WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese air pollution

  1. Highway toll and air pollution: evidence from Chinese cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shihe; Gu, Yizhen

    2014-01-01

    Most highways in urban China are tolled to finance their construction. During the eight-day National Day holiday in 2012, highway tolls are waived nationwide for passenger vehicles. We use this to test highway tolls’ effect on air pollution. Using daily pollution and weather data for 98 Chinese cities in 2011 and 2012 and employing both a regression discontinuity design and differences-in-differences method with 2011 National Day holiday as a control, we find that eliminating tolls increase...

  2. Air pollution "holiday effect" resulting from the Chinese New Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pei-Hua; Chou, Chia; Liang, Jing-Yi; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Shiu, Chein-Jung

    Our study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Hourly and daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from thirteen air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods were used. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where air pollutant concentrations were significantly different between holidays (CNY) and non-holidays (NCNY), in the Taipei metropolitan area over the past thirteen years (1994-2006). The concentrations of NO x, CO, NMHC, SO 2 and PM 10 were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, while the variation in the concentration of O 3 was reversed, which was mainly due to the NO titration effect. Similar differences in these six air pollutants between the CNY and NCNY periods were also found in the diurnal cycle and in the interannual variation. For the diurnal cycle, a common traffic-related double-peak variation was observed in the NCNY period, but not in the CNY period. Impacts of dust storms were also observed, especially on SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period. In the 13-year period of 1994-2006, decreasing trends of NO x and CO in the NCNY period implied a possible reduction of local emissions. Increasing trends of SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period, on the other hand, indicated a possible enhancement of long-range transport. These two mechanisms weakened the holiday effect.

  3. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Y. (Yong); Chan, EYY; Y. Zhu; Wong, TW

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured ...

  4. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  5. Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on lung function among Chinese children.

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Y. (Yong); Chan, EY; Li, LP; He, QQ; Wong, TW

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung function among Chinese schoolchildren in Southern China (Hong Kong). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 3168 schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in 3 districts in Hong Kong. Annual means of ambient PM10 (particulate matter

  6. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 ?g m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  7. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  8. Valuing the adult health effects of air pollution in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Robert W; Brajer, Victor

    2006-09-01

    China's ongoing economic growth is accompanied by a large amount of air pollution that exacts significant health and economic costs on its people. Following up on some earlier work focusing upon general mortality and child-specific health effects, this article uses a larger data set, covering more than 90 Chinese cities, along with a set of China-based epidemiological functions, to estimate some of the adult health benefits of reducing urban air pollution. Projecting future air pollution based upon current conditions, it calculates the averted mortality and morbidity effects that would result from the cleanup of particulates, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. The inclusion of nitrogen dioxide in our analysis is particularly important because it is a growing problem and has not been included in most of the more widely known studies that examine Chinese air pollution. Finally, the economic valuation of these pollution-related health effects is developed, using a number of recent, China-based valuation studies. PMID:17119264

  9. Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few prior cohort studies exist in developing countries examining the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) with mortality. We examined the association of particulate air pollution with mortality in a prospective cohort study of 71,431 middle-aged Chinese men. Baseline data were obtained during 1990–1991. The follow-up evaluation was completed in January, 2006. Annual average PM exposure between 1990 and 2005, including TSP and PM10, were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with residential communities. We found significant associations between PM10 and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases; each 10 ?g/m3 PM10 was associated with a 1.6% (95%CI: 0.7%, 2.6%), 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8%, 2.9%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3%, 3.2%) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For TSP, we observed significant associations only for cardiovascular morality. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of particulate air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. -- Highlights: • There have been few air pollution cohort studies in developing countries. • PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in 71,431 Chinese men. • PM was not significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. -- PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in a cohort of 71,431 Chinese men

  10. Systematic review of Chinese studies of short-term exposure to air pollution and daily mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yu; Sun, Zhiwei; Cao, Junji; Wang, Xinming; Zhong, Liuju; Bi, Xinhui; Li, Hong; Liu, Wenxin; Zhu, Tong; Huang, Wei

    2013-04-01

    Health effects attributable to air pollution exposure in Chinese population have been least understood. The authors conducted a meta-analysis on 33 time-series and case-crossover studies conducted in China to assess mortality effects of short-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 and 2.5 ?m (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). Significant associations between air pollution exposure and increased mortality risks were observed in the pooled estimates for all pollutants of interest. In specific, each 10 ?g/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.38% (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.31, 0.45) increase in total mortality, a 0.51% (95% CI: 0.30, 0.73) in respiratory mortality, and a 0.44% (95% CI: 0.33, 0.54) in cardiovascular mortality. When current annual PM2.5 levels in mega-Chinese cities to be reduced to the WHO Air Quality Guideline (AQG) of 10 ?g/m(3), mortality attributable to short-term exposure to PM2.5 could be reduced by 2.7%, 1.7%, 2.3%, and 6.2% in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an, respectively. The authors recommend future studies on the nature of air pollution concentration and health effect relationships in Chinese population to support setting stringent air quality standards to improve public health. PMID:23434817

  11. Short-term effect of ambient air pollution on COPD mortality in four Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Wang, Cuicui; Cao, Dachun; Wong, Chit-Ming; Kan, Haidong

    2013-10-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity; however, few studies have examined the short-term effect of air pollution specifically on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity world wide. In this analysis, we examined the associations between daily air pollution levels [particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and COPD mortality in four Chinese cities. We used Poisson regression models with natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trends of COPD mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We did a meta-analysis to obtain the 4-city average estimates. Air pollution (PM10, SO2, and NO2) was found to be associated with increased risk of COPD mortality in these four cities. Using the random-effects model, an increase of 10 ?g m-3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 0.78% (95% CI, 0.13-1.42), 1.30% (95% CI, 0.61-1.99), and 1.78% (95% CI, 1.10-2.46) increase of COPD mortality, respectively. The concentration-response curves indicated linear associations without threshold. Only NO2 remained significant in the multi-pollutant models. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-city study in Asian developing region to report the short-term effect of air pollution on COPD mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effects of air pollution on COPD mortality for high exposure settings typical in developing countries.

  12. Effects of Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution on Respiratory Health of Chinese Children from 50 Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Huang, Mei-Meng; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Ren, Wan-Hui; Zhao, Ya-Dong; He, Qin-Cheng; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Background Concentrations of ambient air pollution and pollutants in China have changed considerably during the last decade. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of current ambient air pollution on the health of kindergarten children. Methods We studied 6730 Chinese children (age, 3–7 years) from 50 kindergartens in 7 cities of Northeast China in 2009. Parents or guardians completed questionnaires that asked about the children’s histories of respiratory symptoms and risk factors. Three-year concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxides (NO2) were calculated at monitoring stations in 25 study districts. A 2-stage regression approach was used in data analyses. Results The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher among children living near a busy road, those living near chimneys or a factory, those having a coal-burning device, those living with smokers, and those living in a home that had been recently renovated. Among girls, PM10 was associated with persistent cough (odds ratio [OR]PM10 = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18–1.77), persistent phlegm (ORPM10 = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02–1.81), and wheezing (ORPM10 = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04–1.65). NO2 concentration was associated with increased prevalence of allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.27–3.02) among girls. In contrast, associations of respiratory symptoms with concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 were not statistically significant among boys. Conclusions Air pollution is particularly important in the development of respiratory morbidity among children. Girls may be more susceptible than boys to air pollution. PMID:23728483

  13. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  14. Associations between ambient air pollution and prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases in 33 Chinese communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Wang, Jing; Chen, Weiqing; Ma, Wenjun; Trevathan, Edwin; Xaverius, Pamela K.; DeClue, Richard; Wiese, Andrew; Langston, Marvin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Inconsistent results have been reported that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to examine whether the exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with the prevalence of stroke and CVDs among people living in a heavy industrial province of northeast China, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 24,845 Chinese adults, ages 18-74 years old, from 33 communities in the 11 districts of the three Northeastern Chinese Cities during 2009. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and Ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. We used two-level logistic regressions models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. We found significant associations between PM10 and SO2 levels and stroke prevalence after accounting for important covariates: the adjusted odds ratio for stroke increased by 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.30) per 19 ?g m-3 increase in PM10, and 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01-1.29) per 20 ?g m-3 increase in SO2, respectively. When stratified analysis by gender, these associations were significant only in men, but not in women. In conclusion, this study shows the association between long-term exposure to PM10 and SO2 and increased stroke prevalence, and the associations were more apparent in men than in women.

  15. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students are introduced to the concept of air quality by investigating the composition, properties, atmospheric layers and everyday importance of air. They explore the sources and effects of visible and invisible air pollution. By learning some fundamental meteorology concepts (air pressure, barometers, prediction, convection currents, temperature inversions), students learn the impact of weather on air pollution control and prevention. Looking at models and maps, they explore the consequences of pollutant transport via weather and water cycles. Students are introduced to acids, bases and pH, and the environmental problem of acid rain, including how engineers address this type of pollution. Using simple models, they study the greenhouse effect, the impact of increased greenhouse gases on the planet's protective ozone layer and the global warming theory. Students explore the causes and effects of the Earth's ozone holes through an interactive simulation. Students identify the types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home, evaluating actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. By building and observing a few simple models of pollutant recovery methods, students explore the modern industrial technologies designed by engineers to clean up and prevent air pollution.

  16. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papetti, R.A.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1971-01-01

    Air pollution is an old problem to large-town dwellers, but a new and urgent one to people in many other parts of the world. This article discusses its sources, distribution, harmful effects, and mathematical modelling. As the pace of industrialization increases, the relatively simple and inexpensive measures that reduce only part of the pollutant emissions become inadequate, and much more costly changes must be made. In such circumstances, much expense and inconvenience may be saved by using mathematical models of pollutant transport, photochemical reaction, and dispersion to determine the best way to maintain the desired air quality throughout a populated region.

  17. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2on, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  18. Air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last decade that measurements to PM2.5 become more widely available. A key weakness of many studies is using fixed-site monitoring data and assuming everyone in a region had the same exposure. This ignores spatial variability, and does not take into account how individuals' exposures differ with pollution sources inside, outside, both at work, home and elsewhere. More recent efforts to model indicators of vehicular traffic, and residential distances to major roads and highway can allow for some of this spatial variability to be better controlled for. However, this still does not take into account differences in activity patterns. If the effect is small, these biases will compromise the ability to detect an association. In most situations, the resulting estimates tend to be biased toward the null (i.e., no effect). For misclassification of exposure the inability to adequately control for confounding variables may cause bias in either direction. Recent improvements in statistical methodology use measurements at fixed sites combined with residential histories to estimate individuals' cumulative exposures. They also recognize measurement errors associated with covariates in the analysis to improve estimates of effects. Other challenges include the fact that measurements of exposure and confounders can change over time and long term data are needed due to the anticipated latency interval between harmful exposures and development of cancer. PMID:21199603

  19. Effect of pet ownership on respiratory responses to air pollution in Chinese children: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Dong, Guang-Hui; Ren, Wan-Hui; Simckes, Maayan; Wang, Jing; Zelicoff, Alan; Trevathan, Edwin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies examining pet ownership as a risk factor for respiratory conditions have yielded inconsistent results. Little is known about whether or not pet ownership modifies the relationship between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. In order to evaluate the interaction between pet and air pollution on respiratory health in children, we recruited 30,149 children, aged 2-12 years, from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China. Parents of the children completed questionnaires that characterized the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illnesses and associated risk factors. Average ambient annual exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were estimated from monitoring stations in each of the 25 study districts. The results showed that among children without pets at home, there were statistically significant associations between both recent exacerbations of asthma among physician-diagnosed asthmatics and respiratory symptoms and all pollutants examined. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.26] to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.24-1.61) per 31 ?g m-3 for PM10, whereas, among children with pets at home, there were no effects or small effects for either asthma or the symptoms. The interactions between dog ownership and PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 were statistically significant, such that children with a dog at home had lower reporting of both current asthma and current wheeze. In conclusion, this study suggests that pet ownership decreased the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and asthma among Chinese children.

  20. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  1. Reductions in emissions of local air pollutants and co-benefits of Chinese energy policy: a Shanghai case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To better understand the reductions in local air pollution that will result from the implementation of current Chinese energy policy, as well as the co-benefit for greenhouse-gas emission reductions, a Shanghai case study was conducted. The MARKAL model was used to forecast energy consumption and emissions of local air pollutants under different energy policy scenarios and also to analyze the associated reductions in CO2 emissions. The results show that energy policies in Shanghai will significantly reduce SO2 and PM1 emissions and will also achieve the co-benefit of mitigating the increase of CO2 emissions. In energy policy scenarios, SO2 emissions during the period 2000-2020 will maintain the same level as in 2000; and the annual rate of increase of CO2 emissions will be reduced to 1.1-1.2%, compared with 2.7% under a business-as-usual scenario. The problem for the future will be NO x emissions, which are projected to increase by 60-70% by 2020, due to expansion of the transportation system

  2. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, H. H.; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include re...

  3. Six Common Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA's site about the six common air pollutants is a great resource for the public, or for anyone studying or teaching about air pollution and other environmental issues. Air pollution trends are outlined on the site and a brief backround shows highlights of air pollutant history including the Clean Air Act and different standards. This site is a great place to find the most recent information about air pollutants and quality in the U.S.

  4. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  5. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns that are difficult to quantify using questionnaire-based measurements. Epidemiologic studies, health risk assessments, and intervention programs would benefit from a better understanding of the sources impacting PM exposure among populations in developing countries.

  6. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the winter of 1988-1989, parents of 2,789 elementary school students completed standardized questionnaires. The students were 5-14 years of age and were from three urban districts and one suburban district of three large Chinese cities. The 4-y average ambient levels of ...

  7. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barletta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses, we focused on characterizing the VOC composition of these different pollution plumes. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HCFC-134a.

    Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some of the Chinese plumes, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution in the Chinese pollution plumes and the correlations among selected compounds, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than the use of a single gas, to be used as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  8. Indoor air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents an overview of indoor air pollution control. Asbestos, combustion-generated pollutants, and radon are among the problems considered. Source control, policy and regulatory considerations, and air quality diagnostics are discussed

  9. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  10. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Weinheimer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses we characterized their VOC composition and we compared their background levels with those obtained during the 2004 INTEX-A mission. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HFC-134a.

    Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some Chinese plume samples, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution and correlations within the Chinese pollution plumes and applying principal component analysis (PCA, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than a single gas, as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  11. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  12. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  13. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  14. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  15. Air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book presents theory and application data as related to air pollution control. A suitable background is provided relevant to behavior theories and control techniques for capturing gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The significant application data available are summarized and combined with the theories to provide a needed relation between the two. Numerous detailed example problems are worked throughout the book to serve as guides in the use of both the theoretical relationships and the data. General information on air pollution control is presented, with emphasis on what can be done to minimize pollution emissions while conserving energy. Problem areas of interest include particulate and gas control mechanisms, control devices, and control systems

  16. Sensing Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about electricity and air pollution while building devices to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) by attaching VOC sensors to prototyping boards. In the second part of the activity, students evaluate the impact of various indoor air pollutants using the devices they made.

  17. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  18. Air pollution and health.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To review the effects of air pollution on health, with special reference to data obtained locally in Hong Kong. DATA SOURCES. Medline literature search (1960-1999), websites of the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong, and a report from the Sub-Working Group on the Review of Hong Kong's Air Quality Objectives, 1999. STUDY SELECTION. Key words for the literature search were 'air pollution' and 'health'. DATA EXTRACTION. The author ...

  19. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  20. UK Air Pollution Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourly updates of levels of benzyne, 1-3 butadiene, ozone, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles in Britain's air are accessible at the UK Air Pollution Bulletin Website. Provided by the United Kingdom Department of Transport, Environment and the Regions, this site gives air quality information along with yearly average concentrations of the above-mentioned chemicals, graphical summaries, historical summaries, and maps and information about monitoring sites. The data pages are arranged in a versatile way so that users can view information by geographic site, pollutant, or year. Daily, weekly, and annual summaries of pollutant concentrations are available.

  1. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  2. Air pollution and asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The role of air pollution in the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma has been widely debated, but results to date indicate that the normally encountered levels of air pollution are unlikely to contribute to a worsening of asthma. When the levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2) are exceptionally high it is possible that asthmatic patients may have increased symptoms after exertion, since this irritant gas acts as a trigger to bronchoconstriction. There is also evidence that suspended particl...

  3. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)d World countries. (author)

  4. Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H.; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj?=?0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj?=?0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj?=?0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj?=?0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj?=?0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj?=?0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation. PMID:25019554

  5. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

  6. Air Pollution and Your Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Air Pollution and Your Brain URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Brain_Pollution_Test_2_Compressed.html Air Pollution ...

  7. Chinese atmospheric pollution measured from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-04-01

    In recent decades, China's struggles with air pollution have become a public health issue. Beijing is one of the most polluted places in the world, and air pollution levels were particularly bad in January 2013: Visibility was down to 100 meters, and rates of respiratory illness soared. In the region, air pollution is often worse in the winter.

  8. Air Pollution: What's the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

  9. Chinese Sulphur Dioxide Emissions and Local Environment Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2014-01-01

    During the last 30 years Chinese economy has increased rapidly. The pollution of air in many Chinese cities exceeds both national and international standards due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and increased energy consumption. At present China becomes the highest sulphur dioxide emitter in the world due to its reliance on coal for energy generation. The Government of China has taken different steps to reduce sulphur dioxide and succeeded from the 11th Five-Year Plan. Breathing in s...

  10. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  11. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  12. Air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the development of air pollution abatement techniques advances, the legal and administrative regulations fix ever smaller values for the maximum permissible concentrations of emissions. The actual limits are very low but cannot be observed unless the measurement techniques keep pace with the measuring requirements. There is a trend away from individual measurements towards mandatory continuous measurements for an uninterrupted control of industrial plants in accordance with the guidelines fixed to evaluate the respective limiting values. This volume introduces modern air pollution monitoring methods and discusses their limits and the difficulties which remain to be overcome. (orig./BBR)

  13. Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO2 concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only provie heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone

  14. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ). Be...

  15. Respiratory Health and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications & Projects Related Articles Terminology Respiratory Health & Air Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir  Transportation- ... vehicles contribute to more than 50% of air pollution in urban areas. The design of communities and ...

  16. Air Pollution and Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test_2_Compressed.html Air Pollution and Your Brain HealthDay News Video - April 24, 2015 To use ... enable JavaScript. Play video: Air Pollution and Your Brain For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  17. Air Pollution and the skin

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTINAVRETTOUANTONIOU

    2014-01-01

    The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides, particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants ma...

  18. Allergic diseases and air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Suh-young; Chang, Yoon-seok; Cho, Sang-heon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbat...

  19. Changing air pollution in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the changing character of London air pollution over approximately the last thirty years. The killer smogs of earlier years have disappeared, only to be replaced by other pollutants. Levels of sulfur dioxide, smoke, and lead have been reduced, but nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels have increased. The emphasis for air pollution control is now on motor vehicles, particularly automobiles, which are now the main source of air pollution in London

  20. In Search of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  1. Air Pollution and Your Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news/Brain_Pollution_Test_2_Compressed.html Air Pollution and Your Brain HealthDay News Video - April 24, ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Air Pollution and Your Brain For closed captioning, click the ...

  2. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  3. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  4. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  5. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra-vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disea...

  6. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed

  7. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

  8. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  9. ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

  10. Air Pollution and Your Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test_2_Compressed.html Air Pollution and Your Brain HealthDay News Video - April 24, 2015 To use ... enable JavaScript. Play video: Air Pollution and Your Brain For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  11. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejder Kardesoglu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the environmental problems that threaten the public health. The air is a gas mixture. Air pollution is defined as the existence in the amount of pollutants harmful to humans and other organisms in the atmosphere as a result of the natural or human activity thereby changing to the gas rates in the air. The negative effects of pollution-causing particles on the health are closely related to the chemical structure of particles, whether causing a fibrotic reaction, whether having an amorphous shape and the aerodynamic diameters of particles. The particles larger than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter can not reach up to the alveoli, and can be removed by mucociliary system. If the particles are smaller than 10 microns, these particles can reach to the alveoli, and are closely associated with the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The concentration of these particles (PM10 is used as an indicator of pollution, and creates the basis for air quality index. Air pollution has several negative effects such as blood pressure changes, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress etc. In this review, the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system will be examined, and the importance of this issue will be emphasized. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 97-106

  12. Air pollution control in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to rapid spurt in industrialization in India, people were used to inhale pure air containing about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and some carbon dioxide. But afterwards this composition of pure air was disturbed as a result of increased economic activities. Air, now a days also contains sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides etc., etc. which are extremely harmful for human health. Virulence of air pollution was realised in late eighties after Bhopal Gas Tragedy (BGT) and an effective air quality management started taking shape in India afterwards. The basic components of air quality management are legislation and regulations, emission inventory, air quality standards and monitoring, air dispersion models and installation of pollution control equipment which are being discussed in this paper. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  14. Marketplace solutions to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltz-Petrash, A.

    1980-01-01

    To encourage the achievement of clean air standards, EPA has proposed new pollution reduction methods and incentives. The mechanics and costs of the bubbling process are outlined. Cost savings and procedural format from offset arrangements, pollution banking, and emission fees are described. The new approaches are flexible and should encourage industries to participate in developing implementation procedures at the state level. (3 diagrams)

  15. Air Pollution and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTINAVRETTOUANTONIOU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  16. Hazardous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents an overview of the requirements of Title 3 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. The following topics are included: listed air toxics; sources covered by the program; standards for regulation of air toxics; area source program; air toxics permit program; prevention of accidental releases; and duties of the Risk Assessment and Management Commission

  17. Air Pollution Training Institute Virtual Classroom: Basic Air Pollution Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) course uses video presentations, text materials, and reading assignments to present basic meteorology, meteorological effects on air pollution, meteorological instrumentation, air quality modeling, and regulatory programs requiring a knowledge of meteorology. It consists of seven lessons that cover solar and terrestrial radiation, cyclones and anticyclones, wind speed and direction, atmospheric circulation, and many other topics. To finish the course, an online quiz is offered. Students may take the quiz for APTI Continuing Education Unit (CEU) credits; registration is required to receive CEU credits.

  18. Air pollution control

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasides, George A.

    1994-01-01

    There are many different views as to what constitutes pollution of the atmosphere. To some people pollution implies the increase, or even decrease of any atmospheric constituent from the value that would have existed without human activity. Given that our planent atmoshere has undergone profound changes in its constitution throughout its lifetime and the volcanic errotions forest fires and sand storms cause marked local and regional variations in atmospheric constit...

  19. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs

  20. Increasing external effects negate local efforts to control ozone air pollution: a case study of Hong Kong and implications for other Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Blake, Donald R; Xu, Zheng

    2014-09-16

    It is challenging to reduce ground-level ozone (O3) pollution at a given locale, due in part to the contributions of both local and distant sources. We present direct evidence that the increasing regional effects have negated local control efforts for O3 pollution in Hong Kong over the past decade, by analyzing the daily maximum 8 h average O3 and Ox (=O3+NO2) concentrations observed during the high O3 season (September-November) at Air Quality Monitoring Stations. The locally produced Ox showed a statistically significant decreasing trend over 2002-2013 in Hong Kong. Analysis by an observation-based model confirms this decline in in situ Ox production, which is attributable to a reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the regional background Ox transported into Hong Kong has increased more significantly during the same period, reflecting contributions from southern/eastern China. The combined result is a rise in O3 and a nondecrease in Ox. This study highlights the urgent need for close cross-boundary cooperation to mitigate the O3 problem in Hong Kong. China's air pollution control policy applies primarily to its large cities, with little attention to developing areas elsewhere. The experience of Hong Kong suggests that this control policy does not effectively address secondary pollution, and that a coordinated multiregional program is required. PMID:25133661

  1. Associations of particulate air pollution and daily mortality in 16 Chinese cities: An improved effect estimate after accounting for the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People typically spend most of their time indoors. We modeled the daily indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin using a set of exposure parameters, including the fraction of residences with air conditionings (AC), the fraction of time that windows are closed when cooling occurs for buildings with AC, the fractions of time that windows are open or closed for buildings with or without AC, the particle penetration factors, air change rates, and surface removal rate constant of PM10. We calculated the time-weighted average of the simulated indoor PM10 concentration of outdoor origin and the original recorded outdoor PM10 concentration. We then evaluated the acute effects of PM10 using traditional and amended exposure metrics in 16 Chinese cities. Compared with the original estimates, the new effect estimates almost doubled, with improved model fit and attenuated between-city heterogeneity. Conclusively, this proposed exposure assessment approach could improve the effect estimates of ambient particles. -- Highlights: •We accounted for the indoor exposure to ambient particles in time-series studies of 16 Chinese cities. •The proposed exposure assessment method generally doubled the effect estimates. •The proposed exposure assessment method increased the statistical assurance of a significant effect of PM10. •The proposed exposure assessment method improved the model fit with daily mortality. •The proposed exposure assessment method attenuated between-city heterogeneity of PM's effects. -- Accounting for the indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin in the exposure assessment could improve the effect estimates of ambient PM10

  2. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  3. Volcanic Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenomenon is a series of photographs of 'vog' or volcanic smog caused by the long-lasting eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Text included with the images describes how vog is created. An additional digitally enhanced map shows effects of trade winds on pollution concentration.

  4. Air pollution control equipment calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis

    2008-01-01

    Unique problem-and-solution approach for quickly mastering a broad range of calculations This book''s problem-and-solution approach enables readers to quickly grasp the fundamentals of air pollution control equipment and essential applications. Moreover, the author sets forth solid principles for the design and selection of air pollution control equipment as well as for its efficient operation and maintenance. Readers gain a deep understanding of both the equipment itself and the many factors affecting performance. Following two introductory chapters, the book dedicates four chapters to examining control equipment for gaseous pollutants, including adsorption, absorption, and incineration equipment. The remaining six chapters deal with equipment for managing airborne particulate pollutants, including gravity settlers, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers, and baghouses. The appendix contains discussions of hybrid systems, the SI system (including conversion constants), and a cost-equipment model. E...

  5. Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China: The Possibility and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Sun; Zhuyezi Sun

    2009-01-01

    The air environmental pollutants exhausted by China have attracted the attention from the world, especially the neighboring countries including Japan. Japan has put forward a conceived model named Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China. This article analyzes the background and causations of air environmental pollution problems in China, and the efforts that Chinese government has made in energy conservation and lessening the pollutants exhaust of car. On this basis, we anal...

  6. Air pollution: brown skies research.

    OpenAIRE

    Tattersfield, A E

    1996-01-01

    Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during hi...

  7. Air-Pollutant-Philic Plants for Air Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromichi Morikawa; Misa Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    In this communication, we review our work over two decades on air-pollutant-philic plants that can grow with air pollutants as the sole nutrient source. We believe that such plants are instrumental in mitigating air pollution. Our target air pollutant has been atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and our work on this subject has consisted of three parts: Variation in plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants among naturally occurring plants, genetic improvement of plants’ abilities to mitig...

  8. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  9. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  10. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency. PMID:21440303

  11. Geostatistical models for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

  12. Leaves and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Laposata

    In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

  13. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...pollution warning, or air pollution emergency...accumulation of air pollutants in any place is...or has reached, levels that could lead...buildup of air pollutants. (ii) Air pollution alert...of the following levels is reached,...

  14. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  15. Air Pollution and Your Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Air Pollution and Your Brain URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  16. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  17. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  18. Air pollution and lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro research (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

  19. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Jan 9,2014 Whether you live in a city where smog forecasts ... routine or in a less populated place, tiny pollution particles in the air can lead to big ...

  20. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  1. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  2. Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Michelle L.; Caldero?n-garciduen?as, Lilian

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution...

  3. Air pollution in Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

  4. Air Pollution, Economic Development of Communities, and Health Status Among the Elderly in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Rongjun; Gu, Danan

    2008-01-01

    In Western societies, the impact of air pollution on residents' health is higher in less wealthy communities. However, it is not clear whether such an interaction effect applies to developing countries. The authors examine how the level of community development modifies the impact of air pollution on health outcomes of the Chinese elderly using data from the third wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey in 2002, which includes 7,358 elderly residents aged 65 or more years fro...

  5. Pollution Law - Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.)

  6. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO, indicating possible volcanic emissions from the Indonesian islands to the South and East and the Philippines to the North East. The regional pollution seems to be influenced by emissions from Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia and Peninsula Malaysia, and on occasion by anthropogenic emissions from Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, and China.

  7. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a givenveral elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  8. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  9. Air pollution and motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the effects of fuel chemical composition and fuel-air mixture on the composition of combustion exhaust gases produced by automotive spark ignition and diesel engines. This analysis considers several aspects: the merits of unleaded gasolines, Italian legal limits on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline, limits on the sulfur content of diesel fuels, and proposed European Communities limits on automobile air pollution. The paper concludes with an assessment of the cost effective performance of different types of catalytic converters now available on the market

  10. Slovenia air pollution master plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenia was the northernmost republic of Yugoslavia. It is now independent. It has a very high level of air pollution, this has damaged the forests - an important national resource. It also intends joining the European Union, so pollution levels must be brought down to EU standards. Firstly, current emissions must be accurately monitored, then EU pollution standards must be incorporated into national law. WHO guidelines are being used for SO2 control. Current Slovenian standards cover SO2, NOx and particulates. They are up to EU standards. Monitoring has been performed by the Hydrometeorological Institute of Slovenia (HM2). Data from these surveys are being used in air pollution control planning. Public health is of particular concern. The major sources of SO2 emissions are three coal fired power plants. Sostanj has recently been fitted with limestone injection systems, FGD was considered too expensive. Trboulje is more likely to be replaced than retrofitted, at Moste two units will be replaced while a third will be retrofitted with FGD. Wood, coal, gas-oil, natural gas and district heating are all used for domestic premises - domestic heating contributes 12% of SO2 emissions. There should be a switch to cleaner fuels. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, A. J.; Pope, C A

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung ca...

  12. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a lot of reasons why emissions of air pollutants have to be reduced. Acid deposition and its consequences are among them, but they are not the only ones. This paper presents the comprehensive legal basis of air pollution control policy in Switzerland as well as the overall air pollution control strategy. The present situation with respect to air pollution is discussed. A list of implemented and planned measures is given as well as emission trends of major air pollutants from 1950 to 2010. 6 refs., 1 fig

  13. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Vara Prasad Y; Mirza Sami Baig; Mishra, Rahul K.; Rajalakshmi, P.; Desai, U. B.; Merchant, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN) on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for ...

  14. Air pollution management in Sao Paulo City: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air pollution management program of Sao Paulo is described. Areas discussed are air quality monitoring, the present status of air pollution, air pollution control administration, pollutant sources, air pollution effects on human health, air pollution control techniques, and the Brazilian automotive emission control program

  15. Air pollution measurement in Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution in Dhaka City has become an alarming issue in recent days. Unless necessary measures are taken for the abatement of air pollution, it is going to bring adverse consequences inhuman lives. The aim of this work is to measure air pollutants of different parts of Dhaka City and also to determine breathing air quality. The field experiments revealed the concentrations of RDP (Respirable Dust Particle) suspended in air, Nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and Sulfur dioxides (So/sub 2/). A respirable dust sampler was employed to measure the concentrations of air pollutants. This work also covers an in depth study of types of air pollutants, sources, effects on human and materials and ways of controlling air pollution. This investigation is an endeavor to start a systematic collection of technical information with reliable chemical analysis using available equipment. (author)

  16. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures.

  17. A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

  18. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  19. Radioactive pollution of atmospheric air at ground level in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of studies on radioactive pollution of the atmospheric air at the ground level in Poland during 1975-1977. The methods of sample collection and measurements are described. The mean monthly values of concentration of the following radioisotopes were determined: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 125Sb, 131J, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce. The analysis of each particular artificia radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland results from Chinese nuclear explosions is given. The equivalent doses received by the lungs, bones and the whole body as a result of inhaling radioactive isotopes from the air are determined. (author)

  20. CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES OF CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes the key health information on ubiquitous outdoor air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects at current or historical ambient levels in the United States. Of the thousands of air pollutants, very few meet this definition. The Clean Air Act (CA...

  1. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries. PMID:21714382

  2. Mesoscale air pollution dispersion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dop, H.; De Haan, B. J.

    An air pollution model is developed which describes the transport of pollutants on a scale of 500 × 500 km2. This corresponds with episodes of a few days. In the model a detailed description is given of the vertical diffusion processes under different stability conditions. Also much effort is put into the determination of the horizontal mean wind field, which is strongly non-homogeneous and non-stationary on the above space- and timescales. The transport equation is numerically solved. For the advective part a pseudo-spectral scheme was applied. The vertical diffusion is treated with a Crank-Nicolson scheme. Dry deposition is included in the model in a way which accounts for the chemical properties of pollutant and soil. Wet deposition and chemical transport are included by simple linear decay terms. The model is tested in a complex source area (Netherlands and surrounding countries), during a fair weather episode on 29 and 30 May 1978. The model gives a satisfactory description of the fumigation process. Also other diurnal variations in atmospheric stability are well reflected in the concentration distribution The effect of dry deposition is studied. The moderate computer time requirements make the model particularly apt for practical applications.

  3. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the pres...

  4. Ozone, air pollution, and respiratory health.

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, W S

    1991-01-01

    Of the outdoor air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act of 1970 (and recently revised in 1990), ozone has been the one pollutant most difficult to control within the federal standards. The known human health effects are all on the respiratory system. At concentrations of ozone which occur during summer air-pollution episodes in many urban metropolitan areas of the United States, a portion of the healthy population is likely to experience symptoms and reversible effects on lung function, ...

  5. Emission scenario model for regional air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Karvosenoja, Niko

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution emissions are produced in a wide variety of sources. They often result in detrimental impacts on both environments and human populations. To assess the emissions and impacts of air pollution, mathematical models have been developed. This study presents results from the application of an air pollution emission model, the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model, that covers the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), non-methane volatile or...

  6. Outdoor Air Pollutants and Patient Health

    OpenAIRE

    Laumbach, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Almost 160 million persons live in areas of the United States that exceed federal health-based air pollution standards. The two air pollutants that most commonly exceed standards are ozone and particulate matter. Ozone and particulate matter can harm anyone if levels are sufficiently elevated, but health risk from air pollution is greatest among vulnerable populations. Both ozone and particulate matter can cause pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function, and exacerbation of asthma and c...

  7. Indoor Air Pollution and Asthma in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Breysse, Patrick N.; Diette, Gregory B.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Mccormack, Meredith C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review indoor air pollution factors that can modify asthma severity, particularly in inner-city environments. While there is a large literature linking ambient air pollution and asthma morbidity, less is known about the impact of indoor air pollution on asthma. Concentrating on the indoor environments is particularly important for children, since they can spend as much as 90% of their time indoors. This review focuses on studies conducted by the Johns Hopkins...

  8. Air pollution and asthma severity in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Rage, Estelle; Siroux, Valérie; Künzli, Nino; Pin, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that exposure to air pollution affects asthma, but the effect of air pollution on asthma severity has not been addressed. The aim was to assess the relation between asthma severity during the past 12 months and home outdoor concentrations of air pollution. METHODS: Asthma severity over the past 12 months was assessed in two complementary ways among 328 adult asthmatics from the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGE...

  9. Biological monitors of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

  10. Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

  11. Air pollution model for point source

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Ma?ala; Viliam Carach

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical models of air pollution have a broad practical application. They are irreplaceable wherever it is not possible to determine a state of air pollution by measuring of a noxious agent concentration. By creating of a suitable model of air pollution we can assess a state of the air quality but we also to predict the pollution that can occur at given atmospheric conditions. The created model is a suitable tool for controlling the activity of TEKO and for the evaluation of the quality o...

  12. Urban air pollution climates throughout the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditions as well as the transport in and out of the city area. The building obstacles play a crucial role in causing generally high pollutant levels in the urban environment, especially inside street canyons where the canyon vortex flow governs the pollution distribution. Of the pollutants dominating urban air pollution climates, particulate pollution in general together with gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals are those where further field measurements, characterization and laboratory studies are urgently needed in order to fully assess the health impact on the urban population and provide the right basis for future urban air pollution management. © Royal Society of Chemistry 2009.

  13. Exercise Beneficial Even in Polluted Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151795.html Exercise Beneficial Even in Polluted Air: Study Negative effects ... 1, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The health benefits of exercise appear to outweigh the potential harm of air ...

  14. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  15. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  16. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    International trade affects global air pollution and transport by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services and by potentially altering the total amount of global emissions. Here we analyze the trade influences by combining an economic-emission analysis on China’s bilateral trade and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. Our focused analysis on US air quality shows that Chinese air pollution related to production for exports contributes, at a maximum on a daily...

  17. Catalytic control of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the quality of our environment has become a growing concern in this country and around the globe. Research efforts in this field have recently been accelerated by the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act. This book reports on a symposium that is part of a continuing series on the surface science of catalysis. Including stationary and mobile source chapters alike in one volume allows the reader to note the similarities and differences between the two fields and possibly to apply ideas from one area to the other. The coverage is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as a survey of some of the most current topics of interest in this field. The intended audience for this book is the chemist or engineer interested in pollution control, or prevention, or both in the automotive, chemical, petroleum, and other industries, or otherwise involved in the environmental applications of catalysts

  18. AIR POLLUTION ASPECTS OF SLUDGE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration offers the opportunity to reduce municipal sludge to a sterile landfill and remove offensive factors, but it also has the potential to be a significant contributor to the air pollution problem in an urban community. This publication explains the air pollution problem...

  19. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

  20. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. Health, Wealth, and Air Pollution: Advancing Theory and Methods. Environ Health Perspect. 2003: 111: 1861- ... Bard D. Influence of Socioeconomic Deprivation on the Relation Between Air Pollution and ... Int J Environ Res Public Health . 2011; 8: 1755-1771. 88 . Bell ML, ...

  1. Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Maura Lodovici; Elisabetta Bigagli

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM?

  2. Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

  3. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Grignani; Laura Zavattaro; Francesco Alluvione; Chiara Bertora

    2010-01-01

    The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agri...

  4. Model For Indoor Dispersion Of Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?tefan, Sabina; Filip, Lumini?a; Rusu-Zagar, Gilda; Stepa, Raluca

    2007-04-01

    A model for computing the time evolution of concentrations of various air pollutants in closed working areas was constructed. The model uses a partition of the working unit in a convenient number of cells with known transfer and ventilation air fluxes. Then, a time-dependent injection of pollutants occurring in various sites of the working space determine the subsequent evolution of pollutant concentrations in all the compartments of the partition.

  5. Air pollution in China, with Junfeng (Jim) Zhang by Ashley Ahearn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2011-06-01

    Air pollution in China, one of the world’s oldest civilizations, reflects a combination of traditional and modern-day factors. Severe air pollution in Chinese cities is the result of rapid industrialization, urbanization, and growth in vehicle use. At the same time, traditional indoor burning of solid fuels such as coal and dung presents acute, severe exposures to pollutants including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, arsenic, and mercury. In this podcast, Junfeng (Jim) Zhang tells host Ashley Ahearn about some of the factors that make air pollution a significant problem in China. PMID:21780318

  6. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  7. Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuh-Chin T

    2014-10-01

    Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice. PMID:25285972

  8. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  9. Some measurements of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

  10. Influence of air pollution on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi? Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

  11. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  12. Statistical aspects of air pollution quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the relations between the level of air pollutant concentration, its exposure time and its frequency of occurrence, as well as their associated adverse effects on man, would be the first step of establishing air quality standards, and through such standards we can establish a reasonable land utilization plan. The general models of air pollutant distributions are discussed in the first half of the paper from both theoretical and actual points. Then three typical properties of air pollutant concentration, i.e. exceeding probability, maximum value, and exceeding number, are introduced. Arrowhead chart model is one of the main informations from air pollution issue, which is discussed in the latter half. (author)

  13. Air pollution dispersion within urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taseiko, Olga V.; Mikhailuta, Sergey V.; Pitt, Anne; Lezhenin, Anatoly A.; Zakharov, Yuri V.

    A semi-empirical mathematical model, Urban Street Model (USM), is proposed to efficiently estimate the dispersion of vehicular air pollution in cities. This model describes urban building arrangements by combining building density, building heights and the permeability of building arrangements relative to wind flow. To estimate the level of air pollution in the city of Krasnoyarsk (in Eastern Siberia), the spatial distribution of pollutant concentrations off roadways is calculated using Markov's processes in USM. The USM-predicted numerical results were compared with field measurements and with results obtained from other frequently used models, CALINE-4 and OSPM. USM consistently yielded the best results. OSPM usually overestimated pollutant concentration values. CALINE-4 consistently underestimated these values. For OSPM, the maximum differences were 160% and for CALINE-4 about 400%. Permeability and building density are necessary parameters for accurately modeling urban air pollution and influencing regulatory requirements for building planning.

  14. Event Processing in Air Pollution Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongSuk Ruth Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is very necessary to detect the environmental conditions of remote places in real time in order to prevent natural disasters such as a flood, a typhoon, an earthquake, and breaks of an embankment. In this paper, we present the event processing in air pollution monitoring system by using geosensor network and spatial information. This system detects sign of air pollution, recognizes the pollution event, and provides the alarm message for predicted dangerous area in near future. The system utilizes sensor data abstraction, context model, and pollution spread model to recognize the pollution events. The designed event process is useful in a monitoring service such as a home network, pollution and ecosystem monitoring, battle field analysis with reconnaissance, and transportation control.

  15. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    OpenAIRE

    Weinheimer, A. J.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Mckeachie, R. J.; Novak, B. J.; Midyett, J. R.; Yang, M.; Blake, N. J.; Baker, A. K.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Atlas, E. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B) aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air ...

  16. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  17. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents information on the effects of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and acidic disposition on terrestrial ecosystems. A brief explanation of ecosystem dynamics is presented to provide a framework for discussion of air pollutant effects. D...

  18. Plant response to air pollution. Book chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.A.; Tingey, D.T.; Andersen, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. Since leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbon fixation by the plant canopy. Air pollutants that are first deposited on the soil, such as heavy metals, first affect the functioning of roots and interfere with soil resource capture by the plant. These reductions in resource capture (production of carbohydrate through photosynthesis, mineral nutrient uptake and water uptake from the soil) will affect plant growth through changes in resource allocation to the various plant structures. When air pollution stress co-occurs with other stresses, e.g. water stress, the outcome on growth will depend on a complex interaction of processes within the plant. In agroecosystems, these changes may be manifest in reduced economic yield.

  19. AIR POLLUTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased incidents of classic and variant forms of neurodegenerative diseases suggest that environmental chemicals and susceptibility factors (e.g., genetics, diseased states, obesity, etc.) may be contributory. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that is associat...

  20. Air pollution, public health, and inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostro, Bart David

    1980-01-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

  1. Interactions between air pollutants an plant parasites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heagle, A.S.

    1973-01-01

    A review and analysis is made of the interactions between air pollutants and plant parasites and disease vectors. In addition to chronicling the known interactions between pollutants and specific vectors, the author also points out areas where more research is needed.

  2. Global Air Quality and Climate Impacts of Mitigating Short-lived Climate Pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Heyes, C.; Kiesewetter, G.; Klimont, Z.; Schoepp, W.; Wagner, F.

    2014-12-01

    China is a major emitter of harmful air pollutants, including the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and their precursors. Implementation of pollution control technologies provides a mechanism for simultaneously protecting human and ecosystem health and achieving near-term climate co-benefits; however, predicting the outcomes of technical and policy interventions is challenging because the SLCPs participate in both climate warming and cooling and share many common emission sources. Here, we present the results of a combined regional integrated assessment and global climate modeling study aimed at quantifying the near-term climate and air quality co-benefits of selective control of Chinese air pollution emissions. Results from IIASA's Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated assessment model indicate that methane emission reductions make up > 75% of possible CO2-equivalent emission reductions of the SLCPs and their precursors in China in 2030. A multi-pollutant emission reduction scenario incorporating the 2030 Chinese pollution control measures with the highest potential for future climate impact is applied to the NASA ModelE2 - Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon - chemistry - climate model to assess the regional and long-range impacts of Chinese SLCP mitigation measures. Using model simulations that incorporate dynamic methane emissions and photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emissions, we quantify the impacts of Chinese reductions of the short-lived air pollutants on radiative forcing and on surface ozone and particulate air pollution. Present-day modeled methane mole fractions are evaluated against SCIAMACHY methane columns and NOAA ESRL/GMD surface flask measurements.

  3. Impact of Air Pollution on Allergic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Takizawa, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of allergic diseases in most industrialized countries has increased. Although the exact mechanisms behind this rapid increase in prevalence remain uncertain, a variety of air pollutants have been attracting attention as one causative factor. Epidemiological and toxicological research suggests a causative relationship between air pollution and the increased incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other allergic disorders. These include ozone, nitrogen dioxide and, especially ...

  4. Human health effects of air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Folinsbee, L J

    1993-01-01

    Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database. This review will emphasize studies of humans but will also draw on findings from the other disciplines. Air pollutants have been shown to cause responses rang...

  5. Measurements of air pollutants in the troposphere

    OpenAIRE

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis, or involve automated in-situ sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impact upon human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene), vegetation (ozone) or climate change (ozone, carbon dioxide, methane) and nitrous oxide). It begins with an...

  6. Effects of Air Pollutants on Childhood Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Ja-Kyoung; Son, Byong-Kwan; OH, JI-EUN; Lim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Hong, Youn-Chol; Cho, Sung-Il

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested the association between environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the increased risk of incurring asthma. Yet there is little data regarding the relationship between personal exposure to air pollution and the incidence of asthma in children. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of exposure to air pollution on children with asthma by using exposure biomarkers. We assessed the exposu...

  7. WSN For Air Pollution Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Talokar, Sonal O.; Manjusha Deshmukh

    2014-01-01

    Energy consumption by sensor node in Wireless Network is one of the important factors in Air Pollution Monitoring System. The paper aims to compare energy consumption with and without Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ) Data Aggregation Algorithm. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a developing technology which performs: sensing, gathering, measuring, transferring, etc. data to the database from the real world. The study emphasizes implementation, design and evaluation on WSN of Air Pollution ...

  8. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  9. Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters, and so to estimate their contribution on air pollution situation in this city. Overall measurement results indicate a critical situation of air pollution in this city, where pollutant concentrations exceed international recommendations. Because of in Albania these types of studies are very rare; the air pollution assessment in the capital city Tirana has an enormous importance not only for this city but also in general for entire the country.

  10. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  11. Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  12. [Air pollution and asthma in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzin, Philipp

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to outdoor air pollutants and passive tobacco smoke are common but avoidable worldwide risk factors for morbidity and mortality of individuals. In addition to well-known effects of pollutants on the cardiovascular system and the development of cancer, in recent years the association between air pollution and respiratory morbidity has become increasingly apparent. Not only in adults, but also in children with asthma and in healthy children a clear harmful effect of exposure towards air pollutants has been demonstrated in many studies. Among others increased pollution has been shown to result in more frequent and more severe respiratory symptoms, more frequent exacerbations, higher need for asthma medication, poorer lung function and increased visits to the emergency department and more frequent hospitalisations. While these associations are well established, the available data on the role of air pollution in the development of asthma seems less clear. Some studies have shown that increased exposure towards tobacco smoke and air pollution leads to an increase in asthma incidence and prevalence; others were not able to confirm those findings. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are different definitions of the outcome asthma, different methods for exposure estimation and differences in the populations studied with differing underlying genetic backgrounds. Regardless of this inconsistency, several mechanisms have already been identified linking air pollution with asthma development. Among these are impaired lung growth and development, immunological changes, genetic or epigenetic effects or increased predisposition for allergic sensitisation. What the exact interactions are and which asthmatic phenotypes will be influenced most by pollutants will be shown by future studies. This knowledge will then be helpful in exploring possible preventive measures for the individual and to help policy makers in deciding upon most appropriate regulations on a population level. PMID:24297855

  13. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Vara Prasad Y

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for sensing concentration of gases like CO2, NO2, CO and O2 are calibrated using appropriate calibration technologies. These pre-calibrated gas sensors are then integrated with the wireless sensor motes for field deployment at the campus and the Hyderabad city using multi hop data aggregation algorithm. A light weight middleware and a web interface to view the live pollution data in the form of numbers and charts from the test beds was developed and made available from anywhere on the internet. Other parameters like temperature and humidity were also sensed along with gas concentrations to enable data analysis through data fusion techniques. Experimentation carried out using the developed wireless air pollution monitoring system under different physical conditions show that the system collects reliable source of real time fine-grain pollution data.

  14. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. PMID:25108840

  15. Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinfeld, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

  16. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020, we predict health damages from air pollution exposure will quadruple and account for 8-16% of Zaozhuang's 2020 GDP. End-of-pipe controls could reduce the potential health damages from air pollution by 20% and a coal gasification polygeneration energy system could reduce it by 50% with only 24% penetration. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, could be achieved in eastern China through the use of currently available end-of-pipe controls; with further development, benefits from the use of advanced coal technology could be even larger.

  17. Pollutant dispersion models for issues of air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14 papers entered separately into the data base were presented at the meeting for application-oriented dispersion models for issues of air pollution control. These papers focus on fields of application, availability of required input data relevant to emissions and meteorology, performance and accuracy of these methods and their practicability. (orig./PW)

  18. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  19. Climatological variability in regional air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

  20. Pollution prevention and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  1. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  2. Air Pollution and Your Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & ... Pollution Brain Diseases Environmental Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to ...

  3. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  4. The effects of air pollution on children.

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, D. V.

    1995-01-01

    Air pollutants have been documented to be associated with a wide variety of adverse health impacts in children. These include increases in mortality in very severe episodes; an increased risk of perineonatal mortality in regions of higher pollution, and an increased general rate of mortality in children; increased acute respiratory disease morbidity; aggravation of asthma, as shown by increased hospital emergency visits or admissions as well as in longitudinal panel studies; increased prevale...

  5. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  6. the role of industry in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

  7. Air Pollution in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

    Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the model's performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.

  8. Air pollution modelling in Cape Town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dracoulides, D.A.; Dutkiewicz, R.K. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The degradation of air quality in the modern metropolitan areas has dictated the need to regulate the environmental effects of energy usage. In South Africa, the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act No. 45 of 1965 assisted in setting the basis for air-pollution control policies. An air pollution control programme, initiated in Cape Town in 1968, resulted in great improvement in the measured concentrations. Dispersion models provide the capability of assessing the effect of pollution control policies on ambient air quality. This presentation describes work carried out on a comparison of measured pollution levels in Greater Cape Town (GCT) with that predicted using an EPA environmental model. The chosen model for this study was the Industrial Source Complex Short Term 2 (ISCST2). Due allowance has to be made for the topographical complexity of the region, and the model is accepted as being applicable to certain areas under given meteorological conditions. The model`s accuracy is assessed with the use of available hourly SO{sub 2} concentrations, at three monitoring stations in the area and under different meteorological conditions

  9. Air pollution concentration around tall buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of pollutants around tall buildings can be influenced by many factors such as down wind effects, waves, airflow due to free convection of heat transfer, building height etc. The main objective of this research was the investigation of the variation of pollutants concentration at different heights around tall buildings. Research was carried out measuring parameters such as Co or particle concentration around tall buildings. This study provided the behavior pattern of air pollution concentration variation at different heights. A comparison was made with a theoretical convection model to verify the trend of experimental results

  10. Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving cargo. The air quality impacts of ports are significant, with particularly large emissions of diesel exhaust, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides. The health effects of these air pollutants to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. In children, there are links with asthma, bronchitis, missed school days, and emergency room visits. The significance of these environmental health impacts requires aggressive efforts to mitigate the problem. Approaches to mitigation encompass a range of possibilities from currently available, low-cost approaches, to more significant investments for cleaner air. Examples of the former include restrictions on truck idling and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuel; the latter includes shore-side power for docked ships, and alternative fuels. A precautionary approach to port-related air pollution would encourage local production of goods in order to reduce marine traffic, greener design for new terminals, and state-of-the art approaches erminals, and state-of-the art approaches to emissions-control that have been successfully demonstrated at ports throughout the world

  11. Alternative analysis of the transboundary air pollution problems in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won

    The recently increasing industrialization and urbanization in Northeast Asia has led to a large volume of air pollutants being emitted in this region. The growth rate of the total emissions is still increasing alarmingly. China has been the major contributor to the total emissions of air pollutants in Northeast Asia. Westerly winds, a unique regional meteorological phenomenon, prevail throughout the year, and the long- range transport of air pollutants is propelled by those winds. As a result, nations in Northeast Asia are very concerned about potential problems with long-range transport of air pollutants from foreign sources. This is because air pollutants emitted from one nation's ground facilities and mobile sources travel hundreds or even thousands of miles by the effects of air pressure and wind drift, and can bring damage to other nations' ecosystems and human health. For example, Korea is located in the eastern part of the region and it can be significantly affected by the air pollutants transported from China. This dissertation research deals with the transboundary air pollution problem between China and Korea. Among many problems related to transboundary air pollution, this study concentrates on the following two issues: (1)Firstly, the negative consequences of transboundary air pollution from China at industrial sites in Korea; and (2)Secondly, the prediction of the future impact of China's sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions on the air quality in Korea. The results of the case study in Chapter 3 show evidence of the negative impacts of the transboundary air pollution in Korea. The production loss in Korea is an example of the negative impact brought about by transboundary movement of Chinese air pollutants. The runs of the computer aided simulation model in Chapter 4 show projected emission trends in China and Korea until the year 2010. The simulation results show that the total amount of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions in China and Korea will continue to increase at high rates, which means more and more of those air pollutants are projected to be transported from China into Korea. The total amount of Chinese emissions was more than ten times, in the case of sulfur dioxides, and one hundred times, in the case of the nitrogen oxides, the amount of the Korean emissions during the years from 1990 through 1996. Therefore, a small portion of the Chinese emissions, if transported into Korea, will cause a great increase of the concentration level of those air pollutants in Korea. The simulation model shows several scenarios of policy options which are effective in slowing down the growth rates of the Chinese and Korean emissions, and thus the growth rates of the amount of air pollutants to be transported from China into Korea. The findings of this study will be useful in raising public awareness in China and Korea, and will provide public policy makers with grounds for future environmental policy generation and cooperation in order to control air pollution and the transboundary air pollution problems in both nations.

  12. Experience with urban air pollution in Paterson, New Jersey and implications for air pollution communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2012-01-01

    Communication about air pollution can help reduce health risks, but a scattered, largely qualitative literature on air pollution beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors raises questions about its effectiveness. A telephone survey of Paterson, New Jersey (USA) residents tested four hypotheses aimed toward integrating these findings. Self-reported sheltering indoors during high pollution, the recommended strategy, was predicted by perceived air quality and self-reported "sensitivity" to air pollution. Nearly a quarter of the sample reported mandatory outdoor activity (e.g., work) that might increase their exposures, but this factor did not significantly affect self-reported sheltering. Perceptions of air quality did not correlate strongly with official monitoring data (U.S. Air Quality Index (AQI)); even people who regularly sought AQI data relied upon sensory cues to high pollution, and secondarily upon health cues. Use of sensory and health cues, definitions of what makes someone sensitive to air pollution, and (less strongly) definitions of vulnerability to air pollution varied widely. The minority aware of the AQI were more likely to seek it if they had illnesses or saw themselves in the targeted AQI audience, yet less likely if they believed themselves sensitive to pollution. However, their sense of the AQI's match to their own experience was driven by whether they used sensory (yes) or health (no) cues, not by illness status. Some urban residents might not have access to AQI data, but this barrier seems outweighed by need to bridge interpretive gaps over definitions of air pollution, sensory perception, vulnerability, and health consequences. PMID:21883333

  13. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Grignani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  14. Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.

    OpenAIRE

    De Fré, R; Bruynseraede, P; Kretzschmar, J G

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an...

  15. Mathematical modeling of photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the key elements of a project directed at developing a comprehensive mathematical model capable of describing the formation and transport of chemically reacting species in the turbulent planetary boundary layer. The model is intended for routine application in the design and evaluation of urban-scale air pollution control strategies. Some examples illustrating the use of the model in the South Coast Air Basin of Southern California are presented

  16. Human exposure to urban air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Bostro?m, C. E.; Alme?n, J.; Steen, B.; Westerholm, R.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic....

  17. Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of Chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2014-06-01

    Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of stove operation, beyond those evaluated with the WBT. PMID:24784418

  18. Protecting Human Health from Air Pollution: Shifting from a Single-Pollutant to a Multi-pollutant Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dominici, Francesca; Peng, Roger D.; Barr, Christopher D.; Bell, Michelle L

    2010-01-01

    To date, the assessment of public health consequences of air pollution has largely focused on a single-pollutant approach aimed at estimating the increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with the exposure to a single air pollutant, adjusted for the exposure to other air pollutants. However, air masses always contain many pollutants in differing amounts, depending on the types of emission sources and atmospheric conditions. Because humans are simultaneously exposed to a complex mix...

  19. Air pollution market expands worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of the electrostatic precipitator market is reported. The biggest expansion appears to have taken place in the power generation industry where 95 per cent of the coal-fired power plants are said to be using electrostatic precipitators for controlling emission of particulates. The pulp and paper and the cement industry are second and third behind the electric power industry, with metals and mining, and the chemical industry being the other members of the 'big five'. Wood particle driers and paint finishing facilities have recently shown substantial increases of using electrostatic precipitators. The use of wet precipitators has also shown significant increase, primarily as a means of reducing SO3 and heavy metals emitted from power plant stacks. Combined annual expenditure on operating electrostatic precipitators is reported to exceed US$ 12 billion. New purchases in 1999 are expected to reach US$ 1.3 billion. ABB, Lurgi, FLS and Mitsubishi are the principal suppliers, with several Chinese companies making their way into the top ten. China and the United States will be the top purchasing countries, but there will be expenditures in 80 countries and regions, many of them in developing countries

  20. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  1. MESOSCALE AIR POLLUTION TRANSPORT IN SOUTHEAST WISCONSIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research program comprised a comprehensive study of mesoscale meteorological regimes on the western shore of Lake Michigan and their effect upon air pollution dispersion and transport. It is felt that the results are applicable in a generic way to other mid-latitude coastal ...

  2. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

  3. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  4. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, A.; Sharp, N.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk.

  5. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

  6. Estimation of air pollutant dispersion through atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software for the air pollution distribution assesment is presented. The software was developed in The Institute of nuclear sciences 'Vinca'. In the combination with automatic meteorological station, the software is very useful tool for countermeasure decisions in environmental protection. It was successfully tested as a constitutive part of the automatic meteorological station of German firm Wilhelm Lambrecht. (author)

  7. HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

  8. Effects of air pollution on vascular thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tabor, Caroline Mary

    2011-01-01

    Increases in air pollution, especially the particulate component, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, possibly through increases in thrombogenic mechanisms. The research presented in this thesis addresses the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) increase thrombogenicity by impairing the release of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) from vascular endothelial cells, thus inhibiting the endogenous fibrinolytic mechanisms that promote thrombus brea...

  9. Human health effects of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O3), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

  10. Air pollution modelling on the street canyon.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezpalcová, Klára; Ja?our, Zbyn?k

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 10, ?. 5 (2003), s. 375-386. ISSN 1210-2717 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK3012103; GA MŠk OC 715.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : atmosphere * air pollution * wind tunnel Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  11. Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

  12. AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Nikoli?

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

  13. Acculturation, ethnicity, and air pollution perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2011-06-01

    A globalizing world increases immigration between nations, raising the question of how acculturation (or its lack) of immigrants and their descendants to host societies affects risk perceptions. A survey of Paterson, New Jersey, residents tested acculturation's associations with attitudes to air pollution and its management, and knowledge of and self-reported behaviors concerning air pollution. Linguistic and temporal proxy measures for acculturation were independent variables along with ethnicity, plus controls for gender, age, education, and income in multivariate analyses. About one-fifth of contrasts between non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics were statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected) and of medium or higher affect size, with most featuring the Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. Knowledge variables featured the most significant differences. Specifically, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics reported less concern, familiarity with pollution, recognition of high pollution, and vigorous outdoor activity, and greater belief that government overregulates pollution than English-interviewed Hispanics (and than the other two groups on most of these variables too). English-interviewed Hispanics did not differ from non-Hispanic whites, but did on several variables from non-Hispanic blacks. Temporal proxies of acculturation among the foreign-born were far less significant, but concern and familiarity with air pollution increased with time spent in the United States, while belief in overregulation and a positive trend in New Jersey pollution increased with time in the nation of origin. Implications of these acculturation and ethnicity findings for risk perception/communication research and practice are discussed. PMID:21231941

  14. 76 FR 14807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous...Automobiles and Light- Duty Trucks...Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District. (12) Ventura County Air Pollution Control District....

  15. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers...emission standards for hazardous air pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV...

  16. A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bei Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen oxide (NOx. The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10, SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation

  17. Integration of a computational grid and virtual geographic environment to facilitate air pollution simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingli; Lin, Hui; Gong, Jianhua; Tang, Sammy; Hu, Ya; Nasser, Ibrahim Abdoul; Jing, Tao

    2013-04-01

    Air pollution, which is a global environmental problem, has been the hot research area among the scientists in the geoscience community. Air pollution simulation is of low-efficiency caused by the computation-intensive models, such as MM5 or WRF, and the complicated and unfriendly user interface. These issues are addressed in this paper by integrating computational grid and virtual geographic environment (VGE). The computational grid is employed to improve the computation efficiency of air pollution models. The VGE is used as a straightforward and easy to use interface to navigate the air pollution modeling workflow and improve the operational efficiencies of the models with respect to initiation, computation, and output visualization. On the aspect of technique implementation, this paper designs a framework and addresses the methodologies of the integration of computational grid and VGE. The prototype system, which integrates the computation grid of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUGrid) and a VGE to facilitate air pollution simulation based on the Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5), was developed. Based on the prototype system, a case was tested and the results indicate that the efficiencies of air pollution simulation on the model computation and workflow operation based on MM5 are increased significantly. This success also proves the reasonability of our general contribution of integrating computational grid and VGE to facilitate air pollution simulation.

  18. Air Pollution Linked to Increased Stroke Risk, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151340.html Air Pollution Linked to Increased Stroke Risk, Study Says Narrowed ... HealthDay News) -- High levels of small-particle air pollution can increase your risk for narrowing of the ...

  19. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs; Amp Xf Rensen, Jan S.; Amp Xf Nl Amp Xf Kke, Jakob B.; Henrik Brønnum-Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?...

  20. RESPONSE OF STEM GROWTH AND FUNCTION TO AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollutants can result in reduced stem growth, changes in wood density, and/or deposition of pollutants in the stem. everal recent reviews summarize the known effects of air pollutants on plant growth and function including trees. ir pollutants may also change the ...

  1. Radius of Influence for Istanbul Air Pollution Data

    OpenAIRE

    O?ztopal, Ahmet; S?en, Zeka?i

    1999-01-01

    As a consequence of heavy industrialization and transportation in many city centers of the world, air pollution problems arise, especially in winter months. Even Istanbul where the Bosphorus straight plays a significant role in the natural cleaning of air pollutants, was subjected to such problems. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to measure air pollutants at various sites and times. Air pollution assessments are achieved in the majority of cases by using data process...

  2. Real-Time Air Pollutants Rendering based on Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Demin Wang; Yan Huang; Weitao Li

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for realistic real-time rendering of air pollutants based on image processing. The air pollutants’ variable density can create many shapes of mist what can add a realistic environment to virtual scene. In order to achieve a realistic effect, we further enhance thus obtained air pollution data getting from monitor in spatial domain. In the proposed method we map the densities of air pollutants to different gray levels, and visualize them by blending those gra...

  3. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution and population health” is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are s...

  4. The Role of Air Pollutants in Initiating Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-01-01

    Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where expos...

  5. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution- Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: source control, improved ventilation, and air cleaners. This site offers the reader some insights to improving air quality through increased ventilation, air cleaners for particle removal, and other common sense methods that may be employed. Many times the quality of the air in our homes and public or office buildings is marginal at best. The sources of indoor pollution may be outside of our ability to rectify or it may be as simple as adjusting the flame on our furnace or kitchen stove or maybe something as simple as opening a door or window. However, in many instances we have no control over the air quality because of the materials used in the construction of the building.

  6. Air pollutants and the leaf cuticle. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaf surface forms the interface between plants and a deteriorating atmospheric environment. It is, therefore, the first point of contact between plants and air pollutants and presents an effective barrier to pollutant entry. Outermost surfaces of leaves are covered by a thin, lipoidal, non-living membrane called a cuticle. Cuticle integrity is essential to plant survival and has many essential functions, including the prevention of excessive water loss, regulation of solute uptake and protection of sensitive underlying photosynthetic tissues against harmful irradiation such as enhanced UV-B resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion. The physicochemical properties of the cuticle vary greatly between and within species. They are known to be sensitive to change through natural and anthropogenic influences. This book comprises contributions made to a NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop ''Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle'' held October 4-9, 1993 in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The objective of the ARW was to bring together for the first time international expertise on the subject of air pollutant interactions with the cuticle. In order to facilitate a state-of-science review, the ARW was structured around four themes. They were as follows: 1. Cuticular physicochemical characteristics, physiological, regulatory, and protective roles. 2. Effects, mechanisms, and consequences of air pollutant interaction with leaf cuticles. 3. Non-anthropogenic and enveaf cuticles. 3. Non-anthropogenic and environmental influences on the cuticle and potential of the cuticle for biomonitoring and critical levels mapping. 4. New developments in experimental methodology and analytical techniques. (orig./vhe)

  7. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  8. A REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTANT DAMAGE TO MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report prepared as U.S. contribution to Panel 3 of NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society Pilot Study on Air Pollution Control Strategies and Impact Modeling. Panel 3 focuses on air pollutant impact and will publish 4 reports on air pollutants effects; this is the first i...

  9. Air pollution and urban air quality management in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Okuda, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Shigeru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The trade-led industry and economic development after the Asian financial crisis a decade ago has been accelerated in Indonesia to improve the quality of life of its population. This rapid development of Indonesia was in fact heavily fueled by fossil fuels, especially oil, followed by natural gas and coal. The exploitation of fossil fuel in fueling the development resulted in significant environmental quality degradation. Air pollution is perhaps Indonesia's most severe environmental problem. Industry and transportation were the typical main sources of urban air pollutants. Moreover, Indonesia also failed to reach its original 2005 target for a complete phase-out of leaded gasoline. As a result, the level of Pb together with other pollutants such as CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and total suspended particulates has exceeded or at least approached the designated ambient air quality standards. The urban air pollution will not be lesser in extent, but surely will be more severe in the future. Unfortunately, the capability of the Indonesian authorities to manage the urban air quality is still very limited and the portion of the budget allocated to the improvement of urban air quality is still remarkably low, typically 1% of total. This is why the efforts to enhance the capability to manage the urban air quality could not be handled by the environmental authorities in Indonesia's cities themselves, but outside stimulation in the form of man power, consultant and equipment assistance along with financial support has been very important. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China: The Possibility and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The air environmental pollutants exhausted by China have attracted the attention from the world, especially the neighboring countries including Japan. Japan has put forward a conceived model named Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China. This article analyzes the background and causations of air environmental pollution problems in China, and the efforts that Chinese government has made in energy conservation and lessening the pollutants exhaust of car. On this basis, we analyze the mutual interests and stance of the governments and car manufacturers in the aspect of establishing Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China, and consider that there will be further cooperation between Japan and China on air pollution problems in the governmental levels, and the operation can be expanded to be a multilateral frame which is among Korea, Japan, China and other East Asian countries. But at this stage, as for the aspect of car manufacturers in Japan and China, the bifurcation between these two countries decides that there is just a little possibility of establishing an alliance which focuses on solving the air pollution problems in China.

  11. Motor Vehicles Air Pollution in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Odhiambo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring in most developing countries is not routinely conducted, and in some urban areas such information does not even exist, though signs of deteriorating air quality and health problems related to air pollution are visible. By measuring air pollutants (i.e., Nitrogen Oxides, ozone, suspended particulates matter (PM10, and trace elements e.g. lead, this study investigated air quality in Nairobi, one of the largest cities in eastern Africa and the capital of Kenya. Sampling was done once a week from February to April 2003. Hourly average concentrations of NOx and O3 were measured using a technique that is based on "chemilumiscent" reaction at a site connecting two main highways in Nairobi (University and Uhuru from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. PM10 was collected using “Gent” Stacked Filter Unit (SFU air sampler fitted with nucleopore filters (0.4 and 8.0 mm pore size for fine and coarse filters, respectively that were analyzed for trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF technique. An automatic vehicle counter was used for determining the vehicle density at the sampling site. Results show that most pollutants, for example, lead (0.05 1 to 1.106 µg/m3, bromine (LLD to 0.43 µg/m3, NO2 (0.011-0.976 ppm, NO (0.001-0.2628 ppm and O3 (LLD-0.1258 ppm are within the WHO guidelines. PM10 levels (66.66 - 444.45 µg/m3 were above the WHO guidelines for most of the days, with coarse particulate accounting for more than 70%. Strong correlation (r = 0.966 between fine (0.4 µm particulates, NOx, and motor vehicle density, indicate the importance of traffic as a common source for both fine particulates and NOx.

  12. Regional scale air pollution - Sources and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several independent types of information relating to the sources and effects of regional-scale air pollution are reviewed. Much of the information was obtained by in situ observations of plumes and field studies of individual pollution episodes. Attention is given to anthropogenic pollution sources in the U.S. (primarily fossil fuel combustion), rates of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ emission from such sources, ambient concentrations of sulfur compounds, the long-range transport of sulfate aerosol, and visibility trends in the eastern U.S. It is concluded that an episode of extreme haziness covering multistate regions of the eastern U.S. appeared to have been largely caused by secondary sulfate aerosol, that coal combustion and sulfate are only one factor in the production of optical effects, and that spatial and temporal aerosol trends and distributions of coal use, sulfate, light extinction, turbidity, and solar radiation exhibit reasonable internal consistency

  13. Models for human exposure to air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four models for human exposure to air pollution are discussed and compared. Simple microenvironment monitoring measures pollutant concentrations at fixed locations, regarded as proxies for similar locations or microenvironments. This model does not require pollutant measurements on the individual level, therefore is easy to implement. However, the model can be used only to estimate the average exposure in a population and does not provide any estimate of the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Replicated microenvironment monitoring provides some estimates of the variability and distribution. However, because of the possible discrepancy between the microenvironment concentration distribution and the individual concentration distribution, some adjustment might be necessary. Integrated personal monitoring allows direct estimation of the average exposure as well as the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Coupled with the appropriate time budget data, a regression analysis can be applied to estimate the contribution from each microenvironment type

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xx of... - Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants 1 Table 1 to Subpart XX of...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED...Subpart XX of Part 63—Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutant...

  15. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  16. Uncertainty in exposure to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebesma, Edzer; Helle, Kristina; Christoph, Stasch; Rasouli, Soora; Timmermans, Harry; Walker, Sam-Erik; Denby, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    To assess exposure to air pollution for a person or for a group of people, one needs to know where the person or group is as a function of time, and what the air pollution is at these times and locations. In this study we used the Albatross activity-based model to assess the whereabouts of people and the uncertainties in this, and a probabilistic air quality system based on TAPM/EPISODE to assess air quality probabilistically. The outcomes of the two models were combined to assess exposure to air pollution, and the errors in it. We used the area around Rotterdam (Netherlands) as a case study. As the outcomes of both models come as Monte Carlo realizations, it was relatively easy to cancel one of the sources of uncertainty (movement of persons, air pollution) in order to identify their respective contributions, and also to compare evaluations for individuals with averages for a population of persons. As the output is probabilistic, and in addition spatially and temporally varying, the visual analysis of the complete results poses some challenges. This case study was one of the test cases in the UncertWeb project, which has built concepts and tools to realize the uncertainty-enabled model web. Some of the tools and protocols will be shown and evaluated in this presentation. For the uncertainty of exposure, the uncertainty of air quality was more important than the uncertainty of peoples locations. This difference was stronger for PM10 than for NO2. The workflow was implemented as generic Web services in UncertWeb that also allow for other inputs than the simulated activity schedules and air quality with other resolution. However, due to this flexibility, the Web services require standardized formats and the overlay algorithm is not optimized for the specific use case resulting in a data and processing overhead. Hence, we implemented the full analysis in parallel in R, for this specific case as the model web solution had difficulties with massive data.

  17. Fighting corrosion in air pollution control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that materials is the name of the game for corrosion prevention in air pollution control equipment. Whether the system is already in place, a retrofit, are specified for a new power pant, preventing corrosion is critical, because such deterioration easily undermines reliability. Hence, materials can heavily influence power plant compliance to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, perhaps the most vulnerable area to corrosion, are expected to be the method of choice for sulfur removal in many power plants in the near term. Components of these systems have various degrees of susceptibility to corrosion and related problems

  18. Alveolar macrophage interaction with air pollution particulates.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, C A; Frevert, C; Imrich, A; Sioutas, C.; Kobzik, Lester

    1997-01-01

    We applied flow cytometric analysis to characterize the in vitro response of alveolar macrophages (AM) to air pollution particulates. Normal hamster AM were incubated with varying concentrations of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or concentrated ambient air particulates (CAP). We found a dose-dependent increase in AM-associated right angle light scatter (RAS) after uptake of ROFA (e.g., mean channel number 149.4 +/- 6.5, 102.5 +/- 4.1, 75.8 +/- 3.5, and 61.0 +/- 4.6 at 200, 100, 50, and 25 mg/ml,...

  19. Air pollution in a city street

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and ...

  20. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  1. Environmental regulations on air pollution in China and their impact on infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    This study explores the impact of environmental regulations in China on infant mortality. In 1998, the Chinese government imposed stringent air pollution regulations, in one of the first large-scale regulatory attempts in a developing country. We find that the infant mortality rate fell by 20 percent in the treatment cities designated as "Two Control Zones." The greatest reduction in mortality occurred during the neonatal period, highlighting an important pathophysiologic mechanism, and was largest among infants born to mothers with low levels of education. The finding is robust to various alternative hypotheses and specifications. Further, a falsification test using deaths from causes unrelated to air pollution supports these findings. PMID:25868145

  2. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

  3. Space-Time Urban Air Pollution Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A.; Trigo, R. M.; Soares, A.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution, like other natural phenomena, may be considered a space-time process. However, the simultaneous integration of time and space is not an easy task to perform, due to the existence of different uncertainties levels and data characteristics. In this work we propose a hybrid method that combines geostatistical and neural models to analyze PM10 time series recorded in the urban area of Lisbon (Portugal) for the 2002-2006 period and to produce forecasts. Geostatistical models have been widely used to characterize air pollution in urban areas, where the pollutant sources are considered diffuse, and also to industrial areas with localized emission sources. It should be stressed however that most geostatistical models correspond basically to an interpolation methodology (estimation, simulation) of a set of variables in a spatial or space-time domain. The temporal prediction of a pollutant usually requires knowledge of the main trends and complex patterns of physical dispersion phenomenon. To deal with low resolution problems and to enhance reliability of predictions, an approach based on neural network short term predictions in the monitoring stations which behave as a local conditioner to a fine grid stochastic simulation model is presented here. After the pollutant concentration is predicted for a given time period at the monitoring stations, we can use the local conditional distributions of observed values, given the predicted value for that period, to perform the spatial simulations for the entire area and consequently evaluate the spatial uncertainty of pollutant concentration. To attain this objective, we propose the use of direct sequential simulations with local distributions. With this approach one succeed to predict the space-time distribution of pollutant concentration that accounts for the time prediction uncertainty (reflecting the neural networks efficiency at each local monitoring station) and the spatial uncertainty as revealed by the spatial variograms. The dataset used consists of PM10 concentrations recorded hourly by 12 monitoring stations within the Lisbon's area, for the period 2002-2006. In addition, meteorological data recorded at 3 monitoring stations and boundary layer height (BLH) daily values from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Weather Forecast), ERA Interim, were also used. Based on the large-scale standard pressure fields from the ERA40/ECMWF, prevailing circulation patterns at regional scale where determined and used on the construction of the models. After the daily forecasts were produced, the difference between the average maps based on real observations and predicted values were determined and the model's performance was assessed. Based on the analysis of the results, we conclude that the proposed approach shows to be a very promising alternative for urban air quality characterization because of its good results and simplicity of application.

  4. A Prognostics Framework for Health Degradation and Air Pollution Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Fong; G. Y. Hong

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is known to cause a wide range of diseases that have led to countless cases of premature mortality. Although pollution in a massive scale is uncontrollable by individual inhabitant, the negative impact on health as a direct result on indoor air pollution can be reduced by appropriate preventive actions. Smart home technology allows ventilation to be controlled through condition-based monitoring of the air pollutant concentration in the room. This paper describes a prognostics fr...

  5. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs

  6. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution : The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; SØrensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  7. [Air pollution in the vicinity of streets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, H U; Deuber, A; Satish, J; Meier, M; Sommer, H

    1976-01-01

    Air samples were collected in plastic bags simultaneously at various measuring points in the close range of streets. When examining the various bag materials, Teflon bags showed the smallest deviations in direct analyses and in analyses of up to two hours after the drawing of samples. The following methods were used for the analysis of the air samples collected in the bags: coulometry for CO and SO2, chemiluminescence for NO/NO2, chromotrophic acid for CH2O and flame ionization for hydrocarbons. The various components were measured close to a highway and near streets in residential and business areas. The simultaneously drawn samples showed a marked dependence on traffic frequency, type of built-up area along the streets as well as meteorological conditions. An opinion survey among adjacent residents on annoyance caused by air pollution and noise resulted in distinct differences between the sections with different traffic intensity. PMID:997954

  8. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention

  9. Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM10), while the associations with SO2 and NO2 are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs

  10. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    OpenAIRE

    SULISTIJORINI; ZAINAL ALIM MAS’UD; NIZAR NASRULLAH; AHMAD BEY; SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO

    2008-01-01

    Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR) and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI). Eight roadside tree species wer...

  11. Air pollution and sports performance in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Guidi, G C; Maffulli, N

    2008-08-01

    The Beijing Olympics will begin in August 2008 and athletes will face an unpredictable challenge. Based on present data, Beijing is one of the most polluted megacities in the world; the air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter approach or exceed the current limits established by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although the athletes who will be competing in Beijing are physiologically very different to the participants in most published studies, and it is therefore difficult to predict individual responses, there is little doubt that the presence of these air pollutants might be detrimental to athletic performance due to the marked increase (up to 20-fold) in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. Moreover, mouth breathing often bypasses the noise during strenuous exercise, increasing the deleterious effects of pollutants on health and athletic performance. Although limited, each decrement in athletic performance would have a potentially deleterious impact on top-class athletes competing in the next Olympics in China. Several Olympic records are regularly broken during the Olympics. Will this be the case for Beijing? PMID:18512178

  12. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ? The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ? Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ? The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ? Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern clim

  13. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  14. Impaired visibility: the air pollution people see

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Nicole Pauly

    Almost every home and office contains a portrayal of a scenic landscape whether on a calendar, postcard, photograph, or painting. The most sought after locations boast a scenic landscape right outside their window. No matter what the scene - mountains, skyscrapers, clouds, or pastureland - clarity and vividness are essential to the image. Air pollution can degrade scenic vistas, and in extreme cases, completely obscure them. Particulate matter suspended in the air is the main cause of visibility degradation. Particulate matter affects visibility in multiple ways: obscures distant objects, drains the contrast from a scene, and discolors the sky. Visibility is an environmental quality that is valued for aesthetic reasons that are difficult to express or quantify. Human psychology and physiology are sensitive to visual input. Visibility has been monitored throughout the world but there are few places where it is a protected resource. Existing health-based regulations are weak in terms of visibility protection. Various techniques, including human observation, light transmission measurements, digital photography, and satellite imaging, are used to monitor visibility. As with air pollution, trends in visibility vary spatially and temporally. Emissions from the developing world and large scale events such as dust storms and wildfires affect visibility around much of the globe.

  15. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  16. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, Ox, SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impactsd health impacts

  17. Air pollution control and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing environmental awareness and dwindling fossil fuel reserves have led to the adoption of clean and proven energy efficient technologies. Through Ignifluid combustion process, besides ensuring efficient combustion of fuels, having diverse characteristics, formation of harmful gaseous pollutants viz. nitrous oxides and carbon dioxides, is greatly reduced. These apart, CO and hydrocarbons leaving the combustion chamber are of a low order. The paper brings to the fore the versatile features of the environment friendly Ignifluid process through performance feedback from the operating installations related to air pollution control. Ignifluid technology is the answer for retrofit for existing scores of large sized steam generating plants which are operating at a dismally low thermal efficiency thereby bulging out tons of gaseous pollutants to the landscape. By retrofitting with Ignifluid combustor besides achieving lowered gaseous emissions, due to improved thermal efficiency, energy conservation of a high order is ensured. Also, this technology is well established for burning multi fuels including industrial wastes in varying proportions with fossil/biomass fuels in the most efficient fashion. Through installation of stack gas cooler as an outfit to the Ignifluid boiler, energy conservation due to enhanced thermal efficiency and substantial reduction in generation of gaseous pollutants are ensured. Thus by improving overall plant efficiency, CO2 emission toant efficiency, CO2 emission to atmosphere is drastically reduced thus abetting green house effect. Global warming is reduced by effecting reduction in gas exit temperature. Realizing this immense potential of Ignifluid system as an energy saving/pollution control device, government should give encouragement by way of granting fiscal benefits like tax concessions etc. (author). 1 fig., 6 tabs

  18. Coordination of air pollution abatement programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a presentation of a study the author computed as a consultant for the Ministry of the Environment. Due to growth of the energy production capacity Finland is reaching a situation where it will be impossible to hold on the long term goals of the air pollution control. The main obstacle will be enormous costs. The author prefers an option in which economic incentives are used to suppress the growth of the energy capacity and traffic volume. The report also recommends a long-term national strategy by which the international competitive ability in Finland would be based upon low-energy commodities

  19. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhang; Chao-Nan Qian; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex...

  20. Radioactive air pollution in the 9 D's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Device sets the stage for the first act, written by nuclear engineers and physicists, in which Disposal begins the action while Decay gradually closes the curtain. Displacement provides the scene for the second act, written by meteorologists, in which turbulent Dispersion prevails until Deposition (both wet and dry) brings down the curtain. Dose opens the final act, in which the nature of Damage is revealed, and Disappearance ends the play. The attention in this critique is centered on Displacement and Dispersion, their changes of character with varying time and length scales, the deterministic nature of one and the statistical nature of the other, and their relevance to radioactive air pollution. (author)

  1. Mortality and air pollution: lessons from statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sectional studies which attempt to link persistent geographic differences in mortality rates with air pollution are reviewed. Some early studies are mentioned and detailed results are given for seven major contemporary studies, two of which are still in the publication process. Differences among the studies are discussed with regard to statistical techniques, trends in the results over time (1959 to 1974), and interpretation and use of the results. The analysis concludes that there are far too many problems with this technique to allow causality to be firmly established, and thus the results should not be used for cost benefit or policy analysis

  2. Indoor Air Pollution in China:Analysis of Global Warming Contributions and Exposure to Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Alnes, Line Winther Hansen

    2008-01-01

    About 60% of the Chinese population lives in rural areas, where biomass and coal are the main sources of energy for cooking and heating. Indoor air pollution from household fuel burning is a major health concern, responsible for at least 420,000 premature deaths annually in China alone. However, less is known about the emissions of greenhouse compounds from the household sector. Therefore, this work aims to quantify the global warming contribution (GWC) from main household fuels in rural Chin...

  3. Nitrogenous air pollutants: Chemical and biological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental studies on the health effects and chemistry of gaseous and particulate nitrogenous air pollutants are presented. Specific topics include Fourier transform infrared studies of nitrogenous compounds, the mechanism of peroxynitric acid formation, N-nitroso compounds in the air, the chemical transformations of nitrogen oxides during the sampling of combustion products, the atmospheric chemistry of peroxy nitrates, and the effects of nitrogen dioxide on lung metabolism. Attention is also given to the interaction of nitrogen oxides and aromatic hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions, the characterization of particulate amines, the role of ammonia in atmospheric aerosol chemistry, the relationship between sulfates and nitrates and tropospheric measurements of nitric acid vapor and particulate nitrates

  4. Effect of air pollution on daily mortality in Hong Kong.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, C. M.; Ma, S; Hedley, A J; Lam, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    In different weather conditions, constituents and concentrations of pollutants, personal exposure, and biologic responses to air pollution may vary. In this study we assessed the effects of four air pollutants on mortality in both cool and warm seasons in Hong Kong, a subtropical city. Daily counts of mortality, due to all nonaccidental causes, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were modeled with daily pollutant concentrations [24-hr means for nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and pa...

  5. Strong association between air pollution and stroke mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to air pollution is linked to a higher risk of anxiety and stroke, according to two studies. In a review of the evidence on air pollution and stroke, researchers from the University of Edinburgh analysed 103 observational studies covering 28 countries. The review looked at gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen and ozone) and particulate matter (particles or droplets of pollutants such as smoke, dust and soot). PMID:25850478

  6. Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wang J., Zhang X.

    2010-01-01

    Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for un...

  7. Assessment of regional air pollution variability in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution concentrations have temporal and spatial variations depending on the prevailing weather conditions, topographic features, city building heights and locations. When the measurements of air pollutants are available at set measurement sites, the regional variability degree of air pollutants is quantified using the point cumulative semi-variogram (PCSV). This technique provides a systematic method for calculating the changes in the concentrations of air pollutants with distance from a specific site. Regional variations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and total suspended particulate (TSP) matter concentrations in Istanbul city were evaluated using the PCSV concept. The data were available from 16 different air pollution measurement stations scattered all over the city for a period from 1988 to 1994. Monthly regional variation maps were drawn in and around the city at different radii of influence. These maps provide a reference for measuring future changes of air pollution in the city. (author)

  8. Operational determination of air pollution dispersion parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennemuth, B.; Kirtzel, H.-J.

    2009-09-01

    The assessment of air pollution dispersion conditions needs a complete capture of all parameters which determine the transport and mixing of pollutants. This includes parameters of the near-surface layer as well as profiles up to the height of the emission source and beyond. These parameters serve as input into dispersion models according to the national guidelines or international standards. Depending on the orography in the surroundings of the source of pollutants, near-surface processes and processes around the source height may be decoupled and advection may play a larger role than turbulence. Proposals for the instrumentation for the operational survey of relevant parameters are presented. They include measurements of sensible heat flux and radiation balance and complete vertical profiles of virtual temperature and wind at least up to the source height. The near-surface measurements can be done with conventional instrumentation while the boundary layer measurements should be done by remote sensing instrumentation, namely sodar and RASS. Two examples of such measurements in a deep valley and in flat terrain are shown and discussed.

  9. Air pollution - Trends in Austria 1980 - 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian federal environmental office (Umweltbundesamt) carries out an annual inventory of the air pollution to fulfill obligatory duties derived from national and international agreements (UNFCCC; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto-protocol, EU monitoring mechanism (Decision 93/389/EWG). This inventory includes the anthropogenic emissions for the period 1980 - 2002 and the steps followed to reduce them. It is divided into 11 parts as follows: 1. summary, 2. inventory basis, 3. greenhouse gases (emissions trends 1990-2002, actual development 2001-2, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide, F- gases (SF6, partial fluorinated hydrocarbons, total fluorinated hydrocarbons), 4. ozone promoters (nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, methane), 5. acidification and eutrophication (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides), 6. dust, 7. heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury), 8. persistent organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxine, hexachlorobenzene), 9. pollution trends by sectors (power generation, traffic, industry, agriculture), 10. international comparison of Austrian emissions (greenhouse gases, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons without methane, ammonia, carbon monoxide), 11. bibliography and an appendix. Data were collected following the guidelines by the International panel on climate exchange and the EMEP/CORINAIR emission inventory guidebook. Those chapters which are in the INIS subjeThose chapters which are in the INIS subject scope were treated individually. 36 ref., 30 tabls., 74 figs. (nevyjel)

  10. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figssport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  11. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Lianne; Burnett, Richard T.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Kim, Sun-Young; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Brunekreef, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality has been investigated using cohort studies in which subjects are followed over time with respect to their vital statu...

  12. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Genc; Zeynep Zadeoglulari; Fuss, Stefan H.; Kursad Genc

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's dise...

  13. Health, Wealth, and Air Pollution: Advancing Theory and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    O Neill, Marie S.; Jerrett, Michael; Cohen, Aaron J.; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan Ian; Schwartz, Joel David

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of ...

  14. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Khedo, Kavi K.; Rajiv Perseedoss; Avinash Mungur

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to moni...

  15. Mechanisms and Implications of Air Pollution Particle Associations with Chemokines

    OpenAIRE

    Seagrave, JeanClare

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation induced by inhalation of air pollutant particles has been implicated as a mechanism for the adverse health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. The inflammatory response is associated with upregulation of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a significant constituent of air pollution particulate matter in many urban areas, bind and concentrate IL-8, an important human neutrophil-attracting c...

  16. Human Health Cost of Air Pollution in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Ussen Kenessariyev; Alexander Golub; Michael Brody; Askhat Dosmukhametov; Meiram Amrin; Aya Erzhanova; Dinara Kenessary

    2013-01-01

    Kazakhstan, like other former Soviet Republics, inherited a number of serious environmental problems. Air pollution is one of these serious problems, leading to significant environmental health effects on the population of Kazakhstan. This study provides a baseline analysis of health damages from air pollution, based on readily available information. Mean estimates of mortality risk attributable to air pollution are about 16,000 cases per year with a 95% confidence level of the risk not exce...

  17. Air pollution and blood markers of cardiovascular risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have linked air pollution to tens of thousands of premature cardiovascular deaths per year. The mechanisms of such associations remain unclear. In this study we examine the association between blood markers of cardiovascular risk and air pollution in a national sample of the U.S. population. Air pollution concentrations were merged to subjects in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in the United States, and the association with fibrinogen lev...

  18. Disparities in exposure to air pollution during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Tracey J.; Parker, Jennifer D.; Kyle, Amy D.; Schoendorf, Kenneth C.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research shows poorer birth outcomes for racial and ethnic minorities and for persons with low socioeconomic status (SES). We evaluated whether mothers in groups at higher risk for poor birth outcomes live in areas of higher air pollution and whether higher exposure to air pollution contributes to poor birth outcomes. An index representing long-term exposure to criteria air pollutants was matched with birth certificate data at the county level for the United States in 1998-1999. We u...

  19. International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO)

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Tracey J.; Parker, Jennifer D.; Kate Adams; Bell, Michelle L.; Ulrike Gehring; Svetlana Glinianaia; Eun-Hee Ha; Bin Jalaludin; Rémy Slama

    2010-01-01

    Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the p...

  20. Air pollution and non-respiratory health hazards for children

    OpenAIRE

    Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a global health issue with serious public health implications, particularly for children. Usually respiratory effects of air pollutants are considered, but this review highlights the importance of non-respiratory health hazards. In addition to short-term effects, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with low birth weight, increase in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-commu...

  1. Elderly exposure to indoor air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Almeida, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the indoor air quality in Elderly Care Centers (ECCs) in order to assess the elders' daily exposure to air pollutants. Ten ECCs hosting 384 elderly were selected in Lisbon and Loures. Firstly, a time-budget survey was created based on questionnaires applied in the studied sites. Results showed that in average elders spend 95% of their time indoors splitted between bedrooms and living-rooms. Therefore, a set of physical and chemical parameters were measured continuously during the occupancy period in these two indoor micro-environments and in the outdoor. Results showed that indoor was the main environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure living in ECCs. In the indoor, the principal micro-environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure varied between bedrooms and living-rooms depending not only on the characteristics of the ECCs but also on the pollutants. The concentrations of CO2, VOCt, O3 and PM10 exceeded the limit values predominantly due to the insufficient ventilation preconized in the studied sites.

  2. Kerbside DOAS measurements of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Legelli, Stefan; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Emission sources as well as wind speed and direction and MLH are important factors which influence high air pollutant concentrations. This is generally known (Schäfer et al., 2006) but the detailed understanding of processes directing certain air pollutant concentrations like HCHO is not complete. To study these processes a long-term campaign in Augsburg, Germany, was performed since March 2012. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO, which were measured with a DOAS from OPSIS across a main traffic road and a nearby park area, are analysed. A ceilometer CL31 from Vaisala which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system is applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. Special software for this ceilometer with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Meteorological data were measured by a ground-based weather station at the measurement site as well as taken from monitoring data archives of the German National Meteorological Service (DWD), which are measured by radiosondes (Oberschleißheim). Correlation analyses are applied to show the coupling of temporal variations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO concentrations with temperature, mixing layer height and wind speed. HCHO which is emitted from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources is studied especially.

  3. Study of urban air pollution in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

  4. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  5. THE RAPS (REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY) HELICOPTER AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT PROGRAM, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, 1974-76

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research program was initiated with the overall objective of providing measurement of air pollution and temperature gradient over the St. Louis, Missouri/Illinois, metropolitan area to complement surface measurements of air pollution by the Regional Air Monitoring System (RA...

  6. The effects of air pollution on the health of children

    OpenAIRE

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-vargas, Alvaro R.

    2006-01-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence.

  7. Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health”

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan, Sa; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the ma...

  8. Generalized additive model of air pollution to daily mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of air pollution with daily mortality due to cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and old age (65 or older) in Seoul, Korea was investigated in 1999 using daily values of TSP, PM10, O3, SO2, NO2, and CO. Generalized additive Poisson models were applied to allow for the highly flexible fitting of daily trends in air pollution as well as nonlinear association with meteorological variables such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed. To estimate the effect of air pollution and weather on mortality, LOESS smoothing was used in generalized additive models. The findings suggest that air pollution levels affect significantly the daily mortality. (orig.)

  9. Air quality interventions and spatial dynamics of air pollution in Delhi and its surroundings

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Naresh; Foster, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the spatial distribution of air pollution in response to recent air quality regulations in Delhi, India. Air pollution was monitored at 113 sites spread across Delhi and its surrounding areas from July–December 2003. From the analysis of these data three important findings emerge. First, air pollution levels in Delhi and its surroundings were significantly higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Second, air quality regulations in the city adve...

  10. 78 FR 2333 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ...l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos Management and Control...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants). Upon approval by EPA, the...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS 0 1. The authority citation...

  11. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wehner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  12. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sugimoto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration (PM1 and PM10 by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  13. Monitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ?50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued i...

  15. Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2007-12-01

    The global build up of greenhouse gases (GHGs), is the most significant environmental issue facing the planet. GHGs warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for, rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that, due to fast long range transport, air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e, aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols nucleate more cloud drops which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. While the solar heating at the surface is reduced by aerosols in ABCs, the atmospheric solar heating increases due to soot solar absorption. The net difference between the dimming and the atmospheric solar heating is estimated be negative which contributes to a global cooling effect. The global cooling from this negative ABC forcing may have masked as much as 50% of the warming due to GHGs. We will identify regional and mega-city hot spots of ABCs. Long range transport from these hot spots gives rise to wide spread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by wide spread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. The large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures, which in turn has been shown by models to decrease rainfall over the continents. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

  16. Aviation air pollution studies in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi

    OpenAIRE

    Al-wasity, Sukaina

    2013-01-01

    Aviation is an integral part of the infrastructure of the modern civilization. Air transport plays an important role in the global economy and has contributed enormously towards global integration. It supports commerce, tourism and private travel. These positive advantages of the aviation industry involve substantial costs to the environment. Aircraft emit large amounts of air pollutants, degrading air quality. Air pollution in and around airports worldwide is rapidly growing. ...

  17. Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) study

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Haidong; Wong, Chit-ming; Vichit-vadakan, Nuntavarn; Qian, Zhengmin

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, but few studies were conducted in Asian countries. Previous studies suggest that SO2 may have adverse health effects independent of other pollutants. In the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project, the short-term associations between ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) and daily mortality were examined in Bangkok, Thailand, and three Chinese cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression model...

  18. AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT BY FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier transform spectroscopy substantially reduces the limitations on infrared methods of pollution measurement. EPA has used long path cells and Fourier transform spectrometers for pollutant measurement both in the laboratory and in the field. Labile pollutants are best measur...

  19. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts, and content of mobile heavy metals. The volume of APC residue is presently increasing due to the increased focus on utilization of renewable energy sources, and thus occupation of new waste–to-energy plants. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions, however, most commercial solutions are concerned with deposition; e.g. in abandoned mines. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. Some main challenges are the extremely high soluble fraction together with the fact that many of the toxic elements are encapsulated in the particles rather than adsorbed to their surface.

  20. Urban air pollution control in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

  1. Air pollution and risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot study among other things was intended to establish and to test a suitable sampling instrument, to develop quantification concepts in order to derive from the large amount of detailed sets of data the appropriate exposure measures, and to determine the distribution pattern of the main risk factors. The approach chosen for epidemiological screening was a case-control study covering a total each of 194 lung cancer cases, hospital controls, and population controls drawn in the Lands of North Rhine-Westfalia and northern Germany. This case-control approach proved to be feasible in principle. In particular, the sampling instrument for description of the risk factors 'occupation', 'smoker', and 'air pollution' proved to be suitable in combination with data in other potential influencing factors. The concepts chosen for a quantification of these factors yielded exposure measures appropriately reducing the large dimension of data of the questionnaire, without however completely exploiting it. The data ascertained within the framework of the pilot study allow to make a risk assessment for only two factors, namely 'smoker' and 'occupation'. For the index of the overall occupational exposure, covering contributions from exposure to asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chronium, PAH, and radionuclides, a relative risk of 1.8 was determined. The study indicated that there is a link between occupational exposure to asbestos or PAH, and the occurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilotccurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilot study did not give an answer to the question of whether air pollution contributes to the formation of bronchial carcinoma. This question will have to be solved by a more extensive study. (orig./MG)

  2. King Coal causes air pollution problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A; Zhao, D; Liu, J

    1989-01-01

    Every year, China is blanketed with some 23 million tons of particulates from smoke and dust along with 17 million tons of sulphur dioxide from the use of coal in power plants, factories, and home furnaces. Elevated concentrations of sulphur dioxide are found in cities like Chongqing and Guiyang, which are plagued by stagnant air masses during the winter months. Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Xi'an, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Guiyang all suffer from soot, ash, and dust fallout for much of the year. Northern cities like Beijing and Tianjin are also afflicted with high levels of heavy metals like lead, cadmium and even arsenic, which are bound to soot and dust particles. Hundreds of people in Xuanwei in Yunnan Province suffer from respiratory diseases and lung cancer brought on by pollution. Government studies have shown that between 1949 and 1979, cancer mortality in the Beijing area increased by 145%, with lung cancer being the most prevalent. Another atmospheric scourge that is spreading throughout China is acid rain. More than half of all rainfall events in large areas south of the Yangtze River have a pH of less than 5.6. The south-western part of China is also experiencing a forest dieback as severe as anything in Europe. For example, about half of all the pines on top of Mt. Nanshen (near Chongqing) have died, and nearly 40% of the fir forests on Mt. Emi have withered and died. On June 1, 1988, the National Prevention and Control of Air Pollution Law came into force. Acid rain research has been listed as one of the major priorities for the most recent National Five-Year Research Program, which runs from 1986 to 1990. For the future environmental protection measures must be taken into account when extracting coal; coal processing techniques must be improved: and new clean coal technologies should be introduced on a large scale. PMID:12291352

  3. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  4. A Prognostics Framework for Health Degradation and Air Pollution Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Fong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is known to cause a wide range of diseases that have led to countless cases of premature mortality. Although pollution in a massive scale is uncontrollable by individual inhabitant, the negative impact on health as a direct result on indoor air pollution can be reduced by appropriate preventive actions. Smart home technology allows ventilation to be controlled through condition-based monitoring of the air pollutant concentration in the room. This paper describes a prognostics framework that regulates in-room ventilation, the algorithm can be fed into a smart home control system for prevention of a number of respiratory diseases.

  5. Ambient air pollution: an emerging risk factor for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Xiaoquan; Montresor-Lopez, Jessica; Puett, Robin; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence supports that air pollution has become an important risk factor for developing diabetes mellitus. Understanding the contributing effect of air pollution in population studies, elucidating the potential mechanisms involved, and identifying the most responsible pollutants are all required in order to promulgate successful changes in policy and to help formulate preventive measures in an effort to reduce the risk for diabetes. This review summarizes recent findings from epidemiologic studies and mechanistic insights that provide links between exposure to air pollution and a heightened risk for diabetes. PMID:25894943

  6. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern air pollution regulation is first and foremost motivated by concerns about the effects of air pollutants on human health and secondarily by concerns about its effects on ecosystems, cultural artifacts, and quality of life values such as visibility. This order of priority ...

  7. Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Information on Susceptible Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution can be related to underlying dis...

  8. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  9. Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Manny

    Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

  10. Perception of Air Pollution in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladen, W. A.; Karan, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    This study analyzed the perception of air pollution of people living in an industrial area of India. Although air pollution was perceived as a problem it was ranked less important than socio-economic problems. Differences in perception existed among the various cultural groups and among the residential zones. (MR)

  11. The contribution of air pollution to heritage management policy strategies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    Paris : ADEME, 2007. s. 16-17 [Joint workshop of the EU project Cult-Strat - The protection of cultural heritage from air pollution. 15.03.2007-16.03.2007, Paris /Louvre Palace/] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : architectural heritage * air pollution * conservation strategy Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  12. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

  13. RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

  14. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. PMID:26156317

  15. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Caldero?n-garciduen?as, Lilian; Franco-lira, Maricela; Henri?quez-rolda?n, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; Gonza?lez-maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-robles, Rafael; Villarreal-calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-moreno, Juan; Villarreal-calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-jardo?n, Ricardo; Medina-cortina, Humberto; Delgado-cha?vez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of P...

  16. Associations between mortality and air pollution in central Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Peters; Skorkovsky, J; Kotesovec, F; Brynda, J.; Spix, C; Wichmann, H. E.; HEINRICH, J

    2000-01-01

    Increased mortality has been observed in association with elevated concentrations of air pollutants in European cities and in the United States. We reassessed the effects of particulate matter in Central Europe. Mortality and air pollution data were obtained for a highly polluted region of the Czech Republic and a rural region in Germany. Poisson regression analyses were conducted considering trend, season, meteorology, and influenza epidemics as confounders in both a parametric and a nonpara...

  17. The burden of air pollution: impacts among racial minorities.

    OpenAIRE

    Gwynn, R C; Thurston, G D

    2001-01-01

    Various epidemiologic investigations have shown that ambient air pollution levels are associated with acute increases in hospital admissions and mortality in the United States and abroad. The objectives of this investigation were a) to determine if racial minorities are more adversely affected by ambient air pollution than their white counterparts and b) to assess the contribution of socioeconomic status to any observed racial differences in pollution effect. Time-series regression methods we...

  18. Electric vehicle and conventional vehicle. Urban air pollution assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Andreia; Silva, Lígia Torres; Rodrigues, Daniel Souto; Ramos, Rui A. R., ed. lit.

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic is the main source of air pollutant emissions in urban areas. Pollutant emissions can be evaluated and calculated using mathematical models based on the characteristics of traffic flowing in roads. This article aims to assess the air pollution produced by a fleet of vehicles with conventional (diesel and petrol) and electrical (hybrid and electric) motorization, in the city centre of Braga. The scientific toolbox adopted to develop the studies includes emission models to es...

  19. Air pollution and daily mortality in Inchon, Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y. C.; Leem, J. H.; Ha, E. H.

    1999-01-01

    The association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 1-year period (January 1995 to December 1995) in Inchon, Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality. Concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particles (PM10), and gaseous pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, were measured daily during the stu...

  20. Effects of air pollutants on acute stroke mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yun-chul; Lee, Jong-tae; Kim, Ho; Ha, Eun-hee; Schwartz, Joel; Christiani, David C.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between stroke and air pollution has not been adequately studied. We conducted a time-series study to examine the evidence of an association between air pollutants and stroke over 4 years (January 1995-December 1998) in Seoul, Korea. We used a generalized additive model to regress daily stroke death counts for each pollutant, controlling for seasonal and long-term trends and meteorologic influences, such as temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. We observed ...

  1. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of exposure to oxidative air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Barath, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Background: The negative effects of air pollution on morbidity and mortality have been known since the mid 20th century. The two most well known examples are the Meuse Valley disaster in the 1930’ies and the London black fog in December 1952. Whilst there are numerous epidemiological studies, in which associations between morbidity and mortality and high levels of pollutants have been reported, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Two of the main air pollutants are particulate matter (PM)...

  2. Real-Time Air Pollutants Rendering based on Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for realistic real-time rendering of air pollutants based on image processing. The air pollutants’ variable density can create many shapes of mist what can add a realistic environment to virtual scene. In order to achieve a realistic effect, we further enhance thus obtained air pollution data getting from monitor in spatial domain. In the proposed method we map the densities of air pollutants to different gray levels, and visualize them by blending those gray levels with background images. The proposed method can also visualize large-scale air pollution data from different viewpoints in real-time and provide the resulting image with any resolution theoretically, which is very important and favorable for the Internet transmission.

  3. Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Berglind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

  4. Valuation Of Health Impacts Of Air Pollution In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the studies measuring the economic impacts of air pollution on health in India. Air pollution has potentially large impacts on the health and well-being of households, especially the poor families. The literature shows that the distribution of the impacts of air pollution is not uniform across the cross sections of societies. It notes that though there are some case studies on the valuation of health impacts of outdoor air pollution, there is rarely any study on the valuation of health outcomes of indoor air pollution which uses consumer choice or behavior models. It identifies that studies should focus on both individual specific characteristics as well as the neighborhood specifications and these studies should be dynamic as the static studies fails to capture the effects of change in socio-economic features on health outcomes.

  5. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    OpenAIRE

    De Giovanni, Marina; CURCI, Gabriele; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; TRIPODI, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (...

  6. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring...

  7. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  8. Interaction patterns of major air pollutants in Hong Kong territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution in a metropolitan city like Hong Kong is a major obstacle to improve air quality and living environment due to the high population density and the vehicle emission increases. The high air pollutant levels impose harm to the human health and impair the city image. The characteristic analysis of air pollutants is very important and necessary to pollutant monitoring, forecasting and controlling. In this study, the interaction patterns of principle air pollutants, e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3), a secondary pollutant, are investigated based on the measured database in four selected areas, which covers two urban types (i.e. residential area, mixed residential/commercial/industrial area) in Hong Kong, during the period of 1999-2001. The study involves analyzing the chemical and physical properties, the characteristics of air pollutants and the factors affecting such interactions using statistical method. The results reveal several routines in urban air pollutants' variations, interaction and trends from macro aspect

  9. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  10. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

  11. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes...R18-2-220, Air pollution emergency episodes...Environmental Quality-Air Pollution Control, amended...Procedures for Prevention of Emergency...

  12. 75 FR 2796 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY...the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District portion of...for Miscellaneous Metal and Plastic Parts Coatings. The commenter...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  13. 76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...Parts and Products, Plastic Parts and Products...

  14. 77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ...districts for evaluating air pollution control economics. 3. Farms...In light of this economic uncertainty...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...4) San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District,...

  15. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...all SIP revisions and, in light of NAHB's legal challenge...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No....

  16. 77 FR 2228 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...implemented in the area in light of technological achievability...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  17. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No. 08-17309...full SIP approval, but in light of the deficiencies also...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  18. 76 FR 298 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District Rules 4402...improvements are not appropriate in light of analogous requirements in...equipped with a 95% efficient Air Pollution Control (APC) device. c...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  19. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic...

  20. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 7 Table 7 to Subpart HHHHH...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Coating...

  1. 40 CFR Table 16 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants 16 Table 16 to Subpart XXXX...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ggggg of... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false List of Hazardous Air Pollutants 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGG...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Site Remediation Pt....

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Eeee of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants 1 Table 1 to Subpart EEEE...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Organic Liquids...

  4. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process,...

  5. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Coating...

  6. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 9 Table 9 to Subpart FFFF...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic...

  7. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...

  8. 75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ...Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY...Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD...areas, and power plants. MBUAPCD has amended...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  9. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South...the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...facilities, chemical plants, and...

  10. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South...the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...facilities, chemical plants, and...

  11. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD...and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD...from gasoline bulk plants, terminals and...

  12. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD...Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) and Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD...from gasoline bulk plants, terminals and...

  13. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  14. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

  15. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  16. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  17. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

  18. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air-quality over a megacity – revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, C.; Li, J; Zhang, R.; J. S. Fu; Wang, Q.; lin, Y.; Zhuang, G.; Huang, K; Fu, Q

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush) provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activities on air quality in the Chinese megacities as emission sources varied and fluctuated greatly prior to, during and after the festival. Enhanced vehicular emission during the spring travel rush before the festival resulted in high level pollutants of NOx (...

  19. Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, so these policies will undoubtedly impact thermal coal supply chain member enterprises. Based on the actual situation in China, this paper figures out how the member enterprises adjust their business decisions to satisfy the requirements of air pollution prevention and control policies by establishing system dynamic models of policy impact transfer. These dynamic analyses can help coal enterprises and thermal power enterprises do strategic environmental assessments and find directions of sustainable development. Furthermore, the policy simulated results of this paper provide the Chinese government with suggestions for policy-making to make sure that the energy conservation and emission reduction policies and sustainable energy policies can work more efficiently.

  20. Impact of energy conversion procedures in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an overview on air pollution , its causes , its effects and methods of control. Pollution caused essentially by transportation sector and vehicles, different kinds of power plants (thermal power plants, cement, iron power plants, industrial power plants, natural factors as volcans), effects of electricity sectors. Pollutants (elements, CO2, CO, NO, Lead, Ozone, Chlorofluorcarbone) with sources of pollution such as fuel oil, fossil fuels and their effects are presented in tables. Monitoring data on CO2 has been implemented in some towns in Lebanon (Gieh, Zouk, Chikka, etc.) some data on pollutants and pollution due to transportation sector in Lebanon are given. Methods of air pollution control for the two sectors are presented

  1. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  2. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement

  3. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 ?g m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

  4. Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered, with an emphasis on those indoor air quality problems of greatest concern at present: passive exposure to tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from gas-fueled cooking stoves, formaldehyde exposure, radon daughter exposure, and the diverse health problems encountered by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The review concludes by briefly addressing assessment of indoor air quality, control technology, research needs, and clinical implications. 243 references

  5. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  6. Air pollution sources in Canada: Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the air pollution issues associated with thermal power plants. In 1988, 21.9 of electricity in Canada was generated with fossil fuels. This accounted for 280 kilotonnes of NOx, ca 14% of Canada's total emissions. To control the projected increase in NOx emissions due to rising electricity consumption, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) are considering changing the source performance standards for power plants, and are also considering controlling daily NOx emissions from certain power plants in the Lower Fraser Valley and the Windsor-Quebec corridor where high levels of ground-level ozone are reported. Of the seven provinces, Manitoba and Quebec are the least reliant on fossil fuel electrical generation. Provincial utilities in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are the heaviest users of coal, and therefore have the toughest burden of SO2 reduction. Other emissions from power plants include carbon monoxide (56,000 tonnes or 0.5%), particulate matter (100,000 tonnes or 6%), and volatile organic compounds (2620 tonnes or 0.1%). Mercury vapour from coal is also a potential problem emission from fossil-fuel power plants. 11 refs., 1 tab

  7. Air pollutants targeted by radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemists at the Commerce Department's National Bureau of Standards (NBS) are answering questions about where certain atmospheric contaminants originate by refining a method best known for determining the age of archeological objects. Called radiocarbon dating, the method allows NBS scientists to examine air samples and determine whether contaminants come from naturally occurring or manmade sources-or a combination of the two. Making these distinctions is important to federal and state environmental agencies, which identify industrial sources of pollution for regulatory action. An overbalance of atmospheric carbon can cause a number of environmental problems. In methane's case, high levels are of concern to environmental agencies because of greenhouse properties. Methane also has been implicated as a possible contributor to changes in the ozone layer that protects the Earth from excessive ultraviolet light. Levels of methane have been increasing at an annual rate of about one percent over the last decade. This has caused concern in the environmental community, which hopes to determine just where the elevated levels are coming from. The NBS research is aimed at definitively pinpointing sources of methane and other atmospheric contaminants

  8. A Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings, where people spend their time. The AER, which is rate the exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pol...

  9. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Michael SØgaard; Brodersen, SØsser

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers.

  10. Aerosol and air pollution study by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis technique was used in air pollution and aerosol elemental content and size distribution investigations. Air pollution samples were collected on Whatman 41 paper filters which were activated along with known quantities of standards in a flux of approximately 1013 nxcm-2xs-1. The activity of the samples was measured with a 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and analyzed with the computer program JANE, which identified the isotopes and found their quantities by normalization with the standard measurement results. Correlation between the various elements, in particular those belonging to dust from the desert and those considered typical urban air pollution, is investigated. (author)

  11. Biochemical parameters of plants as indicators of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, A K; Gautam, Mukesh

    2007-01-01

    In the present study species like Mangifera indica, Linn., Cassia fistula, Linn., and Eucalyptus hybrid were exposed to different air pollution load for short duration (active biomonitoring). Variation in biochemical parameters like chlorophyll, protein, soluble sugar free amino acid, ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves were found to be pollution load dependent. These variations can be used as indicators of air pollution for early diagnosis of stress or as a marker for physiological damage to trees prior to the onset of visible injury symptoms. Just by analyzing these biochemical indicators air quality can also be assessed. PMID:17717999

  12. Evaluation to the aspen for the air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspen is not often used in bio monitoring programs, but when it is, several interacting and confounding variables have to be considered. Biomass of leaves, and height changes are not easy linked with air pollution, whereas dry weight and leaf abscission are. Visible injury diagnosis and crown thinning are useful records for bio monitoring programs to consider, but skill and understanding of air pollution effects versus seasonal effects are very important. Understanding of actual air pollution symptoms and elemental ratios are especially important. Clonal response and heritability is discuses below, and has to be considered in any bio monitoring program. Above all, integration of aspen response with other key variables is key

  13. Controlled clinical studies of air pollutant exposure: evaluating scientific information in relation to air quality standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, J.D.; Linn, W S

    1983-01-01

    In controlled clinical studies, volunteers are deliberately exposed to specific air pollutants under conditions simulating ambient exposures, and health-related responses are documented. Studies of the health risks of air pollution need to be scientifically rigorous and clearly relevant to "real-world" pollution exposures. Their results should be confirmed by independent replication if they are to be used as a basis for air quality regulations. Well-designed controlled clinical studies readil...

  14. Evaluation of a Possibility to Identify Port Pollutants Trace in Klaipeda City Air Pollution Monitoring Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. dr. habil. Vytautas SMAILYS; Renata Strazdauskien?; Kristina Bereišien?

    2009-01-01

    Attempts are made to determine whether it is possible to identify fractions of air pollutants emitted in Klaipeda port in the data recorded in the city air monitoring station. Two components, SO2 and NOx , controlled aboard ship since 2006 were chosen for evaluation. To determine the port influence, a due account was taken of the location of monitoring stations. For this purpose the sectors where port pollutants could enter the samplers of air monitoring stations were identified. For the asse...

  15. Modelling of air pollution dispersion in Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rainer

    In Santiago de Chile air quality standards are frequently exceeded during both summer and winter time. The evaluation of the temporal and spatial evolution of the chemical and physical characteristics of these air pollution problems requires the application of three-dimensional models. In this work, the Chilean Air Pollution Dispersion Model (CADM), a three-dimensional Eulerian chemical transport model is presented. The model is applied for the simulation of air pollution dispersion during summer. Carbon monoxide (CO) dispersion is studied in order to evaluate advection and diffusion as simulated by CADM and to characterise dispersion patterns in the Santiago basin. Horizontal and vertical dispersion patterns are presented, explaining how pollutants are ventilated out of the Santiago basin. Also, the role of turbulence on the pollutant distribution is discussed. Furthermore, an attempt is made to explain how pollutants are accumulated in the basin during night in the nocturnal stable planetary boundary layer and what mechanisms affect the transport of pollutants under these conditions. Comparing results from model simulations with observations, it can be shown that the model is able to represent the diurnal cycles of CO reasonably well. It can be concluded that CADM is suited for the application of air pollution dispersion in the Santiago basin in particular and complex terrain in general.

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Photochemical Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Gregory John

    Air pollution is an environmental problem that is both pervasive and difficult to control. An important element of any rational control approach is a reliable means for evaluating the air quality impact of alternative abatement measures. This work presents such a capability, in the form of a mathematical description of the production and transport of photochemical oxidants within an urban airshed. The combined influences of advection, turbulent diffusion, chemical reaction, emissions and surface removal processes are all incorporated into a series of models that are based on the species continuity equations. A delineation of the essential assumptions underlying the formulation of a three-dimensional, a Lagrangian trajectory, a vertically integrated and single cell air quality model is presented. Since each model employs common components and input data the simpler forms can be used for rapid screening calculations and the more complex ones for detailed evaluations. The flow fields, needed for species transport, are constructed using inverse distance weighted polynomial interpolation techniques that map routine monitoring data onto a regular computational mesh. Variational analysis procedures are then employed to adjust the field so that mass is conserved. Initial concentration and mixing height distributions can be established with the same interpolation algorithms. Subgrid scale turbulent transport is characterized by a gradient diffusion hypothesis. Similarity solutions are used to model the surface layer fluxes. Above this layer different treatments of turbulent diffusivity are required to account for variations in atmospheric stability. Convective velocity scaling is utilized to develop eddy diffusivities for unstable conditions. The predicted mixing times are in accord with results obtained during sulfur hexafluoride (SF(,6)) tracer experiments. Conventional models are employed for neutral and stable conditions. A new formulation for gaseous deposition fluxes is presented that provides a means for estimating removal rates as a function of atmospheric stability. The model satisfactorily reproduces measured deposition velocities for reactive materials. In addition it is shown how computational cell size influences the representation of surface removal. Chemical interactions between twenty nine chemical species are described by a 52 step kinetic mechanism. The atmospheric hydrocarbon chemistry is modeled by the reactions of six lumped classes: alkanes, ethylene, other olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde and other aldehydes; a grouping that enables representation of a wide range of smog chamber experiments and atmospheric conditions. Chemical lumping minimizes the number of species while maintaining a high degree of detail for the inorganic reactions. Variations in rate data, stoichiometric coefficients and initial conditions have been studied using the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test. The wide variation in time scales, non-linearity of the chemistry and differences in transport processes complicates selection of numerical algorithms. Operator splitting techniques are used to decompose the governing equation into elemental steps of transport and chemistry. Each transport operator is further split into advective and diffusive components so that linear finite element and compact finite difference schemes can be applied to their best advantage. Because most of the computer time is consumed by the chemical kinetics those species that could be accurately described by pseudo-steady state approximations were identified reducing the number of species, described by differential equations, to 15. While the mathematical formulation of the complete system contains no regional or area specific information, performance evaluation studies were carried out using data measured in the South Coast Air Basin of Southern California. Detailed emissions and meteorological information were assembled for the period 26-28 June 1974. A comparison between predictions and observed air quality, during multi-day periods, indicates that the model can

  17. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Loomis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population

  18. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping CHEN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  19. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km2 area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution coment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations

  20. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. PART I. AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication, directed towards the process and design engineer, describes types, quantities, and sources of emissions, presents the latest control device alternatives, and estimates costs for implementing the air pollution control systems. Emphasis is placed on explanation of...

  3. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...pollution emergency episodes—plan scheduling, interdistrict coordination, episode...much as possible, without upsetting production, equipment operations which emit air...withoutdamaging the equipment or without reducing production by more than 20 percent. (6...

  4. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  5. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  6. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  7. Seasonal variation of air pollution index: Hong Kong case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xie-Kang; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2006-05-01

    Air pollution is an important and popular topic in Hong Kong as concerns have been raised about the health impacts caused by vehicle exhausts in recent years. In Hong Kong, sulphur dioxide SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) are major air pollutants caused by the dominant usage of diesel fuel by goods vehicles and buses. These major pollutants and the related secondary pollutant, e.g., ozone (O3), become and impose harmful impact on human health in Hong Kong area after the northern shifting of major industries to Mainland China. The air pollution index (API), a referential parameter describing air pollution levels, provides information to enhance the public awareness of air pollutions in time series since 1995. In this study, the varying trends of API and the levels of related air pollutants are analyzed based on the database monitored at a selected roadside air quality monitoring station, i.e., Causeway Bay, during 1999-2003. Firstly, the original measured pollutant data and the resultant APIs are analyzed statistically in different time series including daily, monthly, seasonal patterns. It is found that the daily mean APIs in seasonal period can be regarded as stationary time series. Secondly, the auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) method, implemented by Box-Jenkins model, is used to forecast the API time series in different seasonal specifications. The performance evaluations of the adopted models are also carried out and discussed according to Bayesian information criteria (BIC) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results indicate that the ARMA model can provide reliable, satisfactory predictions for the problem interested and is expecting to be an alternative tool for practical assessment and justification. PMID:16325232

  8. Air pollution convergente and economic growth across european countries

    OpenAIRE

    A?lvarez, Francisco; Marrero, Gustavo A.; Puch, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of macroeconomic performance in shaping the evolution of air pollutants in a panel of European countries from 1990 to 2000. The analysis is addressed in connection with EU environmental regulation and taking into account macroeconomic performance. We start by documenting the patterns of crosscountry differences among different pollutants. We then interpret these differences within a neoclassical growth model with pollution. Three main pieces of evid...

  9. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM10 exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and s a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: ? Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. ? 24-h concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. ? Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. ? Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. ? Close pollution-meteorology association serve as a basis for warning and forecasting.

  10. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements. PMID:22852801

  11. Evaluation of some air pollution indicators in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article intends to shed a light on air quality in Turkey and compare air pollutant emissions on a national scale with that of the European countries. In order to estimate the quantities of Turkish emissions in the past and their future predictions, a national emission inventory was prepared with respect to five major pollutants consisting of particulate matter(PM), SOx, NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds, and CO with 5-year intervals between 1985 and 2005. The results suggest that Turkey is a rather large emission source at the European scale, although emission indicators on unit area and per capita were shown to be somewhat smaller in magnitude. Levels of air pollution in some of the big cities in Turkey were also evaluated from available national monitoring data. These evaluations for the urban air qualities covered SO2 and PM parameters between 1986 and 1996, and results were compared with the present Turkish air quality limits, their probable revisions, WHO (Europe) guidelines and related EC directives. Results showed that the air quality limits were not met, especially during the winter periods in Turkish cities. Urban air pollutants characterizing the air in Turkish cities other than SO2 and PM, however, could not have been evaluated as these pollutants were not systematically monitored in these cities. (author)

  12. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, B.; Green, D.

    2015-05-01

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements.

  13. Critical analysis of dose-effects relationships in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur dioxide and suspended particulates are the usual indicators of air pollution. A review of the main approaches to assess the dose-effects relationships of these pollutants is presented. At low levels of exposure, the different kinds of uncertainties are such that they do not allow to use exposure-effects relations but give maximum potential risks

  14. Linking Urban Air Pollution to Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien

    2005-01-01

    The two major tasks of this project are to study: (a) the impact of urban nonlinear chemistry on chemical budgets of key pollutants in non-urban areas; and (b) the influence of air pollution control strategies in selected metropolitan areas, particularly of emerging economies in East and South Asia, on tropospheric chemistry and hence on regional and global climate.

  15. ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...

  16. AIR POLLUTION AND FOREST ECOSYSTEMS: A REGIONAL TO GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in atmospheric concentrations of a number of air pollutants over the last century are hallmarks of the magnitude and extent of human impact on the environment. ome of these changes are important to ecologists because many pollutants, acting singly or in combination, affec...

  17. APPLICATIONS OF DECISION THEORY TECHNIQUES IN AIR POLLUTION MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study applies methods of operations research to two basic areas of air pollution modeling: (1) the generation of wind fields for use in models of regional scale transport, diffusion and chemistry; and (2) the application of models in studies of optimal pollution control strat...

  18. 76 FR 30604 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ...Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities...amended National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaning...

  19. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... comes from the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock, and water and gets into the air ...

  20. Association of Human Mortality with Air Pollution of Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Ka-In Hoi; Ding-Bian Zhang; Kai-Meng Mok; Ka-Veng Yuen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to investigate the general statistical association of air pollution with the cardiovascular and respiratory mortality of the elderly in Hong Kong. Based on six years of measurements including the major air pollutant concentrations (PM10, SO2, NO, NO2, O3, CO), ambient temperature, and mortality (respiratory, cardiovascular) between 2005 and 2010, correlation analysis was carried out in annual, monthly and weekly time scales. From an annual perspective, it was found...

  1. The state of transboundary air pollution: 1989 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the seventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 21 to 24 November 1989. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country by country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two is an executive summary of the 1988 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests which was established by the Executive Body for the Convention in 1985. A total of 25 countries participated in the survey, conducted in accordance with common guidelines laid down in an ECE manual on methodologies and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Parts three and four describe the effects of mercury and some other heavy metals related to the long-range atmospheric transport of pollution. The section on mercury describes the environmental effects and the causes of mercury pollution in air and atmospheric deposition, including its sources and its transport from foreng its sources and its transport from forest soils into fresh water and aquatic organisms. The section dealing with other heavy metals (such as asbestos, cadmium and lead) describes the process of atmospheric transport and deposition, the effects on forest ecosystems, ground water, surface water and agricultural products. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Particulate air pollution, systemic oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Jesus A.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution has been associated with significant adverse health effects leading to increased overall morbidity and mortality of worldwide significance. Epidemiological studies have shown that the largest portion of air pollution-related mortality is due to cardiovascular diseases, predominantly those of ischemic nature. Human studies suggest an association with atherosclerosis and increasing experimental animal data support that this association is likely to be causal. While both gasses and...

  3. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMAN EXPOSURE: THE EPIDEMIOLOGY INFLUENCING PUBLIC POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira; Neide Regina Simões Olmo

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has gone through several stages of involution in its quality and this malefic and silent power reflects on the urban population health. The legal and medical approaches are complementary in understanding the theme and government in terms of decision-making. The negative effects of air pollution are shown through scientific studies especially those that focus on evidence-disordered breathing, cardiovascular and exacerbation of preexisting comorbidities, going through fertility pr...

  4. Enforcement and air pollution: an environmental justice case study

    OpenAIRE

    Germani, Anna Rita; Morone, Piergiuseppe; Testa, Giuseppina

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an environmental justice empirical analysis on the relationship between income, demographic characteristics and concentrations of air industrial pollutants within the Italian provinces. Two general conclusions can be drawn from the empirical results. First, the estimates obtained are consistent with an inverse U-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: air pollution releases increase with income up to a turning point, where the relation reverts. Second, there is evidence that a...

  5. Indoor air pollution in rural China; associated with lung function?

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Stephanie Loan Vy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately, half of the world population depends on biomass fuels as primary energy source. Indoor air pollutants are recently studied and considered as to be responsible for health burden in rural China. Chronic exposure to biomass combustion has been claimed to be associated with increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms, reduced lung function and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) The present study focuses on two main indoor air pollutants p...

  6. Air pollution and unscheduled hospital outpatient and emergency room visits.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, X; Li, B; Huang, H

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a time-series analysis of daily hospital visits and air pollution data to assess acute effects of air pollution on daily unscheduled outpatient visits to internal medicine, pediatric, and emergency departments in the No. 3 Affiliated Hospital of Beijing Medical University in Beijing, China. Sulfur dioxide was marginally significantly associated with total outpatient visits (beta = 41.5, SE = 24.2) and significantly associated with internal medicine (beta = 14.6, SE = 6.7), pediat...

  7. Proceedings of the international conference on residential air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the International conference on Residential Air Pollution are presented. The perceptions and aspirations of residents with regard to clean air was the main theme of the conference. Emphasis was also placed on the pollution and effects brought about by the domestic burning of fuels for heating and cooking in third world environments. Only two papers were indexed for INIS. The remaining papers were considered to be outside the subject scope of INIS

  8. Epidemiologic evidence of cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Dockery, Douglas W

    2001-01-01

    In the past decade researchers have developed a body of epidemiologic evidence showing increased daily cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with acute exposures to particulate air pollution. Associations have been found not only with cardiovascular deaths reported on death certificates but also with myocardial infarctions and ventricular fibrillation. Particulate air pollution exposure has been associated with indicators of autonomic function of the heart including increased hear...

  9. Air Pollution Effects on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, David A.; Irene Kreis; Narges Bagheri Lankarani

    2010-01-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion Health effects caused by air pollutants may range from subtle biochemical or physiological signs, such as mildly reduced lung function, to difficult breathing, wheezing, coughing and exacerbation of existing respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of this study was measuring the adverse health effects of air pollution on lung function of primary school students.The lung function of students was measured daily for seven weeks in two elementary schools in Dist...

  10. Air pollution and forest ecosystems: a regional to global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the atmospheric concentrations of a number of air pollutants over the last century are hallmarks of the magnitude and extent of human impact on the environment. Some of these changes are important to ecologists because many pollutants, acting singly or in combination, affect ecological systems in general and forests in particular. The greatest concern lies with chronic levels of tropospheric ozone, cumulative deposition of hydrogen ion, nitrogen, and sulfur via wet and dry processes, a select number of airborne chemicals (e.g., mercury) that tend to bio accumulate in continental landscapes, and ultraviolet—B radiation through the loss of stratospheric ozone. Because the atmospheric residence time of most pollutants of concern to ecologists is measured on time frames extending from a few weeks to decades, pollutant distribution and effects are regional to global in dimension. We present evidence that ambient levels of some air pollutants in North America are affecting managed and unmanaged forests, and that the two most important pollutants are tropospheric ozone and chronic nitrogen loading. Further evidence indicates that while concentrations of some air pollutants have been declining over the last decade in North America, others are expected to remain unchanged or increase, including tropospheric ozone. We conclude that air pollution is affecting many North American forests and some remote forests around the globe. In the immediate future, the concern for air pollution effects on forests and associated natural resources will broaden to include interactions with changes in climate and pollution effects in the world's developing countries. There has been a rapid evolution in air pollution studies in ecology, shifting away from the agricultural paradigm of single—factor experimentation toward new methodologies that are ecologically and multidisciplinarily based. This shift has been promoted by the recognition that air pollution is one of several factors influencing forest productivity, community dynamics, and biogeochemistry, and that effects arise through long—term exposures. This evolution in methodologies will become even more marked in the future as new ecological approaches are adopted and an understanding is developed of how air pollution interacts with changes in climate. One of the most promising methodologies is process level modeling, which utilizes the large base of data in tree physiology and forest ecology, watershed chemistry, and atmosphere— forest canopy meteorology to develop models of tree physiology and growth and to subsequently scale these investigations to the levels of forest stands and landscapes

  11. A comparison of self reported air pollution problems and GIS-modeled levels of air pollution in people with and without chronic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nafstad Per; Næss Øyvind; Madsen Christian; Piro Fredrik; Claussen Bjørgulf

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore various contributors to people's reporting of self reported air pollution problems in area of living, including GIS-modeled air pollution, and to investigate whether those with respiratory or other chronic diseases tend to over-report air pollution problems, compared to healthy people. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Oslo Health Study (2000–2001) were linked with GIS-modeled air pollution data from the Norwegian Institute of Air Research. Multivariate reg...

  12. Association of Human Mortality with Air Pollution of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-In Hoi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to investigate the general statistical association of air pollution with the cardiovascular and respiratory mortality of the elderly in Hong Kong. Based on six years of measurements including the major air pollutant concentrations (PM10, SO2, NO, NO2, O3, CO, ambient temperature, and mortality (respiratory, cardiovascular between 2005 and 2010, correlation analysis was carried out in annual, monthly and weekly time scales. From an annual perspective, it was found that the air pollution species may pose a constant effect on the respiratory and the cardiovascular mortality during the studied period since the elderly mortality rates and the air pollution annual concentrations show obvious constant trends. From a monthly time scale, it was found that NO2 and CO have high positive cross correlation with the respiratory mortality of the following 1 to 2 months. In addition, PM10 and CO also have similar delayed influence on the cardiovascular mortality. Among these four pollutants, only CO was found to exhibit high statistical association in the weekly time scale and it is most related to the cardiovascular mortality of the week after next. Therefore, it was concluded that the effect of air pollution on the elderly mortality of Hong Kong should be cumulative. This study implies that the establishment of weekly or monthly air quality indices is necessary for health implications.

  13. Acute Health Impact of Air Pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, T.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution not only has long term health impact, but can affect health through acute exposure. This paper, using air pollution index (API) as overall evaluation of air quality, blood pressure and vital capacity as health outcomes, focuses on the acute health impact of air pollution in China. Current result suggests that after controlling smoking history, occupational exposure, income and education, API is positively associated with blood pressure and negatively associated with vital capacity. The associations became stronger for people with hypertension or pulmonary functional diseases, which indicates that these people are more sensitive to air pollution. Among three pollutants which API measures, that is inhalable particles (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), PM10 is most statistically associated with blood pressure increase and vital capacity decrease. Further study will focusing on the following two questions. The first question is how various time lags affect the associations among API, blood pressure and vital capacity. The second question is how differently people in various cohorts reacts to acute exposure to air pollution. The differences in reactions of blood pressure and vital capacity between people in urban and rural areas, genders, various age cohorts, distinct income and education groups will be further studied.

  14. International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J. Woodruff

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies.

  15. Detection of Air Pollutant Using Zigbee

    OpenAIRE

    Darshana N. Tambe; Nikita Chavan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe use of ZigBee, sensor nodes, GPS to construct distributed system for urban airpollution monitoring and control. Zigbee module and pollution server is interfaced with GPS system todisplay real-time pollutants levels and there location on a 24h/7 days basis.

  16. Detection of Air Pollutant Using Zigbee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana N. Tambe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe use of ZigBee, sensor nodes, GPS to construct distributed system for urban airpollution monitoring and control. Zigbee module and pollution server is interfaced with GPS system todisplay real-time pollutants levels and there location on a 24h/7 days basis.

  17. California’s Agriculture-Related Local Air Pollution Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Cynthia Lin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a critical environmental issue for California, which has some of the nation’s most polluted air basins and also the nation’s most stringent set of state and local air quality standards. This paper reviews my previous work in Lin (2011, in which I examine the effects of agriculture-related local regulations in California on air quality, as measured by the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards, by exploiting the natural variation in policy among the different air districts in California. Agricultural burning policies and penalty fees reduce the pollution from CO. Other policies such as the prohibition on visible emission, fugitive dust, particulate matter, nitrogen and the reduction of animal matter are correlated with higher levels of CO. Regulations on orchard and citrus heaters have no significant effect on the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards.

  18. The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of r anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

  19. How the Guangzhou Government Can Curtail Air Pollution from Road Traffic in a Least Costly Manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xu

    1998-12-01

    This thesis explores the relationship between the increased motorized traffic and air pollution in urban Guangzhou, the prosperous capital of the Guangdong Province in southern China that is located in the vicinity of Hong Kong and Macao. The emphasis is placed on PM 10 pollutants (particles of less than 10 microns in size). It reviews the current status of ambient air quality, the harmful effects of PM 10 emissions on human health and how to reduce the problem. It is estimated that 3300 premature deaths per year could be avoided if Guangzhou met the Class II of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM 10, and the Guangzhou Government could save 10% of its GDP in 1994. A theoretical framework for reducing pollution problems is presented based on cost-effectiveness theory. There is also an overview of possible pollution reducing measures based on worldwide experience. The theoretical framework is applied to a case study of selected measures: (1) reduced sulfur content of diesel fuel, (2) creating bus lanes, (3) fuel taxation, (4) introduction of toll roads, (5) measures on the metro line. The bus lane measure is found to be the most cost-effective one, followed by the toll road and fuel taxation measures. The metro measure is the most expensive one. Finally, the report recommends to the Guangzhou Government what measures should have first priority according to cost-effectiveness. 23 refs., 14 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Do air pollutants damage historic stained glass windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historic stained glass windows, namely, those of the medieval ages, have undergone an accelerated decay during the last decades of this century. The readiness of glasses to corrode under normal climatic conditions is due to their composition and to the presence of humidity. It could be shown that, in addition to the natural aging of these works of art, a correlation between the emission rate of acid air pollutants and the preservation condition of the stained glass windows exists. This implies an essential contribution of air pollutants to the damage of the windows. Pollution has intensified during the last 100 years to an alarming extent

  1. Impact of air temperature, relative humidity, air movement and pollution on eye blinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Lyubenova, Velina S.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and pollution on occupants’ eye blink frequency (BF) was examined. In total sixty subjects participated in eight 4 hour experiments without and with facially applied air movement under individual control of the subjects. Air movement of either polluted room air supplied isothermally or clean and cool air was used. Eye blinking video record for the last 15 min of each exposure were analysed. The increase of the room air temperature and relative humidity from 23 °C and 40% to 26 °C and 70% or to 28 °C and 70% decreased the BF. At temperature of 26 °C and relative humidity of 70% facially applied flow of polluted room air didn’t have significant impact on BF in comparison without air movement. The increase of BF due to decrease of temperature and humidity and increase of velocity may be compensated due to the increase in air cleanness.

  2. AIR POLLUTION FROM FOSSIL FUEL IN ARAB REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohamedGomma Elnour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of air quality conditions and atmospheric pollution in the Arab Region has been addressed through consideration of the energy production and energy consumption pattern. Global, regional and local sources of air pollution in the study have been considered. Emission scenarios of many Arab countries of the region have been outli ned. It has been realized that air pollution constitutes one of the major sources of loss on GNP of many Arab countries in the region due to weak institutional capabilities for air pollution management and control. Major types of air pollution sources in t he region such as greenhouse gas emissions and other gases from various industries are considered. Local sources of air pollution are found due to urban growth, transportation systems, industrialization and lack of awareness and shortage of institutional c apabilities all contributed to the relatively low air quality and weak control in the Arab Region. The purpose of this paper is to review all available literature on the issue of air pollution in Arab countries due to combustion of fossil fuel coming from mobile sources and petroleum gas flaring in order to present the dire situation of the air quality in Arab countries. The report is organized based on certain factors which make the transport sector , power plants and associated gas flaring are significan t polluters of the air in the Arab region. We present a brief introduction to the composition of the transport sector in most of Arab countries and the forms of emissions resulting from it, then the report continues with the explanation of the major impact s that old - aged machines like automobiles, old petroleum production technology and old electrical energy plants technology have in terms of causing air pollution in these countries and thus; making them very inefficient and also very harmful towards the en vironment in most of Arab countries. In this paper also we have used the statistical data during the years 2005 - 2008 in terms of air pollution in most of Arab countries compared with each other. We have taken for study six largest air polluting agents th at are accepted by international organizations such as NAAQS (Air Quality Standards National Environmental, EPA (Environmental Protection Agency of U.S. and sometimes (USEPA, which today are used widely worldwide, and the WHO. The six pollutants are: CO - Carbon Mono - oxide, Ozone O3, at the lower atmospheric layers, Pb - lead, SO2, sulfur dioxide, PM10 (and in some cases PM2.5 – particles of dust, and NO2 - nitrogen oxide. In the present study is analyzed also the ways of reducing the environmental pollution by emissions of gases that cause mobile engines in urban areas. In the study is given changes in emissions of gases depending on the improvement of mobile construction, according to years of production, in accordance with the requirements established by the legislation of EU countries and mobile manufactures. The level of emissions from automobile engines in the city of Tabuk (Saudi - Arabia, for all types of engines is taken as examples to be measured and examined according to the years of production. It ’s found that changing the structure vehicle inserted in use for automobiles of production after 1996, their pollution level decreases twice. Also in the study is analyzed the possibility of modifying the urban intersections with additional lanes before cr ucifixion to reduce the residence time of vehicles in traffic and reduce environmental pollution to two times. Furthermore, we analyze the issue of the low quality fuel being used in some of these countries which increases the emissions of harmful waste gases. Moreover, this paper also presents the issue(s of the lack of legal control which further enables mobile sources to circulate without catalytic converters.

  3. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

  4. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

  5. The health burden of pollution: the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Sandra E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants in both open and closed environments is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that may be both controlled and minimized. Despite growing evidence, several controversies and disagreements exist among the studies that have analyzed the effects of prenatal pollutant exposure. This review article aims to analyze primary scientific evidence of the effects of air pollution during pregnancy and the impact of these effects on the fetus, infant health, and in part...

  6. Framing air pollution epidemiology in terms of population interventions, with applications to multi-pollutant modeling

    OpenAIRE

    SNOWDEN, Jonathan M.; Reid, Colleen E.; Tager, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiology continues moving toward the study of mixtures and multi-pollutant modeling. Simultaneously, there is a movement in epidemiology to estimate policy-relevant health effects that can be understood in reference to specific interventions. Scaling regression coefficients from a regression model by an interquartile range (IQR) is one common approach to presenting multi-pollutant health effect estimates. We are unaware of guidance on how to interpret these effect estimates ...

  7. India’s urban environment: air and water pollution and pollution abatement

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Kala S.; Kumar, Surender

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on air and water pollution in India’s cities, provides empirical evidence to demonstrate the seriousness of the challenges, discusses the relevant policies of national and local government that are used to address the challenges, discusses relevant political economy issues related to introducing pollution taxes or other policies which are aimed at “green” cities.

  8. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  9. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    CERN Document Server

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  10. Air ICP uses for instantaneous monitoring of airborne pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the development of a pure AIR-ICP which breathes in and excites the analysed air without sample dilution, allowed the application of this technique to the real time analysis of airborne metallic pollutants. First results obtained on airborne Beryllium in a laboratory and a test-site apparatus are presented in this paper

  11. APPLICABILITY OF CANISTER SAMPLING FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report evaluates the applicability of sampling with evacuated canisters for volatile organic compounds listed among the 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) in the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments. early 100 HAPs have sufficient vapor pressure to be considered volatile compoun...

  12. RESPIRATORY EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HOUSEHOLD AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute and chronic respiratory diseases impose a huge public health burden in the developing world. A large and growing body of scientific evidence indicates that household air pollution exposures contribute substantially to this burden. The most important source of indoor air p...

  13. Pollutant Dispersion in a Developing Valley Cold-Air Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemel, Charles; Burns, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Pollutants are trapped and accumulate within cold-air pools, thereby affecting air quality. A numerical model is used to quantify the role of cold-air-pooling processes in the dispersion of air pollution in a developing region of enhanced cooling within an Alpine valley under decoupled stable conditions. Results indicate that the negatively buoyant downslope flows transport and mix pollutants into the valley to depths that depend on the temperature deficit of the flow and the ambient temperature structure inside the valley. Along the slopes, pollutants are generally entrained above the region of enhanced cooling and detrained within the region of enhanced cooling largely above the ground-based inversion layer. The ability of the region of enhanced cooling to dilute pollutants is quantified. The analysis shows that the downslope flows fill the valley with air from above, which is then largely trapped within the region of enhanced cooling and that dilution depends on where the pollutants are emitted with respect to the positions of the top of the ground-based inversion layer and region of enhanced cooling, and on the slope wind speeds. Over the lower part of the slopes, the concentrations averaged across the region of enhanced cooling are proportional to the slope wind speeds where the pollutants are emitted, and diminish as the region of enhanced cooling deepens. Pollutants emitted within the ground-based inversion layer are largely trapped there. Pollutants emitted farther up the slopes detrain within the region of enhanced cooling above the ground-based inversion layer, although some fraction, increasing with distance from the top of the slopes, penetrates into the ground-based inversion layer.

  14. Air pollution and neonatal deaths in São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.A., Lin; L.A.A., Pereira; D.C., Nishioka; G.M.S., Conceição; A.L.F., Braga; P.H.N., Saldiva.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been associated with health effects on different age groups. The present study was designed to assess the impact of daily changes in air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particle matter (PM10)) on total number of daily neonatal deaths (those that occur between the first and the 28 [...] th days of life) in São Paulo, from January 1998 to December 2000, since adverse outcomes such as neonatal deaths associated with air pollution in Brazil have not been evaluated before. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used and nonparametric smooth functions (loess) were adopted to control long-term trend, temperature, humidity, and short-term trends. A linear term was used for holidays. The association between air pollutants and neonatal deaths showed a short time lag. Interquartile range increases in PM10 (23.3 µg/m³) and SO2 (9.2 µg/m³) were associated with increases of 4% (95% CI, 2-6) and 6% (95% CI, 4-8), respectively. Instead of adopting a two-pollutant model we created an index to represent PM10 and SO2 effects. For an interquartile range increase in the index an increase of 6.3% (95% CI, 6.1-6.5) in neonatal deaths was observed. These results agree with previous studies performed by our group showing the deleterious effects of air pollutants during the perinatal period. The method reported here represents an alternative approach to analyze the relationship between highly correlated pollutants and public health problems, reinforcing the idea of the synergic effects of air pollutants in public health.

  15. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too.

  16. Air pollution and lung cancer risks in China--a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Shuxiao; Aunan, Kristin; Seip, Hans Martin; Hao, Jiming

    2006-08-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem in China, as in the rest of the world. Many studies have already proved that air pollution as well as other environmental factors can increase the risk of lung cancer. Based on epidemiological studies carried out in China, this paper proposes odds ratios (OR) to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from indoor air pollution for the Chinese population by applying the method of meta-analysis. For domestic coal use for heating and cooking, the pooled OR values are 1.83 (95% CI: 0.62-5.41) and 2.66 (1.39-5.07) for women and both sexes, respectively. For indoor exposure to coal dust, the OR values are 2.52 (95% CI: 1.94-3.28) and 2.42 (1.62-3.63) for women and both sexes, respectively. Cooking oil vapor is another factor increasing lung cancer risk. The OR values are 2.12 (95%CI: 1.81-2.47), 1.78 (1.50-2.12) and 6.20 (2.88-13.32) for nonsmoking women, women, and both sexes, respectively. Regarding environmental tobacco smoke, the pooled OR values are 1.70 (95% CI: 1.32-2.18) and 1.64 (1.29-2.07) for nonsmoking women and both sexes, respectively. Funnel plots with statistical test have been applied to examine the publication bias, and the results implied that the analysis of coal consumption and cooking oil pollution might be affected by publication bias. The meta-analysis results confirm the association between lung cancer and indoor air pollution for the Chinese population. PMID:16406110

  17. Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry deposition of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) to trees can be spatially quantified. Employing nationally available road network, traffic volume, air pollutant emission/measurement and meteorological data, the developed system provides a framework for the U.S. city managers to identify spatial patterns of urban forest and locate potential areas for future urban forest planting and protection to improve air quality. To exhibit the usability of the framework, a case study was performed for July and August of 2005 in Baltimore, MD. - Highlights: ? A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed. ? The developed system enhances the functionality of i-Tree Eco. ? The developed system employs nationally available input datasets. ? The developed system is transferable to any U.S. city. ? Future planting and protection spots were visually identified in a case study. - Employing nationally available datasets and a GIS, this study will provide urban forest managers in U.S. ciurban forest managers in U.S. cities a framework to quantify and visualize urban forest structure and its air pollution removal effect.

  18. Hold your breath: A new index of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental quality and climate change have been discussed prominently as urgent problems that – due to air pollution – produce severe consequences affecting the everyday life of millions of people. Using a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model, we calculate a new index of air pollution and provide a ranking for 122 countries for every fifth year between 1985 and 2005. The empirical analysis supports the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, the electricity produced from coal sources, and demographic transition on air pollution. According to the index, Norway, Switzerland, Japan, Luxembourg, and Iceland are among the top 5 countries in terms of air quality performance. Eritrea, Mozambique, Tajikistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ethiopia performed worst in 2005. - Highlights: ? We calculate a new index of air pollution and provide a ranking for 122 countries. ? The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis. ? Country ranking of this air pollution index is comparable across the period 1985 to 2005. ? Definition of the underlying variables does not change and the methodology is consistent

  19. Air pollution and sick-leaves - is there a connection? A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anett C.; Selte, Harald K.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years a growing number of studies have been discussing the relationship between air pollution and human health. The evidence in the literature for adverse health effects of several pol-lutants seems convincing. In our article we are concerned with to which extent these health effects in turn induce sick-leaves or other kinds of reduced labour productivity, which is important for as-sessment of air pollution costs. We analyse the association between sick-leaves in a large office in O...

  20. Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Jozwicka, M.; Pulles, T. (TNO, Delft (Netherlands)); Odeh, N. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This report comprises two separate complementary parts that address the links between CCS implementation and its subsequent impacts on GHG and air pollutant emissions on a life-cycle basis: Part A discusses and presents key findings from the latest literature, focusing upon the potential air pollution impacts across the CCS life-cycle arising from the implementation of the main foreseen technologies. Both negative and positive impacts on air quality are presently suggested in the literature - the basis of scientific knowledge on these issues is rapidly advancing. Part B comprises a case study that quantifies and highlights the range of GHG and air pollutant life-cycle emissions that could occur by 2050 under a low-carbon pathway should CCS be implemented in power plants across the European Union under various hypothetical scenarios. A particular focus of the study was to quantify the main life-cycle emissions of the air pollutants taking into account the latest knowledge on air pollutant emission factors and life-cycle aspects of the CCS life-cycle as described in Part A of the report. Pollutants considered in the report were the main GHGs CO{sub 2}, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the main air pollutants with potential to harm human health and/or the environment - nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). (Author)

  1. Air pollution impacts from demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-polluting emission rates and energy-efficiency ratings vary widely among power plants, depending on location, age and whether the power plant is repowered. Traditional regulations require installation of specified emission control equipment that varies among power plants. These regulations do not specify that utilities first dispatch the cleanest power plants as demand varies from peak to off-peak periods. This empirical analysis shows, for 2 years out of 20, that demand-side management (DSM) programs increase air pollution. One reason for this result is that regulations require installation of specific emission-control technology but do not provide the incentive to take actual emissions or their air quality impacts into account when operating the system. For certain types of air pollutants and in some regions, regulatory programs now include markets for tradable emission credits. Such programs may alter this incentive. (author)

  2. Severe ozone air pollution in the Persian Gulf region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently it was discovered that over the Middle East during summer ozone mixing ratios can reach a pronounced maximum in the middle troposphere. Here we extend the analysis to the surface and show that especially in the Persian Gulf region conditions are highly favorable for ozone air pollution. Model results indicate that the region is a hot spot of photo-smog where air quality standards are violated throughout the year. Long-distance transports of air pollution from Europe, the Middle East, natural emissions and stratospheric ozone conspire to bring about high background ozone mixing ratios. This provides a hotbed to indigenous air pollution in the dry local weather conditions, which are likely to get worse in future.

  3. Study on air pollution around China's largest oil refinery complex using multielements in biomonitors and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different kinds of plant leaves, Chinese white poplar, arborvitae and pine needle have been sampled from different places, Yanshan Oil refinery complex, Capital Iron and Steel Factory and Badachu, a control place in Beijing, as bio-monitors for air pollution studies. Each sample was divided into two parts, washed and unwashed, 31 trace elements, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Sb, Sm, U, W, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th and Zn have been determined by using KO method of instrument neutron activation analysis techniques with a long irradiation in the 15MW Heave Water Research Reactor, China Institute of Atomic Energy. The results indicated that: 1) the concentration of trace elements in unwashed samples are much higher than that in washed samples; 2) the area of capital iron and steel factory is polluted heavily, and Yanshan oil refinery complex area is polluted moderately, 3) All the three kinds of plant leaves can be used as air pollution biomonitors, because they can absorb some trace elements from the air pollutants. Aspen is good for monitoring in particular seasons and Pine needle is better than arborvitae for yearly monitoring; 4) Elements of As, Cd, Hg, Co, Rb, Sb, W and Zn are highly absorbed by Chinese white poplar. Pine needle is sensitive to absorb the elements of Br, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sc, Cs and rear earth elements, but arborvitae is very sensitive for the absorption of Sr. (author)

  4. Air pollution in urban area of Foligno (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the air pollution levels, based on air's quality laws, detected around the urban area of the city of Foligno (Perugia-Italy)). The preliminary study done, has shown a general result of a good quality of the air, even if there were some excesses of the Attention Levels, during situations not alarming, as these situations occurred in particular conditions, characterized by intense traffic and unfavorable meteorological conditions

  5. Energy use and air pollution in Indonesia. Supply strategies, environmental impacts and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book summarises the results of the ''Markal Study'', which is part of the scientific cooperation between the Indonesian and German governments. The nine chapters cover: an introduction to Indonesia and the objectives of the study; demographic and economic developments; fast increasing domestic energy use; pollution development on Jawa in the case of insufficient control; risks for ecosystems on Jawa; health risks from air pollution; pollution development and control cost in the case of reduced emissions, carbon dioxide emission analysis, and final recommendations for air quality management. A bibliography of the project reports on which the book is based as well as other sources is presented. (UK)

  6. Evaluating the Impacts of Transboundary Air pollution from China on Air Quality in the U.S. Using a Regression Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, N. S.; Bao, X.; Zhong, N.

    2014-12-01

    China is the largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollution in the world and previous work has shown the environmental impacts of the long-range transport (LRT) of air pollution from China to the U.S. via chemical transport models, in situ observations, isentropic back trajectories, and to a lesser extent statistical models. However, these studies generally focus on a narrow time period due to data constraints. In this study, we build upon the literature using econometric techniques to isolate the impacts on U.S. air quality from the LRT of air pollution from China. We use a unique daily data set of China's air pollution index (API) and PM10 concentrations at the city level and merge these information with daily monitor data in California (CA) between 2000 and 2013. We first employ a distributed lag model to examine daily patterns, and then exploit a "natural experiment." In the latter methodology, since air pollution is rarely randomly assigned, we examine the impacts of specific events that affect air quality in China, but are plausibly uncorrelated to factors affecting air pollution in CA. For example, Chinese New Year (CNY) is a major week-long holiday and we show pollution levels in China decrease during this time period, likely from reductions in industrial production. CNY varies each calendar year since it is based off the lunar new year, so the timing of this pollution reduction could be considered "as good as random" or exogenous to factors affecting air quality in CA. Using a regression framework including weather, seasonal and geographic controls, we can potentially isolate the impact of the LRT of air pollution to CA. First, results from the distributed lag model suggest that in the Spring, when LRT peaks, a 1 ?g/m3 increase in daily PM10 from China between 10 and 14 days ago is associated with an increase in today's PM2.5 in CA of 0.022 ?g/m3 (mean daily PM2.5 in CA is 12 ?g/m3). Second, we find that if CNY occurred 5 to 9 days ago, today's PM2.5 in CA decreases by 3 ?g/m3. We also conduct other tests and sensitivity checks, like observing impacts from individual cities in China or other events, and using daily leads as a falsification test. Our results have important policy implications regarding the consequences of foreign pollution sources and suggest a causal relationship between pollution from China and air quality in CA.

  7. Economic damages of ozone air pollution to crops using combined air quality and GIS modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachokostas, Ch; ????????????, ?.; Nastis, S.; Achillas, Ch; Kalogeropoulos, K.; Karmiris, I.; Moussiopoulos, ?.; Chourdakis, E.; Banias, G.; Limperi, N.; ???????, ?.; ????????, ?.; ???????????????, ?.; ?????????, ?.; ?????????????, ?.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at presenting a combined air quality and GIS modelling methodological approach in order to estimate crop damages from photochemical air pollution, depict their spatial resolution and assess the order of magnitude regarding the corresponding economic damages. The analysis is conducted within the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece, a Mediterranean territory which is characterised by high levels of photochemical air pollution and considerable agricultural activity. Ozone concentra...

  8. Development of wireless sensor network for monitoring indoor air pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shaharil Mad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Saad, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Yusof @ Kamarudin, Azman Muhamad

    2015-05-01

    The air that we breathe with everyday contains variety of contaminants and particles. Some of these contaminants and particles are hazardous to human health. Most of the people don't realize that the content of air they being exposed to whether it was a good or bad air quality. The air quality whether in indoor or outdoor environment can be influenced by physical factors like dust particles, gaseous pollutants (including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds) and biological like molds and bacteria growth which largely depend on temperature and humidity condition of a room. These kinds of pollutants can affect human health, physical reaction, comfort or work performance. In this study, a wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system for monitor air pollutant in indoor environment was developed. The system was divided into three parts: web-based interface program, sensing module and a base station. The measured data was displayed on the web which is can be accessed by the user. The result shows that the overall measured parameters were meet the acceptable limit, requirement and criteria of indoor air pollution inside the building. The research can be used to improve the indoor air quality level in order to create a comfortable working and healthy environment for the occupants inside the building.

  9. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling

    2002-09-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its reactivity with the adjacent surfaces, in addition to the crack geometry and pressure difference. Infiltrating air can also travel through wall cavities, where the penetration of particles and ozone is predicted to vary substantially, depending mainly on whether air flow passes through fiberglass insulation. For ozone, its reactivity with the insulation materials is also an important factor. The overall pollutant penetration factor is governed by the flow-weighted average from all air leakage pathways. Large building leaks would strongly influence the overall penetration factor, because they permit much larger flow.

  10. Air Pollution Induced Asthma and Alterations in Cytokine Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoumeh Ebtekar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, clinicians and scientists have witnessed a significant increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The factors underlying this phenomenon are clearly complex; however, this rapid increase in the burden of atopic disease has occurred in parallel with rapid industrialization and urbanization in many parts of the world. Consequently, more people are exposed to air pollutants than at any point in human history. Worldwide increases in allergic respiratory disease have mainly been observed in urban communities. Epidemiologic and clinical investigations have suggested a strong link between particulate air pollution and detrimental health effects, including cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based summary of the effects of air pollutants on asthma, focusing on particulate matter PMs, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs, and ozone as major air pollutants. An overview of observational and experimental studies linking these pollutants with asthma will be provided, followed by consideration of the mechanisms underlying pollutant induced immune response and inflammation. The cytokine response will be viewed in depth and a brief discussion of future research and clinical directions is provided.

  11. 75 FR 45082 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...These revisions concern oxides of nitrogen...sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in...which harm human health and the...

  12. 76 FR 54993 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...Placer County Air Pollution Control District...the Placer County Air Pollution Control District...These revisions concern oxides of nitrogen...sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in...which harm human health and the...

  13. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...revisions concern volatile...the Clean Air Act as amended...Unified Air Pollution Control District...harm human health and the environment...Environmental Health Risks and...actions that concern health or safety...protection, Air pollution...

  14. 75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ...Imperial County Air Pollution Control District...the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District...These revisions concern coarse particulate...sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in...harmful to human health and the...

  15. 75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...Diego County Air Pollution Control District...San Diego County Air Pollution Control District...This revision concerns the definition of...sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in...which harm human health and the...

  16. Corruption and air pollution in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of regulatory framework influences levels of sulphur emissions in a scenario where, to reduce its (emission-) tax payments, a polluting firm may under-report emissions level at the risk of being audited and fined. First, a model to explain how changes in regulatory framework (e.g., audit effectiveness) and transboundary spillovers affect both actual and reported emissions is developed. Then the theoretical predictions using data for 39 European countries from 1999 to 2003 are tested and inferences about true emission levels are made. The empirical analysis supports the theoretical predictions with significant implications for the interpretation of pollution data reported to international monitoring agencies. Countries with effective regulation are likely to have relatively high reported emissions of sulphur. But this should not automatically be interpreted as weak environmental performance, because their actual pollution levels are likely to be lower than in nations with less effective regulation. PMID:21141644

  17. Climatic effects of air pollutants over china: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) and aerosols are major air pollutants in the atmosphere. They have also made significant contributions to radiative forcing of climate since preindustrial times. With its rapid economic development, concentrations of air pollutants are relatively high in China; hence, quantifying the role of air pollutants in China in regional climate change is especially important. This review summarizes existing knowledge with regard to impacts of air pollutants on climate change in China and defines critical gaps needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. Measured monthly, seasonal, and annual mean surface-layer concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China are compiled in this work, with the aim to show the magnitude of concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China and to provide datasets for evaluation of model results in future studies. Ground-based and satellite measurements of O3 column burden and aerosol optical properties, as well as model estimates of radiative forcing by tropospheric O3 and aerosols are summarized. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated climate change driven by tropospheric O3 and/or aerosols in China; the predicted sign and magnitude of the responses in temperature and precipitation to O3/aerosol forcings are presented. Based on this review, key priorities for future research on the climatic effects of air pollutants in China are highlighted.

  18. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people (?60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection

  19. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Mingqing You

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate...

  20. Estimation of Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Stroke Hospital Admissions in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hao; Mertz, Kristen J.; Arena, Vincent C.; Brink, Luann L.; Xu, Xiaohui; Bi, Yongyi; Talbott, Evelyn O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective High concentrations of air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of stroke in North America and Europe but not yet assessed in mainland China. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between stroke hospitalization and short-term elevation of air pollutants in Wuhan, China. Methods Daily mean NO2, SO2 and PM10 levels, temperature and humidity were obtained from 2006 through 2008. Data on stroke hospitalizations (ICD 10: I60–I69) at four hospitals in Wuhan were obtained for the same period. A time-stratified case-crossover design was performed by season (April-September and October-March) to assess effects of pollutants on stroke hospital admissions. Results Pollution levels were higher in October-March with averages of 136.1 µg/m3 for PM10, 63.6 µg/m3 for NO2 and 71.0 µg/m3 for SO2 than in April-September when averages were 102.0 µg/m3, 41.7 µg/m3 and 41.7 µg/m3, respectively (pstroke admissions on the same day. Every 10 ug/m3 increase in PM10 daily concentration was significantly associated with an approximate 1% (95% C.I. 0.1%–1.4%) increase in stroke hospitalization. A two-pollutant model indicated that NO2 was associated with stroke admissions when controlling for PM10. During the warm season, no significant associations were noted for any of the pollutants. Conclusions Exposure to NO2 is significantly associated with stroke hospitalizations during the cold season in Wuhan, China when pollution levels are 50% greater than in the warm season. Larger and multi-center studies in Chinese cities are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:23593421

  1. RESEARCH OVERVIEW: SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper briefly traces the history of air quality problems in residential, office, and public access buildings to show the evolution of indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns. It then briefly discusses sources of IAQ problems--both known and suspected--then reviews the current state...

  2. Pollution. Warning on the future of air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article comments the results published by INERIS (the French national institute of the industrial environment and risks) and based on the use of its model Chimere which aims at measuring and foreseeing the evolution of air quality. This model simulates the concentrations of pollutants in the air. It is integrated into the national tool of prediction of air quality, PREV'AIR, which studies prospective scenarios of reduction of emissions, and is also part of the SALUT'AIR project which assesses the evolution of atmospheric concentrations of pollutants by 2050 while taking climate change into account. These models notably show the importance of atmospheric circulation over continents. The author also recalls and comments the objectives of the UN Goteborg protocol for 2020

  3. Diallel analysis of resistance to air pollutants in alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.A.; Devine, T.E.; Howell, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The inheritance of resistance to air pollutants in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was studied in two diallels in greenhouses at Beltsville, Md. Progenies were exposed to polluted ambient air that was cooled and moistened by a wet-pad cooling system, since such an environment appears to enhance pollution damage. Oxidants were often present at levels known to cause foliar damage in alfalfa. Other pollutants were not monitored. General combining ability constituted most of the genotypic variation indicating that resistant populations might be developed using simple recurrent selection, or recurrent full-sib family selection. Nonadditive genetic variation may be sufficient so that progress might also be made using hybridization. Maternal and reciprocal effects were relatively unimportant.

  4. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULISTIJORINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

  5. Outdoor air pollution, low birth weight, and prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bobak, M

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was monitored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), total suspended particles (TSP), and nitrous oxides (NO(x)) in each trimester of pregnancy were estimated as the arithmetic...

  6. Indoor air pollution and childhood asthma: effective environmental interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Etzel, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollutants such as tobacco smoke and dust mites may exacerbate childhood asthma. Environmental interventions to reduce exposures to these pollutants can help prevent exacerbations of the disease. Among the most important interventions is the elimination of environmental tobacco smoke from the environments of children with asthma. However, the effectiveness of reducing asthmatic children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the severity of their symptoms has not ...

  7. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Bala?, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  8. Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Angela Maria Magosso TAKAYANAGUI

    2014-01-01

    Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with rela...

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, Nour A; Balmes, John; Mehta, Sumi; Cheema, Umar; Sood, Akshay

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 3 billion people around the world cook and heat their homes using solid fuels in open fires and rudimentary stoves, resulting in household air pollution. Household air pollution secondary to indoor combustion of solid fuel is associated with multiple chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes. The exposure is associated with both chronic bronchitis and emphysema phenotypes of COPD as well as a distinct form of obstructive airway disease called bronchial anthracofibrosis. COPD from household air pollution differs from COPD from tobacco smoke with respect to its disproportionately greater bronchial involvement, lesser emphysematous change, greater impact on quality of life, and possibly greater oxygen desaturation and pulmonary hypertensive changes. Interventions that decrease exposure to biomass smoke may decrease the risk for incident COPD and attenuate the longitudinal decline in lung function, but more data on exposure-response relationships from well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:26024348

  10. Air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki? Dragana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, an increasing body of scientific evidence has accrued associating outdoor air pollution with certain types of cancer. Ambient air, particularly in densely populated urban environments, contains a variety of known human carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene and benzene, inorganic compounds (e.g., arsenic and chromium, and radionuclides. Now, it is well recognized that urbanization and lung cancer mortality are linked. This association could arise from differences in the distributions of other lung cancer risk factors, such as smoking and occupational exposures, by degree of urbanization, etc. Air pollution has positively been associated with lung cancer mortality and cardiopulmonary disease mortality, but not with mortality from other causes combined. New studies will need to develop and apply improved epidemiologic methods and to compare the effect of exposure to the pollutant mixtures on lung cancer in different cities while effectively controlling confounding factors including cigarette smoking and diet.

  11. Air pollution model and neural network: an integrated modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that neural networks can work as universal approximators of non-linear functions and they have become a useful tool either where any precise phenomenological model is available or when uncertainty complicates the application of deterministic modelling as, for example, in environmental systems. Usually, N N models are using as regression tool. We have developed an integrated modelling system coupling an air dispersion model with a neural network method both to simulate the influence of important parameters on air pollution models and to minimize the input neural net variables. In our approach, an optimised 3-Layer Perception is used to filter the air pollution concentrations evaluated by means of the non-Gaussian analytical model ADMD. We applied this methodology to the well known Indianapolis urban data set which deals with a release of pollutants from an elevated emission source.

  12. Dispersion modeling of air pollutants in the atmosphere: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leel?ssy, Ádám; Molnár, Ferenc; Izsák, Ferenc; Havasi, Ágnes; Lagzi, István; Mészáros, Róbert

    2014-09-01

    Modeling of dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere is one of the most important and challenging scientific problems. There are several natural and anthropogenic events where passive or chemically active compounds are emitted into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemical species can have serious impacts on our environment and human health. Modeling the dispersion of air pollutants can predict this effect. Therefore, development of various model strategies is a key element for the governmental and scientific communities. We provide here a brief review on the mathematical modeling of the dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several model tools and strategies, namely Gaussian, Lagrangian, Eulerian and CFD models. We especially focus on several recent advances in this multidisciplinary research field, like parallel computing using graphical processing units, or adaptive mesh refinement.

  13. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In xerophytes, like conifers, the epicuticular wax is well developed. Especially in and around stomatal entrances, a thick wax coating is present. Epicuticular waxes are modified by changes in plant growth conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, irradiance, and wind, or acid rain. The fine structure of epicuticular waxes, their chemistry, and ecophysiological function are modified, especially in evergreen, long-lived conifer needles with characteristic crystalline wax structures. During needle flushing and development, wax structure is easily modified. Acid rain-treated Scots pine needles had 50% less epicuticular waxes in early August. Pollution-induced delayed development, destruction, and disturbances have been identified in many plant species. The structural changes in wax crystals are known. Acid rain or polluted air can destroy the crystalloid epicuticular waxes in a few weeks. In Pinus sylvestris, the first sign of pollution effect is the fusion of wax tubes. In Picea abies and P. sitchensis, modifications of crystalloid wax structure are known. In Californian pine trees phenomena of recrystallization of wax tubes on second-year needles were observed after delayed epicuticular wax development in Pinus ponderosa and P. coulteri. Thus, the effects of air pollutants are modified by climate. Accelerated senescence of leaves and needles have been associated with natural and anthropogenic stresses. The accelerated erosion rate of epicuticular waxes has beeerosion rate of epicuticular waxes has been measured under air pollution conditions. Many short-term air pollution experiments have failed to show any structural changes in epicuticular wax structures. The quantity and quality of needle waxes grown in open-top chambers, glass houses, or polluted air before treatment, differ from field conditions and make it difficult to detect effects of any treatment. (orig.)

  14. Are children safe indoor from outdoor air pollution? A short review

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Pipere; Giovanni Ghirga

    2012-01-01

    Background: Air pollution is a serious threat to children health. Given that children spend over 80% of their time indoors, understanding transport of pollutants from outdoor to indoor environments is important for assessing the impact of exposure to outdoor pollution on children health. The most common advice given during a smoke pollution episode is to stay indoors. How well this works depends on how clean the indoor air is and how pollutants from outdoor air contribute to pollutants load i...

  15. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually in good agreement with so called "heat islands" revealed over cities due to mobile observations. From 50 to 75% of all cases temperature growth over cities makes up from 0 to 1 ° C, while in large cities there is substantial proportion of higher values of temperature growth - from 4 to 12% is in the range 2-3 ° C of the temperature rise, and almost as many (from 4 to 9%) cases reveal temperature increase of more than 3 ° C. Air quality level was assessed on base of new approach elaborated at OIAP to assess air quality in Russian cities. It accounts for both world famous methods and official Russian legislation. General level of air pollution in Russian cities is low or moderate mostly due to favorable location and climate conditions. Extreme concentrations can happen in warm period because of wild and anthropogenic fires and other severe pollution cases. Most of high concentrations within cities during TROICA campaigns were observed near railway stations where influence of local pollution sources (diesel trains, train stoves, boiler rooms and so on) is very large.

  16. Association between air pollution and ischemic cardiovascular emergency room visits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study observed the relationship between air pollutants and ischemic cardiac diseases such as angina and acute myocardial infarction in a representative cardiovascular center emergency room in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Daily emergency room admissions to the Institute of the Heart of the university of Sao Paulo, as well as data concerning daily air pollutant levels and meteorological variables, were collected from January 1994 to august 1995. Generalized additive Poisson regressions were fitted to the logarithm of the expected values of total emergency room visits due to angina or acute myocardial infarction, controlling for smooth functions of season and weather and indicators for days of the week. All investigated pollutants were positively associated with ischemic cardiovascular disease emergency room visits, and the time lags were relatively short, but only CO presented in effect that was statistically significant. An interquartile range increase n CO was associated with an increase of 6.4% (95% CI: 0.7-12.1) in daily angina or acute myocardial infarction emergency room visits. This result did not change when estimates were done using linear models and natural cubic plines. This study showed that air pollution has a role in cardiovascular morbidity in Sao Paulo, reinforcing the necessity for air pollutant mission-controlling polices in urban areas

  17. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  18. Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

  19. Air Pollution by Gases and PM in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janda?ka D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of the air by gases (nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter is a matter of everyday life. Particulate matter (PM is one of hazardous pollutants causing deterioration of the environment and thus quality of life of the population. Long-term exposure to effects of increased concentrations of gaseous pollutants can also cause deterioration of the environment and human health. Particulate matter and gases production by road transport is a burning issue, particularly for larger urban areas. However, pollution also occurs outside urban areas from different sources (road transport that primarily affect vegetation and animals living in the given areas. The environment in urban areas can be affected secondarily by a long-range transfer of pollutants. Due to the dominant use of combustion engines, exhaust gases contain large amounts of gaseous pollutants as well as particulate matter. They particularly include a large amount of the finest PM fractions, which can remain in the air for a long time, easily enter respiratory tracks, and damage human health. The other part includes particulate matter produced by the friction of different parts of roads and vehicle fleets, which concerns matter of larger aerodynamic diameters. The aim of the presented part of the work is to monitor production of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants along roads in rural areas and evaluate their inter-relations, while taking into account the monitored meteorological characteristics and traffic volume.

  20. Air Pollution and In-Hospital Mortality of Ischemic Heart Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saadat, S.; Sadeghian, S.; Hamidian, R.; Najafi, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the in-hospital mortality of ischemic heart disease patients in Tehran as a polluted metropolis. A cross sectional study conducted in Tehran heart center. We compared two separate exposure levels of air pollutants in patients expired in hospital (n = 23) versus patients discharged alive (n = 1219). The first was air pollutants daily mean concentration at the date of admission and the second was air pollutants daily mean concentrat...

  1. An Analytical Air Pollution Model with Time Dependent Eddy Diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Tirabassi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution transport and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled by the advection-diffusion equation, that is, essentially, a statement of conservation of the suspended material in an incompressible flow. Many models simulating air pollution dispersion are based upon the solution (numerical or analytical of the advection-diffusion equation assuming turbulence parameterization for realistic physical scenarios. We present the general time dependent three-dimensional solution of the advection-diffusion equation considering a vertically inhomogeneous atmospheric boundary layer for arbitrary vertical profiles of wind and eddy-diffusion coefficients. Numerical results and comparison with experimental data are shown.

  2. Urban air pollution and asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Franco; Migliaretti, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between atmospheric pollution and emergency hospital admission for asthma among children resident in Turin in the period 1997-1999, using a case-control design. On the basis of the primary diagnosis, pediatric patients (< 15 years old) resident in Turin and admitted for asthma were defined as cases (n(1) = 1,060); age-matched patients admitted for causes other than respiratory diseases or heart diseases were defined as controls (n(2) = 25,523). Nitroge...

  3. REMOTE SENSING OF AIR POLLUTION BY LIDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progresses in remote sensing of atmospheric pollution using the Lidar technique are presented. 2D and 3D analysis of NO, NO2, SO2, and O3 were performed at high sensitivity under emission and immission conditions. Most attractive results were obtained over large urban areas like Lyon, Stuttgart, Zürich, Geneva and Berlin. New Lidar systems, based on self-developed Flashlamp-pumped Ti:Sapphire lasers are also presented.

  4. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  5. AIR POLLUTANTS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarkhanzadeh

    1979-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations have been carried out on the indoor air pollution in .different workshops of food processing plants in Iran. In order to evaluate the exposure of workers to the three most commonly used indices of air pollution ten food processing plants representing ten groups of food industry with 2.816 workers were selected. Air borne contamination of different origins such cotton seed. Barley, wheat flour salt and different spices sugar an1 beans dust were measured in 237, work places. Here contamination was 8-9 times higher than the proposed T.L. V. for in.3rt dust in 12% of sampling sites Carbon monoxide, measured in 94 sampling site in 69 different work places, which was higher than 50 P .P.M1. in 13% of samples and sulfur-bearing air pollutants determined in 87 different workshop where 103 samples were collected showed the existence of oxides of' sulfur in 34 samples in six industries. The results are presented and the reasons of the existence of these air pollutants are discussed.

  6. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavi K. Khedo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. Inthis paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN for air pollution monitoring inMauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution isbecoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system namedWireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS to monitor air pollution inMauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposedsystem makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order toimprove the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithmnamed Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ. The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminateduplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reducethe amount of data to be transmitted to the sink and thus saving energy. For better power management weused a hierarchical routing protocol in WAPMS and caused the motes to sleep during idle time.

  7. Progress in the prevention and control of air pollution in 1988: Report to congress. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of this study: air quality trends, monitoring, and modeling; air pollution research programs; development of national ambient air; quality standards; assessment and control of toxic air pollutants; status of air quality management programs; control of stationary source emissions; stationary source compliance; control of mobile source emissions; stratospheric ozone protection; indoor air quality; acid deposition; radon assessment and remediation; litigation

  8. Recognition, evaluation, and control of indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution is typically associated with terms sick building syndrome, tight building syndrome, building related illness, and problem building. Indoor air pollution is a relatively new public health concern (approximately 15 years old) although this issue is an age-old problem dating back to prehistoric times when humans came to live indoors. This presentation summarizes indoor air quality issues in order to provide you with usable information concerning the recognition and evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and the subsequent control measures which can be used for maintaining or improving the indoor air environment for better occupant health and comfort control. Why has the subject become so vocalized in the last fifteen years? Why the sudden interest and awareness concerning indoor air quality issues? During the last half of the 1970's and all of the 1980's, buildings were built or remodeled to minimize air handling, heating, and cooling costs, often limiting the amount of outside air brought into the buildings to near minimums. Paralleling these developments, complaints related to modern buildings increased. The new terms tight building syndrome, sick building syndrome, and indoor air quality became widely used by health and safety professionals and subsequently by newspaper columnist and the general public

  9. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future.

  10. 77 FR 20625 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Action on Clean Air Act Grants to the Idaho Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ...EPA-R10-OAR-2012-0211; FRL-9655-5] Air Pollution Control: Proposed Action on Clean...for recurrent expenditures for air pollution control programs will be less...of its CAA- related continuing air pollution control program. IDEQ's...

  11. Air pollution and unintentional injury deaths in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Cho, Jaelim; Cho, Seong-Kyung; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to air pollution and unintentional injury deaths in South Korea. Data regarding all unintentional injury deaths (17,566) in seven metropolitan cities from 2002 to 2008 were collected. Using a time-stratified case-crossover study, conditional logistic regression and subgroup analyses were performed after stratification by age, gender, and season. To evaluate immediate and delayed effects of air pollutants, we used both single lag and distributed lag models. The risk was expressed as an odds ratio (OR) per one interquartile range (IQR) of each air pollutant. During the study period, the median (IQR) levels of air pollutants were 0.005 (0.004-0.007) ppm for sulfur dioxide (SO2), 0.02 (0.02-0.03) ppm for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 0.03 (0.02-0.04) ppm for ozone (O3), 48.3 (34.9-67.0) ?g/m(3) for particulate matter ?10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and 0.36 (0.1-0.6) ppm for carbon monoxide (CO). All air pollutants, with the exception of PM10 and O3, were significantly associated with an increased risk of unintentional injury deaths; the maximum risk was observed in the distributed lag 1 model for SO2 (OR, 1.119; 95 % confidence interval, 1.022-1.226), NO2 (1.208; 1.043-1.400), and CO (1.012; 1.000-1.024). After stratification of the subjects by age, SO2, NO2, and CO were significantly associated with increased risk of unintentional injury deaths among subjects aged 60 years or older in the distributed lag 1 model, while O3 and PM10 were associated with increased risk among subjects aged 40 to 59 years. However, in subjects younger than 40 years of age, we found no significant associations for any of the air pollutants. Our study suggested evidence for a short-term association between air pollutants and unintentional injury deaths, even at low pollutants levels. PMID:25598159

  12. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental...modification of stationary sources of air pollution...revisions based on the Agency's conclusion that...Local agency Rule No. Rule title...502 New Source...

  13. Indoor air pollution caused by geothermal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the little-known but potentially serious indoor air quality problems that may occur where buildings are constructed on geothermal ground. The main problems are related to seepage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, radon and other gases from soil cavities directly into indoor air through perforations in the structure. These gases present a health hazard, and hydrogen sulphide, which is particularly corrosive, may cause problems electrical and electronic systems. Counter-measures are not always effective, so developments in such areas should only be undertaken with a clear understanding of site-specific issues and their possible solutions. (author)

  14. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures.

  15. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources

    OpenAIRE

    Müller Daniel; Klingelhöfer Doris; Uibel Stefanie; Groneberg David A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exp...

  16. Air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Niki? Dragana; Stankovi? Aleksandra M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, an increasing body of scientific evidence has accrued associating outdoor air pollution with certain types of cancer. Ambient air, particularly in densely populated urban environments, contains a variety of known human carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene and benzene, inorganic compounds (e.g., arsenic and chromium), and radionuclides. Now, it is well recognized that urbanization and lung cancer mortality are linked. This association could arise from differences in the dis...

  17. A further study of air pollution in diesel bus garages.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, R. E.; Hampton, L.; Lawther, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations of smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and some gaseous air pollutants have been measured in two London Transport diesel bus garages and compared with observations made in the same garages over 20 years earlier. The main feature of the results was a large reduction in the background concentrations of smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from sources such as coal fires, attributable to the implementation of the Clean Air Act. Contributions from the buses to...

  18. Air pollution sources apportionment in a french urban site

    OpenAIRE

    Chavent, Marie; Gue?gan, Herve?; Kuentz, Vanessa; Patouille, Brigitte; Saracco, Je?ro?me

    2007-01-01

    The development of air quality control strategies is a wide preoccupation for human health. In order to achieve this purpose, air pollution sources have to be accurately identified and quantified. This case study is part of a scientific project initiated by the French ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development. Measurements of chemical composition data for particles have been realized on a French urban site. The work presented in this paper splits into two main steps. In the first one, t...

  19. Environmental epidemiology applied to urban atmospheric pollution: a contribution from the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory (LPAE)

    OpenAIRE

    André Paulo Afonso de; Braga Alfésio Luis Ferreira; Lin Chin An; Conceição Gleice Margarete de Souza; Pereira Luiz Alberto Amador; Miraglia Simone Georges El Khouri; Böhm György Miklos

    2000-01-01

    Systematic investigation on the effects of human exposure to environmental pollution using scientific methodology only began in the 20th century as a consequence of several environmental accidents followed by an unexpected mortality increase above expected mortality and as a result of observational epidemiological and toxicological studies conducted on animals in developed countries. This article reports the experience of the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory at the School of Medicine, Un...

  20. Unsteady state dispersion of air pollutant from a time dependent point source forming a secondary pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J. B.; Chauhan, R. S.

    In this paper, the dispersion of air pollutant from a time dependent point source forming a secondary pollutant has been investigated by taking into account the dry and wet deposition on the ground. The unsteady state three-dimensional diffusion equation has been solved for prescribed forms of time dependent flux at the source. The case when the flux is given by the step function has been applied to study the dispersion of an episode like the MIC leakage in Bhopal, India.