is the replacement ofpollutant fossil fuels with biodiesel/biofuel. The reaction between glycerides and methanol, in presence of a catalystrepresents the basis of biodiesel fuel production. The main plants used for biofuel production are: soybeans, rapeseed(canola, sunflower seed, palm fruit or kernels, coconut and physic nut, etc. The legal approach of biodiesel use includesa series of national and international agreements adopted with the aim of reducing air pollution produced by the use oftraditional fuel in urban traffic, and biodiesel use remains a valuable option, in spite of high production costs.

  5. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  6. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoping Wang; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the ''willingness-to-pay'' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the use of advanced coal gasification technology. Without such controls, the impacts of air pollution on public health, presently considerable, will increase substantially by 2020. (author)

  7. microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may bges in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene–environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

  8. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  9. U.S transboundary air pollution and climate change developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) was founded in 1967 to provide technical and policy support for air quality and climate initiatives. The organization is now addressing issues related to sulphur dioxide (SO2), fine particulate matter, mercury from coal power plants, and ozone. Air quality standards are being revised in the United States as a result of litigation related to air pollutants. New standards for the emissions will range between 50-100 ppb 1-hour average. The new SO2 standard will mean that many counties in the northeast states will violate the recommended limitations. Particulate matter is derived from the same sources as SO2 pollutants. A clean air mercury rule (CAMR) was established in 2005 for coal power plants. A 2010 standard will limit ozone releases to 65 ppb with an 8-hour average. It is expected that many counties throughout the United States will violate the new standard. New federal legislation for climate change is unlikely in the near future. However, the United States Supreme Court has recently ruled that greenhouse gases (GHGs) are pollutants that must be regulated. It is expected that the ruling will have an impact on motor vehicle rules. tabs., figs.

  10. U.S transboundary air pollution and climate change developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.J. [NESCAUM, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) was founded in 1967 to provide technical and policy support for air quality and climate initiatives. The organization is now addressing issues related to sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), fine particulate matter, mercury from coal power plants, and ozone. Air quality standards are being revised in the United States as a result of litigation related to air pollutants. New standards for the emissions will range between 50-100 ppb 1-hour average. The new SO{sub 2} standard will mean that many counties in the northeast states will violate the recommended limitations. Particulate matter is derived from the same sources as SO{sub 2} pollutants. A clean air mercury rule (CAMR) was established in 2005 for coal power plants. A 2010 standard will limit ozone releases to 65 ppb with an 8-hour average. It is expected that many counties throughout the United States will violate the new standard. New federal legislation for climate change is unlikely in the near future. However, the United States Supreme Court has recently ruled that greenhouse gases (GHGs) are pollutants that must be regulated. It is expected that the ruling will have an impact on motor vehicle rules. tabs., figs.

  11. Forecasting the air pollution episode potential in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Milford

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch Urban Research Meteorology and Environment programme (GURME, a system for forecasting air pollution episode potential in the Canary Islands has been developed. Meteorological parameters relevant to air quality (synoptic wind speed, wind direction, boundary layer height and temperature at 91 vertical levels are obtained from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF once a day for up to four days ahead. In addition, a model based on the analogue method utilising six years of historical meteorological and air quality data predicts the probability of SO2 concentration exceeding certain thresholds for a measurement station located in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Meteorological forecasts are also provided from a high resolution (2 km local area model (MM5 implemented for the Canary Islands domain. This simple system is able to forecast meteorological conditions which are favourable to the occurrence of pollution episodes for the forthcoming days.

  12. Forecasting the air pollution episode potential in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, C.; Marrero, C.; Martin, C.; Bustos, J. J.; Querol, X.

    2008-04-01

    In the frame of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch Urban Research Meteorology and Environment programme (GURME), a system for forecasting air pollution episode potential in the Canary Islands has been developed. Meteorological parameters relevant to air quality (synoptic wind speed, wind direction, boundary layer height and temperature at 91 vertical levels) are obtained from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) once a day for up to four days ahead. In addition, a model based on the analogue method utilising six years of historical meteorological and air quality data predicts the probability of SO2 concentration exceeding certain thresholds for a measurement station located in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Meteorological forecasts are also provided from a high resolution (2 km) local area model (MM5) implemented for the Canary Islands domain. This simple system is able to forecast meteorological conditions which are favourable to the occurrence of pollution episodes for the forthcoming days.

  13. Saltsjoebaden V - Taking international air pollution policies into the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    24-26 June 2013, 130 leading international policy makers, scientists, experts and others met at an international workshop in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to discuss and outline future directions in air pollution science and policy. The workshop, which was organised in close collaboration with the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and the European Commission, involved several themes such as linkages to climate change including SLCP, nitrogen, global governance and effects to health and environment. The output is a series of recommendations for further actions with respect to effects to health, ecosystems and near-term climate actions. Recommendations were also given with respect to heavy metals and POPs. The recommendations are directed towards several international organisations and initiatives such as CLRTAP, European Commission, Climate and Clean Air Coalition and the Arctic Council. (Author)

  14. Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on the pollutant concentrations in the Arctic in spring and summer, even for species that are produced exclusively by humans, such as POPs.

  15. Catalytic oxidation for air pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, S F; Koh, C A

    1996-03-01

    Bench-scale experiments have been conducted to evaluate a series of titania-supported Pt-Pd (as oxides) catalysts in the presence and absence of MoO3 and Fe2O3 additives for their effectiveness in the complete catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air likely to be found in waste gases. Under oxidizing conditions, all of the catalysts promoted the complete oxidation of VOCs to CO2 and H2O. 99 % Conversion was achieved with a C2H4-C2H6 gas mixture in air at temperatures between about 160-450 °C and at a space velocity of 20,000 h(-1). Oxidation activity for the titania supported catalysts were found to decrease in the order Pt-Pd-Mo-Fe > Pt-Pd-Mo > Pt-Pd-Fe > Pt-Pd. However, the addition of MoO3 and Fe2O3 increase the catalyst activity and reduce the reaction temperature for the complete destruction. Ageing was also performed in order to study the stability of the most active catalyst. Pt-Pd-Mo-Fe (as oxides) on titania catalyst is effective in oxidizing a wide range of volatile organic compounds at relatively low temperatures (220-405 °C) and and at a space velocity of 40,000 h(-1) and is resistant to poisoning by halogenated and amine volatile organic compounds. PMID:24234881

  16. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F.H.F.G.; Van Raay, A.

    1963-01-01

    The quantity of dust deposited in the surroundings of an electric power station was measured to get an impression of the fly ash contamination in the air in connection with the dust deposit on apples. In the neighborhood of a cement factory the quantity of dust collected in specially constructed dust-collecting apparatuses was investigated microscopically. The crops cauliflower and apples were examined for the degree of dust contamination, the apples also for their keeping quality during storage. Flowers of cyclamen were damaged by HF-concentrations lower than 100 ppb occurring for 6 hrs. The injury developed very gradually and spread from the leaf tip margin inwards. By means of HF-meters and trial plots with the gladiolus variety. Snow-princess it has been shown, that the very gradually increasing leaf tip injury in gladiolus fields in some places in The Netherlands was caused by frequent occurrence of traces of HF in the air. In pot experiments carried out with lettuce, lime manuring was applied to improve the soil which had been poisoned by zinc fumes from a factory. If tulips were fumigated with HF in a concentration of less than 10 ppb for 6 hrs, the variety Blue Parrot (highly sensitive) contained about five times less fluor in the 2.5 cm leaf tips than the variety Preludium (low sensitivity) which showed a considerably lower degree of leaf tip injury.

  17. Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

  18. Air pollutants in rural homes in Guizhou, China - Concentrations, speciation, and size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Wei, Wei; Li, Du; Aunan, Kristin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-11-01

    Several types of fuels, including coal, fuel wood, and biogas, are commonly used for cooking and heating in Chinese rural households, resulting in indoor air pollution and causing severe health impacts. In this paper, we report a study monitoring multiple pollutants including PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, CO 2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from fuel combustion at households in Guizhou province of China. The results showed that most pollutants exhibited large variability for different type of fuels except for CO 2. Among these fuels, wood combustion caused the most serious indoor air pollution, with the highest concentrations of particulate matters (218˜417 ?g m -3 for PM 10 and 201˜304 ?g m -3 for PM 2.5), and higher concentrations of CO (10.8 ± 0.8 mg m -3) and TVOC (about 466.7 ± 337.9 ?g m -3). Coal combustion also resulted in higher concentrations of particulate matters (220˜250 ?g m -3 for PM 10 and 170˜200 ?g m -3 for PM 2.5), but different levels for CO (respectively 14.5 ± 3.7 mg m -3 for combustion in brick stove and 5.5 ± 0.7 mg m -3 for combustion in metal stove) and TVOC (170 mg m -3 for combustion in brick stove and 700 mg m -3 for combustion in metal stove). Biogas was the cleanest fuel, which brought about the similar levels of various pollutants with the indoor case of non-combustion, and worth being promoted in more areas. Analysis of the chemical profiles of PM 2.5 indicated that OC and EC were dominant components for all fuels, with the proportions of 30˜48%. A high fraction of SO 42- (31˜34%) was detected for coal combustion. The cumulative percentages of these chemical species were within the range of 0.7˜1.3, which was acceptable for the assessment of mass balance.

  19. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which reacts rapidly with organics, leading to the formation of other potentially toxic air pollutants. Indoor reactive chemistry involving the nitrate radical and cleaning-product constituents is also of concern, since it produces organic nitrates as well as some of the same oxidation products generated by ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Few studies have directly addressed the indoor concentrations of TACs that might result from primary emissions or secondary pollutant formation following the use of cleaning agents and air fresheners. In this paper, we combine direct empirical evidence with the basic principles of indoor pollutant behavior and with information from relevant studies, to analyze and critically assess air pollutant exposures resulting from the use of cleaning products and air fresheners. Attention is focused on compounds that are listed as HAPs, TACs or Proposition 65 carcinogens/reproductive toxicants and compounds that can readily react to generate secondary pollutants. The toxicity of many of these secondary pollutants has yet to be evaluated. The inhalation intake of airborne organic compounds from cleaning product use is estimated to be of the order of 10 mg d(-1) person(-1) in California. More than two dozen research articles present evidence of adverse health effects from inhalation exposure associated with cleaning or cleaning products. Exposure to primary and secondary pollutants depends on the complex interplay of many sets of factors and processes, including cleaning product composition, usage, building occupancy, emission dynamics, transport and mixing, building ventilation, sorptive interactions with building surfaces, and reactive chemistry. Current understanding is sufficient to describe the influence of these variables qualitatively in most cases and quantitatively in a few. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 73392 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD...fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are proposing to...g., copyrighted material, large maps), and...inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule...