WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese air pollution

  1. Highway toll and air pollution: evidence from Chinese cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shihe; Gu, Yizhen

    2014-01-01

    Most highways in urban China are tolled to finance their construction. During the eight-day National Day holiday in 2012, highway tolls are waived nationwide for passenger vehicles. We use this to test highway tolls effect on air pollution. Using daily pollution and weather data for 98 Chinese cities in 2011 and 2012 and employing both a regression discontinuity design and differences-in-differences method with 2011 National Day holiday as a control, we find that eliminating tolls increases ...

  2. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Y.; Chan, EYY; Zhu, Y.; Wong, TW

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured ...

  3. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  4. Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on lung function among Chinese children.

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Y.; Chan, EY; Li, LP; He, QQ; Wong, TW

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung function among Chinese schoolchildren in Southern China (Hong Kong). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 3168 schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in 3 districts in Hong Kong. Annual means of ambient PM10 (particulate matter

  5. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 ?g m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  6. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  7. Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few prior cohort studies exist in developing countries examining the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) with mortality. We examined the association of particulate air pollution with mortality in a prospective cohort study of 71,431 middle-aged Chinese men. Baseline data were obtained during 19901991. The follow-up evaluation was completed in January, 2006. Annual average PM exposure between 1990 and 2005, including TSP and PM10, were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with residential communities. We found significant associations between PM10 and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases; each 10 ?g/m3 PM10 was associated with a 1.6% (95%CI: 0.7%, 2.6%), 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8%, 2.9%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3%, 3.2%) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For TSP, we observed significant associations only for cardiovascular morality. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of particulate air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. -- Highlights: There have been few air pollution cohort studies in developing countries. PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in 71,431 Chinese men. PM was not significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. -- PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in a cohort of 71,431 Chinese men

  8. Seasonality and dynamic spatial contagion of air pollution in 42 Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhanqiong; Sriboonchita, Songsak; He, Min

    2013-01-01

    To monitor and improve the urban air quality, the Chinese government has begun to make many efforts, and the interregional cooperation to cut and improve air quality has been required. In this paper, we focus on the seasonality of the first and second moments of the daily air pollution indexes (APIs) of 42 Chinese sample cities over 10 years, from June 5, 2000 to March 4, 2010, and investigate the dynamic correlation of air pollution indexes (APIs) between 42 Chinese cities and their corresponding regional and national levels; comparison with the model without seasonal consideration is made. By adopting a DCC-GARCH model that accounts for the seasonality, we found that (i) the transformed DCC-GARCH model including seasonality dummies improves the estimation result in this study; (ii) the seasonality feature of the second moment follows that of the first moment, with the condition mean and variance of the second and autumn significantly lower than spring, whereas that of winter is higher than spring; (iii) the correlation between local APIs and their corresponding regional and national levels is dynamic; (iv) comparing with the DCC-GARCH model estimation, the transformed model does not change the feature of the dynamic correlations very much. PMID:23533348

  9. Short-term effect of ambient air pollution on COPD mortality in four Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Wang, Cuicui; Cao, Dachun; Wong, Chit-Ming; Kan, Haidong

    2013-10-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity; however, few studies have examined the short-term effect of air pollution specifically on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity world wide. In this analysis, we examined the associations between daily air pollution levels [particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and COPD mortality in four Chinese cities. We used Poisson regression models with natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trends of COPD mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We did a meta-analysis to obtain the 4-city average estimates. Air pollution (PM10, SO2, and NO2) was found to be associated with increased risk of COPD mortality in these four cities. Using the random-effects model, an increase of 10 ?g m-3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 0.78% (95% CI, 0.13-1.42), 1.30% (95% CI, 0.61-1.99), and 1.78% (95% CI, 1.10-2.46) increase of COPD mortality, respectively. The concentration-response curves indicated linear associations without threshold. Only NO2 remained significant in the multi-pollutant models. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-city study in Asian developing region to report the short-term effect of air pollution on COPD mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effects of air pollution on COPD mortality for high exposure settings typical in developing countries.

  10. Children's respiratory morbidity prevalence in relation to air pollution in four Chinese cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Hu, Wei; Wei, Fusheng; Guoping WU; Korn, Leo R.; Chapman, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    We examined respiratory health effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution in 7,621 schoolchildren residing in eight districts of four Chinese cities. The four cities exhibited wide between-city and within-city gradients in ambient levels of four size fractions of particulate matter [less than or equal to 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)), between 2.5 and 10 micro m (PM(10-2.5)), less than or equal to 10 micro m (PM(10)), and total suspended particulates (TSP)] and two ...

  11. Using Social Media to Detect Outdoor Air Pollution and Monitor Air Quality Index (AQI): A Geo-Targeted Spatiotemporal Analysis Framework with Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Yandong; Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Fu, Xiaokang

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a serious problem in many developing countries today. This study focuses on monitoring the dynamic changes of air quality effectively in large cities by analyzing the spatiotemporal trends in geo-targeted social media messages with comprehensive big data filtering procedures. We introduce a new social media analytic framework to (1) investigate the relationship between air pollution topics posted in Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter) and the daily Air Quality Index (AQI) pu...

  12. [Air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  13. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  14. Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China. PMID:24083613

  15. Hazardous air pollutant formation from pyrolysis of typical Chinese casting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Ying; Su, Lu; Li, Xiangyu; Duan, Lei; Wang, Chengwen; Huang, Tianyou

    2011-08-01

    Analytical pyrolysis was conducted to evaluate the major hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from pyrolysis of bituminous coal and a furan binder, which are the two most commonly used casting materials for making green sand and furan no-bake molds in Chinese foundries. These two materials were flash pyrolyzed in a Curie-point pyrolyzer at 920 C and slowly pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient temperature to 1000 C with a heating rate of 30 C/min. The emissions from Curie-point and TGA pyrolysis were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer/flame ionization detector. Thirteen HAP species were identified and quantified in the pyrolysis emissions of the two materials. The prominent HAP emissions were cresols, benzene, toluene, phenol, and naphthalene for the bituminous coal, whereas they were m,p,o-xylenes for the furan binder. Xylenesulfonic acid, the acidic catalyst in furan binder, was found to be the major source of xylene emissions. Thermogravimetry-mass spectrometer monitored the evolution of HAP emissions during TGA pyrolysis. For both of the casting materials, most of the emissions were released in the temperature range of 350-700 C. PMID:21714543

  16. Children's respiratory morbidity prevalence in relation to air pollution in four Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Hu, Wei; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Korn, Leo R; Chapman, Robert S

    2002-09-01

    We examined respiratory health effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution in 7,621 schoolchildren residing in eight districts of four Chinese cities. The four cities exhibited wide between-city and within-city gradients in ambient levels of four size fractions of particulate matter [less than or equal to 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)), between 2.5 and 10 micro m (PM(10-2.5)), less than or equal to 10 micro m (PM(10)), and total suspended particulates (TSP)] and two gaseous pollutants (SO(2) and NO(x)). Informed consent and written responses to questionnaires about children's personal, residential, and family information, as well as their health histories and status, were obtained with the help of the parents and the school personnel. We used a two-stage regression approach in data analyses. In the first-stage logistic regressions, we obtained logits of district-specific prevalence of wheeze, asthma, bronchitis, hospitalization for respiratory diseases, persistent cough, and persistent phlegm, adjusted for covariates representing personal, household, and family parameters. Some of these covariates were found to be risk factors of children's respiratory health, including being younger in the study group, being male, having been breast-fed, sharing bedrooms, sharing beds, room being smoky during cooking, eye irritation during cooking, parental smoking, and a history of parental asthma. In several of the second-stage variance-weighted linear regressions, we examined associations between district-specific adjusted prevalence rates and district-specific ambient levels of each pollutant. We found positive associations between morbidity prevalence and outdoor levels of PM of all size fractions, but the association appeared to be stronger for coarse particles (PM(10-2.5)). The results also present some evidence that ambient levels of NO(x) and SO(2) were positively associated with children's respiratory symptoms, but the evidence for these two gaseous pollutants appeared to be weaker than that for the PM. PMID:12204833

  17. Co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement and air pollution abatement in the Chinese iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2010, China was responsible for 45% of global steel production, while consuming 15.8 EJ of final energy and emitting 1344 Mt CO2eq, 8.4 Mt of PM (particulate matter) emissions, and 5.3 Mt of SO2 emissions. In this paper we analyse the co-benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures that jointly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants, in comparison to applying only air pollution control (end-of-pipe technology). For this purpose we construct ECSC (energy conservation supply curves) that contain potentials and costs of energy efficiency measures and implement these in the GAINS (greenhouse gas and air pollution interactions and synergies) model. Findings show that the technical energy saving potential for the Chinese iron and steel industry for 2030 is around 5.7 EJ. This is equivalent to 28% of reference energy use in 2030. The emissions mitigation of GHGs (greenhouse gases) and air pollutants in BAEEMS3 scenario would be reduce 27% CO2eq, 3% of PM, and 22% of SO2, compared to the BL scenario in 2030. Investments and cost savings were calculated for different scenarios, showing that energy efficiency investments will result in significant reductions in air pollution control costs. Hence, Energy efficiency measures should be integrated in air quality policy in China. - Highlights: • Implementation rates of 56 EEMs (energy efficiency measures) are quantified in China's Iron and steel industry. • Energy Supply Cost Curve was implemented in the GAINS (greenhouse gas and air pollution interactions and synergies) model. • The contribution of energy efficiency measure on the process level was estimated. • There are large co-benefits of improving energy efficiency and reducing emissions. • EEMs (energy efficiency measures) would lead to huge reductions in air pollution

  18. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  19. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  20. Effect of pet ownership on respiratory responses to air pollution in Chinese children: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Dong, Guang-Hui; Ren, Wan-Hui; Simckes, Maayan; Wang, Jing; Zelicoff, Alan; Trevathan, Edwin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies examining pet ownership as a risk factor for respiratory conditions have yielded inconsistent results. Little is known about whether or not pet ownership modifies the relationship between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. In order to evaluate the interaction between pet and air pollution on respiratory health in children, we recruited 30,149 children, aged 2-12 years, from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China. Parents of the children completed questionnaires that characterized the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illnesses and associated risk factors. Average ambient annual exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were estimated from monitoring stations in each of the 25 study districts. The results showed that among children without pets at home, there were statistically significant associations between both recent exacerbations of asthma among physician-diagnosed asthmatics and respiratory symptoms and all pollutants examined. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.26] to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.24-1.61) per 31 ?g m-3 for PM10, whereas, among children with pets at home, there were no effects or small effects for either asthma or the symptoms. The interactions between dog ownership and PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 were statistically significant, such that children with a dog at home had lower reporting of both current asthma and current wheeze. In conclusion, this study suggests that pet ownership decreased the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and asthma among Chinese children.

  1. Using Social Media to Detect Outdoor Air Pollution and Monitor Air Quality Index (AQI): A Geo-Targeted Spatiotemporal Analysis Framework with Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Yandong; Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Fu, Xiaokang

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a serious problem in many developing countries today. This study focuses on monitoring the dynamic changes of air quality effectively in large cities by analyzing the spatiotemporal trends in geo-targeted social media messages with comprehensive big data filtering procedures. We introduce a new social media analytic framework to (1) investigate the relationship between air pollution topics posted in Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter) and the daily Air Quality Index (AQI) published by China's Ministry of Environmental Protection; and (2) monitor the dynamics of air quality index by using social media messages. Correlation analysis was used to compare the connections between discussion trends in social media messages and the temporal changes in the AQI during 2012. We categorized relevant messages into three types, retweets, mobile app messages, and original individual messages finding that original individual messages had the highest correlation to the Air Quality Index. Based on this correlation analysis, individual messages were used to monitor the AQI in 2013. Our study indicates that the filtered social media messages are strongly correlated to the AQI and can be used to monitor the air quality dynamics to some extent. PMID:26505756

  2. Using Social Media to Detect Outdoor Air Pollution and Monitor Air Quality Index (AQI): A Geo-Targeted Spatiotemporal Analysis Framework with Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Fu, Xiaokang

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a serious problem in many developing countries today. This study focuses on monitoring the dynamic changes of air quality effectively in large cities by analyzing the spatiotemporal trends in geo-targeted social media messages with comprehensive big data filtering procedures. We introduce a new social media analytic framework to (1) investigate the relationship between air pollution topics posted in Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter) and the daily Air Quality Index (AQI) published by Chinas Ministry of Environmental Protection; and (2) monitor the dynamics of air quality index by using social media messages. Correlation analysis was used to compare the connections between discussion trends in social media messages and the temporal changes in the AQI during 2012. We categorized relevant messages into three types, retweets, mobile app messages, and original individual messages finding that original individual messages had the highest correlation to the Air Quality Index. Based on this correlation analysis, individual messages were used to monitor the AQI in 2013. Our study indicates that the filtered social media messages are strongly correlated to the AQI and can be used to monitor the air quality dynamics to some extent. PMID:26505756

  3. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been

  4. Reductions in emissions of local air pollutants and co-benefits of Chinese energy policy: a Shanghai case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To better understand the reductions in local air pollution that will result from the implementation of current Chinese energy policy, as well as the co-benefit for greenhouse-gas emission reductions, a Shanghai case study was conducted. The MARKAL model was used to forecast energy consumption and emissions of local air pollutants under different energy policy scenarios and also to analyze the associated reductions in CO2 emissions. The results show that energy policies in Shanghai will significantly reduce SO2 and PM1 emissions and will also achieve the co-benefit of mitigating the increase of CO2 emissions. In energy policy scenarios, SO2 emissions during the period 2000-2020 will maintain the same level as in 2000; and the annual rate of increase of CO2 emissions will be reduced to 1.1-1.2%, compared with 2.7% under a business-as-usual scenario. The problem for the future will be NO x emissions, which are projected to increase by 60-70% by 2020, due to expansion of the transportation system

  5. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include re...

  6. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns that are difficult to quantify using questionnaire-based measurements. Epidemiologic studies, health risk assessments, and intervention programs would benefit from a better understanding of the sources impacting PM exposure among populations in developing countries.

  7. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  8. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Air Pollution Health Threats URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Pollution_Health_091715.html Air Pollution Health Threats ...

  9. Sex-specific difference of the association between ambient air pollution and the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: 33 Communities Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael; Boutwell, Brian; Ward, Patrick; Lu, Tao; Lin, Shao; Zhao, Yang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Qing; Qin, Xiao-Di; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Experimental data suggests that exposure to airborne fine particulate matter is associated with obesity. There is little supporting epidemiologic evidence of this, however. To evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on the prevalence of obesity among adults living in a primarily industrial province of northeast China, 24,845 Chinese adults between the ages of 18 and 74 were randomly recruited from 33 communities in 11 districts of three northeastern Chinese cities during 2009. The participants' weight and height were measured. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. Two-level logistic regressions models were used to examine the effects of pollutants exposure. Overall, 35.3% (8764) were overweight and 5.8% (1435) were obese. After adjusting for confounding factors, significant associations between concentrations of air pollutants and prevalence of obesity were found. When the analysis was stratified by sex, the associations were significant only in women. Among women, an increased prevalence of obesity was associated with an interquartile range increase in PM10 (19 μg/m3; odds ratio [ORs] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.06-1.32), NO2 (9 μg/m3; ORs = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.09-1.41), and O3 (22 μg/m3; ORs = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). Associations were stronger among older participants. In conclusion, this study reveals a positive association between the long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and increased prevalence of obesity, and that these associations were more apparent in women than in men.

  10. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barletta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses, we focused on characterizing the VOC composition of these different pollution plumes. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HCFC-134a.

    Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some of the Chinese plumes, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution in the Chinese pollution plumes and the correlations among selected compounds, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than the use of a single gas, to be used as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  11. Indoor air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents an overview of indoor air pollution control. Asbestos, combustion-generated pollutants, and radon are among the problems considered. Source control, policy and regulatory considerations, and air quality diagnostics are discussed

  12. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.

  13. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Weinheimer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses we characterized their VOC composition and we compared their background levels with those obtained during the 2004 INTEX-A mission. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HFC-134a.

    Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some Chinese plume samples, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution and correlations within the Chinese pollution plumes and applying principal component analysis (PCA, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than a single gas, as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  14. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I. J.; Atlas, E. L.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Baker, A. K.; Blake, N. J.; Yang, M.; Midyett, J. R.; Novak, B. J.; McKeachie, R. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Avery, M. A.; Campos, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2009-07-01

    We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - Phase B (INTEX-B) aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses we characterized their VOC composition and we compared their background levels with those obtained during the 2004 INTEX-A mission. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl), while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HFC-134a. Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some Chinese plume samples, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution and correlations within the Chinese pollution plumes and applying principal component analysis (PCA), we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than a single gas, as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, and Halon-1211). In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  15. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of

  16. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medlineplus/videos/news/Pollution_Health_091715.html Air Pollution Health Threats HealthDay News Video - September 18, 2015 ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Air Pollution Health Threats For closed captioning, click the CC ...

  17. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Pollution_Health_091715.html Air Pollution Health Threats HealthDay News Video - September 18, 2015 ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Air Pollution Health Threats For closed captioning, click the CC ...

  18. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

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  19. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos/news/Pollution_Health_091715.html Air Pollution Health Threats HealthDay News Video - September 18, 2015 To ... with health information for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Air Pollution Environmental Health About MedlinePlus Site ...

  20. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the player. Video player keyboard shortcuts Transcript Outdoor air pollution leads to more than 3 million premature deaths each year, according to a new study. Researchers quantified the effects of outdoor pollutants, such as ozone and tiny ...

  1. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China. Methods: We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25–29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m2, respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15–1.47 for stroke, 1.33–1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22–1.35 for stroke, 1.07–1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98–1.01 for stroke, 0.93–1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality of BMI relative to exposure and onset of disease. - Highlights: • Few studies assessed interactions of obesity and air pollution on CVDs in Chinese. • We included a large population of 24,845 Chinese adults from three cities of China. • Obesity enhanced the effects of air pollution on stoke and CVDs in Chinese adults. • Modification of obesity was significant only in females

  2. Co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement and air pollution abatement in the Chinese iron and steel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; Crijns - Graus, Wina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015; Wagner, Fabian; Cofala, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, China was responsible for 45% of global steel production, while consuming 15.8EJ of final energy and emitting 1344Mt CO2eq, 8.4Mt of PM (particulate matter) emissions, and 5.3Mt of SO2 emissions. In this paper we analyse the co-benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures that jointly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants, in comparison to applying only air pollution control (end-of-pipe technology). For this purpose we construct ECSC (energy conservation supply c...

  3. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  4. Air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book presents theory and application data as related to air pollution control. A suitable background is provided relevant to behavior theories and control techniques for capturing gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The significant application data available are summarized and combined with the theories to provide a needed relation between the two. Numerous detailed example problems are worked throughout the book to serve as guides in the use of both the theoretical relationships and the data. General information on air pollution control is presented, with emphasis on what can be done to minimize pollution emissions while conserving energy. Problem areas of interest include particulate and gas control mechanisms, control devices, and control systems

  5. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,

  6. Air pollution - monitoring particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, G. [Casella Measurement (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Clean air is an essential requirement for the health and well being of both the human race and the environment we live in, but achieving it is a constant battle with air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, more than two million premature deaths each year can be attributed to the effects of urban outdoor and indoor air pollution. An effective monitoring strategy allows the impact from particulates to be assessed and controlled. 5 refs.

  7. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.)

  8. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The ... Air Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  9. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  10. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pollution leads to more than 3 million premature deaths each year, according to a new study. Researchers ... could double by 2050, reaching 6.6 million deaths per year. They say intensive air quality control ...

  11. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  12. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection

  13. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  14. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 6 million deaths per year. They say intensive air quality control measures will be needed, particularly in Asia, ... information for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Air Pollution Environmental Health ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For ...

  15. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

  16. Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact Us Home > Healthy Living > Pollution > Outdoor Pollution > Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers ...

  17. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  18. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  19. Air pollutants in Osaka (Japan)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Makiko; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2015-01-01

    Increasing emission of anthropogenic particles is causing heavy air pollution. This work intends to analyze the air pollution in Osaka. PM is usually used as an indicator of air quality, because high PM concentrations can degrade air quality. Osaka is the second largest metropolitan region of Japan and its air is significantly polluted by anthropogenic particles emitted from vehicles and industry. In this study, seasonal variation of air pollutants in Osaka is investigated using ground observ...

  20. Air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the development of air pollution abatement techniques advances, the legal and administrative regulations fix ever smaller values for the maximum permissible concentrations of emissions. The actual limits are very low but cannot be observed unless the measurement techniques keep pace with the measuring requirements. There is a trend away from individual measurements towards mandatory continuous measurements for an uninterrupted control of industrial plants in accordance with the guidelines fixed to evaluate the respective limiting values. This volume introduces modern air pollution monitoring methods and discusses their limits and the difficulties which remain to be overcome. (orig./BBR)

  1. Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO2 concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone

  2. Testing for Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Artice

    Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure

  3. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & ... Topics Air Pollution Environmental Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to ...

  4. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Air Pollution Health Threats URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  5. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs

  6. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  7. Urban Air Pollution in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  8. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We...

  9. Air Pollution and the skin

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTINAVRETTOUANTONIOU

    2014-01-01

    The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides, particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants ma...

  10. Air pollution and the skin

    OpenAIRE

    Drakaki, Eleni; Dessinioti, Clio; Antoniou, Christina V.

    2014-01-01

    The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides, particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants m...

  11. Changing air pollution in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the changing character of London air pollution over approximately the last thirty years. The killer smogs of earlier years have disappeared, only to be replaced by other pollutants. Levels of sulfur dioxide, smoke, and lead have been reduced, but nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels have increased. The emphasis for air pollution control is now on motor vehicles, particularly automobiles, which are now the main source of air pollution in London

  12. Allergic diseases and air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbat...

  13. In Search of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even

  14. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has

  15. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  16. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  17. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  18. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; Teran, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disea...

  19. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  20. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed

  1. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

  2. ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

  3. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  4. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed...... static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  5. Season, sex and age as modifiers in the association of psychosis morbidity with air pollutants: A rising problem in a Chinese metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ling; Li, Kai; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-01-15

    Until now, epidemiological studies on the association between psychosis morbidity and air pollutants are scarce, especially in a developing country. Thus, a time-series analysis on the short-term association between the daily disease (psychosis and non-accidental) morbidity and air pollutants including particulate matter (PM) with diameters of 10?m or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was firstly conducted. The association between daily psychosis morbidity stratified by sex and age, and outdoor air pollutants in Tianjin as an important metropolis in China was examined. The psychosis effect from air pollutants in the warm season (April-September) and the cool season (October-March) was also analyzed, respectively. An increase of 10?g/m(3) in a 2-day average concentration of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to an increase in all non-accidental morbidity of 0.15%, 0.49%, and 0.57%, respectively. The association between non-accidental morbidity and SO2 in the cool season was significantly different from that in the warm season. These findings might have implications and references for local governments to make policies for air pollution control and management, and public health prevention. PMID:26457738

  6. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  7. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during high air pollution events. Sensitivity studies were conducted to examine the assumptions used in the AAQI and HAQI approaches. Results show that AAQI is sensitive to the choice of pollutant irrelevant constant. HAQI is sensitive to the choice of both threshold values and pollutants included in total risk calculation. PMID:26197060

  8. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejder Kardesoglu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the environmental problems that threaten the public health. The air is a gas mixture. Air pollution is defined as the existence in the amount of pollutants harmful to humans and other organisms in the atmosphere as a result of the natural or human activity thereby changing to the gas rates in the air. The negative effects of pollution-causing particles on the health are closely related to the chemical structure of particles, whether causing a fibrotic reaction, whether having an amorphous shape and the aerodynamic diameters of particles. The particles larger than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter can not reach up to the alveoli, and can be removed by mucociliary system. If the particles are smaller than 10 microns, these particles can reach to the alveoli, and are closely associated with the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The concentration of these particles (PM10 is used as an indicator of pollution, and creates the basis for air quality index. Air pollution has several negative effects such as blood pressure changes, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress etc. In this review, the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system will be examined, and the importance of this issue will be emphasized. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 97-106

  9. Air Pollution and Allergic Sensitization in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution and Allergic Sensitization in Children Share | Air pollution and allergic sensitization in children Published Online: January ... risks of developing allergy in relation to ambient air pollution exposure. However, there are only few studies on ...

  10. Arctic haze and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctic haze is the phenomenon of large-scale industrial air pollution found all through the arctic air mass. Vertical profiles of air concentrations, obtained during several aircraft measurement programs in the Arctic, have offered the following explanation of arctic haze origin. Very long range, episodic transport of air masses over several thousand kilometers clearly affects the quality of arctic air during both summer and winter. Polluted air masses, carrying a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas have been identified in the arctic atmosphere at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km. The layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km can be traced to episodic transport of air masses from anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Pollution material in arctic haze is of submicron size and contains a substantial fraction of black carbon: it interacts strongly with solar radiation. In addition, sulfate and a wide range of heavy metals appear, affecting their natural geochemical cycles. They also serve as indicators of major source regions of emissions in the world. This paper discusses what happens to the haze-related pollutants in the Arctic, what is the contribution of natural sources to the arctic haze and what are local and global effects of arctic haze. Some indications are given of the research to be undertaken in a view to assess the role of the Arctic in global change of the environment

  11. Air pollution control in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to rapid spurt in industrialization in India, people were used to inhale pure air containing about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and some carbon dioxide. But afterwards this composition of pure air was disturbed as a result of increased economic activities. Air, now a days also contains sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides etc., etc. which are extremely harmful for human health. Virulence of air pollution was realised in late eighties after Bhopal Gas Tragedy (BGT) and an effective air quality management started taking shape in India afterwards. The basic components of air quality management are legislation and regulations, emission inventory, air quality standards and monitoring, air dispersion models and installation of pollution control equipment which are being discussed in this paper. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  12. The price of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mortality in the Netherlands as a result of exposure to particulates is 18,000 per year. Less known is the high number of cases of sickness cased by air pollution and related cost for the Dutch society

  13. Air pollutants from coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combustion of fossil fuels is described with special emphasis put on coal. The mechanism of air pollutants formation is discussed and some examples of SO2 as well as NOx emissions are given. Then problems caused by pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere are presented

  14. Bioprocesses for air pollution control

    OpenAIRE

    Kennes, Christian; Eldon R Rene; Veiga, María C.

    2009-01-01

    Bioprocesses have been developed as relatively recent alternatives to conventional, non-biological technologies, for waste gas treatment and air pollution control in general. This paper reviews major biodegradation processes relevant in this field as well as both accepted and major innovative bioreactor configurations studied or used nowadays for the treatment of polluted air, i.e. biofilters, one- and two-liquid phase biotrickling filters, bioscrubbers, membrane bioreactors, rotating biodisc...

  15. Air Pollution and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTINAVRETTOUANTONIOU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  16. Air Pollution In Jammu City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aerial environment of the earth has been increasingly interfered by the activities of human beings and virtually it has become the bumping site for toxic materials produced by industrial, vehicular and urban emissions. We have introduced several toxic materials to our environment at a tremendous speed that has changed its physicchemical characteristics. The assumption that the nature will take care of pollutants do not hold good anymore since the pollutants at present vary greatly in their quality as well as quantity. Throughout Asian air pollution is a significant threat to human health and the environment and our city is not the exception to this. Use of fossil fuel in transport, industrial, commercial and household sector contributes significant towards the air pollution. Solid waste disposal and its open burning also add air pollutants. In addition to gases, particles coming from variety of sources- vehicles, factories, construction sites, tilled fields, un-paved roads, stone crushers, burning of wood and fossil fuels also pollute the air. An average urban vehicle releases approximately 30-40 mg of particulate matter per mile travel. Forest fires and the contribution of biomass fuels also add pollutants.

  17. Associations of particulate air pollution and daily mortality in 16 Chinese cities: An improved effect estimate after accounting for the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People typically spend most of their time indoors. We modeled the daily indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin using a set of exposure parameters, including the fraction of residences with air conditionings (AC), the fraction of time that windows are closed when cooling occurs for buildings with AC, the fractions of time that windows are open or closed for buildings with or without AC, the particle penetration factors, air change rates, and surface removal rate constant of PM10. We calculated the time-weighted average of the simulated indoor PM10 concentration of outdoor origin and the original recorded outdoor PM10 concentration. We then evaluated the acute effects of PM10 using traditional and amended exposure metrics in 16 Chinese cities. Compared with the original estimates, the new effect estimates almost doubled, with improved model fit and attenuated between-city heterogeneity. Conclusively, this proposed exposure assessment approach could improve the effect estimates of ambient particles. -- Highlights: We accounted for the indoor exposure to ambient particles in time-series studies of 16 Chinese cities. The proposed exposure assessment method generally doubled the effect estimates. The proposed exposure assessment method increased the statistical assurance of a significant effect of PM10. The proposed exposure assessment method improved the model fit with daily mortality. The proposed exposure assessment method attenuated between-city heterogeneity of PM's effects. -- Accounting for the indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin in the exposure assessment could improve the effect estimates of ambient PM10

  18. Increasing external effects negate local efforts to control ozone air pollution: a case study of Hong Kong and implications for other Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Blake, Donald R; Xu, Zheng

    2014-09-16

    It is challenging to reduce ground-level ozone (O3) pollution at a given locale, due in part to the contributions of both local and distant sources. We present direct evidence that the increasing regional effects have negated local control efforts for O3 pollution in Hong Kong over the past decade, by analyzing the daily maximum 8 h average O3 and Ox (=O3+NO2) concentrations observed during the high O3 season (September-November) at Air Quality Monitoring Stations. The locally produced Ox showed a statistically significant decreasing trend over 2002-2013 in Hong Kong. Analysis by an observation-based model confirms this decline in in situ Ox production, which is attributable to a reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the regional background Ox transported into Hong Kong has increased more significantly during the same period, reflecting contributions from southern/eastern China. The combined result is a rise in O3 and a nondecrease in Ox. This study highlights the urgent need for close cross-boundary cooperation to mitigate the O3 problem in Hong Kong. China's air pollution control policy applies primarily to its large cities, with little attention to developing areas elsewhere. The experience of Hong Kong suggests that this control policy does not effectively address secondary pollution, and that a coordinated multiregional program is required. PMID:25133661

  19. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs

  20. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... according to a new study. Researchers quantified the effects of outdoor pollutants, such as ozone and tiny particles, by combining a global atmospheric chemistry model with population data and health statistics. They found that residential energy emissions from ...

  1. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You ... Pollution Environmental Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  2. Air Pollution Health Threats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to more than 3 million premature deaths each year, according to a new study. Researchers quantified the effects of outdoor pollutants, such as ozone and tiny particles, by combining a global atmospheric chemistry model with population data and health statistics. They found ...

  3. Air pollution control equipment calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis

    2008-01-01

    Unique problem-and-solution approach for quickly mastering a broad range of calculations This book''s problem-and-solution approach enables readers to quickly grasp the fundamentals of air pollution control equipment and essential applications. Moreover, the author sets forth solid principles for the design and selection of air pollution control equipment as well as for its efficient operation and maintenance. Readers gain a deep understanding of both the equipment itself and the many factors affecting performance. Following two introductory chapters, the book dedicates four chapters to examining control equipment for gaseous pollutants, including adsorption, absorption, and incineration equipment. The remaining six chapters deal with equipment for managing airborne particulate pollutants, including gravity settlers, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers, and baghouses. The appendix contains discussions of hybrid systems, the SI system (including conversion constants), and a cost-equipment model. E...

  4. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and

  5. Air pollution: brown skies research.

    OpenAIRE

    Tattersfield, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during hi...

  6. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  7. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  8. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, YAQUN; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; XU, YANWEN; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao(Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China); Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei; BELL, MICHELLE L.

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 g/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 m (PM10)...

  9. Geostatistical models for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

  10. Air-Pollutant-Philic Plants for Air Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromichi Morikawa; Misa Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    In this communication, we review our work over two decades on air-pollutant-philic plants that can grow with air pollutants as the sole nutrient source. We believe that such plants are instrumental in mitigating air pollution. Our target air pollutant has been atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and our work on this subject has consisted of three parts: Variation in plants abilities to mitigate air pollutants among naturally occurring plants, genetic improvement of plants abilities to mitig...

  11. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  12. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  13. Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China: The Possibility and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Sun; Zhuyezi Sun

    2009-01-01

    The air environmental pollutants exhausted by China have attracted the attention from the world, especially the neighboring countries including Japan. Japan has put forward a conceived model named Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China. This article analyzes the background and causations of air environmental pollution problems in China, and the efforts that Chinese government has made in energy conservation and lessening the pollutants exhaust of car. On this basis, we anal...

  14. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,

  15. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology

  16. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  17. Air pollution in Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

  18. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  19. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 7,2015 ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  20. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association between traffic related air pollution and fertility rates in humans in Barcelona, Spain (2011-2012). We hypothesized that higher air pollution levels would be associated with lower fertility rates....

  1. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Eijsden, Manon van; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Klümper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Lerchundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Thiering, Elisabeth; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  2. Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Michelle L.; Caldern-Garcidueas, Lilian

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-ind...

  3. Air pollution and COPD in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies...

  4. Pollution Law - Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.)

  5. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marcal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO, indicating possible volcanic emissions from the Indonesian islands to the South and East and the Philippines to the North East. The regional pollution seems to be influenced by emissions from Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia and Peninsula Malaysia, and on occasion by anthropogenic emissions from Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, and China.

  6. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  7. Air pollution and motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the effects of fuel chemical composition and fuel-air mixture on the composition of combustion exhaust gases produced by automotive spark ignition and diesel engines. This analysis considers several aspects: the merits of unleaded gasolines, Italian legal limits on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline, limits on the sulfur content of diesel fuels, and proposed European Communities limits on automobile air pollution. The paper concludes with an assessment of the cost effective performance of different types of catalytic converters now available on the market

  8. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  9. Slovenia air pollution master plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenia was the northernmost republic of Yugoslavia. It is now independent. It has a very high level of air pollution, this has damaged the forests - an important national resource. It also intends joining the European Union, so pollution levels must be brought down to EU standards. Firstly, current emissions must be accurately monitored, then EU pollution standards must be incorporated into national law. WHO guidelines are being used for SO2 control. Current Slovenian standards cover SO2, NOx and particulates. They are up to EU standards. Monitoring has been performed by the Hydrometeorological Institute of Slovenia (HM2). Data from these surveys are being used in air pollution control planning. Public health is of particular concern. The major sources of SO2 emissions are three coal fired power plants. Sostanj has recently been fitted with limestone injection systems, FGD was considered too expensive. Trboulje is more likely to be replaced than retrofitted, at Moste two units will be replaced while a third will be retrofitted with FGD. Wood, coal, gas-oil, natural gas and district heating are all used for domestic premises - domestic heating contributes 12% of SO2 emissions. There should be a switch to cleaner fuels. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Leikauf, George D

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts ...

  11. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  12. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Evdokimova, Olga; Gross, Allan

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  13. Air Pollution, Economic Development of Communities, and Health Status Among the Elderly in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Rongjun; Gu, Danan

    2008-01-01

    In Western societies, the impact of air pollution on residents' health is higher in less wealthy communities. However, it is not clear whether such an interaction effect applies to developing countries. The authors examine how the level of community development modifies the impact of air pollution on health outcomes of the Chinese elderly using data from the third wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey in 2002, which includes 7,358 elderly residents aged 65 or more years fro...

  14. Air Pollution and Control Legislation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Bhave, Prashant; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution in urban areas arises from multiple sources, which may vary with location and developmental activities. Anthropogenic activities as rampant industrialization, exploitation and over consumption of natural resources, ever growing population size are major contributors of air pollution. The presented review is an effort to discuss various aspects of air pollution and control legislation in India emphasizing on the history, present scenario, international treaties, gaps and drawbacks. The review also presents legislative controls with judicial response to certain landmark judgments related to air pollution. The down sides related to enforcement mechanism for the effective implementation of environmental laws for air pollution control have been highlighted.

  15. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a lot of reasons why emissions of air pollutants have to be reduced. Acid deposition and its consequences are among them, but they are not the only ones. This paper presents the comprehensive legal basis of air pollution control policy in Switzerland as well as the overall air pollution control strategy. The present situation with respect to air pollution is discussed. A list of implemented and planned measures is given as well as emission trends of major air pollutants from 1950 to 2010. 6 refs., 1 fig

  16. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Vara Prasad Y; Mirza Sami Baig; Mishra, Rahul K; P. Rajalakshmi; Desai, U. B.; Merchant, S N

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN) on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for ...

  17. Do Mexicans care about air pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrguez-Snchez, Jos Ivn

    2014-01-01

    Mexico has many major problems such as corruption, poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, pollution, etc. Regarding pollution, politicians have established some programs trying to improve air quality in Mexico. But they do not know if Mexicans care about air pollution or they prefer that government faces other problems. This paper answers this question and in fact, we conclude that Mexicans do care about air pollution (measured by Particulate Matter) and they agree to pay to reduce it. This paper...

  18. NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch has performed research and developed technologies for NOx reduction via combustion modification. Techniques such as low-excess air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, low NOx bu...

  19. Air pollution measurements from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Griggs, M.; Malkmus, W.; Bartle, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study is presented on the remote sensing of gaseous and particulate air pollutants which is an extension of a previous report. Pollutants can be observed by either active or passive remote sensing systems. Calculations discussed herein indicate that tropospheric CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, and CH4 can be measured by means of nadir looking passive systems. Additional species such as NO, HNO3, O3, and H2O may be measured in the stratosphere through a horizon experiment. A brief theoretical overview of resonance Raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is given. It is found that radiance measurements are most promising for general global applications, and that stratospheric aerosols may be measured using a sun occultation technique. The instrumentation requirements for both active and passive systems are examined and various instruments now under development are described.

  20. Diagnosing vegetation injury caused by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    The structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury is discussed. The sources, atmospheric chemistry, monitoring data, symptomatology, factors affecting plant response, injury threshold doses, air quality standards, relative sensitivity of plants, and leaf tissue analysis are discussed for major air pollutants. Among the pollutants discussed are: the photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides). Minor pollutants discussed in the same framework are chlorine, hydrogen chloride, ethylene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and mercury), particulates, and pesticides. Other subjects discussed include: interactions between pollutants and between pollutants and pathogens, mimicking symptoms, meteorology and air pollution injury, and basic diagnostic procedures of suspected air pollution injury to vegetation. 76 references, 128 figures, 28 tables.

  1. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  2. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures.

  3. Air pollution monitor for TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 1988, sixteen superconducting RF cavities were installed to increase the beam energy of TRISTAN and they began to be effective operation in November. One of the obvious problems created by the installation of superconducting equipment to the tunnel is oxygen-poor in case of bursting the liquefied gases. Air pollution in the tunnel from poisonous gases formed by synchrotron radiations is also becoming serious problem as upgrading TRISTAN. It is the purpose of this paper to show the special safety control problems and the system used in TRISTAN to give a solution for these problems. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

  5. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  6. Plant response to polluted air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, J.B. Jr.; Darley, E.F.; Middleton, J.T.; Paulus, A.O.

    1956-08-01

    Field observations and controlled fumigation experiments have shown that plants differ in their response to atmospheric contamination by ethylene, herbicides, fluorides, sulfur dioxide, and smog, or oxidized hydrocarbons. Controlled experiments have also shown that plant response to air pollution varies with species and variety of plant, age of plant tissue, soil fertility levels, soil moisture, air temperatures during the prefumigation growth period, and presence of certain agricultural chemicals on leaves. The leaves of many plants; such as tomato, African marigold, fuchsia, pepper, and potato, become curved and malformed in the presence of ethylene, while those of cantaloupe, China aster, gardenia, Cattleya orchid, and snapdragon do not. Ethylene may cause serious damage to the sepals of orchids without injury to the petals or leaves.

  7. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  8. Biological monitors of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

  9. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 20042006

    OpenAIRE

    Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Ditas, F.; Wu, Z.; Hu, M.; X. LIU; Mao, J; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based...

  10. Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

  11. Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in many other parts of the world, where air pollution and pollution-associated cardiovascular mortality 18 have been increasing. The mega-cities of Asia, Africa, and Latin America are of particular concern ...

  12. Radioactive pollution of atmospheric air at ground level in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of studies on radioactive pollution of the atmospheric air at the ground level in Poland during 1975-1977. The methods of sample collection and measurements are described. The mean monthly values of concentration of the following radioisotopes were determined: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 125Sb, 131J, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce. The analysis of each particular artificia radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland results from Chinese nuclear explosions is given. The equivalent doses received by the lungs, bones and the whole body as a result of inhaling radioactive isotopes from the air are determined. (author)

  13. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  14. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the pres...

  15. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Kadriye Yurdakk

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to...

  16. Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

  17. Air pollution model for point source

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Mačala; Viliam Carach

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical models of air pollution have a broad practical application. They are irreplaceable wherever it is not possible to determine a state of air pollution by measuring of a noxious agent concentration. By creating of a suitable model of air pollution we can assess a state of the air quality but we also to predict the pollution that can occur at given atmospheric conditions. The created model is a suitable tool for controlling the activity of TEKO and for the evaluation of the quality o...

  18. Air pollution and COPD in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments. PMID:25694818

  19. Catalytic control of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the quality of our environment has become a growing concern in this country and around the globe. Research efforts in this field have recently been accelerated by the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act. This book reports on a symposium that is part of a continuing series on the surface science of catalysis. Including stationary and mobile source chapters alike in one volume allows the reader to note the similarities and differences between the two fields and possibly to apply ideas from one area to the other. The coverage is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as a survey of some of the most current topics of interest in this field. The intended audience for this book is the chemist or engineer interested in pollution control, or prevention, or both in the automotive, chemical, petroleum, and other industries, or otherwise involved in the environmental applications of catalysts

  20. Point sources of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Andrew; Harrison, Roy

    2005-09-01

    Many people live near point sources of air pollution such as industrial sites and waste disposal operations and there are often suggestions of clusters of disease around such activities. Such alleged clusters will generate significant public concern and media interest and in many cases will warrant detailed investigation. However, the ability of current epidemiological methods to investigate such clusters is limited, particularly with regard to obtaining reliable and accurate population exposure data. In many cases, the key question is whether releases from a point source result in a significant increase in exposure or whether other sources (background exposure) give rise to the dominant exposure. This review considers some of the issues around point sources including methods of estimating exposure and briefly discusses some of the epidemiological evidence linking respiratory disease and cancer with specific industries such as coking works and incinerators. PMID:16140835

  1. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. Samples of different species of lichens were collected in clean areas (native forest), analysed and transplanted to the Santiago Metropolitan Area. In addition, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area for comparison purposes. The preparation of the samples was done under controlled, cryogenic conditions and analysed by neutron activation analysis and solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry. As part of the routine QA/QC procedures, the analytical laboratories, participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. The present paper describes the activities carried out within the framework of this project. (author)

  2. Air pollution: The pathobiologic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwin, R.P. (Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-01-01

    In defining the adverse effects of ambient levels of ozone on the human lung, research has tended to emphasize direct cause and effect responses. However, disease is generally multicausative and the lung has relatively few ways to respond to injury. Moreover, all adult lungs have some disease. Thus, pathogenesis is more appropriately addressed by asking 'What role does the agent in question play in the causation, promotion, facilitation, and/or exacerbation of disease that is present ' The authors recent studies of the lungs of 107 ostensibly healthy youths between 14 and 25 years of age add suggestive evidence to epidemiologic and experimental data indicating that air pollution is adversely affecting the human lung. They found 80% of the youths with some degree of presumably subclinical Centriacinar Region disease and, in 27%, the Centriacinar Region disease was severe and extensive. Centriacinar Region disease has been linked to infectious organisms, cigarette smoke, ozone, mineral dusts, and other noxious agents. Recently, a mild form of Centriacinar Region disease has been produced in primates exposed to a level of ozone that is frequently exceeded in Los Angeles. Since there is suggestive evidence that air pollution in Los Angeles increases the rate of decline of lung function, they suspect that there has also been an increase in the rate of structural decline, manifest in part by accentuated Centriacinar Region disease. At the very least, reserve depletion reflected in the Centriacinar Region disease implies some reduction in lung performance and some increase in susceptibility to disease in general. At worst, the unexpected severity of the Centriacinar Region disease may be a bellwether for an impending rise in clinically manifested lung disease for the general population.61 references.

  3. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  4. Air pollution model for point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical models of air pollution have a broad practical application. They are irreplaceable wherever it is not possible to determine a state of air pollution by measuring of a noxious agent concentration. By creating of a suitable model of air pollution we can assess a state of the air quality but we also to predict the pollution that can occur at given atmospheric conditions. The created model is a suitable tool for controlling the activity of TEKO and for the evaluation of the quality of air in a monitored area of the city of Kosice. A sufficient knowledge in the given field is a condition. The input data and information necessary for creating such a model of polluted air is another important factor. (authors)

  5. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

  6. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  7. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon

  8. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.; Carmichael, G.; Dimov, I.; Dongarra, J.; Dop, H. van; Georgiev, K.; Hass, H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  9. Career Guide for Air Pollution Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Lionel V.

    1975-01-01

    This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

  10. Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproull, Wayne T.

    A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

  11. Air pollution restrictions in electrical production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the principal characteristics regarding the Italian electrical power system and the evolution of standardization in air pollution control is given. Afterwards, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) actions in the environmental protection field (with particular respect to thermo-electrical production) are presented. Finally, principal ENEL research programs on new air pollution control technologies are discussed

  12. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    International trade affects global air pollution and transport by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services and by potentially altering the total amount of global emissions. Here we analyze the trade influences by combining an economic-emission analysis on China’s bilateral trade and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. Our focused analysis on US air quality shows that Chinese air pollution related to production for exports contributes, at a maximum on a daily b...

  13. Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

  14. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Grignani; Laura Zavattaro; Francesco Alluvione; Chiara Bertora

    2010-01-01

    The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agri...

  15. Air pollution: The last 35 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, R L

    2015-12-01

    Perceptions of the effects on health of air pollutants have changed dramatically over the past thirty five years. It is now clear that current, historically low, concentrations of air pollutants have significant effects on health and that these effects bear most heavily on deaths and illness caused by cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies have provided the evidence for these conclusions; toxicological studies have provided explanations, not yet complete, for these effects. Most emphasis has been placed on the effects of airborne particles and the evidence for their effects is convincing. Less attention has been paid to the effects of gaseous air pollutants: it may be that their effects have been, and are, under-estimated. Recent work has allowed the effects on health of air pollutants to be quantified at both a national and global scale. This work has led to the realization that the effects are large and that air pollutants continue to pose an important threat to health. PMID:26614813

  16. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations. PMID:26467061

  17. Air pollution: UNCED convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to United Nations papers delineating the Organization's convention on climate change and strategies concerning the protection of the earth's atmosphere, this booklet presents four papers expressing the views of Italian and American strategists. The central theme is the establishment of current global air pollution trends, the determination of suitable air pollution limits, and the preparation of feasible socio-economic strategies to allow industrialized and developing countries to work together effectively to achieve the proposed global air quality goals

  18. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  19. Urban air pollution climates throughout the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditions...... as well as the transport in and out of the city area. The building obstacles play a crucial role in causing generally high pollutant levels in the urban environment, especially inside street canyons where the canyon vortex flow governs the pollution distribution. Of the pollutants dominating urban...... air pollution climates, particulate pollution in general together with gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals are those where further field measurements, characterization and laboratory studies are urgently needed in order to fully assess the health impact on...

  20. Influence of air pollution on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi? Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Ni at two measuring locations, in Ni and Nika Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Ni. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

  1. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    OpenAIRE

    Weinheimer, A J; F. S. Rowland; Blake, D R; Campos, T.; Avery, M A; Sachse, G. W.; H. E. Fuelberg; R. J. McKeachie; Novak, B. J.; J. R. Midyett; Yang, M; Blake, N. J.; Baker, A. K.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; E. L. Atlas

    2009-01-01

    We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air ma...

  2. BLUME - the Berlin air pollution monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles the BLUME air pollution chracteristics obtained in winter 1987/88. Figures and tables summarize and compare the measuring results obtained for sulfur dioxide, airborne particles, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone. Air pollution in winter 1987/88 was not as critical as in the previous years. The 1987/88 mean sulfur dioxide concentrations were found to be the lowest values determined since BLUME measurements started in 1975, and the mean values obtained for airborne particles and for most of the remaining pollutants were lower than in the previous year. The causes of these relatively low pollutant concentrations are discussed. (orig./BBR)

  3. Can air pollutant controls change global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Air pollution policies do not affect long-term climate targets. • Reduction of aerosols counteracts a fraction of the reduction of Kyoto forcing. • Air pollution policies may affect the rate of climate change in the short term. • There is no tradeoff between clean air and climate policies. - Abstract: In this paper we analyze the interaction between climate and air pollution policies using the integrated assessment model REMIND coupled to the reduced-form climate model MAGICC. Since overall, aerosols tend to cool the atmosphere, there is a concern that a reduction of pollutant emissions could accelerate global warming and offset the climate benefits of carbon dioxide emission reductions. We investigate scenarios which independently reduce emissions from either large-scale sources, such as power plants, or small-scale sources, such as cooking and heating stoves. Large-scale sources are likely to be easier to control, but their aerosol emissions are characterized by a relatively high sulfur content, which tends to result in atmospheric cooling. Pollution from small-scale sources, by contrast, is characterized by a high share of carbonaceous aerosol, which is an important contributor to global warming. We find that air pollution policies can significantly reduce aerosol emissions when no climate policies are in place. Stringent climate policies lead to a large reduction of fossil fuel use, and therefore result in a concurrent reduction of air pollutant emissions. These reductions partly reduce aerosol masking, thus initially counteracting the reduction of greenhouse gas forcing, however not overcompensating it. If climate policies are in place, air pollution policies have almost no impacts on medium- and long-term radiative forcing. Therefore there is no conflict of objectives between clean air and limiting global warming. We find that the stringency of air pollution policies may influence the rate of global temperature change in the first decade. Afterwards climate change mitigation policies are of greater importance

  4. Statistical aspects of air pollution quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the relations between the level of air pollutant concentration, its exposure time and its frequency of occurrence, as well as their associated adverse effects on man, would be the first step of establishing air quality standards, and through such standards we can establish a reasonable land utilization plan. The general models of air pollutant distributions are discussed in the first half of the paper from both theoretical and actual points. Then three typical properties of air pollutant concentration, i.e. exceeding probability, maximum value, and exceeding number, are introduced. Arrowhead chart model is one of the main informations from air pollution issue, which is discussed in the latter half. (author)

  5. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  6. Air pollution monitoring - a methodological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methodology for monitoring the emission of polluters in the air is a complex concept that in general embraces following fazes: sampling, laboratory treatment, and interpretation of results. In Company for technological and laboratory investigation and environmental protection - Mining Institute Skopje, the control of emission of polluters in the air is performing according methodology based in general on the recommendation of standard VDI 2.066 prescribe from Ministry of Ecology in Germany, because adequate legislation in our country does not exist. In this article the basic treatment of methodology for the air polluters emission control is presented. (Original)

  7. AIR POLLUTION IN SHOLAPUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinde Tukaram Vittal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pollution is the presentation of contaminants into the regular habitat that cause antagonistic change. Contamination can take the type of substance substances orenergy, for example, commotion, warmth or light. Pollution, the parts of contamination, can be either outside substances/ energies or normally happening contaminants. Contamination is regularly classed as point source or nonpoint source contamination.

  8. Air pollution studies in the Norwegian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of sulfur pollutants at stations in the Norwegian Arctic, 1977-1983, show persistent annual variations with maximum values in the winter season. These are mostly due to low-level transport of polluted air from industrial areas in northern USSR. The pulsating character of the air pollution episodes is related to the synoptic scale pressure variations. Aircraft measurements in March 1983 show the presence of thin stratified layers of polluted air at elevated tropospheric levels. In summer the Arctic air is generally very clean, and elevated concentrations are mainly due to a direct transfer from source areas in northwestern Europe across the Norwegian Sea. The aircraft measurements show that the Arctic aerosol has a narrow and very homogeneous size distribution, indicating a stable aerosol that is not subject to chemical reactions and further growth

  9. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  10. Air pollution in Karachi: a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air population is a necessary adjunct to the advancement of civilisation. It was an offshoot or rapid industrialisation of Europe during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when most of the industrial plants coming up in the big industrial cities were based on the use of coal as a source of energy. This caused an enormous amount of air pollution. Air pollution therefore is a man made phenomenon which creates environmental degradation and it generally builds up over a period of time. Pollution of Karachi which was less than half a million at the time of partition of India has crossed ten million mark during the last decade. This rapid and more or less unplanned expansion of population of this teeming metropolis has entailed environmental degradation of Karachi. As this matter needs detailed and in depth monitoring we have limited our scope to the study of its effect on air pollution alone. (A.B.)

  11. AIR POLLUTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased incidents of classic and variant forms of neurodegenerative diseases suggest that environmental chemicals and susceptibility factors (e.g., genetics, diseased states, obesity, etc.) may be contributory. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that is associat...

  12. Air pollution assessment using hierarchical fuzzy inference systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hjek, Petr; Olej, Vladimr

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the current state of air pollution assessment. Air pollution is currently realized by air pollution indices and air stress indices. However, these approaches have some limitations which can be eliminated e.g. using systems based on fuzzy logic. Therefore, we design a hierarchical fuzzy inference system for air pollution assessment using data from Pardubice micro region.

  13. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution......

  14. Air pollution, public health, and inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostro, Bart David

    1980-01-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

  15. [Air Pollution Unit, Edmonds School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 16 air pollution activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Photography, Mathematics, English, Social Studies, Industrial Arts and Home Economics. The topics to be investigated include: pollutants from automobiles, exhaust

  16. Air quality complex index estimation of air pollution situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the regional system for assessment and management of the ambient air quality in the North-East Estonian region of oil shale mining and processing, as well as natural areas, the corresponding Air Quality Complex Index (AQI) has been elaborated. This method enables to generalize a large number of measured numerical values of concentrations of pollutants in case of multicomponential pollution fields and makes the results more easily understandable. The AQI is suitable for the real-time monitoring as well as for prediction of air quality values and pollution situations by calculated data. (author)

  17. Measurements of air pollutants in the troposphere

    OpenAIRE

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis, or involve automated in-situ sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impact upon human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene), vegetation (ozone) or climate change (ozone, carbon dioxide, methane) and nitrous oxide). It begins with an...

  18. Human health effects of air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Folinsbee, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database. This review will emphasize studies of humans but will also draw on findings from the other disciplines. Air pollutants have been shown to cause responses rang...

  19. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Eijsden, Manon van; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernndez-Somoano, Ana; Fernndez, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Hberg, Siri E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Klmper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Krmer, Ursula; Lerchundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Srensen, Mette; Thiering, Elisabeth; Tuffnell, Derek; Varr, Mihly J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Gran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rmy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population-based mother-child cohort studies in 12 European countries. Overall, the study population included 74?178 women who had singleton deliveries between Feb 11, 1994, and June 2, 2011, and for whom informatio...

  20. Exposure to urban and rural air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; Okkels, Henrik; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Autrup, Herman

    1996-01-01

    Ambient air in urban areas is polluted by agents suspected of causing cancer in humans. A number of epidemiological studies have revealed an increased cancer risk in urban communities, especially in lung cancer. The relative risk have been estimated to be in the order of 1.5. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in genotoxic exposure through air pollution in urban and rural areas using DNA and protein adducts as biomarkers. Another objective was to investigate whether the GSTM...

  1. Impact of Air Pollution on Allergic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Takizawa, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of allergic diseases in most industrialized countries has increased. Although the exact mechanisms behind this rapid increase in prevalence remain uncertain, a variety of air pollutants have been attracting attention as one causative factor. Epidemiological and toxicological research suggests a causative relationship between air pollution and the increased incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other allergic disorders. These include ozone, nitrogen dioxide and, especially ...

  2. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  3. Air Pollution over the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    State plans for implementing air quality standards are evaluated together with problems in modeling procedures and enforcement. Monitoring networks, standards, air quality regions, and industrial problems are also discussed. (BL)

  4. Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  5. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  6. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  7. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  8. Legal aspects of transfrontier air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution deals with the technical developments and the necessary adaptation of the legal and social systems in the various states. The author first discusses provisions of international law with regard to giving proof of environmental pollution caused by a neighbour state. He then deals with the legal aspects of long-distance air pollution. Finally, the Federal German substantial air pollution control law and relevant licensing provisions are taken as an example to show how the Federal Republic of Germany comes up to the obligations set by international law, to provide for due protection of the environment in neighbour states. (orig./HSCH)

  9. Global Air Quality and Climate Impacts of Mitigating Short-lived Climate Pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Heyes, C.; Kiesewetter, G.; Klimont, Z.; Schoepp, W.; Wagner, F.

    2014-12-01

    China is a major emitter of harmful air pollutants, including the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and their precursors. Implementation of pollution control technologies provides a mechanism for simultaneously protecting human and ecosystem health and achieving near-term climate co-benefits; however, predicting the outcomes of technical and policy interventions is challenging because the SLCPs participate in both climate warming and cooling and share many common emission sources. Here, we present the results of a combined regional integrated assessment and global climate modeling study aimed at quantifying the near-term climate and air quality co-benefits of selective control of Chinese air pollution emissions. Results from IIASA's Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated assessment model indicate that methane emission reductions make up > 75% of possible CO2-equivalent emission reductions of the SLCPs and their precursors in China in 2030. A multi-pollutant emission reduction scenario incorporating the 2030 Chinese pollution control measures with the highest potential for future climate impact is applied to the NASA ModelE2 - Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon - chemistry - climate model to assess the regional and long-range impacts of Chinese SLCP mitigation measures. Using model simulations that incorporate dynamic methane emissions and photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emissions, we quantify the impacts of Chinese reductions of the short-lived air pollutants on radiative forcing and on surface ozone and particulate air pollution. Present-day modeled methane mole fractions are evaluated against SCIAMACHY methane columns and NOAA ESRL/GMD surface flask measurements.

  10. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Vara Prasad Y

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for sensing concentration of gases like CO2, NO2, CO and O2 are calibrated using appropriate calibration technologies. These pre-calibrated gas sensors are then integrated with the wireless sensor motes for field deployment at the campus and the Hyderabad city using multi hop data aggregation algorithm. A light weight middleware and a web interface to view the live pollution data in the form of numbers and charts from the test beds was developed and made available from anywhere on the internet. Other parameters like temperature and humidity were also sensed along with gas concentrations to enable data analysis through data fusion techniques. Experimentation carried out using the developed wireless air pollution monitoring system under different physical conditions show that the system collects reliable source of real time fine-grain pollution data.

  11. Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinfeld, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

  12. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required

  13. Variance Design and Air Pollution Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Terry A.; Brownstein, Alan B.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollution control authorities were forced to relax air quality standards during the winter of 1972 by granting variances. This paper examines the institutional characteristics of these variance policies from an economic incentive standpoint, sets up desirable structural criteria for institutional design and arrives at policy guidelines for…

  14. Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

    This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

  15. Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Summary The public has long been interested in understanding what pollutants are in the air they breathe so they can best protect their environmental health and welfare. The current air quality monitoring network consists of discrete stations with expensive equipment ...

  16. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  17. Relating air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases Occurrences

    OpenAIRE

    Teodoro, M. F.; Garcia, J. N.; Coelho, L. M.; M.G. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the impact of air pollution on children's health in Portugal. In particular, we focus our attention on the city of Barreiro. We use the general linear methods (GLM), taking advantage of all the ease of handling and analyzing data in order to relate air quality and health. We relate levels of air pollution and incidence of entries from children with symptoms of respiratory problems in the pediatric urgency service at the hospital of Barreiro. It was not easy to obtain ...

  18. Pollution prevention and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  19. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020, we predict health damages from air pollution exposure will quadruple and account for 8-16% of Zaozhuang's 2020 GDP. End-of-pipe controls could reduce the potential health damages from air pollution by 20% and a coal gasification polygeneration energy system could reduce it by 50% with only 24% penetration. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, could be achieved in eastern China through the use of currently available end-of-pipe controls; with further development, benefits from the use of advanced coal technology could be even larger.

  20. RESEARCH AREA -- CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DESTRUCTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six thermal oxidation (incineration) processes were approved by the Montreal Protocol for the disposal of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has eva...

  1. Pollutant dispersion models for issues of air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14 papers entered separately into the data base were presented at the meeting for application-oriented dispersion models for issues of air pollution control. These papers focus on fields of application, availability of required input data relevant to emissions and meteorology, performance and accuracy of these methods and their practicability. (orig./PW)

  2. BIOINDICATORS IN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH: APPLICATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical and chemical measurements of air pollutants provide a precise measure of pollutant exposure which is frequently used to estimate probable biological impacts. Bioindicators may be classified as either accumulators of the pollutant or reactors to the pollutant. The ultimat...

  3. Climatological variability in regional air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

  4. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health impact, is particulate matter (PM) of which road traffic is a major source. Therefore, the health effects of traffic-related air pollution have been under considerable scrutiny. We examined in vivo t...

  5. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. EPA...

  6. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. We...

  7. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  8. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars

    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC) as an...... an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool...

  9. Reflections on the Establishment of the Chinese Air Identification Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Bao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Yinan Bao presents a very timely legal investigation into aspects of the current territorial dispute in the East China Sea. The author focuses on the Chinese Air Identification Zone and considers the issues regarding the legitimacy of the Chinese ADIZ and Chinese Aircraft Identification Rules. Drawing on previous comparable behaviour involving other countries and international relations, he makes the argument that this Zone is in accordance with international law.

  10. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  11. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

  12. Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Lawrence D. Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were esti...

  13. Exposure to urban and rural air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P S; Okkels, H; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kyrtopoulos, S; Autrup, H

    1996-01-01

    Ambient air in urban areas is polluted by agents suspected of causing cancer in humans. A number of epidemiological studies have revealed an increased cancer risk in urban communities, especially in lung cancer. The relative risk have been estimated to be in the order of 1.5. The objective of this...... study was to evaluate differences in genotoxic exposure through air pollution in urban and rural areas using DNA and protein adducts as biomarkers. Another objective was to investigate whether the GSTM1 genotype has any effect on adduct level. The analyses included 32P postlabelling of DNA adducts in...... or protein adduct levels in non-smokers exposed to low levels of air pollution....

  14. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas; Christensen, Jesper Heile; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  15. the role of industry in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

  16. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  17. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  18. Imaging air pollutants in the near ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, D.; Conley, J.; Seng, S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses a program for remote sensing of air pollutants called Multispectral Observation of Pollutants System (MOPS). The broad objective of the program is to photograph 'invisible' gaseous pollutants by combining ultraviolet imaging in several spectral bands with portable data processing equipment. Electronic cameras using solid state imaging arrays of large dynamic range will permit very low contrast images to be electronically ratioed and contrast enhanced, thus bringing out pollutant images which are below the contrast threshold of film. Such photographs will allow synoptic coverage of geographic areas providing source, sink, and flow data on pollutants, and will provide reconnaissance and pointing information for other remote sensors. The principle gases to be mapped by MOPS will be ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.

  19. Air pollution sources, impact and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improper management of socio-economic developmental activities has put a great stress on natural resources and eco-systems and has caused environmental degradation. Indiscriminate release of toxic substances into the atmosphere from power generation, industrial operations, transportation, incineration of waste and other operations has affected the quality of ambient air. Combustion of fossil fuel results in the emission of oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, particulate and organic compounds which affect the local, regional and global environment. Industrial operations release a wide variety of pollutants which directly affect the local environment. Operation of automobiles releases oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, traces of heavy metals and toxic polycyclic aromatic compounds whereas incineration of municipal waste releases particulate, acid fumes and photochemically reactive and odorous compounds. These air pollutants have varying impacts on health and environment. The intake of polluted air may produce various physiological disorders ranging from respiratory diseases to changes in blood chemistry. Therefore, the emission of pollutants should be controlled at the source and monitoring the levels of pollution should assess the quality of air. (author)

  20. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needed. Be sure to include these parts when cleaning: heat exchangers, dryer filters, coils on the refrigerator, water pans under the refrigerator, furnaces, and ducts. Also, clean or replace air conditioner and heater filters as often as needed. Aerosol products Aerosol ...

  1. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large forest under strong demographic pressure and under heavy impact of air pollution. Flow patterns induced by complex terrain in the center of Mexico induce strong interaction between the mega city and the rural areas in the Mexico Basin. In and out mesoscale transport to and from the neighboring valleys with cities already larger than one million inhabitants increase the complexity of air pollution processes. Fast urbanization in these valleys suggests even more complicated and full of concerns scenarios. Some recent results on these issues will be shown.

  2. Air pollution market expands worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of the electrostatic precipitator market is reported. The biggest expansion appears to have taken place in the power generation industry where 95 per cent of the coal-fired power plants are said to be using electrostatic precipitators for controlling emission of particulates. The pulp and paper and the cement industry are second and third behind the electric power industry, with metals and mining, and the chemical industry being the other members of the 'big five'. Wood particle driers and paint finishing facilities have recently shown substantial increases of using electrostatic precipitators. The use of wet precipitators has also shown significant increase, primarily as a means of reducing SO3 and heavy metals emitted from power plant stacks. Combined annual expenditure on operating electrostatic precipitators is reported to exceed US$ 12 billion. New purchases in 1999 are expected to reach US$ 1.3 billion. ABB, Lurgi, FLS and Mitsubishi are the principal suppliers, with several Chinese companies making their way into the top ten. China and the United States will be the top purchasing countries, but there will be expenditures in 80 countries and regions, many of them in developing countries

  3. Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving cargo. The air quality impacts of ports are significant, with particularly large emissions of diesel exhaust, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides. The health effects of these air pollutants to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. In children, there are links with asthma, bronchitis, missed school days, and emergency room visits. The significance of these environmental health impacts requires aggressive efforts to mitigate the problem. Approaches to mitigation encompass a range of possibilities from currently available, low-cost approaches, to more significant investments for cleaner air. Examples of the former include restrictions on truck idling and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuel; the latter includes shore-side power for docked ships, and alternative fuels. A precautionary approach to port-related air pollution would encourage local production of goods in order to reduce marine traffic, greener design for new terminals, and state-of-the art approaches to emissions-control that have been successfully demonstrated at ports throughout the world

  4. Methods for air pollutants determination in OKTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'OKTA' Refinery of oil uses liquid fuel (crude oil) for producing energy which is necessary for the process of oil refining. If we want to know how it influences to the environment, especially the air, it is necessary to determine the pollutants in the air. The attending of the air's quality in 'OKTA' is determined with 3 methods: 1) The average smoke concentration per day in the air in the closeness of 'OKTA' is determined with Reflect-meter method. The results show low smoke value in the air. 2) The average concentration of sulphur dioxide per day in the air in the closeness of 'OKTA' is determined with p- rosaniline method. The results show low sulphur dioxide value in the air. 3) The average concentration of inert powder per day in the air in the closeness of 'OKTA' is determined with Gravimeter's method. The results show value lower than the maximal permitted concentration. According to the researches that were made and according to the obtained results, it can be concluded that 'OKTA' with its work does not influence to the air pollution. (Author)

  5. Air pollution monitoring in downtown Rome, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tables air pollution data indicating concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMTHC) and particulate matter measured in downtown Rome during the period, April 1990 - March 1991. These data are analyzed according to National Air Quality Standards. Correlations are developed for nitrous oxide, NMTHC and ozone concentration trends as a function of solar radiation intensity. Analysis of the data reveals that the concentrations of the primary pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide, were very high in the winter months when building heating systems were operating under stable weather conditions. In many cases, the concentrations of carbon monoxide exceeded ambient air quality standards. The paper also discusses the need for the development of limits for NMTHC concentrations and including these limits in the Air Quality Standards

  6. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bertora

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  7. Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO2, CO and O3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed by a law proposed by the Italian Ministries of Health and Environment. The relation of that index with some meteorological variables is analysed by the linear multiple partial correlation statistical method. Florence, Milan and Vicence were selected to show the correlation among the air pollution index and the daily thermic excursion, the previous day's air pollution index and the wind speed. During the January-March period the correlation coefficient reaches 0.85 at Milan. The deterministic methods of forecasting air pollution concentrations show very high evaluation errors and are applied on limited areas around the observation stations, as opposed to the whole urban areas. The global air pollution, instead of the concentrations at specific observation stations, allows the evaluation of the level of the sanitary risk regarding the whole urban population. (Author)

  8. Semi-infinite air pollution control problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, A. Ismael F.; Ferreira, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    Semi-infinite programming (SIP) problems arise in many engineering areas. Robot trajectory planning and optimal signal sets are two fine examples. Air pollution abatement problems, which are linear SIP problems, were proposed in the seventies by Gustafson and Kortanek [Analytical properties of some multiple-source urban diffusion models, Environment and Planning 4, pp. 31- 41, 1972]. Recent available tools for non-linear SIP allow the formulation of more general air control ...

  9. Mathematical modeling of photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the key elements of a project directed at developing a comprehensive mathematical model capable of describing the formation and transport of chemically reacting species in the turbulent planetary boundary layer. The model is intended for routine application in the design and evaluation of urban-scale air pollution control strategies. Some examples illustrating the use of the model in the South Coast Air Basin of Southern California are presented

  10. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, C A; Bates, D.V.; Raizenne, M E

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respira...

  11. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Ping; Jing-tao CHENG; Guang-fa DENG

    2013-01-01

    The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity...

  12. Air pollution and floristic biodiversity; Pollution atmospherique et biodiversite floristique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grub, A.; Bungener, P.; Contat, F.; Nussbaum, S.; Endtner, V.; Fuhrer, J. [Station Federale de Recherches en Agroecologie et Agriculture (FAL), Liebefeld-Berne (Switzerland). Institut de Recherches en Protection de l' Environnement et en Agriculture (IUL)

    1999-06-01

    The number of reports on negative effects of air pollution on biodiversity is increasing. Here, examples from the literature are presented which concern effects of fluoride, deposition of nitrogen, and ozone. Today, nitrogen loads and levels of tropospheric ozone seem to be most relevant forms of air pollution affecting species diversity of the flora. Results from recent investigations of ozone effects at Liebefeld indicate that the loss of floristic diversity in permanent meadows is possible because of the high relative sensitivity of some typical species. Further studies will be necessary to validate the results obtained from experiment with single plants at the level of the intact plant community in the field, and to identify the critical level of ozone to protect the floristic biodiversity of meadows. (authors)

  13. URBAN AIR POLLUTION MODELING WITHOUT COMPUTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report was the basis for a series of three lectures by the author on urban air pollution modeling, and represents a condensed version of selected topics from a recent monograph by him. The emphasis is on simple but efficient models that often can be used without resorting to...

  14. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, A.; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    ObjectivesTo establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk.

  15. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts...

  17. Human health effects of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O3), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

  18. Mapping air pollution. Application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques have important applications in the study of air pollution and many of its components. However, it is in the study of airborne particulate matter (APM) that nuclear analytical techniques find many of their most important applications. This article focuses on those applications, and on the work of the IAEA in this important field of study. 2 figs

  19. Human health effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampa, Marilena [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: kampa@med.uoc.gr; Castanas, Elias [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: castanas@med.uoc.gr

    2008-01-15

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O{sub 3}), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed.

  20. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

  1. Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

  2. HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

  3. Air pollution effects on Quercus Ilex plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test air pollution effects on natural forest vegetation, the soil chemistry and the floristic composition of two Quercus ilex L. woods in the Hyblean region (S-E Sicily), unequally exposed to air pollutants are compared. Acidification phenomena are investigated by the soil chemical changes between the trunk base areas, affected by stem flow water, and the surrounding soil, only influenced by canopy drip. Soil chemical changes, floristic poorness and direct damage to the Q. ilex leaves are only detected in the Climiti Mountains holm-oak woods, located near the Siracusa petrochemical complex, while they do not appear at Cava d'Ispica, sited far from any industry and seldom exposed to winds carrying pollutants

  4. AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Nikoli?

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

  5. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  6. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  7. Land survey map of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first step toward finding a solution to the problems with air pollution is the realization of a land survey map of polluters and a constant acquisition of data from periodical controls of emission of harmful materials, which will be carried out with a determined dynamic. Such a land survey map is not a project which should be finished within a strict time limit, but is intended to create all conditions for a periodical monitoring of emission of harmful materials from registered polluters in order to make a periodical, exact picture of the quantity of harmful materials, which are conveyed by polluters in certain city, a part of the state or the whole country. (author). 4 ills

  8. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, H.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  10. Protecting Human Health from Air Pollution: Shifting from a Single-Pollutant to a Multi-pollutant Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dominici, Francesca; Peng, Roger D.; Barr, Christopher D.; Bell, Michelle L

    2010-01-01

    To date, the assessment of public health consequences of air pollution has largely focused on a single-pollutant approach aimed at estimating the increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with the exposure to a single air pollutant, adjusted for the exposure to other air pollutants. However, air masses always contain many pollutants in differing amounts, depending on the types of emission sources and atmospheric conditions. Because humans are simultaneously exposed to a complex mix...

  11. Air pollution detection by satellites: The transport and deposition of air pollutants over oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. S.

    Research is continuing towards the possible detection of air pollution by remote sensing techniques, and satellite imagery has been examined to find evidence of cross-Atlantic transport of air pollution. Pollution masses from industrial areas are often carried out over the Atlantic Ocean by tropospheric winds. However, the pollution mass is generally steered by convergent flows and fronts of extra-tropical cyclones, and wet deposition and scavenging of air pollutants within clouds occur primarily over the cold ocean, especially during the occlusion stage of a cyclone. As a result, the oceanic area from Cape Hatteras to 1500 km ENE of Newfoundland (the SW sector of the Icelandic low area) is often a 'dumping ground' (sink region) for air pollution from N America. However, a dust cloud generated by a volcanic eruption and a smoke plume from large-forest fires in western N America have been observed near the W coast of Europe. Saharan dust carried to N America by trade winds have been identified on satellite imagery. The massive smoke generation by large forest fires in Siberia is also identified in the present study. The results of research on forest fire smoke are currently being used by scientists studying the atmospheric effects of a large-scale nuclear war. It is suggested that the area between the S of Japan and the SW section of the Aleutian low is another principal sink of air pollutants and dust originating from NE Asia.

  12. Air pollution vulnerabiity of 22 midwestern parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P.; Banerjee, N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Air pollution increases in United States national parks as sources grow closer. As this happens, biota will be increasingly affected. Can it be determined in advance which parks will be more impacted by these air pollutants that others? This study of 22 park units in the midwestern United States attempted to answer this question. Plant lists were compiled for the 22 parks, relative abundances of all species (common, intermediate, rare) estimated, their sensitivities from their life cycle types (annual, perennial-deciduous, perennial-evergreen) determined, and overall vulnerability as the average product of the two was calculated using a 3-2-1 scale for weighting the abundances. Scotts Bluff National Monument in western Nebraska was the most vulnerable park in the region, while Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior was the least. This difference was due to the higher abundances of annual plant species in Scotts Bluff. Changing the values used for abundances changed the order of park vulnerabilites. Three air pollutants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and sulfate) were found to increase from west to east in the midwest. Overlaying these patterns on the park vulnerabilities, and a customer analysis of the data, resulted in a determination of the air pollution risks to groups of parks. The parks most at risk (high vulnerability+high pollution levels) were two in Ohio (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area) and one in Indiana (Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial). Ten parks were grouped at lowest risk in an arc from Lake Superior, northern Minnesota, and Wisconsin through Nebraska and Kansas. Of three different surrogate methods tested for a relationship with overall vulnerability, only one appeared to be useful. Vulnerability could be directly calculated if a park`s vegetative structure was known without assembling the complete flora. 22 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

    Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

  14. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  15. Elementary school absenteeism and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Jennison, B L; Yang, W; Omaye, S T

    2000-11-01

    This study assessed the association between ambient air pollution and daily elementary school absenteeism in Washoe County, NV, between 1996 and 1998. All 57 elementary schools in Washoe County in northern Nevada were included in the data set. There was a total of 27,793 student enrollments during this study period. The daily average absence rate was 5.09% (+/-1.54%). Air pollutant values including PM(10), O(3), and CO were obtained from seven air monitoring stations. Weather variables were collected from five of seven stations and from the Western Regional Climate Center. The daily average concentrations of PM(10), CO, and O(3) were 32.44 microg/m(3), 2.73 ppm, and 37.45 ppb, respectively. Student absenteeism was regressed on the three air pollutants, weather variables, and other confounding factors, using autoregression analysis. After adjusting for the effects of weather variables, day of the week, month, and holiday indicators, and time trend, we found that CO and O(3) were statistically significant predictors of daily absenteeism in elementary schools. For every 1.0 ppm and 50 ppb increase in CO and O(3), the absence rate would increase 3.79% (95% CI 1.04-6.55%) and 13.01% (95% CI 3.41-22.61%), respectively. However, PM(10) values were negatively correlated with school absenteeism. PMID:11015140

  16. Sampling and identification of gaseous and particle bounded air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollutants are gaseous, components of aerosols or particle bounded. Sampling, sample preparation, identification and quantification of compounds depend from kind and chemical composition of the air pollutants. Quality assurance of analytical data must be guaranted. (orig.)

  17. Air Pollution Linked to Risk of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157015.html Air Pollution Linked to Risk of Preterm Birth Study doesn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to high levels of air pollution in pregnancy may increase the risk of having ...

  18. A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bei Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen oxide (NOx. The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10, SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation

  19. Real-Time Air Pollutants Rendering based on Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Demin Wang; Yan Huang; Weitao Li

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for realistic real-time rendering of air pollutants based on image processing. The air pollutants variable density can create many shapes of mist what can add a realistic environment to virtual scene. In order to achieve a realistic effect, we further enhance thus obtained air pollution data getting from monitor in spatial domain. In the proposed method we map the densities of air pollutants to different gray levels, and visualize them by blending those gray ...

  20. The Role of Air Pollutants in Initiating Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-01-01

    Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where expos...

  1. Valuation Of Health Impacts Of Air Pollution In India

    OpenAIRE

    Surender Kumar; and Paramjit

    2013-01-01

    This paper surveys the studies measuring the economic impacts of air pollution on health in India. Air pollution has potentially large impacts on the health and well-being of households, especially the poor families. The literature shows that the distribution of the impacts of air pollution is not uniform across the cross sections of societies. It notes that though there are some case studies on the valuation of health impacts of outdoor air pollution, there is rarely any study on the valuati...

  2. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution and population health is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still...

  3. Radius of Influence for Istanbul Air Pollution Data

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTOPAL, Ahmet; ŞEN, Zekâi

    1999-01-01

    As a consequence of heavy industrialization and transportation in many city centers of the world, air pollution problems arise, especially in winter months. Even Istanbul where the Bosphorus straight plays a significant role in the natural cleaning of air pollutants, was subjected to such problems. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to measure air pollutants at various sites and times. Air pollution assessments are achieved in the majority of cases by using data process...

  4. 76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

  5. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD)...

  6. Motor Vehicles Air Pollution in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Odhiambo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring in most developing countries is not routinely conducted, and in some urban areas such information does not even exist, though signs of deteriorating air quality and health problems related to air pollution are visible. By measuring air pollutants (i.e., Nitrogen Oxides, ozone, suspended particulates matter (PM10, and trace elements e.g. lead, this study investigated air quality in Nairobi, one of the largest cities in eastern Africa and the capital of Kenya. Sampling was done once a week from February to April 2003. Hourly average concentrations of NOx and O3 were measured using a technique that is based on "chemilumiscent" reaction at a site connecting two main highways in Nairobi (University and Uhuru from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. PM10 was collected using Gent Stacked Filter Unit (SFU air sampler fitted with nucleopore filters (0.4 and 8.0 mm pore size for fine and coarse filters, respectively that were analyzed for trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF technique. An automatic vehicle counter was used for determining the vehicle density at the sampling site. Results show that most pollutants, for example, lead (0.05 1 to 1.106 g/m3, bromine (LLD to 0.43 g/m3, NO2 (0.011-0.976 ppm, NO (0.001-0.2628 ppm and O3 (LLD-0.1258 ppm are within the WHO guidelines. PM10 levels (66.66 - 444.45 g/m3 were above the WHO guidelines for most of the days, with coarse particulate accounting for more than 70%. Strong correlation (r = 0.966 between fine (0.4 m particulates, NOx, and motor vehicle density, indicate the importance of traffic as a common source for both fine particulates and NOx.

  7. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  8. Regional scale air pollution - Sources and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several independent types of information relating to the sources and effects of regional-scale air pollution are reviewed. Much of the information was obtained by in situ observations of plumes and field studies of individual pollution episodes. Attention is given to anthropogenic pollution sources in the U.S. (primarily fossil fuel combustion), rates of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ emission from such sources, ambient concentrations of sulfur compounds, the long-range transport of sulfate aerosol, and visibility trends in the eastern U.S. It is concluded that an episode of extreme haziness covering multistate regions of the eastern U.S. appeared to have been largely caused by secondary sulfate aerosol, that coal combustion and sulfate are only one factor in the production of optical effects, and that spatial and temporal aerosol trends and distributions of coal use, sulfate, light extinction, turbidity, and solar radiation exhibit reasonable internal consistency

  9. Models for human exposure to air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four models for human exposure to air pollution are discussed and compared. Simple microenvironment monitoring measures pollutant concentrations at fixed locations, regarded as proxies for similar locations or microenvironments. This model does not require pollutant measurements on the individual level, therefore is easy to implement. However, the model can be used only to estimate the average exposure in a population and does not provide any estimate of the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Replicated microenvironment monitoring provides some estimates of the variability and distribution. However, because of the possible discrepancy between the microenvironment concentration distribution and the individual concentration distribution, some adjustment might be necessary. Integrated personal monitoring allows direct estimation of the average exposure as well as the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Coupled with the appropriate time budget data, a regression analysis can be applied to estimate the contribution from each microenvironment type

  10. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease.

  11. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  12. Introduction to the DAPPLE Air Pollution Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.J.; ApSimon, H.; Colvile, R.N.; Kaur, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Wang, H. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Royal school of Mines Building, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Rd., South Kensington, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Barlow, J.; Belcher, S.; Dobre, A. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Bell, M.; Tate, J. [Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Boddy, J.W.; Smalley, R.J.; Tomlin, A.S. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Britter, R.; Neophytou, M. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington St., Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Cheng, H.; Lawton, T.; Robins, A. [EnFlo, Department of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Clark, R.; Walsh, P. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Dimitroulopoulou, S. [BRE, Environmental Engineering Centre, Garston, Watford WD25 9XX (United Kingdom); Greally, B.; Knights, A.; Makepeace, A.; Martin, D.; Nickless, G.; Price, C.; Shallcross, D.; Simmonds, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Neville, S. [Environmental Sciences, Westminster City Council House, Marylebone Rd, London, NW1 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-01

    The Dispersion of Air Pollution and its Penetration into the Local Environment (DAPPLE) project brings together a multidisciplinary research group that is undertaking field measurements, wind tunnel modelling and computer simulations in order to provide better understanding of the physical processes affecting street and neighbourhood-scale flow of air, traffic and people, and their corresponding interactions with the dispersion of pollutants at street canyon intersections. The street canyon intersection is of interest as it provides the basic case study to demonstrate most of the factors that will apply in a wide range of urban situations. The aims of this paper are to introduce the background of the DAPPLE project, the study design and methodology for data collection, some preliminary results from the first field campaign in central London (28 April-24 May 2003) and the future for this work. Updated information and contact details are available on the web site at http://www.dapple.org.uk.

  13. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  14. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

  16. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mlhave, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC) as an IAQproblem still is in the end of a phase of ad hoc solutions, in the middle of aresearch phase and only in the beginning of a regulatory phase. Any final officialregulation in this area will have to be tentative and the final regulation mustawait further research. Total volatile organic compound (TVOC) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only for sensory irritation.

  17. Personal exposure of children to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

    Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

  18. Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Bumseok; Lee, Kyuhong

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5 and PM10) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, f...

  19. Particulate air pollution and the blood

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, A.; Soutar, A; Crawford, V.; ELTON, R; McNerlan, S.; CHERRIE, J; Watt, M.; Agius, R; Stout, R.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDParticulate air pollution has been associated with excess deaths from, and increases in hospital admissions for, cardiovascular disease among older people. A study was undertaken to determine whether this may be a consequence of alterations in the blood, secondary to pulmonary inflammation caused by the action of fine particles on alveolar cells, by repeatedly measuring haematological factors in older people and relating them to measurements of exposure to airb...

  20. Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Barale, R.; Barrai, I; Sbrana, I.; L. Migliore; Marrazzini, A.; Scarcelli, V.; Bacci, E.; Di Sibio, A.; Tessa, A.; Cocchi, L.; Lubrano, V; Vassalle, C.; He, J

    1993-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigat...

  1. Health effects costs of particulate air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmirou, D; Deloraine, A; Balducci, F; Boudet, C; Dechenaux, J

    1999-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in December 1994 in three metropolitan areas of the Rhone-Alpes region in France (Lyon, Grenoble, and Chambry; total number of inhabitants = 970,000) to assess the medical costs resulting from exposure to particulate air pollution. Probability samples of the general population (508 families, 1265 subjects) and of the physicians (395) and 13 hospital respiratory care and emergency units in the study area provided data on the prevalence of respiratory disorders and on medical care usage. Measurements from air-quality monitoring networks were used to ascribe a fraction of the respiratory morbidity to the ambient air particle concentrations present during the study period, on the basis of attributable risk estimates drawn from recent meta-analyses. The medical care usage and absenteeism related to respiratory disorders were converted into direct and indirect medical and social costs by use of a "cost of illness" approach. These costs were extrapolated to annual costs of disease attributable to particulate pollution in 1994, using daily values of air pollution. The average particulate concentrations during the study period were moderate (39, 41, and 10 micrograms/m3 in the three cities), yielding attributable fractions that ranged between 0.6% and 13.8% according to the health condition and to the city. Three hundred ninety-five subjects reported respiratory symptoms (prevalence, 31.2%) during the study period; 1182 patients visited a doctor and 158 used hospital services. The extrapolated annual estimates of the attributable cost of respiratory diseases for a population of 1 million range between 79 and 135 million French francs (FF) (20th and 80th percentiles of the cost distribution, after a Monte Carlo simulation, respectively; 50th percentile, 107 x 10(6) FF [16.3 x 10(6) Euros]). Over-the counter drug consumption represents the largest cost item (approximately 44% of total costs), followed by wage losses (38%). Hospital expenditures amount to a low percentage of total costs (about 5%) because most respiratory disorders do not require hospital care. Mortality was not considered in this study. Most of these costs occur at relatively low levels of air pollution (67% of the total annual costs are incurred during days with particle concentrations lower than 50 micrograms/m3). Such substantial figures are useful for assessing the social impacts of air pollution and for evaluating the cost efficiency of abatement policies. PMID:10529940

  2. Perspectives in chronobiology of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupfel, M. (French National Inst. of Health, Paris); Halberg, F.; Mordelet-Dambrine, M.; Magnier, M.

    In a series of experiments, male and female Sprague Dawley rats, kept in light (L) from 06/sup 00/ to 18/sup 00/ alternating with darkness (LD 12:12) inhaled different concentrations of carbon monoxide (50-1700 ppM) at each of two test times, 12h apart. A decrease in flow of CO/sub 2/ (Vco/sub 2/) resulting from CO inhalation was greater in the active dark (D) than resting light (L) span. Experimental hypoxic mortality of male and female mice also shows circadian variations, being greater in the D than in the L span. Moreover, a difference of mortality was observed between hypoxic exposures performed at 12/sup 00/ (in LD or DL) and hypoxic exposures performed at 00/sup 00/ (in LD or DL). Such results await tests of any extent to which they model responses of human beings to air pollution. In human beings any external environmental circadian, circaseptan and circannual variations in air pollution as such may serve to a variable extent as socioeconomic synchronizers of innate rhythms with a corresponding frequency, rather than as solely generators of time patterns in any physiopathologic response to air pollution. 17 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Air pollution study by NAA in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research is to enhance use of a nuclear analytical technique (instrumental neutron activation analysis) in the field of air pollution studies through a feasibility study of the usefulness of a routine monitoring tool in assessing and comparing air pollution levels in the region, in order to identify critical air pollution sources. For the collection of airborne particulate matter(APM) for the fine (< 2.5 ?m EAD) and coarse particle (2.5-10 ?m EAD) fractions, the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sampler and two types of Nuclepore polycarbonate filters were employed. Samples were collected on selected sampling dates (working and non-working days) at two regions (suburban residential site and industrial complex of Taejon city in the Republic of Korea). Trace elements in the samples collected were analyzed by INAA. Variations of the concentrations of particulate matter, elements and elemental carbon were measured monthly and enrichment factors with the sampling sites were calculated. The analytical data were treated statistically to estimate the relationship between two variables, the concentrations of elements and two particulate matters. The results were used to describe the emission sources and their correlations. (author)

  4. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  5. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. PMID:26057478

  6. Air Pollution by coal. Luchtverontreiniging door steenkool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Tonkelaar, W.A.M.

    1983-02-01

    With the aid of the calculation model Air Pollution the effects on air quality are calculated when heating is changed to the firing of coal in fluidized beds or chain grates in the glass horticulture near Aalsmeer and in reference areas of 1 sq.km heated glass in Northern and Southern Holland. As an example the concentrations of BaP (benzo(a)pyrene, 3,4 benzopyrene) in the surroundings of a single plant are calculated. Although changing to coal firing in the above mentioned areas will lead to a relatively large worsening of the air quality the maximum allowable concentrations will only be exceeded slightly or locally. In the southern Netherlands the allowable concentrations for 95% and 98% sulfur dioxide will be exceeded, due to the fact that concentrations are high already. (J.C.R.)

  7. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

  8. A Prognostics Framework for Health Degradation and Air Pollution Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Fong; G. Y. Hong

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is known to cause a wide range of diseases that have led to countless cases of premature mortality. Although pollution in a massive scale is uncontrollable by individual inhabitant, the negative impact on health as a direct result on indoor air pollution can be reduced by appropriate preventive actions. Smart home technology allows ventilation to be controlled through condition-based monitoring of the air pollutant concentration in the room. This paper describes a prognostics fr...

  9. Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

  10. Air pollution related to sea transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea transportation contributes only 1-2% of world CO2 emissions. Owing to the sulphur concentration in the bunker fuels, this transportation mode represents over 4% of the world SO2 emissions. In addition, NOx emissions are likely to exceed 7% of the world emissions. SO2 emissions in the North Sea and the Channel account for 15% of the whole French emissions, NOx emissions for about 10% and CO2 emissions for about 3%. There are several potential measures to reduce the emissions of ship engines - propelling engines or generator driving engines - improvement of fuel quality, by desulphurizing and prohibiting the use of noxious additives such as PCB; use of alternative fuels; engine optimizing; exhaust gas processing; use of new propelling systems. A new organisation of world marketing of fuels with low or high sulphur levels could also be set up. The Sea Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) discussed this problem during its meeting in 1990. The 73/78 MARPOL convention provides the IMO with an international juridical tool, especially designed for the preclusion of pollution due to sea transportation. It can address the issue of air pollution which requires a concerted approach between seaside countries and the drawing up of international regulations relating to the protection of the sea world. Fuel quality is already controlled by international standards drawn up by ISO. These standards should be improved to reduce air pollution due to sea transportation

  11. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference,......

  12. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  13. Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM10), while the associations with SO2 and NO2 are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs

  14. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air... for the California SIP, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Rule 502 (New Source...

  15. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  16. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  17. Impaired visibility: the air pollution people see

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Nicole Pauly

    Almost every home and office contains a portrayal of a scenic landscape whether on a calendar, postcard, photograph, or painting. The most sought after locations boast a scenic landscape right outside their window. No matter what the scene - mountains, skyscrapers, clouds, or pastureland - clarity and vividness are essential to the image. Air pollution can degrade scenic vistas, and in extreme cases, completely obscure them. Particulate matter suspended in the air is the main cause of visibility degradation. Particulate matter affects visibility in multiple ways: obscures distant objects, drains the contrast from a scene, and discolors the sky. Visibility is an environmental quality that is valued for aesthetic reasons that are difficult to express or quantify. Human psychology and physiology are sensitive to visual input. Visibility has been monitored throughout the world but there are few places where it is a protected resource. Existing health-based regulations are weak in terms of visibility protection. Various techniques, including human observation, light transmission measurements, digital photography, and satellite imaging, are used to monitor visibility. As with air pollution, trends in visibility vary spatially and temporally. Emissions from the developing world and large scale events such as dust storms and wildfires affect visibility around much of the globe.

  18. International environmental policy and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several articles attention is paid to the title subject. Several international agreements in which plans to reduce the emission of air pollutants are formulated are discussed: the Maastricht Treaty of the European Community, The United Nations Treaty on Transfrontier Pollution. The action program KWS 2000 (Hydrocarbons 2000) in the Netherlands, which program aims at the reduction of hydrocarbon emissions, is compared with the European regulations on the reduction of volatile matter. Also a comparison is made of the Dutch emission regulation system (NeR) with similar systems in other European countries. Finally an overview is given of the development and adjustments of the Montreal Protocol and its effects on a European and national level

  19. Evaluating Hong Kong's air pollution legislation and policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ping-hei, Benny; 黃丙熙

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental problem that poses numerous health risks to those exposed to it. The adverse health effects are compounded in a place as dense as Hong Kong and further intensified due to its proximity to industrial and manufacturing plants across the border in Mainland China. Hong Kong has attempted to address the issue of air pollution through the enactment of legislation and policies such as the 1983 Air Pollution Control Ordinance and Air Quality Objectives, but so f...

  20. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention

  1. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    OpenAIRE

    SULISTIJORINI; ZAINAL ALIM MASUD; NIZAR NASRULLAH; AHMAD BEY; SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO

    2008-01-01

    Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR) and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI). Eight roadside tree species wer...

  2. Radioactive air pollution in the 9 D's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Device sets the stage for the first act, written by nuclear engineers and physicists, in which Disposal begins the action while Decay gradually closes the curtain. Displacement provides the scene for the second act, written by meteorologists, in which turbulent Dispersion prevails until Deposition (both wet and dry) brings down the curtain. Dose opens the final act, in which the nature of Damage is revealed, and Disappearance ends the play. The attention in this critique is centered on Displacement and Dispersion, their changes of character with varying time and length scales, the deterministic nature of one and the statistical nature of the other, and their relevance to radioactive air pollution. (author)

  3. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhang; Chao-Nan Qian; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex...

  4. Mortality and air pollution: lessons from statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sectional studies which attempt to link persistent geographic differences in mortality rates with air pollution are reviewed. Some early studies are mentioned and detailed results are given for seven major contemporary studies, two of which are still in the publication process. Differences among the studies are discussed with regard to statistical techniques, trends in the results over time (1959 to 1974), and interpretation and use of the results. The analysis concludes that there are far too many problems with this technique to allow causality to be firmly established, and thus the results should not be used for cost benefit or policy analysis

  5. Air pollution control and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing environmental awareness and dwindling fossil fuel reserves have led to the adoption of clean and proven energy efficient technologies. Through Ignifluid combustion process, besides ensuring efficient combustion of fuels, having diverse characteristics, formation of harmful gaseous pollutants viz. nitrous oxides and carbon dioxides, is greatly reduced. These apart, CO and hydrocarbons leaving the combustion chamber are of a low order. The paper brings to the fore the versatile features of the environment friendly Ignifluid process through performance feedback from the operating installations related to air pollution control. Ignifluid technology is the answer for retrofit for existing scores of large sized steam generating plants which are operating at a dismally low thermal efficiency thereby bulging out tons of gaseous pollutants to the landscape. By retrofitting with Ignifluid combustor besides achieving lowered gaseous emissions, due to improved thermal efficiency, energy conservation of a high order is ensured. Also, this technology is well established for burning multi fuels including industrial wastes in varying proportions with fossil/biomass fuels in the most efficient fashion. Through installation of stack gas cooler as an outfit to the Ignifluid boiler, energy conservation due to enhanced thermal efficiency and substantial reduction in generation of gaseous pollutants are ensured. Thus by improving overall plant efficiency, CO2 emission to atmosphere is drastically reduced thus abetting green house effect. Global warming is reduced by effecting reduction in gas exit temperature. Realizing this immense potential of Ignifluid system as an energy saving/pollution control device, government should give encouragement by way of granting fiscal benefits like tax concessions etc. (author). 1 fig., 6 tabs

  6. Air filtering system for ground level air pollution determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new air filtering system for a quick multifactor analysis of radionuclides in ground level air has been developed and tested in the Bulgarian National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation. The powerful unit provides considerable air flow from 2000 to 4000 m3/h according to the number of cassettes and types of filters, which is sufficient for sample preparation and suitable for rapid and effective gamma spectroscopic analysis. The reduction of the errors depends on the specific volumetric activities: to 3.6% for 4x10-3 Bq/m3 (cosmogenic 7Be) and to 19-20% for 2x10-5 Bq/m3 (technogenic 13'7Cs). Concentrations of 20 metals in the air, some of them toxic or with delayed genetic effects (Te, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Mo, Zn, Mn, Mg) were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The air filtering system can be used in early warning systems, in air pollution monitoring, in determination of transboundary release of radioactive materials, etc. (author)

  7. Degradation of air polluted by organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Mexican standard NOM-010-STPS-1994 it has been established concentrations of maximum permissible levels in workable air for styrene in the range 420-1710 mg/m3 and for xylene between 218-870 mg/m3. In this work it is studied a biological treatment (bio filtration) for air polluted by xylene and styrene where the microorganisms are adhered at synthetic fiber, these degrade to the organic compounds that across in gaseous state and they are mineralized toward CO2 and H2O. The characteristics of temperature, p H, concentration of organic compound and mineral parameters, as well as, the biomass quantity have been optimized for that bio filters efficiency were greater than those reported in other works. (Author)

  8. Air pollution injury to food plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, J.T.

    1954-01-01

    Recent research has revealed the principal toxicants responsible for air pollution damage to be the reaction products from the oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons arise from the distribution and use of petroleum products. These materials are present in concentrations sufficient to cause injury to plants only when weather conditions confine the effluents in a comparatively small volume of air. Effects on plants are recognized in visible necrosis of leaf tissue of susceptible plants, the collapse of rind on citrus fruits and the suppression of growth, with no visible necrosis, on a variety of food crops. In 1949 crop losses were estimated for leafy vegetable plants alone at about $500,000. In 1953, damage to susceptible crops was estimated at about three million dollars.

  9. Elemental bioaccumulators in air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K0-Based instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0 INAA) was used to determine the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Sb and Hg in the vascular plants Cistus salvifolius and Inula viscosa and in the lichen Parmelia sulcata. The samples were collected in the neighbourhood of industrial complexes. The elemental accumulation in the vascular plants and the lichen are compared to optimize the choice of the bioaccumulator. It is concluded that P.sulcata seems to be the best accumulator of the three species for the element studied; Cistus salvifolius is sensitive to the contents of Zn, Fe, Cr and Sb in the air; Inula viscosa seems to accumulate Fe, Sb, Co, Cr and Zn. Nevertheless, it is concluded that lichen is a good air pollution indicator, while the vascular plants are not due to the large seasonal variations found in the elemental concentrations. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ? The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ? Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ? The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ? Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

  11. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  12. An Overview of Air Pollution Problem in Megacities and City Clusters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.

    2007-05-01

    China has experienced the rapid economic growth in last twenty years. City clusters, which consist of one or several mega cities in close vicinity and many satellite cities and towns, are playing a leading role in Chinese economic growth, owing to their collective economic capacity and interdependency. However, accompanying with the economic boom, population growth and increased energy consumption, the air quality has been degrading in the past two decades. Air pollution in those areas is characterized by concurrent occurrence of high concentrations of multiple primary pollutants leading to form complex secondary pollution problem. After decades long efforts to control air pollution, both the government and scientific communities have realized that to control regional scale air pollution, regional efforts are needed. Field experiments covering the regions like Pearl River Delta region and Beijing City with surrounding areas are critical to understand the chemical and physical processes leading to the formation of regional scale air pollution. In order to formulate policy suggestions for air quality attainment during 2008 Beijing Olympic game and to propose objectives of air quality attainment in 2010 in Beijing, CAREBEIJING (Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region) was organized by Peking University in 2006 to learn current air pollution situation of the region, and to identify the transport and transformation processes that lead to the impact of the surrounding area on air quality in Beijing. Same as the purpose for understanding the chemical and physical processes happened in regional scale, the fall and summer campaigns in 2004 and 2006 were carried out in Pearl River Delta. More than 16 domestic and foreign institutions were involved in these campaigns. The background, current status, problems, and some results of these campaigns will be introduced in this presentation.

  13. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts. PMID:12854685

  14. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, Ox, SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts

  15. Study of urban air pollution in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

  16. Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Jason

    2000-04-01

    Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

  17. Urban air pollution: The global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, G. (World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland))

    Since the mid-1970s, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme, through the Global Environment Monitoring System, has been operating a worldwide network for monitoring of air quality. In 1988, information for the period 1973-1984 was analyzed to assess global and regional trends. Data are available from about 50 countries and for the air pollutants SPM, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. The data show that for SO{sub 2}, suspended particulate matter, and lead, the situation is improving in many industrialized countries because of control and prevention. Depending on the combination of control strategies, the impact on ambient levels can be significant, but ambient levels of SO{sub 2} and suspended particle matter in some urban areas still cause health concern. The strategies to reduce SO{sub 2} (and NO{sub 2}) pollution now tend to concentrate on control of acid deposition to limit ecological damage. Control efforts of automobile-related pollutants (NO{sub 2} and CO) have been less effective because many sources (e.g., every car) need to be controlled, which increases the complexity and cost of the effort. Carbon monoxide and NO{sub 2} are toxic substances that can affect human health at relatively low concentrations, and continued vigilance is required. The situation in developing countries demands continued attention. The data are scant, but nevertheless indicate deteriorating conditions. Increased efforts to evaluate the problem in more detail by improved monitoring, especially in Africa, Europe, and South America, and development of adequate protection measures for the populations exposed are urgently required.

  18. Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)

  19. THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

  20. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  1. Issue Backgrounder : Energy Efficient New Homes and Indoor Air Pollutants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-07-01

    This booklet discusses what indoor air pollution is and how it can affect your health. It describes how energy-efficient new homes can affect indoor air quality. It also describes features that can help ensure clean indoor air, and tells how to detect and control indoor pollutants commonly found in homes.

  2. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.412.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.313.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  3. Indoor Air Pollution in China:Analysis of Global Warming Contributions and Exposure to Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Alnes, Line Winther Hansen

    2008-01-01

    About 60% of the Chinese population lives in rural areas, where biomass and coal are the main sources of energy for cooking and heating. Indoor air pollution from household fuel burning is a major health concern, responsible for at least 420,000 premature deaths annually in China alone. However, less is known about the emissions of greenhouse compounds from the household sector. Therefore, this work aims to quantify the global warming contribution (GWC) from main household fuels in rural Chin...

  4. The stakes of air pollution in the field of transport

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard, R

    2003-01-01

    The main pollutants are listed for today and the future according to the progression of air quality, as measured in France and in the European Union during the 90's, to the progression of pollutant emissions of road transport in France, as calculated for the period 1970-2020, and to the progression of public concern regarding air pollution and environment. These pollutants are headed by carbon dioxide, followed by nitrogen oxides and fine particulates. The stakes in terms of technology and tr...

  5. Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wang J., Zhang X.

    2010-01-01

    Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for un...

  6. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-05-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. PMID:7656877

  7. Assessment of regional air pollution variability in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution concentrations have temporal and spatial variations depending on the prevailing weather conditions, topographic features, city building heights and locations. When the measurements of air pollutants are available at set measurement sites, the regional variability degree of air pollutants is quantified using the point cumulative semi-variogram (PCSV). This technique provides a systematic method for calculating the changes in the concentrations of air pollutants with distance from a specific site. Regional variations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and total suspended particulate (TSP) matter concentrations in Istanbul city were evaluated using the PCSV concept. The data were available from 16 different air pollution measurement stations scattered all over the city for a period from 1988 to 1994. Monthly regional variation maps were drawn in and around the city at different radii of influence. These maps provide a reference for measuring future changes of air pollution in the city. (author)

  8. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  9. Foreign experience of determining crop yield losses from air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    ??????, ????? ?????????; ??????, ????? ?????????; Marekha, Iryna Serhiivna; ???????, ???? ??????????; ???????, ???? ??????????; Diadechko, Alla Mykolaivna

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that crops can be injured by air pollutants. Air pollution is a major stress causing yield losses in California crops. Statewide monitoring indicates that ozone, the main component of air pollution, is transported from urban to agricultural areas, many of which lie within or near high-ozone regions. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/13455

  10. Relation between air pollution and allergic rhinitis in Taiwanese schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Yung-Ling; Jaakkola Jouni JK; Hwang Bing-Fang; Lin Ying-Chu; Leon Guo Yue-liang

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent findings suggest that exposure to outdoor air pollutants may increase the risk of allergic rhinitis. The results of these studies are inconsistent, but warrant further attention. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of relation between exposure to urban air pollution and the prevalence allergic rhinitis among school children. Methods We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of 32,143 Taiwanese school children. We obtained routine air-pollution ...

  11. Air Pollution ExposureA Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas Berglind; Petter Ljungman; Jette Mller; Johan Hallqvist; Fredrik Nyberg; Mrten Rosenqvist; Gran Pershagen; Tom Bellander

    2010-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 19931994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset...

  12. Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Marie S.; Jerrett, Michael; AARON J COHEN; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan Ian; Schwartz, Joel David

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of ...

  13. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Genc; Zeynep Zadeoglulari; Fuss, Stefan H.; Kursad Genc

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's dise...

  14. AIR POLLUTION FROM FOSSIL FUEL IN ARAB REGION

    OpenAIRE

    MohamedGomma Elnour; Hala Abbas Laz

    2015-01-01

    The issue of air quality conditions and atmospheric pollution in the Arab Region has been addressed through consideration of the energy production and energy consumption pattern. Global, regional and local sources of air pollution in the study have been considered. Emission scenarios of many Arab countries of the region have been outli ned. It has been realized that air pollution constitutes one of the major sources...

  15. International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO)

    OpenAIRE

    WOODRUFF, Tracey J.; Parker, Jennifer D.; Kate Adams; Bell, Michelle L; Ulrike Gehring; Svetlana Glinianaia; Eun-Hee Ha; Bin Jalaludin; Rémy Slama

    2010-01-01

    Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the p...

  16. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    L. Sheppard; Burnett, R T; Szpiro, A.A.; Kim, J. Y.; Jerrett, M.; Pope, C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2011-01-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality has been investigated using cohort studies in which subjects are followed over time with respect to their vital statu...

  17. Air pollution and non-respiratory health hazards for children

    OpenAIRE

    KELISHADI, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a global health issue with serious public health implications, particularly for children. Usually respiratory effects of air pollutants are considered, but this review highlights the importance of non-respiratory health hazards. In addition to short-term effects, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with low birth weight, increase in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-commu...

  18. Gene-air pollution interaction and cardiovascular disease: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Baccarelli, Andrea; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility is likely to play a role in response to air pollution. Hence, gene-environment interactions studies can be a tool for exploring the mechanisms and the importance of the pathway in the association between air pollution and a cardiovascular outcome. In this article we present a systematic review of the studies which have examined geneenvironment interactions in relation to the cardiovascular health effects of air pollutants. We identified 16 papers meeting our search cri...

  19. Disparities in exposure to air pollution during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Tracey J.; Parker, Jennifer D; Kyle, Amy D.; Schoendorf, Kenneth C.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research shows poorer birth outcomes for racial and ethnic minorities and for persons with low socioeconomic status (SES). We evaluated whether mothers in groups at higher risk for poor birth outcomes live in areas of higher air pollution and whether higher exposure to air pollution contributes to poor birth outcomes. An index representing long-term exposure to criteria air pollutants was matched with birth certificate data at the county level for the United States in 1998-1999. We u...

  20. Outdoor air pollutants and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser, Zeina

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is increasingly considered as a serious risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). High levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) constitute the greatest international air pollution threat. The purpose of this thesis is to broaden our knowledge regarding the relationship between outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in the Middle Eastern countries, specifically in Lebanon. Moreover, we aimed to develop a scale as CVD screening tool among the Lebanese pop...

  1. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  2. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  3. Monitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ?50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan, SA; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the ma...

  5. The effects of air pollution on the health of children

    OpenAIRE

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-01-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence.

  6. Control Theory Using in the Air Pollution Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Junhao Hu; Zhenyu Lu; Tingya Yang

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, air pollution control has caused great concern. This paper focuses on the primary pollutant SO2 in the atmosphere for analysis and control. Two indicators are introduced, which are the concentration of SO2 in the emissions (PSO2) and the concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere (ASO2). If the ASO2 is higher than the certain threshold, then this shows that the air is polluted. According to the uncertainty of the air pollution control systems model, H∞ control theory for the air ...

  7. "Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health"

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Rizwan; Baridalyne Nongkynrih; Sanjeev Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the ma...

  8. Air quality interventions and spatial dynamics of air pollution in Delhi and its surroundings

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Naresh; Foster, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the spatial distribution of air pollution in response to recent air quality regulations in Delhi, India. Air pollution was monitored at 113 sites spread across Delhi and its surrounding areas from JulyDecember 2003. From the analysis of these data three important findings emerge. First, air pollution levels in Delhi and its surroundings were significantly higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Second, air quality regulations in the city advers...

  9. Effects of air pollution on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.D.

    1961-01-01

    There are three principal air pollutants of major interest to agriculture - viz., sulfur dioxide, fluorine compounds, and smog. The last is a complex mixture, only partially understood at this time. There are at least two distinct types of smog, with many intermediate grades: the London type, which is a mixture of coal smoke and fog with enough sulfur dioxide to impart reducing properties to the mixture; and the highly oxidizing Los Angeles type, which usually contains neither coalsmoke nor fog, but rather is a mixture of ozone and peroxidized organic compounds formed by photochemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and innocuous organic compounds formed by photochemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and innocuous organic compounds such as gasoline vapors or partially burned fuel. In addition to the two types of smog, certain organic compounds, such as ethylene, DDT, and some heterocyclic bases, are known to have powerful phytotoxicity and have done considerable plant damage in some locations. 129 references.

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts, and content of mobile heavy metals. The volume of APC residue is presently increasing due to the increased focus on utilization of renewable energy sources, and thus occupation of new wasteto-energy plants. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions, however, most commercial solutions are concerned with deposition; e.g. in abandoned mines. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. Some main challenges are the extremely high soluble fraction together with the fact that many of the toxic elements are encapsulated in the particles rather than adsorbed to their surface.

  11. Lichens as integrating air pollution monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioindication using epiphytic lichens has developed rapidly in the last decades. Both mapping of lichen vegetation and multielement analysis of Hypogymnia physodes collected on a national scale were used. A simple method based on the assessment of the cover and frequency of crustose, foliose and fruticose lichens on different tree species was performed in 1991 and 1995 and the so-called Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) was calculated, providing a picture of the general air quality in the country. However, by analysis of lichen material using k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis detailed information about its composition and levels of pollutants was obtained. In the present work an attempt to combine the IAP results with the quantitative levels of certain trace elements together with available results for SO2 in the atmosphere using multivariate statistical methods is presented and discussed. (author)

  12. The DMU-ATMI THOR Air Pollution Forecast System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Berkowicz, R.; Palmgren, F.

    A new operational air pollution forecast system, THOR, has been developed at the National Environmental Research Institute, Den-mark. The integrated system consists of a series of different air pollu-tion models, which cover a wide range of scales (from European scale to street scale in cities) and...... applications. The goal of the system is, on continuous basis, to produce 3 days air pollution forecasts of the most important air pollution species on different scales. Furthermore, the system will be an integrated part of the national urban and rural monitoring programmes and will be used for emission...... reduction scenarios supporting decision-makers. Currently, the THOR system consists of a numerical weather forecast model, ETA, a long-range air pollution chemistry-transport model, DEOM, an urban background model, BUM, and an operational street pollution model, OSPM. The ETA model is initialized with...

  13. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review. PMID:26134027

  14. Urban air pollution control in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

  15. Air pollution and risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot study among other things was intended to establish and to test a suitable sampling instrument, to develop quantification concepts in order to derive from the large amount of detailed sets of data the appropriate exposure measures, and to determine the distribution pattern of the main risk factors. The approach chosen for epidemiological screening was a case-control study covering a total each of 194 lung cancer cases, hospital controls, and population controls drawn in the Lands of North Rhine-Westfalia and northern Germany. This case-control approach proved to be feasible in principle. In particular, the sampling instrument for description of the risk factors 'occupation', 'smoker', and 'air pollution' proved to be suitable in combination with data in other potential influencing factors. The concepts chosen for a quantification of these factors yielded exposure measures appropriately reducing the large dimension of data of the questionnaire, without however completely exploiting it. The data ascertained within the framework of the pilot study allow to make a risk assessment for only two factors, namely 'smoker' and 'occupation'. For the index of the overall occupational exposure, covering contributions from exposure to asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chronium, PAH, and radionuclides, a relative risk of 1.8 was determined. The study indicated that there is a link between occupational exposure to asbestos or PAH, and the occurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilot study did not give an answer to the question of whether air pollution contributes to the formation of bronchial carcinoma. This question will have to be solved by a more extensive study. (orig./MG)

  16. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  17. Cadastre of air polluters for city of Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a review of the condition with harmful articles emission in the air from industrial, energetic and communal emitters on the area of city Skopje is presented. The results of researches taken in the period 1994-1996, as a second phase of the project: 'Cadastre of air polluters and map of air pollution of Republic of Macedonia' are given. The level of data processing represents a base for prognosis of expected air pollution of city of Skopje, with what a possibility of air quality control will be provided. (author)

  18. Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J., Zhang X.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for unadapted and adapted persons according to logarithmic index evaluation method, combined with percentage of dissatisfaction and joint effect of indoor air pollution caused by these two kinds of sources.

  19. What Health-Related Information Flows through You Every Day? A Content Analysis of Microblog Messages on Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the information about haze, a term used in China to describe the air pollution problem, is portrayed on Chinese social media by different types of organizations using the theoretical framework of the health belief model (HBM). Design/methodology/approach: A content analysis was conducted

  20. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process, Lesser Quantity...

  1. 76 FR 71886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental... Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products,'' amended October 28, 2010. (E) Placer County Air Pollution...

  2. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and...

  3. 76 FR 67366 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental...) Placer County Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule 231, ``Industrial, Institutional and...

  4. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast...

  5. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes and...

  6. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA...

  7. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

  8. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

  9. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003–2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0–2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days’ exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0–15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. - Highlights: • The cumulative effects of API on mortality over lag 0–15 days remained significant. • The indices for three specific pollutants had similar associations with mortality. • The effects of API were modified by age, gender and educational attainment. • Our findings can help to communicate health risks of air pollution to the public. - The Air Pollution Index communicates health risks of air pollution

  10. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  11. QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

  12. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  13. Air pollution with gaseous emissions and methods for their removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information concerning gaseous pollutants generated in the atmosphere, as a result of fuel incineration processes in thermal power and industrial plants, was summarized. The main methods and technologies for flue gases purification from the most ecologically hazardous pollutants are comparatively discussed. Keywords: gaseous pollutants, aerosols, flue gas purification systems and technologies, air ecology control

  14. Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

    1987-06-01

    100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

  15. Prospective Study of Particulate Air Pollution Exposures, Subclinical Atherosclerosis, and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Joel D.; Adar, Sara D; Allen, Ryan W.; Barr, R. Graham; Budoff, Matthew J; BURKE, GREGORY L.; Casillas, Adrian M.; Cohen, Martin A.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Daviglus, Martha L; Roux, Ana V. Diez; JACOBS, DAVID R.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Larson, Timothy V; Liu, Sally Lee-Jane

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) was initiated in 2004 to investigate the relation between individual-level estimates of long-term air pollution exposure and the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MESA Air builds on a multicenter, community-based US study of CVD, supplementing that study with additional participants, outcome measurements, and state-of-the-art air pollution exposure assessments of ...

  16. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Congenital Anomalies in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Schembari, Anna; Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen; Salvador, Joaquin; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Basagaa, Xavier; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A recent meta-analysis suggested evidence for an effect of exposure to ambient air pollutants on risk of certain congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the effects of traffic-related air pollutants with sufficient spatial accuracy.

  17. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  18. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission

  19. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  20. The contribution of air pollution to heritage management policy strategies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdck, Milo; Slkov, Zuzana

    Paris : ADEME, 2007. s. 16-17 [Joint workshop of the EU project Cult-Strat - The protection of cultural heritage from air pollution. 15.03.2007-16.03.2007, Paris /Louvre Palace/] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : architectural heritage * air pollution * conservation strategy Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  1. Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Manny

    Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at

  2. COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

  3. Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S; Ketzel, Matthias; Stage, Melene; Scheike, T; Hermansen, M N; Bisgaard, Hans

    2008-01-01

    There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma.

  4. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. PMID:26156317

  5. Air pollution and daily mortality in Inchon, Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y C; Leem, J. H.; Ha, E H

    1999-01-01

    The association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 1-year period (January 1995 to December 1995) in Inchon, Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality. Concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particles (PM10), and gaseous pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, were measured daily during the stu...

  6. Effects of air pollutants on acute stroke mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yun-Chul; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ho; Ha, Eun-Hee; Schwartz, Joel; Christiani, David C

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between stroke and air pollution has not been adequately studied. We conducted a time-series study to examine the evidence of an association between air pollutants and stroke over 4 years (January 1995-December 1998) in Seoul, Korea. We used a generalized additive model to regress daily stroke death counts for each pollutant, controlling for seasonal and long-term trends and meteorologic influences, such as temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. We observed ...

  7. Electric vehicle and conventional vehicle. Urban air pollution assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Andreia; Silva, Lgia Torres; Rodrigues, Daniel Souto, ed. lit.; Ramos, Rui A. R., ed. lit.

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic is the main source of air pollutant emissions in urban areas. Pollutant emissions can be evaluated and calculated using mathematical models based on the characteristics of traffic flowing in roads. This article aims to assess the air pollution produced by a fleet of vehicles with conventional (diesel and petrol) and electrical (hybrid and electric) motorization, in the city centre of Braga. The scientific toolbox adopted to develop the studies includes emission models to es...

  8. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Defects in Brisbane, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Craig A.; Barnett, Adrian G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Morgan, Geoffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Birth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or palate among births in Brisbane, Australia (1998–2004). Methods Ambient air pollution levels were averaged over weeks 3–8 of pregnancy amo...

  9. Monitoring and Controlling of Air Pollution Using Intelligent Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Anil.H.Sonune; S.M.Hambarde

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on implementation of Environmental air pollution monitoring and controlling system. First, the air pollution monitoring system contains sensors to monitor the interested pollution parameter in environment. Second, wireless communication modules for monitoring system were developed using wireless sensor networks technologies based on ZigBee network. And then a performance of modules was estimated in the real-fields. Finally, integrated wireless sensor...

  10. 12 - Mortality, Temperature and Air Pollution in Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    MUGGEO, VITO; Lovison, Gianfranco

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how short-term effects of air pollution can depend on temperature in studying daily deaths in Palermo, Italy. The influence of both temperature and air pollution on mortality has been proved in several studies, but their synergic effect, although suggested by someone, has never been explicitly modelled. The results, concerning mortality for all natural causes and for cardiovascular diseases, suggest a greater effect of some pollutant in hotter days. Also a sig...

  11. Air Pollution ExposureA Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Berglind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 19931994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

  12. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    OpenAIRE

    De Giovanni, Marina; Curci, Gabriele; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (...

  13. Adverse respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentayeb, M; Simoni, M; Baiz, N; Norback, D; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Viegi, G; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2012-09-01

    Compared to the rest of the population, the elderly are potentially highly susceptible to the effects of outdoor air pollution due to normal and pathological ageing. The purpose of the present review was to gather data on the effects on respiratory health of outdoor air pollution in the elderly, on whom data are scarce. These show statistically significant short-term and chronic adverse effects of various outdoor air pollutants on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the elderly. When exposed to air pollution, the elderly experience more hospital admissions for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and higher COPD mortality than others. Previous studies also indicate that research on the health effects of air pollution in the elderly has been affected by methodological problems in terms of exposure and health effect assessments. Few pollutants have been considered, and exposure assessment has been based mostly on background air pollution and more rarely on objective measurements and modelling. Significant progress needs to be made through the development of 'hybrid' models utilising the strengths of information on exposure in various environments to several air pollutants, coupled with daily activity exposure patterns. Investigations of chronic effects of air pollution and of multi-pollutant mixtures are needed to better understand the role of air pollution in the elderly. Lastly, smoking, occupation, comorbidities, treatment and the neighbourhood context should be considered as confounders or modifiers of such a role. In this context, the underlying biological, physiological and toxicological mechanisms need to be explored to better understand the phenomenon through a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:22871325

  14. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air......

  15. Comparison between polluted and clean air masses over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean and polluted air masses, advected over Lake Michigan, were studied using instrumental aircraft during the summers of 1976 and 1978. The results show that regardless of the degree of pollution, the particle size distribution is bimodal. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and trace metals in a clean air mass are more than an order of magnitude lower than those in polluted air masses. Furthermore, these concentrations are comparable with those measured in remote areas of the world. In clean air the ratio of the total light scattering to Rayleigh scattering is very close to one, indicating very low concentrations of particulates in the optically active size classes

  16. A GIS approach to modelling traffic related air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Susan

    1998-01-01

    There is increased concern regarding the effect of traffic related pollution on public heath. As the number of vehicles on the roads continues to rise, it is becoming increasingly more important to identify areas where the population may be at a greater risk to raised levels of pollution and areas where the implementation of policy to control and monitor levels of pollution would be beneficial. Traditionally, levels of air pollution have been established through dispersion mo...

  17. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring...

  18. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particu...

  19. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  20. Air pollution: An environmental factor contributing to intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, Leigh A; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Wine, Eytan

    2011-08-01

    The health impacts of air pollution have received much attention and have recently been subject to extensive study. Exposure to air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) has been linked to lung and cardiovascular disease and increases in both hospital admissions and mortality. However, little attention has been given to the effects of air pollution on the intestine. The recent discovery of genes linked to susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) explains only a fraction of the hereditary variance for these diseases. This, together with evidence of increases in incidence of IBD in the past few decades of enhanced industrialization, suggests that environmental factors could contribute to disease pathogenesis. Despite this, little research has examined the potential contribution of air pollution and its components to intestinal disease. Exposure of the bowel to air pollutants occurs via mucociliary clearance of PM from the lungs as well as ingestion via food and water sources. Gaseous pollutants may also induce systemic effects. Plausible mechanisms mediating the effects of air pollutants on the bowel could include direct effects on epithelial cells, systemic inflammation and immune activation, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Although there is limited epidemiologic evidence to confirm this, we suggest that a link between air pollution and intestinal disease exists and warrants further study. This link may explain, at least in part, how environmental factors impact on IBD epidemiology and disease pathogenesis. PMID:21683297

  1. A technical overview of air pollution problems and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution is a well known phenomenon experienced in every day life. The air we breathe consist of gases and aerosol particles on which pollutants such as toxic elements and bacteria reside. These microscopic particles are transported to long distances from the source of origin the direction and magnitude of which depends upon the prevailing meteorological conditions. In order to assess the impact of air pollution, systematic studies are carried out which consist of: 1) sampling of air, 2) measurement of pollutants, 3) identification of pollutant source and 4) adoption of control methods. Each of these topics are fairly exhaustive and their understanding requires accurate scientific approach. An overview of these topic has been presented in this talk. Air samples are best collected by filtering air through suitable medium and analyses are carried out by diverse analytical techniques. Source identifications is a very important step which is done either by emission modeling or receptor modeling techniques. A general survey of these techniques, especially receptor modeling is presented in this talk. The control of air pollution is carried out by using carried devices and the processes especially developed for this purpose. Air pollution has given rise to a number of global problems such as depletion of stratospheric ozone, acid rain and greenhouse effect, which are being tackled on international scale. These problems have been discussed very briefly and a summary of international efforts has been presented. (author)

  2. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana J.; Beelen, Rob; Samoli, Evangelia; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Fischer, Poul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Brunekreef, Bert; Xun, Wei W.; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Sommer, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Modig, Lars; Oudin, Anna; Oftedal, Bente; Schwarze, Per E.; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L.; stenson, Claes-Gren; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pershagen, Gren; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Srensen, Mette; Tjnneland, Anna; Ellermann, Thomas; Eeftens, Marloes; Peeters, Petra H.; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Key, Timothy J.; de Hoegh, Kees; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Vilier, Alice; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miran; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  3. Severe ozone air pollution in the Persian Gulf region

    OpenAIRE

    Lelieveld, J; Hoor, P.; P. Jckel; Pozzer, A; Hadjinicolaou, P.; J.-P. Cammas

    2008-01-01

    Recently it was discovered that over the Middle East during summer ozone mixing ratios can reach a pronounced maximum in the middle troposphere. Here we extend the analysis to the surface and show that especially in the Persian Gulf region conditions are highly favorable for ozone air pollution. Model results indicate that the region is a hot spot of photo-smog where air quality standards are violated throughout the year. Long-distance transports of air pollution from Europe, the Middle East,...

  4. Public attitudes to air pollution from road vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ian D.

    1994-01-01

    An assessment of the environmental effects of any new road scheme is currently recommended by the Department of Transport, but the existing appraisal does not include an evaluation of public nuisance from vehicle-derived air pollution. This research project has investigated the subjective nuisance effects of air pollution from road traffic on the public through the simultaneous measurement of public attitudes towards vehicle-generated nuisance and air quality in residential and commercial are...

  5. Ozone as air pollutant; Ozon als Luftschadstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, N. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Ozone is a natural component in the air. However, its concentration is increased due to anthropogenic activities. Being a strong oxidant of low water solubility, ozone can penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract where it acts as an irritant. Increased concentrations of ozone result in impaired lung function values, in an increase in asthma attacks, and presumably in hospital admissions due to respiratory effects, too. Associations with increased daily mortality as well as with carcinogenicity and premature ageing of the lungs are under discussion. Groups at special risk are all persons exercising or working outdoors with increased ventilation; old persons don't seem to be a risk group. Ozone concentrations often exceed health-related guideline values. Legally binding limit values are problematic in the case of secondary pollutants like ozone. (orig.) [German] Ozon ist ein natuerlicher Bestandteil der Luft, dessen Konzentration durch anthropogene Aktivitaeten deutlich erhoeht ist. Als starkes Oxidationsmittel reizt es die Atemwege, in die es wegen seiner geringen Wasserloeslichkeit tief eindringen kann. Erhoehte Ozon-Konzentrationen fuehren zu einer Verschlechterung der Lungenfunktionswerte und zu einer Zunahme von Asthmaanfaellen und vermutlich auch von Krankenhausaufnahmen wegen Atemwegserkrankungen. Ob auch die taegliche Mortalitaet bei hohen Ozonbelastungen ansteigt, ist umstritten, ebenso wie eine moegliche krebserzeugende Wirkung und ein 'vorzeitiges Altern' der Lunge. Als Risikogruppen koennen alle Personen gelten, die ueber laengere Zeitraeume koerperlich anstrengende Taetigkeiten im Freien ausueben, Senioren gehoeren nicht dazu. Gesundheitsbezogene Richtlinie fuer Ozon werden haeufig ueberschritten. Rechtsverbindliche Grenzwerte sind fuer sekundaere Schadstoffe wie Ozon problematisch. (orig.)

  6. Air pollutants targeted by radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemists at the Commerce Department's National Bureau of Standards (NBS) are answering questions about where certain atmospheric contaminants originate by refining a method best known for determining the age of archeological objects. Called radiocarbon dating, the method allows NBS scientists to examine air samples and determine whether contaminants come from naturally occurring or manmade sources-or a combination of the two. Making these distinctions is important to federal and state environmental agencies, which identify industrial sources of pollution for regulatory action. An overbalance of atmospheric carbon can cause a number of environmental problems. In methane's case, high levels are of concern to environmental agencies because of greenhouse properties. Methane also has been implicated as a possible contributor to changes in the ozone layer that protects the Earth from excessive ultraviolet light. Levels of methane have been increasing at an annual rate of about one percent over the last decade. This has caused concern in the environmental community, which hopes to determine just where the elevated levels are coming from. The NBS research is aimed at definitively pinpointing sources of methane and other atmospheric contaminants

  7. The Experience to Abate Air Pollution : What Lessons can Beijing, China Draw from Developed Countries When Trying to Reduce Emissions?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, China is facing a challenge of sustainable development. The worsening air quality and increasing haze days in Beijing and many other cities in China have exerted serious health impacts and an economic toll. Pollution control and emission reduction have become an urgent issue that Chinese governments need to tackle. Hence, stricter Environmental laws and Clean Air Plans have been published and implemented in recent years in China. The developed countries had experienced the similar ...

  8. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

  9. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko Dimitrov

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  10. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  11. Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Stafoggia, Massimo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Xun, Wei W; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Brunekreef, Bert; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wolf, Kathrin; Samoli, Evangelia; Houthuijs, Danny; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Salomaa, Veikko; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Oftedal, Bente; Aamodt, Geir; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pyko, Andrei; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tjønneland, Anne; Becker, Thomas; Eeftens, Marloes; Bots, Michiel; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Sugiri, Dorothea; Krämer, Ursula; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Timothy; Peters, Annette; Cyrys, Josef; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dratva, Julia; Ducret-Stich, Regina; Vilier, Alice; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Stempfelet, Morgane; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Marcon, Alessandro; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated the...... associations of long-term exposure to several air pollutants with all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, as well as with specific cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS: Data from 22 European cohort studies were used. Using a standardized protocol, study area-specific air pollution exposure at the...... residential address was characterized as annual average concentrations of the following: nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); particles with diameters of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), less than 10 μm (PM10), and 10 μm to 2.5 μm (PMcoarse); PM2.5 absorbance estimated by land-use regression models; and traffic indicators...

  12. Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This...

  13. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  14. Impact of energy conversion procedures in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an overview on air pollution , its causes , its effects and methods of control. Pollution caused essentially by transportation sector and vehicles, different kinds of power plants (thermal power plants, cement, iron power plants, industrial power plants, natural factors as volcans), effects of electricity sectors. Pollutants (elements, CO2, CO, NO, Lead, Ozone, Chlorofluorcarbone) with sources of pollution such as fuel oil, fossil fuels and their effects are presented in tables. Monitoring data on CO2 has been implemented in some towns in Lebanon (Gieh, Zouk, Chikka, etc.) some data on pollutants and pollution due to transportation sector in Lebanon are given. Methods of air pollution control for the two sectors are presented

  15. Air Pollution in Siberia. A Volume and Risk-Weighted Analysis of a Siberian Pollution Database

    OpenAIRE

    N.K. Warner-Merl

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution from industrial centers in Siberia pose observable environmental threats. Siberian ecosystems have begun to show stress from the accumulation of pollution depositions that come from cities and industrial plants. While some uncertainty exists as to the long-term effects of air pollution upon forests, in measurable terms such as human mortality and incidence of disease, forest species decline or forest dieback, observable impacts indicate that there is a cause for concern. Industr...

  16. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  17. Review of air pollution and its health impact in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tri-Tugaswati, A

    1993-10-01

    Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Indonesia. Since 1978, the government of Indonesia has had a commitment to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide air quality data for the Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS Programme)--The WHO/UNEP Project, in which certain cities from all over the world have been selected. Air quality as part of the WHO/UNEP project is monitored with respect to pollutants like SPM, SO2 and NOx. The result of the monitoring indicates that SPM and NOx are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as O(x), H2S, NH3, and CO are also monitored in several big cities in Indonesia. The air pollution mainly comes from land transportation, industrial emissions, and a densely populated residential area where most people perform their activities. Review of the air pollution in Indonesia was based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Indonesia which covered air pollutants such as SPM, SO2, NOx, CO, O(x), and NH3 from 1978 until the latest available data in 1989. This review also discusses health impact investigations conducted in the community, especially from the exposure to SPM, CO, and lead from motor vehicle exhaust. PMID:8404780

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of air pollution in Birmingham, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, C. L.; Tanenbaum, S.; Hidy, G. M.

    2014-06-01

    Quantification of the spatial and temporal variations of outdoor air pollutant concentrations provides important information for epidemiological and other air-pollution studies, many of which have relied in the past on data from a single, centrally-located air pollution monitoring site. A method is developed for combining air pollution measurements from multiple monitors and monitoring networks to generate daily air pollution concentration fields representing spatial variations over distances of approximately 1-10 km. Meteorological and co-pollutant data are used to estimate missing site measurements, yielding more realistic concentration fields as the number of monitoring locations with available data increases. Monitoring data are interpolated with weights computed from intersite pollutant correlations, which decay with distance, so distances between interpolation points and monitoring sites are factored into the interpolation weights. The approach minimizes the influence of source-oriented sites that represent limited areas, because data from such sites exhibit low intersite correlations and yield interpolation weights that decay rapidly to zero. Interpolated values represent pollutant concentrations averaged over spatial scales that depend on intersite distances and the interpolation grid, and do not delineate sharp spatial gradients associated with roadside or near-source conditions. The approach yields quantified interpolation errors the values of which depend on measurement uncertainties, intersite distances, and the representativeness of monitoring site locations. The method is illustrated using an 11-year period of measurements of ozone, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations from Jefferson County, Alabama. The principal city is Birmingham, which is influenced by regional-scale air pollution and by local emissions from mobile sources, industrial facilities, and residential communities. Emission sources are not distributed uniformly throughout Birmingham, the ridge-and-valley topography complicates dispersion of local emissions, and monitoring data indicate that air pollutant concentrations vary spatially as well as temporally. No single monitor represents air quality across the entire study area.

  19. Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, so these policies will undoubtedly impact thermal coal supply chain member enterprises. Based on the actual situation in China, this paper figures out how the member enterprises adjust their business decisions to satisfy the requirements of air pollution prevention and control policies by establishing system dynamic models of policy impact transfer. These dynamic analyses can help coal enterprises and thermal power enterprises do strategic environmental assessments and find directions of sustainable development. Furthermore, the policy simulated results of this paper provide the Chinese government with suggestions for policy-making to make sure that the energy conservation and emission reduction policies and sustainable energy policies can work more efficiently.

  20. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic...

  1. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 7 Table 7 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  2. 76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410...Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was...

  3. 76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410...Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was...

  4. 76 FR 44809 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather...1995, EPA must prepare a budgetary impact statement to accompany...protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...Placer County Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule...

  5. 77 FR 2643 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ...Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion...1995, EPA must prepare a budgetary impact statement to accompany...protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...Placer County Air Pollution Control District (1) Rule...

  6. 75 FR 37727 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ...Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion...1995, EPA must prepare a budgetary impact statement to accompany...protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (i) Rule 400,...

  7. 76 FR 72769 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing...hazardous air pollutants for Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass...

  8. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  9. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  10. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  11. 76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  12. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No....

  13. 77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  14. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

  15. 77 FR 66429 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  16. 77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...tailored to the nature of the air pollution sources in each state. The...

  17. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No....

  18. 75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  19. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  20. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active...

  1. 76 FR 7142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...permitting requirements, for various air pollution sources. We are taking...

  2. 78 FR 21542 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District and South Coast...revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  3. 75 FR 3996 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD or...Planning, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District; letter...

  4. 76 FR 26615 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) AGENCY...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District portion of the...requirements and exemptions for various air pollution sources. We are approving...

  5. 75 FR 2079 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion... 3. B. San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District Comments...

  6. 76 FR 40660 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...0 for the following terms: Air Pollution Control Officer, Board,...

  7. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  8. 77 FR 25109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Air pollution control, Environmental...

  9. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries, and the signed rule...

  10. 75 FR 27975 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ...Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...based on maintaining a target soil moisture content and manure...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  11. 75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ...Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD...unpaved roads, disturbed soil in open areas, and power...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  12. 75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ...Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...unpaved roads, and disturbed soils in open and agricultural...San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District...

  13. 78 FR 894 - Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...unpaved roads and disturbed soils in open and agricultural...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  14. 78 FR 922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...unpaved roads and disturbed soils in open and agricultural...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  15. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement

  16. Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered, with an emphasis on those indoor air quality problems of greatest concern at present: passive exposure to tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from gas-fueled cooking stoves, formaldehyde exposure, radon daughter exposure, and the diverse health problems encountered by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The review concludes by briefly addressing assessment of indoor air quality, control technology, research needs, and clinical implications. 243 references

  17. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  18. Evaluation to the aspen for the air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspen is not often used in bio monitoring programs, but when it is, several interacting and confounding variables have to be considered. Biomass of leaves, and height changes are not easy linked with air pollution, whereas dry weight and leaf abscission are. Visible injury diagnosis and crown thinning are useful records for bio monitoring programs to consider, but skill and understanding of air pollution effects versus seasonal effects are very important. Understanding of actual air pollution symptoms and elemental ratios are especially important. Clonal response and heritability is discuses below, and has to be considered in any bio monitoring program. Above all, integration of aspen response with other key variables is key

  19. Aerosol and air pollution study by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis technique was used in air pollution and aerosol elemental content and size distribution investigations. Air pollution samples were collected on Whatman 41 paper filters which were activated along with known quantities of standards in a flux of approximately 1013 nxcm-2xs-1. The activity of the samples was measured with a 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and analyzed with the computer program JANE, which identified the isotopes and found their quantities by normalization with the standard measurement results. Correlation between the various elements, in particular those belonging to dust from the desert and those considered typical urban air pollution, is investigated. (author)

  20. Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models,a Symmetrical Air Pollution Model Index (SAPMI)has been developed to calibrate the accuracy of predictions made by such models,where the initial quantity of release at the source is not known.For exact prediction the value of SAPMI should be equal to 1.If the predicted values are overestimating then SAPMI is > 1and if it is underestimating then SAPMI is < 1.Speci?c design for the layout of receptors has been suggested as a requirement for the calibration experiments.SAPMI is applicable for all variations of symmetrical air pollution dispersion models.

  1. Air pollution mapping : relationship between satellite- made observations and air quality parameters

    OpenAIRE

    UNG, ANTHONY; Wald, Lucien; Ranchin, Thierry; Weber, Christiane; Hirsch, Jacky; Perron, Gilles; Kleinpeter, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The mapping of air quality over the city of Strasbourg and its vicinity requires an increase of the number of measurements aiming at spatializing information about air pollutants concentrations. A methodology based on a multisource approach for mapping air pollutants concentrations over the city was presented in previous communications. One step of the methodology is the estimation of pollutants concentrations by remote sensing techniques. This paper investigates the strength of linear relati...

  2. Controlled clinical studies of air pollutant exposure: evaluating scientific information in relation to air quality standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, J.D.; Linn, W S

    1983-01-01

    In controlled clinical studies, volunteers are deliberately exposed to specific air pollutants under conditions simulating ambient exposures, and health-related responses are documented. Studies of the health risks of air pollution need to be scientifically rigorous and clearly relevant to "real-world" pollution exposures. Their results should be confirmed by independent replication if they are to be used as a basis for air quality regulations. Well-designed controlled clinical studies readil...

  3. Air Pollution in Europe; Pollution de l'air en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  4. [Air pollution and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease: Epidemiologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Marianne; Giroud, Maurice; Royer, Clotilde; Benatru, Isabelle; Besancenot, Jean-Pierre; Rochette, Luc; Cottin, Yves

    2006-10-01

    Recent convergent data suggest that air pollution affects the risk of acute atherothrombotic events including both myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. The principal epidemiologic studies begun in the 1990s first examined the respiratory effects of atmospheric pollution and then focused on how pollution peaks affected cardiovascular risk. These studies used data from large metropolitan areas in North America and Asia as well as several large European cities to demonstrate the clear existence of a relation between air pollution and cardio- and cerebrovascular mortality. They also observed an increase in hospital admissions for myocardial infarctions and cerebrovascular accidents on days with high air pollution levels. The pollutants involved have not yet been clearly designated, but it appears that fine suspended particulate matter (PM2.5) and gaseous pollutants such as ozone appear to contribute strongly to these harmful effects. A complete analysis of these data shows the need for a thorough evaluation of the cardio- and cerebrovascular risks associated with air pollution, especially in French metropolitan areas. Precise identification of those at high risk from specific pollutants is essential to improve targeting of prevention strategies. PMID:17028515

  5. Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COHEN AARON J

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.

  6. Diurnal, weekly and monthly spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tang, Hongzhao; Zhao, Haimeng

    2015-10-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standard released in 2012 (NAAQS-2012), Beijing began to publicize hourly Air Quality Index as well as real time concentrations of 6 pollutants in its web platform to provide detailed information for air quality assessment from 2013. In this study, hourly air quality monitoring data from May 2014 to April 2015 were collected for all 35 monitoring stations in Beijing to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality. It is found that in spatial pattern, the air qualities in southern and northern Beijing are totally different. The association between heavy pollution concentrations and wind situations suggested that neighboring area's air quality has an important role in the air quality of Beijing combining with air quality attainment rates in all 35 monitoring stations and northern China. For temporal variations, late night and early morning are the most polluted time while afternoon is the least polluted time for all pollutants except O3 with most polluted time in afternoon. Summer time in Beijing has the best air quality while winter time has the worst air quality coinciding with the heating season in the winter.

  7. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping CHEN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  8. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  9. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  10. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  11. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  12. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  13. Measurements of environmental policy for air pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the study goes into the determination of efficient strategies for the reduction of air pollutants. The developed method is not only derived theoretically but is tested with the concrete example of emissions sources of a German state. The second part goes into the question what the government can do in order to attain that air pollution abatement measures recognized as being efficient will be put into practice. As market economy mechanisms have advantages over central state planning in the allocation of economic resources the question arises if not also for environmental protection market economy tools may contribute to an improvement of the efficiency of air pollution abatement. Therefore the suitability of different tools of environmental policy for the realization of efficient air pollution abatement is investigated and evaluated. This is again not done abstractly but with existing emission sources. (orig./HSCH). 32 figs., 12 tabs

  14. Air pollution in Aleppo city, gases,suspended particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total suspended particulates measured by using High Volume Air Sampler. The Co and O3 were measured during weekday and weekend. The concentration of all pollutants at city center are higher than other measured areas. (author). 10 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Air pollution and health effects in northern Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Omaye, S T

    2001-01-01

    The issue of adverse health effects of ambient air pollution has been extensively studied and reported worldwide over the past two decades. The urban area of Reno and Sparks in northern Nevada is one of two major urban centers in Nevada; the other is Las Vegas. The northern area, which has undergone a rapid population growth in the last decade, has special geographic characteristics and air pollution patterns. We conducted environmental epidemiological studies spanning the 1990s. This report summarizes the evidence and discusses the findings in relation to other studies. Ambient air pollution levels, even when below federal standards, have a marked potential to impact human health adversely. Air pollution was associated with (1) emergency room visits for asthma; (2) hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; (3) hospitalization for cardio-vascular disease; (4) elementary school absenteeism; and (5) low birth weight, preterm birth, and other adverse birth outcomes. PMID:11512629

  16. Investigating the Effects of Traffic on Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of bringing scientists into the classroom to collaborate with children on environmental research projects. Describes one collaborative project that focused on the effects of traffic on air pollution. (DDR)

  17. Air pollution: A threat to the health of our children.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moshammer, H.; Barto?ov, A.; Hanke, W.; Van den Hazel, P.; Koppe, J.G.; Kramer, U.; Ronchetti, R.; rm, Radim; Wallis, M.; Wallner, P.; Zuurbier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 95, - (2006), s. 93-105. ISSN 0803-5253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Air pollution * children Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2006

  18. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson's Disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni; Funch Lassen, Christina; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    -related air pollution and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a case-control study of 1,696 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients identified from Danish hospital registries and diagnosed 1996-2009 and 1,800 population controls matched by gender and year of birth we assessed long-term traffic-related air pollutant......OBJECTIVE: Very little is currently known about air pollutants' adverse effects on neurodegenerative diseases even though recent studies have linked particulate exposures to brain pathologies associated with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Here we investigate long-term exposure to traffic...... matching factors and potential confounders. RESULTS: We found ambient air pollution from traffic sources to be associated with risk of PD, with a 9% higher risk (95% CI: 3, 16.0%) per interquartile range increase (2.97 μg/m(3)) in modeled NO2. For participants living for 20 years or more in the capital...

  19. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  20. URBAN AIR POLLUTION AND PERSISTENT EARLY LIFE ASTHMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We plan to complete recruitment and the first waves of home air pollution sampling in the coming year, followed by questionnaire administration and buccal cell collection for analysis of polymorphisms.