WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Air pollution "holiday effect" resulting from the Chinese New Year  

Science.gov (United States)

Our study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Hourly and daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from thirteen air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods were used. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where air pollutant concentrations were significantly different between holidays (CNY) and non-holidays (NCNY), in the Taipei metropolitan area over the past thirteen years (1994-2006). The concentrations of NO x, CO, NMHC, SO 2 and PM 10 were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, while the variation in the concentration of O 3 was reversed, which was mainly due to the NO titration effect. Similar differences in these six air pollutants between the CNY and NCNY periods were also found in the diurnal cycle and in the interannual variation. For the diurnal cycle, a common traffic-related double-peak variation was observed in the NCNY period, but not in the CNY period. Impacts of dust storms were also observed, especially on SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period. In the 13-year period of 1994-2006, decreasing trends of NO x and CO in the NCNY period implied a possible reduction of local emissions. Increasing trends of SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period, on the other hand, indicated a possible enhancement of long-range transport. These two mechanisms weakened the holiday effect.

Tan, Pei-Hua; Chou, Chia; Liang, Jing-Yi; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Shiu, Chein-Jung

2

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

3

Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few prior cohort studies exist in developing countries examining the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) with mortality. We examined the association of particulate air pollution with mortality in a prospective cohort study of 71,431 middle-aged Chinese men. Baseline data were obtained during 1990–1991. The follow-up evaluation was completed in January, 2006. Annual average PM exposure between 1990 and 2005, including TSP and PM10, were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with residential communities. We found significant associations between PM10 and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases; each 10 ?g/m3 PM10 was associated with a 1.6% (95%CI: 0.7%, 2.6%), 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8%, 2.9%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3%, 3.2%) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For TSP, we observed significant associations only for cardiovascular morality. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of particulate air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. -- Highlights: • There have been few air pollution cohort studies in developing countries. • PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in 71,431 Chinese men. • PM was not significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. -- PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in a cohort of 71,431 Chinese men

2014-03-01

4

Short-term effect of ambient air pollution on COPD mortality in four Chinese cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambient air pollution has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity; however, few studies have examined the short-term effect of air pollution specifically on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity world wide. In this analysis, we examined the associations between daily air pollution levels [particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and COPD mortality in four Chinese cities. We used Poisson regression models with natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trends of COPD mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We did a meta-analysis to obtain the 4-city average estimates. Air pollution (PM10, SO2, and NO2) was found to be associated with increased risk of COPD mortality in these four cities. Using the random-effects model, an increase of 10 ?g m?3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 0.78% (95% CI, 0.13–1.42), 1.30% (95% CI, 0.61–1.99), and 1.78% (95% CI, 1.10–2.46) increase of COPD mortality, respectively. The concentration–response curves indicated linear associations without threshold. Only NO2 remained significant in the multi-pollutant models. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-city study in Asian developing region to report the short-term effect of air pollution on COPD mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effects of air pollution on COPD mortality for high exposure settings typical in developing countries.

Meng, Xia; Wang, Cuicui; Cao, Dachun; Wong, Chit-Ming; Kan, Haidong

2013-10-01

5

Associations between ambient air pollution and prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases in 33 Chinese communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Inconsistent results have been reported that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to examine whether the exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with the prevalence of stroke and CVDs among people living in a heavy industrial province of northeast China, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 24,845 Chinese adults, ages 18–74 years old, from 33 communities in the 11 districts of the three Northeastern Chinese Cities during 2009. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and Ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. We used two-level logistic regressions models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. We found significant associations between PM10 and SO2 levels and stroke prevalence after accounting for important covariates: the adjusted odds ratio for stroke increased by 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.30) per 19 ?g m?3 increase in PM10, and 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01–1.29) per 20 ?g m?3 increase in SO2, respectively. When stratified analysis by gender, these associations were significant only in men, but not in women. In conclusion, this study shows the association between long-term exposure to PM10 and SO2 and increased stroke prevalence, and the associations were more apparent in men than in women.

Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Wang, Jing; Chen, Weiqing; Ma, Wenjun; Trevathan, Edwin; Xaverius, Pamela K.; DeClue, Richard; Wiese, Andrew; Langston, Marvin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui

2013-10-01

6

Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China. PMID:24083613

Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

2013-11-01

7

Polluted Air = Polluted Lungs  

Science.gov (United States)

To gain a better understanding of the roles and functions of components of the human respiratory system and our need for clean air, students construct model lungs that include a diaphragm and chest cavity. They see how air moving in and out of the lungs coincides with diaphragm movement. Then student teams design and build a prototype face mask pollution filter. They use their model lungs to evaluate their prototypes to design requirements.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

8

Air pollution VII  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers in the proceedings include those on turbulence modelling at small and meso scales; pollution engineering; pollution management; urban and suburban transport emissions; urban air pollution; emission inventories and modelling; health problems; indoor pollution; fluid mechanics for environmental problems; monitoring and field studies; chemistry of air pollution; air pollution modelling; aerosols and particles; air pollution meteorology. Selected papers have been abstracted separately.

Brebbia, C.A.; Jacobsen, M.; Power, H. [eds.

1999-07-01

9

Air Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

Barker, K.; And Others

10

Air pollution VII. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains over 100 contributions from the Seventh International Air Pollution Conference, held in July 1999. Bringing together recent results from state-of-the-art research projects world-wide, the goal of this meeting was to increase public awareness of air pollution issues and lay the groundwork for further investigations. Topics discussed include turbulence modelling at small and meso scales, pollution engineering, pollution management, urban and suburban transport emissions, urban air pollution, emission inventories and modelling, health problems, indoor pollution, fluid mechanics for environmental problems, monitoring and field studies, chemistry of air pollution, air pollution modelling, aerosols and particles, and air pollution meteorology. (Author)

Brebbia, C.A.; Power, H. [Wessex Inst. of Technology, Southampton (United Kingdom); Jacobson, M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (US)] [eds.

1999-07-01

11

Indoor Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

12

Bibliography on indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography on Indoor Air Pollution highlights Sources of Indoor Air Pollution, Factors Contributing to Indoor Air Pollution, the Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollution, and Measures to Mitigate Indoor Air Pollution.

1985-06-01

13

Fundamentals of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Second Edition, a textbook for undergraduate and graduate level courses in air pollution, covers elements, sources, effects, measurement, monitoring, meteorology, and regulatory and engineering control of air pollution. Existing knowledge of these topics are reviewed and the book is updated to include acidic deposition, long-distance transport, atmospheric chemistry, and mathematical modeling. The authors discuss current air pollution standards, such as air quality and new source performance.

Stern, A.C.; Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, B.

1984-05-01

14

Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses, we focused on characterizing the VOC composition of these different pollution plumes. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HCFC-134a.

Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some of the Chinese plumes, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution in the Chinese pollution plumes and the correlations among selected compounds, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than the use of a single gas, to be used as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

B. Barletta

2009-03-01

15

Air pollution. An introduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a comprehensive survey of all the main air pollution issues, it is recommended for undergraduate and postgraduate level courses specialising in air pollution, whether from an environmental science or an engineering perspective. It will also be of interest to air pollution specialists in consultancies and local authorities. (author)

Colls, J. [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

1996-07-01

16

Air Pollution Training Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

17

Air pollution in cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air quality in cities is the result of a complex interaction between natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem - especially in the developing countries. The air pollution path of the urban atmosphere consists of emission and transmission of air pollutants resulting in the ambient air pollution. Each part of the path is influenced by different factors. Emissions from motor traffic are a very important source group throughout the world. During transmission, air pollutants are dispersed, diluted and subjected to photochemical reactions. Ambient air pollution shows temporal and spatial variability. As an example of the temporal variability of urban air pollutants caused by motor traffic, typical average annual, weekly and diurnal cycles of NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and O{sub x} are presented for an official urban air-quality station in Stuttgart, southern Germany. They are supplemented by weekly and diurnal cycles of selected percentile values of NO, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3}. Time series of these air pollutants give information on their trends. Results are discussed with regard to air pollution conditions in other cities. Possibilities for the assessment of air pollution in cities are shown. In addition, a qualitative overview of the air quality of the world's megacities is given. (author)

Mayer, H. [University of Freiburg (Germany). Meteorological Institute

1999-10-01

18

Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses we characterized their VOC composition and we compared their background levels with those obtained during the 2004 INTEX-A mission. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HFC-134a.

Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some Chinese plume samples, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution and correlations within the Chinese pollution plumes and applying principal component analysis (PCA, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than a single gas, as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

A. J. Weinheimer

2009-07-01

19

Air pollution and society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

Brimblecombe P.

2010-12-01

20

Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

 
 
 
 
21

Handbook of air pollution analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low cost methods of air pollution analysis are addressed in this book. Other topics covered include the following: general sampling techniques; air pollution meteorology; air pollution chemistry; analysis of particulate pollutants; metal analysis; nitrogen and sulphur compounds; secondary pollutants; hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide; halogen compounds; remote monitoring techniques; physico-chemical speciation techniques for atmospheric particles; analysis of precipitation; low-cost methods for air pollution analysis; planning and execution of an air pollution study; and quality assurance in air pollution monitoring.

Harrison, R.M.; Perry, R.

1986-01-01

22

Air pollution meteorology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

2002-01-01

23

Air pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book presents theory and application data as related to air pollution control. A suitable background is provided relevant to behavior theories and control techniques for capturing gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The significant application data available are summarized and combined with the theories to provide a needed relation between the two. Numerous detailed example problems are worked throughout the book to serve as guides in the use of both the theoretical relationships and the data. General information on air pollution control is presented, with emphasis on what can be done to minimize pollution emissions while conserving energy. Problem areas of interest include particulate and gas control mechanisms, control devices, and control systems

1979-01-01

24

Air Pollution and Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

25

Air pollution - monitoring particulates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clean air is an essential requirement for the health and well being of both the human race and the environment we live in, but achieving it is a constant battle with air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, more than two million premature deaths each year can be attributed to the effects of urban outdoor and indoor air pollution. An effective monitoring strategy allows the impact from particulates to be assessed and controlled. 5 refs.

Noakes, G. [Casella Measurement (United Kingdom)

2010-01-15

26

Air Pollution and Epigenetics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is a global problem with far-reaching environmental impacts. Exposure has been linked to a number of different adverse health effects. Understanding the impact of ambient air pollution is complicated given the diversity of both the pollutants involved as well as the complexity of associated diseases. While we see a positive correlation between levels of exposure and health issues, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are still under investigation. The study of epigenetic regulation as it relates to disease is emerging as an exciting new way to interpret the possible effects of ambient air pollution on DNA. In this review we provide an overview of epigenetic modifications as well as an analysis of how epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the adverse effects associated with the most common components of ambient air pollution.

Aleena Syed

2013-07-01

27

UK Air Pollution Bulletin  

Science.gov (United States)

Hourly updates of levels of benzyne, 1-3 butadiene, ozone, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles in Britain's air are accessible at the UK Air Pollution Bulletin Website. Provided by the United Kingdom Department of Transport, Environment and the Regions, this site gives air quality information along with yearly average concentrations of the above-mentioned chemicals, graphical summaries, historical summaries, and maps and information about monitoring sites. The data pages are arranged in a versatile way so that users can view information by geographic site, pollutant, or year. Daily, weekly, and annual summaries of pollutant concentrations are available.

28

Indoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

1985-01-01

29

Indoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

2004-06-07

30

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

2007-01-01

31

Air pollution V  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical and chemical processes that take place during an air pollution episode are, nowadays, better understood. The modelling of these processes continues to grow and great success has been achieved on the development of efficient and economical monitoring devices. This volume presents and discusses advances on monitoring, modelling, management and understanding of air pollution problems. Particular attention is given to new developments in computational and experimental techniques, as well as to health problems. (author)

Power, H.; Brebbia, C.A. [eds.] [Wessex Institute of Technology Southampton (United Kingdom); Tirabassi, T. [ed.] [Istituto per lo Studio dei Fenomeni Fisici e Chimici della Bassa ed Alta Atmosfera (C.N.R.), Bologna (Italy)

1997-12-31

32

Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj?=?0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj?=?0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj?=?0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj?=?0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj?=?0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj?=?0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H.; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

2014-01-01

33

Air Pollution: What's the Solution?  

Science.gov (United States)

Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

2010-01-01

34

Air pollution and family health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution is classified according to chemical characteristics of the pollutants and sources: reducing air pollution, photochemical air pollution, point-source emission and indoor air pollution. The primary pollutants are particulates, oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, ozone, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and lead. A knowledge of the effects of these on healthy people and impaired patients can provide the physician with specific measures to apply in individual cases.

Guidotti, T.L.; Goldsmith, J.R.

1983-04-01

35

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

Ahmet Soysal

2007-06-01

36

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

Ahmet Soysal

2007-06-01

37

Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO2 concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone

2006-10-01

38

Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO{sub 2} concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone.

Zhou Zheng [Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Jin Yinlong [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Liu Fan [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Cheng Yibin [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Liu Jiang [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Kang Jiaqi [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); He Gongli [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Tang Ning [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Chen Xun [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Baris, Enis [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Ezzati, Majid [Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

2006-10-01

39

Air pollution control process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An air pollution control process employing an improved rotatable collector, which by its position becomes a filtering and adsorbing station and a combustion and desorbing station, and an oxidizer are utilized in an apparatus and process for removing airborne particulate materials and organic vapors from an air stream. The rotatable collector comprises an assembly of alternate layers of refractory microfiber, metal screens, and a thin layer of adsorbent carbon.

Foss, G.D.

1983-11-15

40

Concept of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) is intended to help environmental science students connect the real-world problem of air pollution to the application of math, science, technical and critical thinking knowledge and skill concepts. The activity should take about 90 minutes of class time to complete, and requires a few easily obtainable materials. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

2011-03-11

 
 
 
 
41

Changing air pollution in London  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the changing character of London air pollution over approximately the last thirty years. The killer smogs of earlier years have disappeared, only to be replaced by other pollutants. Levels of sulfur dioxide, smoke, and lead have been reduced, but nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels have increased. The emphasis for air pollution control is now on motor vehicles, particularly automobiles, which are now the main source of air pollution in London

1993-06-01

42

Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

1994-12-31

43

The Federal Air Pollution Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

44

Air pollution estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global and limited area pollutant transport models based on the 3-D transport diffusion equation are considered provided that the air velocity field is known. As a first approximation, climatic monthly mean velocities are taken, though more precise velocity field can be obtained with a special dynamic model. The problem of pollutant flows through the open horizontal and vertical boundaries is discussed. Different boundary conditions are set at the {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} parts of such boundaries in order to get the well-posed problems according to Hadamard when either solution is unique and stable to initial perturbations. In the non-diffusion limit, these conditions are reduced to the well-known ones for the pure advection problem, when the only {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} boundary conditions are to be set, while the {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} conditions are not prescribed, and determined by the characteristics method.

Skiba, Y.N.

1997-12-31

45

Outdoor air pollution and asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R

2014-05-01

46

China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

2014-02-01

47

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is one of the environmental problems that threaten the public health. The air is a gas mixture. Air pollution is defined as the existence in the amount of pollutants harmful to humans and other organisms in the atmosphere as a result of the natural or human activity thereby changing to the gas rates in the air. The negative effects of pollution-causing particles on the health are closely related to the chemical structure of particles, whether causing a fibrotic reaction, whether...

2011-01-01

48

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed

Wei Zhang

2014-04-01

49

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed.

Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

2014-01-01

50

ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

51

Air pollution in the United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book gives a brief but authoritative and up-to-date overview of air pollution in the UK. It describes the major air pollution problems facing the country, illustrated in part with data provided by the national monitoring network. Chapters are entitled: indoor air pollution; urban air pollution in the United Kingdom; rural air pollution in the United Kingdom; global air pollution problems - present and future; the health effects of air pollution in the United Kingdom; current and future legislation - United Kingdom and Europe; developments in air pollution measurement techniques; quality assurance and quality control of ambient air quality; subject index.

Hewett, C.N.; Davison, G. [eds.] [Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

52

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the environmental problems that threaten the public health. The air is a gas mixture. Air pollution is defined as the existence in the amount of pollutants harmful to humans and other organisms in the atmosphere as a result of the natural or human activity thereby changing to the gas rates in the air. The negative effects of pollution-causing particles on the health are closely related to the chemical structure of particles, whether causing a fibrotic reaction, whether having an amorphous shape and the aerodynamic diameters of particles. The particles larger than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter can not reach up to the alveoli, and can be removed by mucociliary system. If the particles are smaller than 10 microns, these particles can reach to the alveoli, and are closely associated with the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The concentration of these particles (PM10 is used as an indicator of pollution, and creates the basis for air quality index. Air pollution has several negative effects such as blood pressure changes, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress etc. In this review, the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system will be examined, and the importance of this issue will be emphasized. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 97-106

Ejder Kardesoglu

2011-02-01

53

Index plants for air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution in cities has caused damage to trees and a decline in the number of trees in the cities. It has caused defoliation of the zelkova trees. Plant damage can be used as an indicator of pollution. Damage symptoms vary according to pollutant and season. Sulfur dioxide (0.8 ppm) caused visible damage on half the potted plants during a laboratory experiment. Ozone also caused damage to plants during experiments.

Kobayashi, Y.

1973-02-01

54

The price of air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mortality in the Netherlands as a result of exposure to particulates is 18,000 per year. Less known is the high number of cases of sickness cased by air pollution and related cost for the Dutch society

2006-04-01

55

Air pollution and the lung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Separate abstracts were prepared for two papers presented at this conference. Seventeen additional papers discuss various aspects of the lung clearance of inhaled aerosols and methods for the evaluation of air pollution effects in man and laboratory animals. (CH)

Aharonson, E.F.; Ben-David, A.; Klingberg, M.A. (eds.)

1976-01-01

56

Aggregated UK air pollution indicators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a study to develop aggregated UK indicators of air pollution. It was undertaken by WS Atkins Environment for the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR). (author)

Archer, Greg; Sykes, Victoria [Atkins (W.S.) Environment, Epsom (United Kingdom)

1998-10-01

57

Air pollution injury to plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injuries to plants by oxidant air pollution can be used as biological indicators of pollution episodes. Bel W3 tobacco is often used as an indicator organism. Dogwood is another potential indicator organism. Specific growing procedures used for indicator organisms are described, as are diagnostic criteria for the type and extent of injuries.

Seibert, R.J.

1986-01-01

58

Air Pollution and the skin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

CHRISTINAVRETTOUANTONIOU

2014-05-01

59

Air Pollution Training Institute Virtual Classroom: Basic Air Pollution Meteorology  

Science.gov (United States)

This Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) course uses video presentations, text materials, and reading assignments to present basic meteorology, meteorological effects on air pollution, meteorological instrumentation, air quality modeling, and regulatory programs requiring a knowledge of meteorology. It consists of seven lessons that cover solar and terrestrial radiation, cyclones and anticyclones, wind speed and direction, atmospheric circulation, and many other topics. To finish the course, an online quiz is offered. Students may take the quiz for APTI Continuing Education Unit (CEU) credits; registration is required to receive CEU credits.

60

Air Pollution In Jammu City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aerial environment of the earth has been increasingly interfered by the activities of human beings and virtually it has become the bumping site for toxic materials produced by industrial, vehicular and urban emissions. We have introduced several toxic materials to our environment at a tremendous speed that has changed its physicchemical characteristics. The assumption that the “ nature will take care of pollutants” do not hold good anymore since the pollutants at present vary greatly in their quality as well as quantity. Throughout Asian air pollution is a significant threat to human health and the environment and our city is not the exception to this. Use of fossil fuel in transport, industrial, commercial and household sector contributes significant towards the air pollution. Solid waste disposal and its open burning also add air pollutants. In addition to gases, particles coming from variety of sources- vehicles, factories, construction sites, tilled fields, un-paved roads, stone crushers, burning of wood and fossil fuels also pollute the air. An average urban vehicle releases approximately 30-40 mg of particulate matter per mile travel. Forest fires and the contribution of biomass fuels also add pollutants.

Angelika Sharma

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Associations of particulate air pollution and daily mortality in 16 Chinese cities: An improved effect estimate after accounting for the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

People typically spend most of their time indoors. We modeled the daily indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin using a set of exposure parameters, including the fraction of residences with air conditionings (AC), the fraction of time that windows are closed when cooling occurs for buildings with AC, the fractions of time that windows are open or closed for buildings with or without AC, the particle penetration factors, air change rates, and surface removal rate constant of PM10. We calculated the time-weighted average of the simulated indoor PM10 concentration of outdoor origin and the original recorded outdoor PM10 concentration. We then evaluated the acute effects of PM10 using traditional and amended exposure metrics in 16 Chinese cities. Compared with the original estimates, the new effect estimates almost doubled, with improved model fit and attenuated between-city heterogeneity. Conclusively, this proposed exposure assessment approach could improve the effect estimates of ambient particles. -- Highlights: •We accounted for the indoor exposure to ambient particles in time-series studies of 16 Chinese cities. •The proposed exposure assessment method generally doubled the effect estimates. •The proposed exposure assessment method increased the statistical assurance of a significant effect of PM10. •The proposed exposure assessment method improved the model fit with daily mortality. •The proposed exposure assessment method attenuated between-city heterogeneity of PM's effects. -- Accounting for the indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin in the exposure assessment could improve the effect estimates of ambient PM10

2013-11-01

62

Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

1994-01-01

63

Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

2003-01-01

64

Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China: The Possibility and Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The air environmental pollutants exhausted by China have attracted the attention from the world, especially the neighboring countries including Japan. Japan has put forward a conceived model named Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China. This article analyzes the background and causations of air environmental pollution problems in China, and the efforts that Chinese government has made in energy conservation and lessening the pollutants exhaust of car. On this basis, we anal...

Lin Sun; Zhuyezi Sun

2009-01-01

65

Air pollution and allergic diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

Ring, J.

1987-03-13

66

Contemporary threats and air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now well understood that air pollution produces significant adverse health effects in the general public and over the past 60 years, there have been on-going efforts to reduce the emitted pollutants and their resulting health effects. There are now shifting patterns of industrialization with many heavily polluting industries moving from developed countries with increasingly stringent air quality standards to the developing world. However, even in decreasing concentrations of pollutants, health effects remain important possibly as a result of changes in the nature of the pollutants as new chemicals are produced and as other causes of mortality and morbidity are reduced. In addition, there is now the potential for deliberate introduction of toxic air pollutants by local armed conflicts and terrorists. Thus, there are new challenges to understand the role of the atmospheric environment on public health in this time of changing economic and demographic conditions overlaid with the willingness to indirectly attack governments and other established entities through direct attacks on the general public.

Hopke, Philip K.

67

Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

2006-01-01

68

Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

2005-01-01

69

Geostatistical models for air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

2000-06-01

70

Air pollution and lung cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro research (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

Boehm, G.M.

1982-01-01

71

Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... Your Zip Code: Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution Living near a major roadway may expose you ... Especially Dangerous for Breathing below. The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ...

72

Air pollution in Copenhagen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

1976-01-01

73

Pollution Law - Clean Air Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.)

1982-01-01

74

Regional air pollution over Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO, indicating possible volcanic emissions from the Indonesian islands to the South and East and the Philippines to the North East. The regional pollution seems to be influenced by emissions from Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia and Peninsula Malaysia, and on occasion by anthropogenic emissions from Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, and China.

Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

2012-12-01

75

Air pollution and motor vehicles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis is made of the effects of fuel chemical composition and fuel-air mixture on the composition of combustion exhaust gases produced by automotive spark ignition and diesel engines. This analysis considers several aspects: the merits of unleaded gasolines, Italian legal limits on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline, limits on the sulfur content of diesel fuels, and proposed European Communities limits on automobile air pollution. The paper concludes with an assessment of the cost effective performance of different types of catalytic converters now available on the market

1992-09-01

76

Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

Evdokimova, Ekaterina

2011-01-01

77

Air pollution measurement in Dhaka city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution in Dhaka City has become an alarming issue in recent days. Unless necessary measures are taken for the abatement of air pollution, it is going to bring adverse consequences inhuman lives. The aim of this work is to measure air pollutants of different parts of Dhaka City and also to determine breathing air quality. The field experiments revealed the concentrations of RDP (Respirable Dust Particle) suspended in air, Nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and Sulfur dioxides (So/sub 2/). A respirable dust sampler was employed to measure the concentrations of air pollutants. This work also covers an in depth study of types of air pollutants, sources, effects on human and materials and ways of controlling air pollution. This investigation is an endeavor to start a systematic collection of technical information with reliable chemical analysis using available equipment. (author)

2003-10-01

78

Regional Air Pollution Study: Quality Assurance Audits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerometric data is being collected by the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) for use in developing and evaluating air quality simulation models. In addition to the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS), data is also collected by research teams in periodi...

J. R. Hibar

1976-01-01

79

Diagnosing vegetation injury caused by air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury is discussed. The sources, atmospheric chemistry, monitoring data, symptomatology, factors affecting plant response, injury threshold doses, air quality standards, relative sensitivity of plants, and leaf tissue analysis are discussed for major air pollutants. Among the pollutants discussed are: the photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides). Minor pollutants discussed in the same framework are chlorine, hydrogen chloride, ethylene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and mercury), particulates, and pesticides. Other subjects discussed include: interactions between pollutants and between pollutants and pathogens, mimicking symptoms, meteorology and air pollution injury, and basic diagnostic procedures of suspected air pollution injury to vegetation. 76 references, 128 figures, 28 tables.

1978-02-01

80

Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures.

Thoft-Christensen, Palle

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Impact of air pollutants on agriculture productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic and environmental impact of air pollution on agricultural productivity is discussed. The role of electric power plants in producing airborne pollutants is discussed. The destructive effects of acid rain, sulfur dioxide, and ozone are assessed. The roll of Federal regulations in the control of air pollution is discussed.

1981-01-01

82

A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX  

Science.gov (United States)

A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

83

Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

1996-01-01

84

On a pollution look; Sur un air de pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author, who is director of the laboratory of atmospheric pollution studies of the French national institute of agronomical research (INRA), answers the questions of a journalist about: how to detect air pollution, what are its causes, what are its impacts on health and environment, and what are the existing protection means against atmospheric pollution. (J.S.)

Garrec, J.P.; Monchicourt, M.O.

2002-07-01

85

Billings, Montana Area Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

Science.gov (United States)

A summary of the emission inventory for the Billings, Montana Metropolitan Area is presented. The report provides estimates of the present levels of air pollutant emissions and status of their control. The pollutants which include sulfur oxides, particula...

D. S. Kircher

1971-01-01

86

Radioactive pollution of atmospheric air at ground level in Poland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the results of studies on radioactive pollution of the atmospheric air at the ground level in Poland during 1975-1977. The methods of sample collection and measurements are described. The mean monthly values of concentration of the following radioisotopes were determined: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 125Sb, 131J, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce. The analysis of each particular artificia radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland results from Chinese nuclear explosions is given. The equivalent doses received by the lungs, bones and the whole body as a result of inhaling radioactive isotopes from the air are determined. (author)

1979-01-01

87

Air pollution and bronchopulmonary disease in children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years air pollution was linked to the croup-syndrome and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). There is no doubt, that the incidence of bronchopulmonary disorders in infancy and childhood is higher than usual in more polluted areas. That has been proven especially for recurrent bronchitis and asthma syndrome. It may be possible, that there is a higher frequency of pseudo-croup in extremely polluted areas. However, there is no certain link between air pollution and SIDS. Indoor pollution, or pollution of the micro-environment, is as important as outdoor pollution regarding bronchopulmonary diseases in infants and children. Smoking parents are the most important contribution to indoor pollution. Pediatricians should not only discuss airborn pollution but equally the importance of indoor environmental pollution as having a negative influence on the respiratory system as well.

von der Hardt, H.

1985-01-01

88

Biological monitors of air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

1993-04-02

89

The myths of indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A popular myth holds that building energy conservation measures, implemented since the oil crises of the 1970s, cause indoor air pollution problems. This myth ignores the fact that most indoor air pollutant sources have little or nothing to do with energy conservation. Air studied inside buildings before 1973 was found to be more polluted than outdoor air even during severe air pollution events. In fact, only two types of conservation measures directly increase indoor air pollutant concentrations: inappropriately reduced ventilation and using sealants and caulks that emit pollutants. The myth ignores the fundamental responsibility (and ability) of architects, engineers, and building operators to create indoor environments that are both extremely habitable and environmentally responsible. Architects and other building design professionals must provide safe, healthy, and comfortable environments; minimize damage to the environment; and conserve energy and other resources. Achieving good indoor air quality (IAQ) is as essential as providing comfortable, healthy thermal conditions and functional, aesthetically sound lighting and acoustical environments. Reducing ventilation to conserve energy certainly increases concentrations of pollutants emitted from indoor sources. Adequate ventilation is essential to achieving and maintaining good IAQ. But there are many factors that determine IAQ and their interdependence is strong. Although ventilation is an important way to limit pollutant concentrations, limiting pollutant sources is far more effective. Pollutants from indoor sources that cannot be eliminated should be minimized by careful planning, design, specification, and construction. The preventive approach costs very little and it saves energy. 6 refs., 7 tabs.

Levin, H.

1993-03-01

90

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

91

Air pollution control legislation and administration in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Air Pollution Control Act and the Air pollution Control Decree entered into force in October 1982. Before that, air pollution issues were mainly treated within the framework of the Public Health Act of 1965. The objective of the Air Pollution Control Act is to prevent the ambient air from being polluted. (orig.)

Sarkkinen, S. [Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

1995-07-01

92

Air pollution problems in Latin America  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution and associated health problems in Latin America are on the rise. This article provides an overview of conditions indicated by the admittedly limited data available, notes some of the present situation's health implications, and points out areas where air pollution data procurement and control measures could be improved.

Weitzenfeld, H. (PAHO/WHO Pan American Center for Human Ecology and Health, (Mexico))

1992-01-01

93

AIR POLLUTION ASPECTS OF SLUDGE INCINERATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Incineration offers the opportunity to reduce municipal sludge to a sterile landfill and remove offensive factors, but it also has the potential to be a significant contributor to the air pollution problem in an urban community. This publication explains the air pollution problem...

94

Nonwhites Exposed to More Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... page, please enable JavaScript. Nonwhites Exposed to More Air Pollution: Study More nitrogen dioxide from exhaust fumes, power ... Preidt Tuesday, April 15, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Air Pollution TUESDAY, April 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Nonwhite Americans ...

95

HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

This handbook was prepared to provide a methodology for determining the performance and cost of air pollution control techniques used to reduce the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from commercial/industrial sources. arious control techniques that may be applicable to differ...

96

Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agri...

Chiara Bertora; Francesco Alluvione; Laura Zavattaro; Carlo Grignani

2010-01-01

97

Air-Pollutant-Philic Plants for Air Remediation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this communication, we review our work over two decades on air-pollutant-philic plants that can grow with air pollutants as the sole nutrient source. We believe that such plants are instrumental in mitigating air pollution. Our target air pollutant has been atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and our work on this subject has consisted of three parts: Variation in plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants among naturally occurring plants, genetic improvement of plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants, and the plant vitalization effect of NO2. So far, an estimation of the half-life of nitrogen derived from NO2 uptake in plants belonging to the 217 taxa studied to date has shown no plants to be naturally occurring air-pollutant-philic. However, we found that an enormous difference exists in plants’ ability to uptake and assimilate atmospheric NO2. Future studies on the causes of this process may provide an important clue to aid the genetic production of plants that are effectively air-pollutant-philic. Both genetic engineering of the genes involved in the primary nitrate metabolism and genetic modification by ion-beam irradiation failed to make plants air-pollutant-philic, but mutants obtained in these studies will prove useful in revealing those genes critical in doing so. During our study on air-pollutant-philic plants, we unexpectedly discovered that prolonged exposure of plants to a sufficient level of NO2 activates the uptake and metabolism of nutrients that fuel plant growth and development. We named this phenomenon “the plant vitalization effect of NO2” (PVEON. Investigations into the mechanisms and genes involved in PVEON will provide an important clue to making plants air-pollutant-philic in the future.

Hiromichi Morikawa

2012-10-01

98

Illness from air pollution : a Halton perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report highlights the impact of air pollution on the health of Halton residents and describes how the Health Department will be involved in many initiatives in 2002. The health effects associated with air pollution include asthma and other respiratory problems. The federal government estimates that air pollution can be linked to 5,000 premature deaths each year in eleven major cities. The Ontario Medical Association claims pollution related illnesses cost the province more than $1 billion annually. Approximately 1,000 residents of Toronto die prematurely each year as a result of air pollution. Children, the elderly, and those with respiratory conditions or heart disease are most vulnerable. The actions proposed by the Regional Municipality of Halton at the local level include: the promotion of public transit; expanding Halton's Clean Air Partnership to include private sector partners by 2003; studying the possibility of providing more bicycle paths to reduce reliance on the automobile; and, promoting public awareness of the impact of smog on public health. The Halton Partners for Clean Air is a consortium of 12 public sector organizations which was developed to help reduce smog across the region. In 2002, the Partnership will expand to include local industry where the greatest reductions in air pollution can be achieved. One of the main goals of the Partnership is to reduce traffic congestion and associated environmental and health problems associated with air pollution around schools. 1 tab.

Nosal, R.M. [Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2002-03-14

99

Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

Hertel, O.

2009-09-15

100

Influence of air pollution on birth weight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

Stankovi? Aleksandra

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Air pollution burden of illness in Toronto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Burden of illness information is considered essential to support municipal air quality improvement initiatives and to understand the significance of air pollution as a determinant of health at the municipal level. This report, commissioned by the Public Health Department of the City of Toronto seeks to identify and document the morbidity and premature mortality associated with common air pollutants in Toronto. The study involved the examination and synthesis of a series of international epidemiological studies and Canadian reviews carried out for regulatory purposes, from which coefficients of the air pollution burden of illness in the community have been derived. In addition to a synthesis of international literature, the report also summarized recent quality-controlled air pollution data from several sites in Toronto. The air pollution burden of illness was estimated for 1995, the most recent year for which there was adequate information for the key criteria pollutants of health concern. Using two different methods of quantification, the lower and upper boundary estimates were between 730 ands 1,400 premature deaths, and between 3,300 and 7,600 hospital admissions each year associated with air pollution. It is suggested that these estimates of mortality and hospitalization estimates greatly underestimate illness associated with poor air quality in Toronto and that they show only the peak of a pyramid of health effects related to air quality in the city. The study also sought to assess the relative importance of critical air pollutants contributing to ill health. Nitrogen dioxide is suggested as the air pollutant with the greatest adverse impact on human health, being responsible for 40 per cent of air pollution-related premature mortality and 60 per cent of cardio-respiratory hospital admissions. Carbon monoxide was found to be the cause of about 30 per cent of the premature deaths due to air pollution; about 120 premature deaths and 170 respiratory hospital admissions are attributed to sulphur dioxide. Ozone is believed to be associated with less than five per cent of premature deaths, although some 30 per cent of cardio-respiratory hospital admissions are attributable to ozone. Inhalable particulates have been found to be responsible for about 20 per cent of premature mortality and cardio-respiratory hospitalizations. The transportation sector and coal-fired power plants have been identified as the greatest sources of pollutants. Significant portion of the ozone that affects southern Ontario (about 50 per cent) is derived from American sources. 36 refs., tabs., figs.

Pengelly, D.; Campbell, M.; Ennis, S.; Ursitti, F.; Li-Muller, A.

2000-05-01

102

BLUME - the Berlin air pollution monitoring network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report compiles the BLUME air pollution chracteristics obtained in winter 1987/88. Figures and tables summarize and compare the measuring results obtained for sulfur dioxide, airborne particles, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone. Air pollution in winter 1987/88 was not as critical as in the previous years. The 1987/88 mean sulfur dioxide concentrations were found to be the lowest values determined since BLUME measurements started in 1975, and the mean values obtained for airborne particles and for most of the remaining pollutants were lower than in the previous year. The causes of these relatively low pollutant concentrations are discussed. (orig./BBR)

1988-09-01

103

Statistical aspects of air pollution quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study on the relations between the level of air pollutant concentration, its exposure time and its frequency of occurrence, as well as their associated adverse effects on man, would be the first step of establishing air quality standards, and through such standards we can establish a reasonable land utilization plan. The general models of air pollutant distributions are discussed in the first half of the paper from both theoretical and actual points. Then three typical properties of air pollutant concentration, i.e. exceeding probability, maximum value, and exceeding number, are introduced. Arrowhead chart model is one of the main informations from air pollution issue, which is discussed in the latter half. (author)

1981-01-01

104

Effects of air pollutants on forest trees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papers compiled in the second volume deal with uptake of SO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere by pine species, effect of fluorine compounds on dry matter production by buckwheat, effect of SO/sub 2/ on leaf pigment, physiological and biochemical studies on SO/sub 2/-charged spruce needles, physiological and genetic response of pine clones to SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, relations between fume resistance and cuticular waxes in conifers, modification of the translocation of organic materials in growing conifer sprouts by particulates, damage to the assimilation apparatus of pines, effects of air and soil pollution from industrial wastes on the fructification of Scotch pine in the Urals, forest damage from detergent dust, method for the evaluation of the degree of damage to a forest complex, air pollution and the effect of pollution control measures on forest in the fume-damaged region of Trutnov/Riesengebirge, evaluation of the growth of spruce grafts from fume-resistant clones, tubing fumigation method for selecting pines resistant to air pollutants, results of needle analysis in fertilized fume-damaged spruce, noise reduction from shrubbery, open green areas in polluted cities, effect of magnesite emissions on modifying plant communities, effect of climate and topography on oxidizing air pollutants that damage conifers in southern California, importance of secondary pine pests in areas with heavy industrial air pollution, damage to forests by ground water removal in polluted areas, and factors affecting the release of volatile chemical by forest trees.

1972-01-01

105

Event Processing in Air Pollution Monitoring Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is very necessary to detect the environmental conditions of remote places in real time in order to prevent natural disasters such as a flood, a typhoon, an earthquake, and breaks of an embankment. In this paper, we present the event processing in air pollution monitoring system by using geosensor network and spatial information. This system detects sign of air pollution, recognizes the pollution event, and provides the alarm message for predicted dangerous area in near future. The system utilizes sensor data abstraction, context model, and pollution spread model to recognize the pollution events. The designed event process is useful in a monitoring service such as a home network, pollution and ecosystem monitoring, battle field analysis with reconnaissance, and transportation control.

JongSuk Ruth Lee

2013-03-01

106

Air pollution, public health, and inflation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

Ostro, Bart David

1980-01-01

107

Air pollution in Karachi: a study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air population is a necessary adjunct to the advancement of civilisation. It was an offshoot or rapid industrialisation of Europe during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when most of the industrial plants coming up in the big industrial cities were based on the use of coal as a source of energy. This caused an enormous amount of air pollution. Air pollution therefore is a man made phenomenon which creates environmental degradation and it generally builds up over a period of time. Pollution of Karachi which was less than half a million at the time of partition of India has crossed ten million mark during the last decade. This rapid and more or less unplanned expansion of population of this teeming metropolis has entailed environmental degradation of Karachi. As this matter needs detailed and in depth monitoring we have limited our scope to the study of its effect on air pollution alone. (A.B.)

2002-02-01

108

China's response to the air pollution shock  

Science.gov (United States)

Faced with serious air pollution, China is aggressively reshaping its energy system, building on recent progress with renewables and on available supplies of gas. This should help contain global warming and provide new impetus to climate change negotiations.

Sheehan, Peter; Cheng, Enjiang; English, Alex; Sun, Fanghong

2014-05-01

109

Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

1983-07-01

110

Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

1999-01-01

111

Air pollution and lichens in Hong Kong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple scale using tropical lichen species has been used by secondary school students to assess air pollution zones in Hong Kong. The distribution of lichens was found to be related to the sites of power stations, a desalting plant, and heavily industrilized areas. As in temperate climates, both complexity of growth form and numbers of species increase with distance from the sources of air pollution.

Thrower, S.L.

1980-01-01

112

Measurements of air pollutants in the troposphere  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis, or involve automated in-situ sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impact upon human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene), vegetation (ozone) or climate change (ozone, carbon dioxide, methane) and nitrous oxide). It begins with an...

2011-01-01

113

The health effects of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chapter 11 of the book concentrates on the health effects of air pollution in the general population at normal ambient levels. It discusses factors to be considered in assessing the extensive literature on health effects and provides a brief summary of the effects on health of particulates, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and carbon monoxide. It also addresses the possible relationship between air pollution and cancer. 103 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Walters, S.; Ayres, J. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Public Health and Epidemiology, Medical School

1996-12-31

114

Impact of Air Pollution on Allergic Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The incidence of allergic diseases in most industrialized countries has increased. Although the exact mechanisms behind this rapid increase in prevalence remain uncertain, a variety of air pollutants have been attracting attention as one causative factor. Epidemiological and toxicological research suggests a causative relationship between air pollution and the increased incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other allergic disorders. These include ozone, nitrogen dioxide and, especially ...

Takizawa, Hajime

2011-01-01

115

Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters, and so to estimate their contribution on air pollution situation in this city. Overall measurement results indicate a critical situation of air pollution in this city, where pollutant concentrations exceed international recommendations. Because of in Albania these types of studies are very rare; the air pollution assessment in the capital city Tirana has an enormous importance not only for this city but also in general for entire the country.

Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

2012-04-01

116

Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

2014-01-01

117

Indoor air pollution in rural China: Cooking fuels, stoves, and health status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in less developed countries the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. The authors conducted a large cross-sectional study of rural Chinese households to determine associations between individual health status and domestic cooking as a source of indoor air pollution. The study included measures of health status as well as measures of indoor air-pollution sources, such as solid cooking fuels and cooking stoves. Compared with other fuel types, coal was associated with a lower health status, including negative impacts on exhaled carbon monoxide level, forced vital capacity, lifetime prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and health care utilization. Decreasing household coal use, increasing use of improved stove technology, and increasing kitchen ventilation may decrease the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution.

Peabody, J.W.; Riddell, T.J.; Smith, K.R.; Liu, Y.P.; Zhao, Y.Y.; Gong, J.H.; Milet, M.; Sinton, J.E. [Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

2005-03-15

118

Legal aspects of transfrontier air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution deals with the technical developments and the necessary adaptation of the legal and social systems in the various states. The author first discusses provisions of international law with regard to giving proof of environmental pollution caused by a neighbour state. He then deals with the legal aspects of long-distance air pollution. Finally, the Federal German substantial air pollution control law and relevant licensing provisions are taken as an example to show how the Federal Republic of Germany comes up to the obligations set by international law, to provide for due protection of the environment in neighbour states. (orig./HSCH)

1986-01-01

119

Photographs of plants damaged by air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plant damage by air pollutants are displayed in hundreds of photographs. Pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone cause necrosis between veins of leaves, hydrogen fluoride causes necrosis at the edges of leaves. Oxidants such as aldehydes and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) cause the formation of silver-grey color on the backs of leaves. At lower pollutant concentrations, chlorosis of leaves or invisible injuries such as plant growth retardation occurs. Plants weak in resistance to SO/sub 2/ are alfalfa, barley, cotton, marvel-of-Peru, rhubarb, cosmos, and sweet pea; those strong in resistance are musk melon, citrus, fruits, celery, and chrysanthemum. The resistance to SO/sub 2/ increases as the humidity decreases. The threshold value of HF was several ppb using gladiolus as the indicator plant. The resistances of plants to air pollutants depend not only on the plant and pollutant, but also on meteorological conditions and planting conditions.

1973-01-01

120

Outdoor sources of indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conservation measures that seal a building, like storm window installation, can significantly reduce its energy requirements. These measures also protect its occupants from air pollutants having outdoor sources but amplify any harmful effects of those generated indoors. Using these Fourier series techniques and an approximation of outdoor pollution peaks by step functions, we obtained the following results: the average daily concentration indoors is the same as outdoors for any pollutant with no indoor sinks if inside and outside air are assumed uniform (that is, well mixed). However, lowering a building's air exchange rate 4-fold will still protect its occupants from outdoor pollution sources, but only if the outdoor peak or variation above its average is much greater than its average, and the peak is short-lived.

Silberstein, S.

1977-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of environmental air pollution on the eye  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The eye is vulnerable to the effects of air pollution. Manifestations of air pollution can range from minimal or no symptoms to chronic discomfort and eye irritation. There may also be specific situations, in contact lens wearers for example, where the eyes may be adversely affected by air pollution. Despite the presence of air pollution in many indoor and outdoor environments, the ocular effects of air pollution are often overlooked by optometrists when examining their patients. In this article, background knowledge needed to understand the effects of air pollution on the eye will be reviewed. Suggestions for management of air pollution-related eye symptoms are provided.26 references.

Klopfer, J. (Eye Institute, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-10-01

122

Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

Executive Summary The public has long been interested in understanding what pollutants are in the air they breathe so they can best protect their environmental health and welfare. The current air quality monitoring network consists of discrete stations with expensive equipment ...

123

St. Louis Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of an emission inventory of air pollutant sources in the St. Louis metropolitan area, based primarily on the rapid survey technique. The objectives of this study were to determine the total quantities of the various air po...

M. McGraw K. Bakke J. Fensterstock G. Duggan

1968-01-01

124

Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020, we predict health damages from air pollution exposure will quadruple and account for 8-16% of Zaozhuang's 2020 GDP. End-of-pipe controls could reduce the potential health damages from air pollution by 20% and a coal gasification polygeneration energy system could reduce it by 50% with only 24% penetration. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, could be achieved in eastern China through the use of currently available end-of-pipe controls; with further development, benefits from the use of advanced coal technology could be even larger.

Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

2004-12-01

125

Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors  

Science.gov (United States)

Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

Healy, Bud

1970-01-01

126

Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health impact, is particulate matter (PM) of which road traffic is a major source. Therefore, the health effects of traffic-related air pollution have been under considerable scrutiny. We examined in vivo t...

Nijland, M. E.

2013-01-01

127

Pollution prevention and air quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

1997-01-01

128

Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

1995-12-31

129

Pollution prevention incentives and responses in Chinese firms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pollution prevention (P2), which the Chinese define to include process changes, energy and water conservation, as well as materials reuse and recycling, stands in sharp contrast to the traditional approach to pollution control: generate waste and then treat it. Based on the authors study of 26 electroplating enterprises in four Chinese cities, the authors divided factors motivating firms to adopt P2 measures into three groups: economic incentives, environmental policy incentives, and individual and social incentives. The authors then used four variables to categorize an electroplating factory`s use of P2 as a response to these incentive: awareness of the P2 concept, leadership commitment of P2, presence of a P2 champion in the factory, and goals for P2. Firms they viewed as having a proactive environmental management strategy scored highest on all four variables and adopted the largest number of P2 measures. At the other extreme, firms using resistive strategies scored poorly on all four variables and never adopted P2 measures intentionally. Other firms used reactive strategies: they deliberately adopted P2 measures, but usually in the narrow context of a particular workshop or environmental medium. Only proactive firms viewed pollution prevention as a factory wide management strategy for enhancing profits while abating pollution. The authors analysis suggests actions that might increase the number of firms using proactive environmental management strategies.

Warren, K.A. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ortolano, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Rozelle, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1999-09-01

130

Air pollution in the Arctic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arctic haze, a phenomenon unknown a few decades ago now pervades the Arctic during the entire winter and early spring months. Scientists suspect that it is caused by airborne pollutants transported to the pole from the industrial centers of northern Europe, the USSR and North America. 3 references.

Kemf, E.

1984-01-01

131

Air pollution control policy in Switzerland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

1995-12-31

132

Air pollution monitoring networks in Belgium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of measuring networks to monitor air pollution has been installed in Belgium during the last twenty years. Descriptions and functions are given of the 'Zwavel-Rook' (Sulfur-Smoke) network (1967), 'Telemetrisch Meetnet' (Telemetric Measuring network, 1975-1977) and the 'Zware Metalen' (Heavey Metals network, 1978). Numerical data are given on emissions and concentrations of different pollutants for different periods. 9 figs., 9 refs.

Vanderstraeten, P.; Muylle, E.; Tassent, G.; Verduyn, G.

1988-03-01

133

The effects of air pollution on children.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollutants have been documented to be associated with a wide variety of adverse health impacts in children. These include increases in mortality in very severe episodes; an increased risk of perineonatal mortality in regions of higher pollution, and an increased general rate of mortality in children; increased acute respiratory disease morbidity; aggravation of asthma, as shown by increased hospital emergency visits or admissions as well as in longitudinal panel studies; increased prevale...

Bates, D. V.

1995-01-01

134

Air Pollution in the Pacific Northwest  

Science.gov (United States)

Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the model's performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.

CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

135

Eye irritation from air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single 4-hr or multiple (25 to 34) 1-hr exposures of rabbits to 2 to 8 ppM acrolein, 20 ppM NO/sub 2/, 2 ppM O/sub 3/, 10 ppM SO/sub 2/, or irradiated or nonirradiated artificial smog mixtures did not alter corneal regeneration or produce chemosis or irititis. Four dehydrogenases were unaffected. Corneal thickening was noted only after 32 exposures to 6 ppM SO/sub 2/. Similar exposures of human volunteers resulted in moderate to severe irritation from 9.1 ppM SO/sub 2/, with other pollutants producing less effect. Large variation within the group was observed. Levels of pollutants reached in smogs are not sufficient to cause eye damage.

Hine, C.H.; Hogan, M.J.; McEwen, W.K.; Meyers, F.H.; Mettier, S.R.; Boyer, H.K.

1960-01-01

136

Stochastic microenvironment models for air pollution exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure assessment is a crucial link in air pollution risk assessment and management. With the recent advances in instrumentation, it has become possible to measure air pollution exposures in the vicinity of the individual human subjects, using either personal monitoring or microenvironment monitoring. For many important pollutants such as CO, NO2, and VOC, the air pollution exposure depends crucially on the location and activity of the individual: indoor versus outdoor, smoking versus not smoking, etc. The stochastic microenvironment models were developed to relate air pollution exposure to the location and activity. We review the two major existing models, the Cartesianization method and SHAPE, and compare their assumptions and implications. We also propose a new model, the variance components model, which includes both Cartesianization and SHAPE as special cases. The variance components model considers both long-term average concentrations and short-term fluctuations. The Cartesianization focuses on long-term averages, while SHAPE focuses on short-term fluctuations. We propose to choose among the three models by examining the variance function which relates variability to averaging time. The theory is applied to the data collected from U.S. EPA's Washington CO Study, with the variance function estimated using Carroll and Ruppert's transform-both-sides regression model and Duan's smearing estimate. For the microenvironment in transit, both long-term averages and short-term fluctuations are important.

Duan, N. (RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States))

1991-04-01

137

Air pollutants and the leaf cuticle. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leaf surface forms the interface between plants and a deteriorating atmospheric environment. It is, therefore, the first point of contact between plants and air pollutants and presents an effective barrier to pollutant entry. Outermost surfaces of leaves are covered by a thin, lipoidal, non-living membrane called a cuticle. Cuticle integrity is essential to plant survival and has many essential functions, including the prevention of excessive water loss, regulation of solute uptake and protection of sensitive underlying photosynthetic tissues against harmful irradiation such as enhanced UV-B resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion. The physicochemical properties of the cuticle vary greatly between and within species. They are known to be sensitive to change through natural and anthropogenic influences. This book comprises contributions made to a NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop ''Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle'' held October 4-9, 1993 in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The objective of the ARW was to bring together for the first time international expertise on the subject of air pollutant interactions with the cuticle. In order to facilitate a state-of-science review, the ARW was structured around four themes. They were as follows: 1. Cuticular physicochemical characteristics, physiological, regulatory, and protective roles. 2. Effects, mechanisms, and consequences of air pollutant interaction with leaf cuticles. 3. Non-anthropogenic and environmental influences on the cuticle and potential of the cuticle for biomonitoring and critical levels mapping. 4. New developments in experimental methodology and analytical techniques. (orig./vhe)

1993-10-04

138

Coping with Indoor Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... itself. Household chemical cleaners Use baking soda or vinegar and water as household cleaners. For a job ... after each use by using one-part white vinegar to three-parts water. Let the pieces air- ...

139

Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of Chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of stove operation, beyond those evaluated with the WBT. PMID:24784418

Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

2014-06-01

140

Methods for air pollutants determination in OKTA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'OKTA' Refinery of oil uses liquid fuel (crude oil) for producing energy which is necessary for the process of oil refining. If we want to know how it influences to the environment, especially the air, it is necessary to determine the pollutants in the air. The attending of the air's quality in 'OKTA' is determined with 3 methods: 1) The average smoke concentration per day in the air in the closeness of 'OKTA' is determined with Reflect-meter method. The results show low smoke value in the air. 2) The average concentration of sulphur dioxide per day in the air in the closeness of 'OKTA' is determined with p- rosaniline method. The results show low sulphur dioxide value in the air. 3) The average concentration of inert powder per day in the air in the closeness of 'OKTA' is determined with Gravimeter's method. The results show value lower than the maximal permitted concentration. According to the researches that were made and according to the obtained results, it can be concluded that 'OKTA' with its work does not influence to the air pollution. (Author)

2004-10-07

 
 
 
 
141

Mathematical modeling of photochemical air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the key elements of a project directed at developing a comprehensive mathematical model capable of describing the formation and transport of chemically reacting species in the turbulent planetary boundary layer. The model is intended for routine application in the design and evaluation of urban-scale air pollution control strategies. Some examples illustrating the use of the model in the South Coast Air Basin of Southern California are presented

1979-11-15

142

Human exposure to urban air pollution.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic....

1994-01-01

143

Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an...

Fre?, R.; Bruynseraede, P.; Kretzschmar, J. G.

1994-01-01

144

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

145

Uptake and physiological effects of air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollutants diffuse across the stomata and the cuticle into the interior of the aerial parts of plants. Within a limited concentration range, some are metabolized by common metabolic pathways. During increased or continuous deposition primary metabolic processes become altered, resulting in acute and chronic injuries.

Lendzian, K.J.

1987-06-01

146

Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

1997-10-01

147

Air Pollution Exposure and Immunoglobulin Levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to determine whether air pollution affects serum levels of immunoglobulins to a different degree in smokers than in nonsmokers. The sera tested were obtained from army recruits in the Chicago area, 517 smokers and 147 nonsmo...

1974-01-01

148

Air pollution, the automobile, and public health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author reviews a volume of articles written by experts in the study of air pollution and its effects. The Health Effects Institute, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, commissioned the articles. Described as an excellent review of scientific and technological work in the field, its weakness is a failure to adequately address risk assessment.

Wilson, R.

1989-05-01

149

Change of inhabitants consciousness on air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The consciousness of inhabitants in Isogo Ward, Yokohama City about air pollution was surveyed in 1969 and 1973. A group of industrial factories was partly in operation in 1969 but was in full operation by 1973. Fortunately there was very slight difference in sex ratio, age, occupation, health condition, and smoking habits of the objects between 1969 and 1973. The survey was performed by questionnaires consisting of 43 items. The percentage of positive answers to human impairments in 1969 and 1973 were: 38.7 and 34.2 experience of health damage; 8.1 and 5.4 of eye-irritation; 16.1 and 14.5 of throat-irritation; 5.8 and 13.6 of sneeze; 4.2 and 2.3 of snivel; 9.2 and 10.2 of cough; 3.6 and 17.1 of dyspnea; 5.4 and 7.4 of asthma; and 22.2 and 5.7 of odor. Generally, the largest source of air pollution in this area was auto exhaust followed by factory-exhaust, and the change of inhabitants consciousness about air pollution pointed out the situation. Most inhabitants were pessimistic about the future status of air pollution in the surveys in 1969 and also in 1973.

Imai, N.; Abe, K.; Komuro, K.; Oda, M.

1972-11-01

150

HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

151

Air pollutants in road tunnels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrations of specific vehicle-emitted volatile hydrocarbons, including 1,3-butadiene and benzene, were determined in two urban road tunnels in Goeteborg, Sweden. Comparisons were made with other polluted environments. Samples were taken on adsorbent cartridges and the hydrocarbons were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations were several times higher in the tunnels than in streets with similar traffic. The exposure levels of drivers and passengers inside cars differ similarly. The resulting dangers for asthmatic children and adults, and the increased genotoxic hazards for all motorists in tunnels are of particular concern. It is concluded that long road tunnels with large numbers of cars must be questioned with regard to health hazards. Motorists have reason to avoid tunnel driving and to oppose new road tunnels. Nevertheless, several billion-dollar investments in new tunnels are planned in Scandinavia and Europe

Barrefors, Gunnar [Department of Chemical Environmental Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

1996-09-06

152

A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen oxide (NOx. The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10, SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation

Yu-Bei Huang

2014-04-01

153

76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-11-01

154

Economic assessment of air pollution. Economic evaluation of the effects of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cost incurred every year in West Germany due to air pollution is investigated. Damage to buildings, materials, and vegetation are evaluated as well as the cost of additional cleaning work and changes of location with the objective of getting a picture of the economic value of air pollution abatement. The findings are based on data of immission damage in high-exposure areas. Damage is assessed in consideration of the frequency of repair measures in industrial and country atmosphere. Further research will be necessary in view of the many problems concerning methods and availability of basic statistical data. The sequential cost estimated for a few selected cases of damage show that economic losses due to air pollution amount to several thousand million DM. Air pollution abatement measures thus do not only improve our quality of life but also help to save considerable cost to our national economy.

Heinz, I.

1980-01-01

155

Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

... Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide ... to benzene, such as leukemia. What are Health Risks? Health risks, put simply, are a measure of ...

156

Design of Gas Absorption for Air Pollution Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Generally, in air pollution control, absorption processes, which involves the removal of objectionable toxic gaseous pollutants from a process stream by dissolving them in a liquid are most often used to remove soluble inorganic contaminants from an air stream.

Abraham, Oahimire Esene

2011-01-01

157

Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 ?m (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ?35 years. For an increase of 10 ?g·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs. PMID:23314899

Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

2013-08-01

158

Air pollution and population health: a global challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution and population health” is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are s...

Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

2008-01-01

159

Biologically plausible particulate air pollution mortality concentration-response functions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article I introduce an alternative method for estimating particulate air pollution mortality concentration-response functions. This method constrains the particulate air pollution mortality concentration-response function to be biologically plausible--that is, a non-decreasing function of the particulate air pollution concentration. Using time-series data from Cook County, Illinois, the proposed method yields more meaningful particulate air pollution mortality concentration-response f...

Roberts, Steven

2004-01-01

160

Air pollution and urban air quality management in Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The trade-led industry and economic development after the Asian financial crisis a decade ago has been accelerated in Indonesia to improve the quality of life of its population. This rapid development of Indonesia was in fact heavily fueled by fossil fuels, especially oil, followed by natural gas and coal. The exploitation of fossil fuel in fueling the development resulted in significant environmental quality degradation. Air pollution is perhaps Indonesia's most severe environmental problem. Industry and transportation were the typical main sources of urban air pollutants. Moreover, Indonesia also failed to reach its original 2005 target for a complete phase-out of leaded gasoline. As a result, the level of Pb together with other pollutants such as CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and total suspended particulates has exceeded or at least approached the designated ambient air quality standards. The urban air pollution will not be lesser in extent, but surely will be more severe in the future. Unfortunately, the capability of the Indonesian authorities to manage the urban air quality is still very limited and the portion of the budget allocated to the improvement of urban air quality is still remarkably low, typically 1% of total. This is why the efforts to enhance the capability to manage the urban air quality could not be handled by the environmental authorities in Indonesia's cities themselves, but outside stimulation in the form of man power, consultant and equipment assistance along with financial support has been very important. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Okuda, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Shigeru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan)

2008-06-15

 
 
 
 
161

Models for human exposure to air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four models for human exposure to air pollution are discussed and compared. Simple microenvironment monitoring measures pollutant concentrations at fixed locations, regarded as proxies for similar locations or microenvironments. This model does not require pollutant measurements on the individual level, therefore is easy to implement. However, the model can be used only to estimate the average exposure in a population and does not provide any estimate of the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Replicated microenvironment monitoring provides some estimates of the variability and distribution. However, because of the possible discrepancy between the microenvironment concentration distribution and the individual concentration distribution, some adjustment might be necessary. Integrated personal monitoring allows direct estimation of the average exposure as well as the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Coupled with the appropriate time budget data, a regression analysis can be applied to estimate the contribution from each microenvironment type

1982-01-01

162

Regional scale air pollution - Sources and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several independent types of information relating to the sources and effects of regional-scale air pollution are reviewed. Much of the information was obtained by in situ observations of plumes and field studies of individual pollution episodes. Attention is given to anthropogenic pollution sources in the U.S. (primarily fossil fuel combustion), rates of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ emission from such sources, ambient concentrations of sulfur compounds, the long-range transport of sulfate aerosol, and visibility trends in the eastern U.S. It is concluded that an episode of extreme haziness covering multistate regions of the eastern U.S. appeared to have been largely caused by secondary sulfate aerosol, that coal combustion and sulfate are only one factor in the production of optical effects, and that spatial and temporal aerosol trends and distributions of coal use, sulfate, light extinction, turbidity, and solar radiation exhibit reasonable internal consistency

1979-01-12

163

Models for human exposure to air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four models for human exposure to air pollution are discussed and compared. Simple microenvironment monitoring measures pollutant concentrations at fixed locations, regarded as proxies for similar locations or microenvironments. This model does not require pollutant measurements on the individual level, therefore is easy to implement. However, the model can be used only to estimate the average exposure in a population and does not provide any estimate of the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Replicated microenvironment monitoring provides some estimates of the variability and distribution. However, because of the possible discrepancy between the microenvironment concentration distribution and the individual concentration distribution, some adjustment might be necessary. Integrated personal monitoring allows direct estimation of the average exposure as well as the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Coupled with the appropriate time budget data, a regression analysis can be applied to estimate the contribution from each microenvironment type.

Duan, N.

1982-07-01

164

Multiobjective air pollution monitoring network design  

Science.gov (United States)

The methodologies currently available to optimize the locations of air pollutant monitoring stations typically include a single pollutant and a single objective. In this paper, multiple objective functions are introduced that provide performance measures describing the spatial coverage of the network and its ability to detect violations of standards for multiple pollutants. An additional objective regarding the effect of data validity in the design is also considered. The objective functions are cast in a manner that permits considerable flexibility in the model formulation. The numerical difficulties associated with the formulation are discussed as are extensions of the basic framework. The basic model and its extensions have been applied to the design of a monitoring network for Tarragona, Spain.

Trujillo-Ventura, Arturo; Hugh Ellis, J.

165

VALMET-A valley air pollution model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

1983-09-01

166

Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China: The Possibility and Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The air environmental pollutants exhausted by China have attracted the attention from the world, especially the neighboring countries including Japan. Japan has put forward a conceived model named Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China. This article analyzes the background and causations of air environmental pollution problems in China, and the efforts that Chinese government has made in energy conservation and lessening the pollutants exhaust of car. On this basis, we analyze the mutual interests and stance of the governments and car manufacturers in the aspect of establishing Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China, and consider that there will be further cooperation between Japan and China on air pollution problems in the governmental levels, and the operation can be expanded to be a multilateral frame which is among Korea, Japan, China and other East Asian countries. But at this stage, as for the aspect of car manufacturers in Japan and China, the bifurcation between these two countries decides that there is just a little possibility of establishing an alliance which focuses on solving the air pollution problems in China.

Lin Sun

2009-08-01

167

Motor Vehicles Air Pollution in Nairobi, Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air quality monitoring in most developing countries is not routinely conducted, and in some urban areas such information does not even exist, though signs of deteriorating air quality and health problems related to air pollution are visible. By measuring air pollutants (i.e., Nitrogen Oxides, ozone, suspended particulates matter (PM10, and trace elements e.g. lead, this study investigated air quality in Nairobi, one of the largest cities in eastern Africa and the capital of Kenya. Sampling was done once a week from February to April 2003. Hourly average concentrations of NOx and O3 were measured using a technique that is based on "chemilumiscent" reaction at a site connecting two main highways in Nairobi (University and Uhuru from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. PM10 was collected using “Gent” Stacked Filter Unit (SFU air sampler fitted with nucleopore filters (0.4 and 8.0 mm pore size for fine and coarse filters, respectively that were analyzed for trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF technique. An automatic vehicle counter was used for determining the vehicle density at the sampling site. Results show that most pollutants, for example, lead (0.05 1 to 1.106 µg/m3, bromine (LLD to 0.43 µg/m3, NO2 (0.011-0.976 ppm, NO (0.001-0.2628 ppm and O3 (LLD-0.1258 ppm are within the WHO guidelines. PM10 levels (66.66 - 444.45 µg/m3 were above the WHO guidelines for most of the days, with coarse particulate accounting for more than 70%. Strong correlation (r = 0.966 between fine (0.4 µm particulates, NOx, and motor vehicle density, indicate the importance of traffic as a common source for both fine particulates and NOx.

George Odhiambo

2010-10-01

168

1986 air pollution control market forecast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are more employees in small air pollution control companies and fewer employees in large air pollution control companies than there were four years ago. The trend has been for the larger companies to shrink and divest and for new companies to appear on the scene. One of the main reasons is that, in general, the larger companies have focused almost exclusively on the utility industry. They have purposely shed activities in the steel, chemical, foundry and other smaller market segments to focus on what was once a huge utility market. This may be a good long-term strategy because of the very promising future for the utility segment. However, at present, these companies have had to reduce their staffs to skeletons of their former selves. Many of these companies are now expanding their horizons to include waste-to-energy plants to tide them over.

McIlvaine, R.W.

1986-03-01

169

Regional and global air pollution from aircraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The regional and global air pollution problems discussed in this report are ozone formation in the troposphere, acid deposition, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer and increasing greenhouse effect. Currently, the two most important air pollution problems related to aircraft emissions are oxidant formation and increasing greenhouse effect, in both cases mainly due to emissions of NO{sub x}. The acid deposition from aircraft emissions is not believed to be significant on global or regional scales. Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer is neither a problem with the current fleet of aircraft. A proposed fleet of high flying aircraft in the future may however threaten the ozone layer. 22 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Stordal, F.; Pedersen, U.

1992-04-01

170

Regional and global air pollution from aircraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The regional and global air pollution problems discussed in this report are ozone formation in the troposphere, acid deposition, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer and increasing greenhouse effect. Currently, the two most important air pollution problems related to aircraft emissions are oxidant formation and increasing greenhouse effect, in both cases mainly due to emissions of NO[sub x]. The acid deposition from aircraft emissions is not believed to be significant on global or regional scales. Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer is neither a problem with the current fleet of aircraft. A proposed fleet of high flying aircraft in the future may however threaten the ozone layer. 22 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Stordal, F.; Pedersen, U.

1992-04-01

171

Air pollution in Kosice by solid particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was monitoring of fibre and non-fibre solid pollutants in the air of selected cross-roads of Kosice town. Maximum concentration of dust was 0.145 and 0.136 mg · m"-"3. The values of number concentration of micro-fibres was 92 to 241 fibres in 1 m"3 of air, i.e. 92 · 10"-"6 to 241 · 10"-"6 fibres · cm"-"3. Chemical analysis of dust show that it contains different heavy metals but limit values are overrun for lead and copper. Limit value for the lead is overrun on 15 to 40 % and for the copper on 100 %. Sources of solid pollutants are unknown

1999-09-01

172

Uncertainty in exposure to air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess exposure to air pollution for a person or for a group of people, one needs to know where the person or group is as a function of time, and what the air pollution is at these times and locations. In this study we used the Albatross activity-based model to assess the whereabouts of people and the uncertainties in this, and a probabilistic air quality system based on TAPM/EPISODE to assess air quality probabilistically. The outcomes of the two models were combined to assess exposure to air pollution, and the errors in it. We used the area around Rotterdam (Netherlands) as a case study. As the outcomes of both models come as Monte Carlo realizations, it was relatively easy to cancel one of the sources of uncertainty (movement of persons, air pollution) in order to identify their respective contributions, and also to compare evaluations for individuals with averages for a population of persons. As the output is probabilistic, and in addition spatially and temporally varying, the visual analysis of the complete results poses some challenges. This case study was one of the test cases in the UncertWeb project, which has built concepts and tools to realize the uncertainty-enabled model web. Some of the tools and protocols will be shown and evaluated in this presentation. For the uncertainty of exposure, the uncertainty of air quality was more important than the uncertainty of peoples locations. This difference was stronger for PM10 than for NO2. The workflow was implemented as generic Web services in UncertWeb that also allow for other inputs than the simulated activity schedules and air quality with other resolution. However, due to this flexibility, the Web services require standardized formats and the overlay algorithm is not optimized for the specific use case resulting in a data and processing overhead. Hence, we implemented the full analysis in parallel in R, for this specific case as the model web solution had difficulties with massive data.

Pebesma, Edzer; Helle, Kristina; Christoph, Stasch; Rasouli, Soora; Timmermans, Harry; Walker, Sam-Erik; Denby, Bruce

2013-04-01

173

Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

2014-01-01

174

A Prognostics Framework for Health Degradation and Air Pollution Concentrations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is known to cause a wide range of diseases that have led to countless cases of premature mortality. Although pollution in a massive scale is uncontrollable by individual inhabitant, the negative impact on health as a direct result on indoor air pollution can be reduced by appropriate preventive actions. Smart home technology allows ventilation to be controlled through condition-based monitoring of the air pollutant concentration in the room. This paper describes a prognostics...

Bernard Fong; Hong, G. Y.

2012-01-01

175

Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

1993-03-01

176

Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs

1993-03-01

177

Population Dynamics and Air Pollution : The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5â??M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4â??Mâ?¬, 317.5â??Mâ?¬, and 261.6â??Mâ?¬ through the modeled years 2005â??2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan

2013-01-01

178

Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

1992-06-01

179

Air pollution related to sea transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sea transportation contributes only 1-2% of world CO2 emissions. Owing to the sulphur concentration in the bunker fuels, this transportation mode represents over 4% of the world SO2 emissions. In addition, NOx emissions are likely to exceed 7% of the world emissions. SO2 emissions in the North Sea and the Channel account for 15% of the whole French emissions, NOx emissions for about 10% and CO2 emissions for about 3%. There are several potential measures to reduce the emissions of ship engines - propelling engines or generator driving engines - improvement of fuel quality, by desulphurizing and prohibiting the use of noxious additives such as PCB; use of alternative fuels; engine optimizing; exhaust gas processing; use of new propelling systems. A new organisation of world marketing of fuels with low or high sulphur levels could also be set up. The Sea Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) discussed this problem during its meeting in 1990. The 73/78 MARPOL convention provides the IMO with an international juridical tool, especially designed for the preclusion of pollution due to sea transportation. It can address the issue of air pollution which requires a concerted approach between seaside countries and the drawing up of international regulations relating to the protection of the sea world. Fuel quality is already controlled by international standards drawn up by ISO. These standards should be improved to reduce air pollution due to sea transportation

1993-06-25

180

Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR) and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI). Eight roadside tree species wer...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

Engel, J.A.

1995-08-01

182

Statistical analysis of acute health effects of air pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with statistical methods and the application of these on the association between ambient air pollution in Copenhagen during the years 2003-2009 and stroke incidents occurring in the city. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the exposure to air pollution is a risk factor for experiencing a stroke. Air pollutants treated are particulate matter measured as PM10, PM2.5, and PM7?800nm, and the traffic pollutant NO2. Air pollution data is given as a...

Iskandar, Amne; Johansen, Tine

2010-01-01

183

Air pollution control technology - An overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is presented of the equipment and economics of pollution control devices for industrial applications. Attention is given to the Venturi scrubber, high order pressure drops, mechanical/centrifugal, cyclonic devices, baghouses, the Hersey reverse jet blow ring, electrostatic precipitators, and flue gas desulfurization. A total of over one and 1/3 billion dollars was spent on air pollution control equipment in 1980. The development of cartridge-type filters filled with synthetic fabrics such as fiberglass mesh for baghouses is reviewed, as is the growth of installed electrostatic precipitator units, totalling 42.274 GW of installed capacity in 1980. A steady growth in the total capacity of scrubbers is foreseen with the tendency for the use of coal as a primary energy source.

Orem, S.R.

1982-03-01

184

CCMS air pollution model intercomparison study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four air pollution transport models were tested and compared in an area of approx. 400 x 400 km/sup 2/. Three models were Eulerian grid models, the fourth a Lagrangian trajectory model. The data base (emissions and meteorological observations) were essentially the same for all models. Differences in model output could only be a result of the different (numerical) structure of the models and of the differences in processing of the meteorological data. It turned out that the latter was the major source of differences in model results. Generally there was a satisfactory correlation between model results and observed concentrations. Mainly due to the negligence of transport of pollutants into the modelling region, predicted concentrations were considerably lower than the observed.

van Dop, H.

1986-01-01

185

International environmental policy and air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In several articles attention is paid to the title subject. Several international agreements in which plans to reduce the emission of air pollutants are formulated are discussed: the Maastricht Treaty of the European Community, The United Nations Treaty on Transfrontier Pollution. The action program KWS 2000 (Hydrocarbons 2000) in the Netherlands, which program aims at the reduction of hydrocarbon emissions, is compared with the European regulations on the reduction of volatile matter. Also a comparison is made of the Dutch emission regulation system (NeR) with similar systems in other European countries. Finally an overview is given of the development and adjustments of the Montreal Protocol and its effects on a European and national level

1994-06-01

186

Clean fuel vehicles: The air pollution solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clean fuels for cars and trucks can do more for air quality, and do it sooner, than any other alternative on the drawing boards today. In much of the country, vehicles are the single biggest cause of air pollution. It`s not the industrial smoke stacks, but the tail pipes on cars that foul the air. Ninety percent of the carbon monoxide, 50% of the volatile organic compounds, and 40% of the ozone in metropolitan areas come from motor vehicles. Many state and local government officials are pursuing vehicle emission inspection, high occupancy vehicle lanes, and carpooling programs to reduce auto pollution. These efforts are valuable and should be continued. But clean fuels can quickly reduce auto emissions at a much lower cost. Alternative fuel vehicles produce fewer emissions, are much less dependent on foreign sources, and have the potential to create new jobs. One alternative fuel, natural gas, emits no particulates, 90% less carbon monoxide, and 85% fewer of the gases that form ozone.

Meotti, M.P. [Shipman and Goodwin, Hartford, CT (United States)

1995-11-01

187

Rapid guide to hazardous air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concise and easy to use, this book brings together a wealth of hard-to-gather information in one compact pocket guide. It offers--in alphabetical order--detailed profiles of the 189 elements and compounds determined to be hazardous air pollutants by the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act. The profile for each pollutant includes: fundamental identification data (CAS number, molecular formula, formula weight, synonyms); uses (primarily in the manufacture of chemicals and as a component in the manufacturing process); physical properties (such as boiling point, density, vapor pressures, color); chemical properties (such as air/water reactivity, reactivity with skin or metal, flash point, heat of combustion); health risks, including toxic exposure guidelines, toxicity data, and acute and chronic risks; hazard risks (the substance`s potential for accidents, fires, explosions, corrosion, and chemical incompatibility); exposure routes tracking the activities, environment, sources, and occupations that tend to lead to exposure; regulatory status, listing the primary laws and citations of regulated chemicals; and important additional information on symptoms, first aid, firefighting methods, protective equipment, and safe storage.

Beim, H.J.; Spero, J.; Theodore, L.

1998-12-31

188

Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ? The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ? Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ? The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ? Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

2013-12-01

189

Air pollution control and energy conservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Growing environmental awareness and dwindling fossil fuel reserves have led to the adoption of clean and proven energy efficient technologies. Through Ignifluid combustion process, besides ensuring efficient combustion of fuels, having diverse characteristics, formation of harmful gaseous pollutants viz. nitrous oxides and carbon dioxides, is greatly reduced. These apart, CO and hydrocarbons leaving the combustion chamber are of a low order. The paper brings to the fore the versatile features of the environment friendly Ignifluid process through performance feedback from the operating installations related to air pollution control. Ignifluid technology is the answer for retrofit for existing scores of large sized steam generating plants which are operating at a dismally low thermal efficiency thereby bulging out tons of gaseous pollutants to the landscape. By retrofitting with Ignifluid combustor besides achieving lowered gaseous emissions, due to improved thermal efficiency, energy conservation of a high order is ensured. Also, this technology is well established for burning multi fuels including industrial wastes in varying proportions with fossil/biomass fuels in the most efficient fashion. Through installation of stack gas cooler as an outfit to the Ignifluid boiler, energy conservation due to enhanced thermal efficiency and substantial reduction in generation of gaseous pollutants are ensured. Thus by improving overall plant efficiency, CO2 emission to atmosphere is drastically reduced thus abetting green house effect. Global warming is reduced by effecting reduction in gas exit temperature. Realizing this immense potential of Ignifluid system as an energy saving/pollution control device, government should give encouragement by way of granting fiscal benefits like tax concessions etc. (author). 1 fig., 6 tabs

1993-06-01

190

Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

Yu Shun-Zhang

2003-11-01

191

Coordination of air pollution abatement programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is a presentation of a study the author computed as a consultant for the Ministry of the Environment. Due to growth of the energy production capacity Finland is reaching a situation where it will be impossible to hold on the long term goals of the air pollution control. The main obstacle will be enormous costs. The author prefers an option in which economic incentives are used to suppress the growth of the energy capacity and traffic volume. The report also recommends a long-term national strategy by which the international competitive ability in Finland would be based upon low-energy commodities

1993-01-01

192

Radioactive air pollution in the 9 D's  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Device sets the stage for the first act, written by nuclear engineers and physicists, in which Disposal begins the action while Decay gradually closes the curtain. Displacement provides the scene for the second act, written by meteorologists, in which turbulent Dispersion prevails until Deposition (both wet and dry) brings down the curtain. Dose opens the final act, in which the nature of Damage is revealed, and Disappearance ends the play. The attention in this critique is centered on Displacement and Dispersion, their changes of character with varying time and length scales, the deterministic nature of one and the statistical nature of the other, and their relevance to radioactive air pollution. (author)

1967-09-11

193

Mortality and air pollution: lessons from statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross sectional studies which attempt to link persistent geographic differences in mortality rates with air pollution are reviewed. Some early studies are mentioned and detailed results are given for seven major contemporary studies, two of which are still in the publication process. Differences among the studies are discussed with regard to statistical techniques, trends in the results over time (1959 to 1974), and interpretation and use of the results. The analysis concludes that there are far too many problems with this technique to allow causality to be firmly established, and thus the results should not be used for cost benefit or policy analysis

1982-05-07

194

Air pollution and acid rain in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total annual energy consumption in China has risen by more than 550 million tons coal equivalent in the last thirty years; coal represents the single largest source of energy. Recent surveys have found evidence of coal-related air pollution in the form of airborne particulates and sulfur dioxide. While high levels of suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ and rain acidity have been identified and though evidence of corrosion and damage to trees and agricultural crops has been gathered, the nature of the relationships between these phenomena has not yet been clearly established. 14 references.

Dianwu Zhao; Bozen Sun

1986-01-01

195

Air pollution and acid rain in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total annual energy consumption in China has risen by more than 550 million tons coal equivalent in the last 30 years; coal represents the single largest source of energy. Recent surveys have found evidence of coal-related air pollution in the form of airborne particulates and sulfur dioxide. While levels of suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ and rain acidity have been identified and though evidence of corrosion and damage to trees and agricultural crops has been gathered, the nature of the relationships between these phenomena has not yet been clearly established.

Zhao, D.; Sun, B.

1986-01-01

196

Fargo-Moorhead Metropolitan Area Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A summary is presented of the emission inventory for the Fargo - Moorhead Metropolitan Area. The report provides estimates of the present levels of air pollutant emissions and the status of their control. The pollutants which include sulfur oxides, partic...

K. A. Bakke

1970-01-01

197

El Paso Metropolitan Area Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

Science.gov (United States)

A summary is presented of the emission inventory for the El Paso Metropolitan Area. The report provides estimates of the present levels of air pollutant emissions and status of their control. The pollutants which include sulfur oxides, particulates, carbo...

K. A. Bakke

1970-01-01

198

Degradation of air polluted by organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Mexican standard NOM-010-STPS-1994 it has been established concentrations of maximum permissible levels in workable air for styrene in the range 420-1710 mg/m3 and for xylene between 218-870 mg/m3. In this work it is studied a biological treatment (bio filtration) for air polluted by xylene and styrene where the microorganisms are adhered at synthetic fiber, these degrade to the organic compounds that across in gaseous state and they are mineralized toward CO2 and H2O. The characteristics of temperature, p H, concentration of organic compound and mineral parameters, as well as, the biomass quantity have been optimized for that bio filters efficiency were greater than those reported in other works. (Author)

1999-12-02

199

Issue Backgrounder : Energy Efficient New Homes and Indoor Air Pollutants.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This booklet discusses what indoor air pollution is and how it can affect your health. It describes how energy-efficient new homes can affect indoor air quality. It also describes features that can help ensure clean indoor air, and tells how to detect and control indoor pollutants commonly found in homes.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1985-07-01

200

California’s Agriculture-Related Local Air Pollution Policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is a critical environmental issue for California, which has some of the nation’s most polluted air basins and also the nation’s most stringent set of state and local air quality standards. This paper reviews my previous work in Lin (2011), in which I ex...

-y Cynthia Lin, C.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (..mu..g/m/sup 3/) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5-15 ..mu..m in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (<2.5 ..mu..m). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time period actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

Perry, G.B. (Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver); Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

1983-01-01

202

Study of urban air pollution in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

2004-06-01

203

Air pollution and blood markers of cardiovascular risk.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies have linked air pollution to tens of thousands of premature cardiovascular deaths per year. The mechanisms of such associations remain unclear. In this study we examine the association between blood markers of cardiovascular risk and air pollution in a national sample of the U.S. population. Air pollution concentrations were merged to subjects in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in the United States, and the association with fibrinogen lev...

Schwartz, J.

2001-01-01

204

A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to moni...

Khedo, Kavi K.; Perseedoss, Rajiv; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University Of; Mauritius

2010-01-01

205

Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the ma...

Rizwan, Sa; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2013-01-01

206

77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes and...

2012-04-12

207

Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?  

Science.gov (United States)

It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. PMID:23274234

Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

2013-12-01

208

Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for unadapted and adapted persons according to logarithmic index evaluation method, combined with percentage of dissatisfaction and joint effect of indoor air pollution caused by these two kinds of sources.

Wang, J.; Zhang, X. [Institute of HVAC and GAS Engineering, College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2010-07-01

209

Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued i...

Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

2012-01-01

210

AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT BY FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourier transform spectroscopy substantially reduces the limitations on infrared methods of pollution measurement. EPA has used long path cells and Fourier transform spectrometers for pollutant measurement both in the laboratory and in the field. Labile pollutants are best measur...

211

Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration (PM1 and PM10 by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

N. Sugimoto

2008-06-01

212

Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

B. Wehner

2008-10-01

213

Aviation air pollution studies in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aviation is an integral part of the infrastructure of the modern civilization. Air transport plays an important role in the global economy and has contributed enormously towards global integration. It supports commerce, tourism and private travel. These positive advantages of the aviation industry involve substantial costs to the environment. Aircraft emit large amounts of air pollutants, degrading air quality. Air pollution in and around airports worldwide is rapidly growing. ...

Al-wasity, Sukaina

2013-01-01

214

Models for human exposure to air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four models for human exposure to air pollution are discussed and compared. The simple microenvironment monitoring model measures pollutant concentrations at fixed location, regarded as proxies for similar locations or microenvironments. Since this model does not require pollutant measurements on the individual level, it is easy to implement. However, the model can only be used to estimate the average exposure in a population, and it does not provide any estimate of the variability and distribution of individual exposures. The replicated microenvironment monitoring model provides some estimates of the variability and distribution. However, because of the possible discrepancy between the microenvironment concentration distribution and the individual concentration distribution, some adjustment might be necessary. Integrated personal monitoring allows direct estimation of the average exposure as well as the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Coupled with the appropriate time budget data, a regression analysis can be applied to estimate the contribution from each microenvironment type. However, possible collinearity problems might result in low precision in those estimates. Moreover, it might be difficult to adjust for a possible Hawthorne effect. Continuous personal monitoring has the advantage of recording exposure in each microenvironment type separately, allowing direct estimation of the average exposure as well as the variability and distribution of exposures in each microenvironment type. Moreover, it can also be conducted in conjunction with a two-stage sampling scheme, using information from a large data base on activity patterns, thereby making more efficient use of the monitoring data. It is also easier to adjust for a possible Hawthorn effect in this design.

Duan, N.

1982-01-01

215

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01

216

Effects of air pollution on plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are three principal air pollutants of major interest to agriculture - viz., sulfur dioxide, fluorine compounds, and smog. The last is a complex mixture, only partially understood at this time. There are at least two distinct types of smog, with many intermediate grades: the London type, which is a mixture of coal smoke and fog with enough sulfur dioxide to impart reducing properties to the mixture; and the highly oxidizing Los Angeles type, which usually contains neither coalsmoke nor fog, but rather is a mixture of ozone and peroxidized organic compounds formed by photochemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and innocuous organic compounds formed by photochemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and innocuous organic compounds such as gasoline vapors or partially burned fuel. In addition to the two types of smog, certain organic compounds, such as ethylene, DDT, and some heterocyclic bases, are known to have powerful phytotoxicity and have done considerable plant damage in some locations. 129 references.

Thomas, M.D.

1961-01-01

217

Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts, and content of mobile heavy metals. The volume of APC residue is presently increasing due to the increased focus on utilization of renewable energy sources, and thus occupation of new wasteâ??to-energy plants. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions, however, most commercial solutions are concerned with deposition; e.g. in abandoned mines. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. Some main challenges are the extremely high soluble fraction together with the fact that many of the toxic elements are encapsulated in the particles rather than adsorbed to their surface.

Jensen, Pernille Erland

218

Air pollution emission inventory survery for Israel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High ozone levels are regularly measured during summer months over the inland and mountainous regions of Israel. Studies analyzing the back trajectories of air masses responsible for the high ozone levels showed that the precursors originated from the densely populated Israeli coastline. In order to better understand the contribution of those emission sources to ozone production, it is essential to have an accurate emission inventory that can be inputted into a photochemical model. The present paper describes the methods used in preparing all emission inventory for Israel based on information available and published until 1998. The source and accuracy of the data available are described. The calculations performed and the assumptions taken in order to obtain data not directly available are clarified. The Sources reported in the inventory were the major polluters (power plants, oil refineries, and cement industries); industry; transportation; and biogenic sources. The pollutants studied were SO{sub 2}, NOx, CO, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, ethylene, isoprene, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, and aldehydes. The inventory showed that transportation is responsible for almost the entire CO and 30% of the volatile organic compounds emitted, although transportation itself accounts for only a fifth of total fuel consumption. About 75% of the NOx emitted can be attributed to industrial sources and the remaining 25% to transportation. Model simulations using the emission inventory were performed and compared to data available from a monitoring station situated 30 km east of Tel Aviv. The results showed good agreement, validating the accuracy of the emission inventory.

Weinroth, E.; Luria, M.; Ben-Nun, A.; Kaplan, J.; Peleg, M.; Mahrer, I. [Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel). Faculty for Natural Science

2006-07-01

219

Air pollution and risk of lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pilot study among other things was intended to establish and to test a suitable sampling instrument, to develop quantification concepts in order to derive from the large amount of detailed sets of data the appropriate exposure measures, and to determine the distribution pattern of the main risk factors. The approach chosen for epidemiological screening was a case-control study covering a total each of 194 lung cancer cases, hospital controls, and population controls drawn in the Lands of North Rhine-Westfalia and northern Germany. This case-control approach proved to be feasible in principle. In particular, the sampling instrument for description of the risk factors 'occupation', 'smoker', and 'air pollution' proved to be suitable in combination with data in other potential influencing factors. The concepts chosen for a quantification of these factors yielded exposure measures appropriately reducing the large dimension of data of the questionnaire, without however completely exploiting it. The data ascertained within the framework of the pilot study allow to make a risk assessment for only two factors, namely 'smoker' and 'occupation'. For the index of the overall occupational exposure, covering contributions from exposure to asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chronium, PAH, and radionuclides, a relative risk of 1.8 was determined. The study indicated that there is a link between occupational exposure to asbestos or PAH, and the occurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilot study did not give an answer to the question of whether air pollution contributes to the formation of bronchial carcinoma. This question will have to be solved by a more extensive study. (orig./MG)

1991-01-01

220

COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

Science.gov (United States)

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

 
 
 
 
221

Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

Giever, Paul M., Ed.

222

Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma.

Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S

2008-01-01

223

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 14; Developer's Manual No. 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Developer's Manual No. 4 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

224

?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ????????? Evaluation of air pollution in and outside the airport ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ?? ????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????, ? ?????????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????-???????? ??? ??????????. ????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????. Calculations were performed by Specialists of airports ecological problems of National Aviation University have performed calculations, in basis which assessment of air pollution in vicinities airports Of Ukraine was defined. Also examination was performed in relation of size of airport sanitary - protection zone. Basic methods of reducing air pollution were recommended. ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????. ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????-???????? ??? ??????????. ????????????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????.

?.?. ??????

2008-03-01

225

The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

1995-12-31

226

Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

Shaw, Manny

227

Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of exposure to oxidative air pollutants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The negative effects of air pollution on morbidity and mortality have been known since the mid 20th century. The two most well known examples are the Meuse Valley disaster in the 1930’ies and the London black fog in December 1952. Whilst there are numerous epidemiological studies, in which associations between morbidity and mortality and high levels of pollutants have been reported, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Two of the main air pollutants are particulate matter (P...

Barath, Stefan

2011-01-01

228

Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of P...

Caldero?n-garciduen?as, Lilian; Franco-lira, Maricela; Henri?quez-rolda?n, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; Gonza?lez-maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-robles, Rafael; Villarreal-calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-moreno, Juan; Villarreal-calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-jardo?n, Ricardo; Medina-cortina, Humberto; Delgado-cha?vez, Ricardo

2010-01-01

229

Electric vehicle and conventional vehicle. Urban air pollution assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Road traffic is the main source of air pollutant emissions in urban areas. Pollutant emissions can be evaluated and calculated using mathematical models based on the characteristics of traffic flowing in roads. This article aims to assess the air pollution produced by a fleet of vehicles with conventional (diesel and petrol) and electrical (hybrid and electric) motorization, in the city centre of Braga. The scientific toolbox adopted to develop the studies includes emission models to es...

Vale, Andreia; Silva, Li?gia Torres; Rodrigues, Daniel Souto; Ramos, Rui A. R.

2011-01-01

230

Air pollution assessment of Salé's city (Morocco)  

Science.gov (United States)

Four sites were selected in Sale's city in Morocco in order to contribute in air pollution level assessment and determination of its effects on public health. The sites were selected so that they are close to the most important industrialized areas, they have a very high demographic density and they cover a heavy traffic. Two approaches of air sampling and subsequent analysis methods of elements in atmospheric aerosols have been performed. The first is a classical approach, which consists in sampling total airborne materials with a High Volume Sampler and analysing the samples using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The second is having its interest for studies relating effects of particles on human health. It consists in employing a Dichotomous Sampler to collect inhalable particles and the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for elemental analysis. With such system, it was possible to collect separately respirable and inhalable aerosols. The ED-XRF analysis method used is appropriate for monitoring airborne polluants in living and working areas with advantage of simple preparation, nondestructive nature, rapidity and suitable limits of detection. Using this method, it was possible to identify and quantify S, Ca, CI, Fe, Cu, and Pb. With Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis Method, we quantified Cd. This study have been completed by measuring NOx SO2 and solid suspended particles or airborne particulate matter (APM).

Bounakhla, M.; Fatah, A.; Embarch, K.; Ibn Majah, M.; Azami, R.; Sabir, A.; Nejjar, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.

2003-05-01

231

Human Health Cost of Air Pollution in Kazakhstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kazakhstan, like other former Soviet Republics, inherited a number of serious environmental problems. Air pollution is one of these serious problems, leading to significant environmental health effects on the population of Kazakhstan. This study provides a baseline analysis of health damages from air pollution, based on readily available information. Mean estimates of mortality risk attributable to air pollution are about 16,000 cases per year with a 95% confidence level of the risk not exceeding 25,500. Even taking into account all the uncertainties related to the collection and processing of primary data, as well as the application of risk analysis methodology, we conclude that air pollution in Kazakhstan constitutes a significant contribution to the environmental burden of diseases. In relative terms, the impact of air pollution on premature mortality in Kazakhstan is notably higher than in Russia and the Ukraine.

Ussen Kenessariyev

2013-07-01

232

Valuation Of Health Impacts Of Air Pollution In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper surveys the studies measuring the economic impacts of air pollution on health in India. Air pollution has potentially large impacts on the health and well-being of households, especially the poor families. The literature shows that the distribution of the impacts of air pollution is not uniform across the cross sections of societies. It notes that though there are some case studies on the valuation of health impacts of outdoor air pollution, there is rarely any study on the valuation of health outcomes of indoor air pollution which uses consumer choice or behavior models. It identifies that studies should focus on both individual specific characteristics as well as the neighborhood specifications and these studies should be dynamic as the static studies fails to capture the effects of change in socio-economic features on health outcomes.

Surender Kumar

2013-09-01

233

Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

Niklas Berglind

2010-03-01

234

A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring...

Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

2012-01-01

235

Comparison between polluted and clean air masses over Lake Michigan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clean and polluted air masses, advected over Lake Michigan, were studied using instrumental aircraft during the summers of 1976 and 1978. The results show that regardless of the degree of pollution, the particle size distribution is bimodal. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and trace metals in a clean air mass are more than an order of magnitude lower than those in polluted air masses. Furthermore, these concentrations are comparable with those measured in remote areas of the world. In clean air the ratio of the total light scattering to Rayleigh scattering is very close to one, indicating very low concentrations of particulates in the optically active size classes

1981-01-01

236

Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines ofvehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants,such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others.Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impactsof the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoringalong different roads in the area of Ljubljana Municipality.

Matej Ogrin

2007-01-01

237

Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

Byoung-Ju Kim

2012-06-01

238

Interaction patterns of major air pollutants in Hong Kong territory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution in a metropolitan city like Hong Kong is a major obstacle to improve air quality and living environment due to the high population density and the vehicle emission increases. The high air pollutant levels impose harm to the human health and impair the city image. The characteristic analysis of air pollutants is very important and necessary to pollutant monitoring, forecasting and controlling. In this study, the interaction patterns of principle air pollutants, e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3), a secondary pollutant, are investigated based on the measured database in four selected areas, which covers two urban types (i.e. residential area, mixed residential/commercial/industrial area) in Hong Kong, during the period of 1999-2001. The study involves analyzing the chemical and physical properties, the characteristics of air pollutants and the factors affecting such interactions using statistical method. The results reveal several routines in urban air pollutants' variations, interaction and trends from macro aspect

2004-05-25

239

Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

1997-12-31

240

76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production AGENCY...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

2011-05-26

 
 
 
 
241

76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries, and the signed rule...

2011-07-18

242

75 FR 1716 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...authority to regulate sources of air pollution. The fee provision of CAA...

2010-01-13

243

76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-07-28

244

75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2010-03-22

245

76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No....

2011-05-09

246

77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2012-04-26

247

75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-09-23

248

76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-09-14

249

76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-08-23

250

75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No....

2010-05-21

251

76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-06-24

252

76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-05-06

253

Spatial and temporal variability of air pollution in Birmingham, Alabama  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of the spatial and temporal variations of outdoor air pollutant concentrations provides important information for epidemiological and other air-pollution studies, many of which have relied in the past on data from a single, centrally-located air pollution monitoring site. A method is developed for combining air pollution measurements from multiple monitors and monitoring networks to generate daily air pollution concentration fields representing spatial variations over distances of approximately 1-10 km. Meteorological and co-pollutant data are used to estimate missing site measurements, yielding more realistic concentration fields as the number of monitoring locations with available data increases. Monitoring data are interpolated with weights computed from intersite pollutant correlations, which decay with distance, so distances between interpolation points and monitoring sites are factored into the interpolation weights. The approach minimizes the influence of source-oriented sites that represent limited areas, because data from such sites exhibit low intersite correlations and yield interpolation weights that decay rapidly to zero. Interpolated values represent pollutant concentrations averaged over spatial scales that depend on intersite distances and the interpolation grid, and do not delineate sharp spatial gradients associated with roadside or near-source conditions. The approach yields quantified interpolation errors the values of which depend on measurement uncertainties, intersite distances, and the representativeness of monitoring site locations. The method is illustrated using an 11-year period of measurements of ozone, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations from Jefferson County, Alabama. The principal city is Birmingham, which is influenced by regional-scale air pollution and by local emissions from mobile sources, industrial facilities, and residential communities. Emission sources are not distributed uniformly throughout Birmingham, the ridge-and-valley topography complicates dispersion of local emissions, and monitoring data indicate that air pollutant concentrations vary spatially as well as temporally. No single monitor represents air quality across the entire study area.

Blanchard, C. L.; Tanenbaum, S.; Hidy, G. M.

2014-06-01

254

Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement

1988-01-01

255

Impact of air temperature, relative humidity, air movement and pollution on eye blinking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and pollution on occupants’ eye blink frequency (BF) was examined. In total sixty subjects participated in eight 4 hour experiments without and with facially applied air movement under individual control of the subjects. Air movement of either polluted room air supplied isothermally or clean and cool air was used. Eye blinking video record for the last 15 min of each exposure were analysed. The increase of the ...

Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Lyubenova, Velina S.; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

2012-01-01

256

Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 ?g m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2010-11-01

257

A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System  

CERN Document Server

Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

2010-01-01

258

Aerosol and air pollution study by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal neutron activation analysis technique was used in air pollution and aerosol elemental content and size distribution investigations. Air pollution samples were collected on Whatman 41 paper filters which were activated along with known quantities of standards in a flux of approximately 1013 nxcm-2xs-1. The activity of the samples was measured with a 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and analyzed with the computer program JANE, which identified the isotopes and found their quantities by normalization with the standard measurement results. Correlation between the various elements, in particular those belonging to dust from the desert and those considered typical urban air pollution, is investigated. (author)

1983-01-01

259

Biochemical parameters of plants as indicators of air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study species like Mangifera indica, Linn., Cassia fistula, Linn., and Eucalyptus hybrid were exposed to different air pollution load for short duration (active biomonitoring). Variation in biochemical parameters like chlorophyll, protein, soluble sugar free amino acid, ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves were found to be pollution load dependent. These variations can be used as indicators of air pollution for early diagnosis of stress or as a marker for physiological damage to trees prior to the onset of visible injury symptoms. Just by analyzing these biochemical indicators air quality can also be assessed. PMID:17717999

Tripathi, A K; Gautam, Mukesh

2007-01-01

260

Phytometer of buckwheat as an indicator of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is well known that the growth of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is resistant to inferior environmental conditions, but very sensitive to a polluted atmosphere. It is possible that buckwheat has favorable characteristics as phytometer for measuring air pollution. Young plants of buckwheat were grown in small cups in a water culture. Plants having three leaves were transferred to different places, both in an air polluted area and in an un-polluted area, for a period of 7 days, in order to compare the Relative Growth Rate (RGR) at their setting places. The buckwheat phytometer for measuring air pollution, utilized the following samples for statistical significance: 20 plants with 4 cups per one place according to their coefficient of variance of dry matter weight per pot. It was observed that the RGR showed the values of 20-27% per day in an un-polluted place and of 12-18% per day in a polluted place. The results of growth analysis based on dry matter increment after placement showed that the RGR depression was mainly owing to a decrease in the Net Assimilation Rate and the Leaf Area Ratio was not sensitive for a polluted atmosphere. The Net Assimilation rate depends on photosynthetic activity of leaves, therefore, the NAR depression may be due to an inhibition of photosynthesis by polluted air. 5 references, 11 figures, 8 tables.

Tsuno, Y.; Sato, T.; Kiyasu, M.

1976-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Community changes in a deciduous forest exposed to air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vegetation was measured in seven stands on similar sites in a 50-km portion of the Upper Ohio River Valley. These stands lay along gradients of chronic exposure to airborne chloride (Cl/sup -/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), fluorides (F/sup -/), and possible other pollutants. Species richness, eveness, and Shannon diversity index were generally depressed within the overstory, subcanopy, and herb strata near industrial sources of air pollutants. A significant relationship between coefficient of community and combined air pollutant index (relative exposure of stands to Cl/sup -/, F/sup -/, and SO/sub 2/) showed that similarity in species composition decreased along a gradient of increasing air pollutant exposure. Increasing air pollutant exposure reduced overstory stem density, but abundance of vegetation in other strata tended to increase along the same gradient. The relative importance of Acer Saccharum Marsh was greatly reduced in all strata with increasing pollutant exposure, whereas Aesculus Octandra March appeared tolerant of air pollutant stress. In understory strata, the importance of Lindera benzoin (l.) blume increased with increasing pollutant exposure.

McClenahen, J.R.

1978-01-01

262

Air Pollution in Megacity Beijing and North China Plain  

Science.gov (United States)

Megacities Beijing is located in North China Plain, which is the region with the highest level of air pollution on the earth. Many studies have been conducted in this region to characterize the air pollutants at local and regional scales, to understand the transport and transformation processes of atmospheric pollution, and to evaluate the impacts of aerosol on climate and cloud formation. Due to its vast area and intensive air pollution, when the fresh emitted air pollutants interact with the aged air pollution plume, it is interest to further explore many scientific questions, such as: 1. Mechanisms for the producing, cycling, and sinks of HOx radicals; 2. Mechanisms of ozone, new particle, and secondary aerosol particles formation; 3. Oxidative capacity and the multiphase reaction on the surface of fine particles; 4. Optical and hygroscopic properties of aerosol and their implication in climate impacts. To address these scientific questions, a field campaign, CAREBEIJING-NCP (Campaigns of Air Pollution Research in Megacity Beijing and North China Plain) is planned in the summer of 2013, as a follow up of CAREBEIJING 2006, 2007, and 2008, but the study region is larger and will cover the North China Plain. Preliminary results of CAREBEIJING-NCP 2013 will be presented.

Zhu, T.

2013-12-01

263

Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.

COHEN AARON J

1997-01-01

264

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population. PMID:24694836

Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

2014-04-01

265

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population

Dana Loomis

2014-04-01

266

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population.

Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

2014-01-01

267

Air pollution abatement in heating sector in Poland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the study on the title subject was to formulate recommendations to reduce the air pollution in the heating sector in Poland. influence the use of energy by changing their behaviour. The main question concerns the options, related policy instruments and their effects on air pollution reduction. Five sub-questions were formulated (1) how is the heating sector structured and what are the effects of the related air pollution?; (2) What are the technological, organizational and behavioral options for pollution reduction, and how much do they contribute to pollution abatement?; (3) What are the policy instruments to implement the options?; (4) What are the financial and environmental effects of related options and instruments?; and (5) How can the various options and policy instruments be combined into a policy proposal? The main questions for this research have been elaborated by literature study and by interviews, both in the Netherlands and in Poland. figs., tabs., 67 refs.

Van Dalen, J.; Pytel, P.; Romanczak, A.; Velina, S.; Verkleij, J.; Yasko, D. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, and Research Center for Photoenergetics of Organic Materials, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

1994-12-31

268

Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt has been made to condense the great volume of literature for many different air pollutants and from many different plant systems. Only those responses that have been reported for several species are emphasized and the discussion is limited to responses obtained with intact plants. The general outline provides a focus; uptake becomes the crucial aspect of whether or not plants are injured by air pollutants. Pollutants must get into the plant to cause injury and the primary portal of entry is through the open stomata. Once into the plant, pollutants alter biochemical reactions, resulting in cell injury and causing economic losses for horticulturists. The authors have developed this outline for the pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), hydrogen fluoride (HF), ozone (O/sub 3/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), which are the most common and and most damaging gaseous pollutants in the ambient environment.

Tibbitts, T.W.; Kobriger, J.M.

1983-10-01

269

The Association of Air Pollution and Emergency Medical Service Seeking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are some reports on the association between air pollution and myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and mortality due to cardiac problems in susceptible individuals. We aimed to evaluate the association of air pollution and the emergency visits due to cardiovascular diseases, in a specialized heart hospital in Tehran.Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Patients admitted to the emergency ward of Tehran Heart Center were consecutively included. Records of meteorological data for the study period were obtained from Air Quality Control Company that monitors the concentration of air pollutants through its several stations including one near to Tehran Heart Center. The principal component analysis was used to examine the association between daily air pollution level and the number of patients admitted as a result of unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmia.Results: The principal component score -reflecting the daily air pollution level- was higher on the admission date of the patients who died in hospital compared to that of the patients who discharged alive from the hospital and the difference was statistically significant. After adjustment for the effect of age, sex, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes, a statistically significant relationship between principal component score and the unstable angina and arrhythmia was detected in patients referred to the emergency department.Conclusion: Air pollution was associated with the unstable angina and arrhythmia in patients referred to the emergency department of Tehran Heart Center, adjusted for the effect of other risk factors.

Mohammad Ali Najafi

2009-09-01

270

The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the distribution of air pollutants as related to such meteorological conditions as temperature inversions, ground inversion, and wind velocity. Uses a power station to illustrate the effect of some of the meteorological conditions mentioned. (GS)

Campbell, N. A.; Gipps, J.

1975-01-01

271

Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

2008-01-01

272

COMPARISON OF BIOINIDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO GENOTOXIC INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Human exposure to complex mixtures of genotoxic indoor air pollutants can be assessed using several different bioanalytical methods. xternal exposure can be assessed using micromutagenesis methods to measure human exposure to mutagens. nternal exposure and dose can be assessed us...

273

Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

1995-12-31

274

Linking Urban Air Pollution to Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate  

Science.gov (United States)

The two major tasks of this project are to study: (a) the impact of urban nonlinear chemistry on chemical budgets of key pollutants in non-urban areas; and (b) the influence of air pollution control strategies in selected metropolitan areas, particularly of emerging economies in East and South Asia, on tropospheric chemistry and hence on regional and global climate.

Wang, Chien

2005-01-01

275

ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...

276

Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

2005-01-01

277

Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

2006-01-01

278

Air pollution in the Czech Republic in 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The regular, state-wide determination of air quality based on systematic monitoring, measuring and evaluating imission, emission and deposition data has become part of the standard services provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. An extensive system of tools for monitoring and evaluation of air pollution within the Czech Republic has been created and is being constantly improved. One of the basic components of this set of tools for monitoring and assessing air quality is the Air Quality Information System (AQIS); a regular output of the annual processing of data collected throughout the year from the AQIS database consists of the Tabular and Graphical Yearbook `Air Pollution in the Czech Republic`. This Graphic Yearbook, with condensed information in the form of tables, graphs and maps, provides an overall survey of the state of air pollution, including assessment of atmospheric deposition. While the Tabular Yearbook, which was published before this Yearbook, provides an objective presentation of verified imission data and information on the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation at the individual monitoring stations, the Graphical Yearbook is concerned mainly with cartographic depiction characterizing the burdening of the territory by air pollution. Tables and maps are included of monthly and annual variations of emissions of particulates, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone and total hydrocarbons. The information is based on the Register of Air Pollution Emissions and Sources (REZZO) database.

Fiala, J.; Sladecek, J.; Hunova, I.; Ostatnicka, J.; Dvorakova, M. [eds.

1995-12-31

279

Evaluation of some air pollution indicators in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article intends to shed a light on air quality in Turkey and compare air pollutant emissions on a national scale with that of the European countries. In order to estimate the quantities of Turkish emissions in the past and their future predictions, a national emission inventory was prepared with respect to five major pollutants consisting of particulate matter(PM), SOx, NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds, and CO with 5-year intervals between 1985 and 2005. The results suggest that Turkey is a rather large emission source at the European scale, although emission indicators on unit area and per capita were shown to be somewhat smaller in magnitude. Levels of air pollution in some of the big cities in Turkey were also evaluated from available national monitoring data. These evaluations for the urban air qualities covered SO2 and PM parameters between 1986 and 1996, and results were compared with the present Turkish air quality limits, their probable revisions, WHO (Europe) guidelines and related EC directives. Results showed that the air quality limits were not met, especially during the winter periods in Turkish cities. Urban air pollutants characterizing the air in Turkish cities other than SO2 and PM, however, could not have been evaluated as these pollutants were not systematically monitored in these cities. (author)

2000-08-01

280

Validation of a 3-D hemispheric nested air pollution model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several air pollution transport models have been developed at the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark over the last decade (DREAM, DEHM, ACDEP and DEOM). A new 3-D nested Eulerian transport-chemistry model: REGIonal high resolutioN Air pollution model (REGINA) is based on modules and parameterisations from these models as well as new methods.

The model covers the majority of the Northern Hemisphere with currently one nest implemented. The horizontal...

Frohn, L. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Brandt, J.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The state of transboundary air pollution: 1989 update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This sixth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the seventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 21 to 24 November 1989. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country by country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two is an executive summary of the 1988 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests which was established by the Executive Body for the Convention in 1985. A total of 25 countries participated in the survey, conducted in accordance with common guidelines laid down in an ECE manual on methodologies and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Parts three and four describe the effects of mercury and some other heavy metals related to the long-range atmospheric transport of pollution. The section on mercury describes the environmental effects and the causes of mercury pollution in air and atmospheric deposition, including its sources and its transport from forest soils into fresh water and aquatic organisms. The section dealing with other heavy metals (such as asbestos, cadmium and lead) describes the process of atmospheric transport and deposition, the effects on forest ecosystems, ground water, surface water and agricultural products. Refs, figs and tabs

1989-11-24

282

AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the impact of three “criteria” air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother’s residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. Our work offers three important innovations: First, we use the exact addresses of mothers to select those closest to air monitors to improve the accuracy of air quality exposure. Second, we include maternal fixed effects to control for unobserved characteristic...

Currie, Janet; Neidell, Matthew; Schmieder, Johannes

2009-01-01

283

Detection of Air Pollutant Using Zigbee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe use of ZigBee, sensor nodes, GPS to construct distributed system for urban airpollution monitoring and control. Zigbee module and pollution server is interfaced with GPS system todisplay real-time pollutants levels and there location on a 24h/7 days basis.

Darshana N. Tambe

2013-08-01

284

Air pollution and horticulture: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is presented of some of the general effects of pollutants on plants, as well as an approach for assessing these effects. The nature of effects can range from no effects at low doses to a reduced growth or yield at higher atmospheric concentrations. In addition to the dose of the pollutant, the degree of response is governed by a number of internal and external factors. Relative number and size of stomata have marked effect on pollutant uptake by the plant; therefore, environmental conditions exert a strong influence on pollutant-induced responses. Future research should focus on determining if the pollutant doses that now occur in areas of horticultural production cause effects and, if so, whether the effects constitute injury.

MacLean, D.C.

1983-10-01

285

Assessing Vulnerability of Women to Indoor Air Pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study an attempt has been made to identify the factors that have contributed to vulnerability of women to indoor air pollution and suggests suitable measures for its intervention. The study is based on primary sources of data collected with the help of questionnaire interviews from a sample of 2,101 women respondents belonging from different income groups, from Aligarh city. Information regarding their cooking conditions (4 factors, cooking related exposures (4 factors, housing (3 factors and health conditions (3 factors were collected. Total 14 factors linked with women vulnerability to indoor air pollution were identified. Indoor air pollutants were monitored in the cooking area and with different fuel usages to assess the indoor air quality. The results show that women are vulnerable to indoor air pollution but there was difference in the levels of vulnerability among the women belonging to different income groups. It was the lower income women who were most vulnerable because they were using biomass fuels/chulhas, cooking in a multipurpose room, spending long hours in kitchen, they were more exposed to smoke, heat, pollutants and the conditions were exacerbated because they were living in sub-standard housing, in one room leading to congestion/crowding and with no ventilation. They were suffering most from various problems and specific diseases like respiratory infections (ALRI, AURI, COPD, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, perinatal mortality, low birth weight, cataract and eye irritation associated with indoor air pollution.

Abha Lakshmi Singh

2012-11-01

286

International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies.

Tracey J. Woodruff

2010-06-01

287

Association of Human Mortality with Air Pollution of Hong Kong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to investigate the general statistical association of air pollution with the cardiovascular and respiratory mortality of the elderly in Hong Kong. Based on six years of measurements including the major air pollutant concentrations (PM10, SO2, NO, NO2, O3, CO, ambient temperature, and mortality (respiratory, cardiovascular between 2005 and 2010, correlation analysis was carried out in annual, monthly and weekly time scales. From an annual perspective, it was found that the air pollution species may pose a constant effect on the respiratory and the cardiovascular mortality during the studied period since the elderly mortality rates and the air pollution annual concentrations show obvious constant trends. From a monthly time scale, it was found that NO2 and CO have high positive cross correlation with the respiratory mortality of the following 1 to 2 months. In addition, PM10 and CO also have similar delayed influence on the cardiovascular mortality. Among these four pollutants, only CO was found to exhibit high statistical association in the weekly time scale and it is most related to the cardiovascular mortality of the week after next. Therefore, it was concluded that the effect of air pollution on the elderly mortality of Hong Kong should be cumulative. This study implies that the establishment of weekly or monthly air quality indices is necessary for health implications.

Ka-In Hoi

2014-05-01

288

Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

1989-01-01

289

Primer on the fuels/air pollution problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel options within the context of desirability as well as availability and convenience are briefly considered. Petrol and diesel fuel are currently the most available, economic and convenient but are the worst polluters. Methanol is only a modest improvement with respect to air pollution. Of the dry gas fuels, methane is the cleanest burning but not as convenient as petrol and diesel. The long range objectives in transportation must be electric power and hydrogen as these are the only options which address the problem of air pollution and renewable energy sources. (UK).

Allen, N.

1985-01-01

290

Air pollution and cause specific mortality in Athens.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the reported association between air pollution and cause specific mortality in the city of Athens. DESIGN--Cause specific mortality was contrasted between 199 d with high values of air pollution and 2*199 comparison days with low pollution, matched in a 1:2 ratio on the basis of various confounding factors. Statistical analysis was done, taking matching into account, using analysis of variance for randomised blocks. SETTING--The study was confined t...

Katsouyanni, K.; Karakatsani, A.; Messari, I.; Touloumi, G.; Hatzakis, A.; Kalandidi, A.; Trichopoulos, D.

1990-01-01

291

How the Guangzhou Government Can Curtail Air Pollution from Road Traffic in a Least Costly Manner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis explores the relationship between the increased motorized traffic and air pollution in urban Guangzhou, the prosperous capital of the Guangdong Province in southern China that is located in the vicinity of Hong Kong and Macao. The emphasis is placed on PM 10 pollutants (particles of less than 10 microns in size). It reviews the current status of ambient air quality, the harmful effects of PM 10 emissions on human health and how to reduce the problem. It is estimated that 3300 premature deaths per year could be avoided if Guangzhou met the Class II of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM 10, and the Guangzhou Government could save 10% of its GDP in 1994. A theoretical framework for reducing pollution problems is presented based on cost-effectiveness theory. There is also an overview of possible pollution reducing measures based on worldwide experience. The theoretical framework is applied to a case study of selected measures: (1) reduced sulfur content of diesel fuel, (2) creating bus lanes, (3) fuel taxation, (4) introduction of toll roads, (5) measures on the metro line. The bus lane measure is found to be the most cost-effective one, followed by the toll road and fuel taxation measures. The metro measure is the most expensive one. Finally, the report recommends to the Guangzhou Government what measures should have first priority according to cost-effectiveness. 23 refs., 14 figs., 21 tabs.

Zhao, Xu

1998-12-01

292

Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

1998-10-01

293

Photochemical and other air pollutants in the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1975, together with the State Institute of Public Health and the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, The Institute of Phytopathological Research continued investigations on incidence of air pollution throughout the Netherlands. Culture vessels with indicator plants were placed on 31 test plots of the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network. During the growing season from May until October, the indicator plants were inspected weekly for typical symptoms of air pollution. Until July, photochemical air pollution by ozone caused less injury to Spinacia oleracea than in the preceding year. On Nicotiana tabacum there was as much injury as in 1974, especially in the 33rd, 36th and 37th week, all over the country. An increasing number of injurious effects by peroxyacetyl nitrate was observed on Petunia nyctaginiflora, Poa annua and Urtica urens. Medicago sativa, Fagopyrum esculentuma nd Petunia nyctaginiflora, indicator plants for the pollutants SO2, NO/sub x/ and ethylene, showed little and Solanum tuberosum, possible indicator plant for ethylene and ozone, no injury in 1975. Finally air pollution by HG occurred on the same scale as in 1974, as shown by Tulipa gesneriana in spring and Gladiolus gandavensis in summer. These results corresponded with the figures for F from the limed paper method. As in 1974, data on injury to the plants and from the limed paper method showed a decline from south to north.

Floor, H.

1976-01-01

294

The association between air pollution and mortality in Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Bayesian statistical inference with a case-crossover design was used to examine the effects of air pollutants {Particulate matter air pollutants had significant short-term impacts on non-accidental mortality. An increase of 10??g/m3 in PM10, 10?ppb in O3, 1?ppb in SO2 were associated with a 0.40% (95% posterior interval (PI): 0.22, 0.59%), 0.78% (95% PI: 0.20, 1.35%) and 0.34% (95% PI: 0.17, 0.50%) increase of non-accidental mortality, respectively. O3 air pollution is significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality, while PM10 is significantly related to respiratory mortality. In general, the effects of all pollutants on all mortality types were higher in summer and winter than those in the rainy season. This study highlights the effects of exposure to air pollution on mortality risks in Thailand. Our findings support the Thailand government in aiming to reduce high levels of air pollution.

Guo, Yuming; Li, Shanshan; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Williams, Gail

2014-01-01

295

Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources.

Mu?ller, Daniel; Klingelho?fer, Doris; Uibel, Stefanie; Groneberg, David A.

2011-01-01

296

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS: IN CANINE SPECIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The Clean Air Act of 1970 as amended in 1977 requires that a comprehensive data base be established to assess human health effects caused by air pollution from mobile sources. The spectrum of potential toxic effects can be viewed from two perspectives: The first is the identifica...

297

Air pollution and neonatal deaths in São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution has been associated with health effects on different age groups. The present study was designed to assess the impact of daily changes in air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particle matter (PM10 on total number of daily neonatal deaths (those that occur between the first and the 28th days of life in São Paulo, from January 1998 to December 2000, since adverse outcomes such as neonatal deaths associated with air pollution in Brazil have not been evaluated before. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used and nonparametric smooth functions (loess were adopted to control long-term trend, temperature, humidity, and short-term trends. A linear term was used for holidays. The association between air pollutants and neonatal deaths showed a short time lag. Interquartile range increases in PM10 (23.3 µg/m³ and SO2 (9.2 µg/m³ were associated with increases of 4% (95% CI, 2-6 and 6% (95% CI, 4-8, respectively. Instead of adopting a two-pollutant model we created an index to represent PM10 and SO2 effects. For an interquartile range increase in the index an increase of 6.3% (95% CI, 6.1-6.5 in neonatal deaths was observed. These results agree with previous studies performed by our group showing the deleterious effects of air pollutants during the perinatal period. The method reported here represents an alternative approach to analyze the relationship between highly correlated pollutants and public health problems, reinforcing the idea of the synergic effects of air pollutants in public health.

C.A. Lin

2004-05-01

298

Air pollution and neonatal deaths in São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Air pollution has been associated with health effects on different age groups. The present study was designed to assess the impact of daily changes in air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particle matter (PM10)) on total number of daily neonatal deaths (those that occur between the first and the 28 [...] th days of life) in São Paulo, from January 1998 to December 2000, since adverse outcomes such as neonatal deaths associated with air pollution in Brazil have not been evaluated before. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used and nonparametric smooth functions (loess) were adopted to control long-term trend, temperature, humidity, and short-term trends. A linear term was used for holidays. The association between air pollutants and neonatal deaths showed a short time lag. Interquartile range increases in PM10 (23.3 µg/m³) and SO2 (9.2 µg/m³) were associated with increases of 4% (95% CI, 2-6) and 6% (95% CI, 4-8), respectively. Instead of adopting a two-pollutant model we created an index to represent PM10 and SO2 effects. For an interquartile range increase in the index an increase of 6.3% (95% CI, 6.1-6.5) in neonatal deaths was observed. These results agree with previous studies performed by our group showing the deleterious effects of air pollutants during the perinatal period. The method reported here represents an alternative approach to analyze the relationship between highly correlated pollutants and public health problems, reinforcing the idea of the synergic effects of air pollutants in public health.

C.A., Lin; L.A.A., Pereira; D.C., Nishioka; G.M.S., Conceição; A.L.F., Braga; P.H.N., Saldiva.

299

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDITS  

Science.gov (United States)

RAPS Quality Assurance audits were conducted under this Task Order in continuation of the audit program previously conducted under Task Order No. 58. Quantitative field audits were conducted of the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) Air Monitoring Stations, Local Air Monitorin...

300

Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too.

Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The use of video for air pollution source monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evaluation of air pollution impacts from single industrial emission sources is a complex environmental engineering problem. Recent developments in multimedia technologies used by personal computers improved the digitizing and processing of digital video sequences. This paper proposes a methodology where statistical analysis of both meteorological and air quality data combined with digital video images are used for monitoring air pollution sources. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the use of image processing algorithms in air pollution source monitoring. CCD amateur video cameras capture images that are further processed by computer. The use of video as a remote sensing system was implemented with the goal of determining some particular parameters, either meteorological or related with air quality monitoring and modeling of point sources. These parameters include the remote calculation of wind direction, wind speed, gases stack's outlet velocity, and stack's effective emission height. The characteristics and behavior of a visible pollutant's plume is also studied. Different sequences of relatively simple image processing operations are applied to the images gathered by the different cameras to segment the plume. The algorithms are selected depending on the atmospheric and lighting conditions. The developed system was applied to a 1,000 MW fuel power plant located at Setubal, Portugal. The methodology presented shows that digital video can be an inexpensive form to get useful air pollution related data for monitoring and modeling purposes.

Ferreira, F.; Camara, A.

1999-07-01

302

Institutional aspects of indoor air pollution in energy efficient residences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the institutional constraints regarding indoor air pollution that exist or may be imposed on the housing industry. These constraints may be manifested in building codes and health laws, tax incentives and spending subsidies, and/or regulations restricting the activities of the industry itself. It also assesses the potential liabilities of designers, manufacturers, builders, and owners of energy-efficient residences should they fail to take appropriate actions to address indoor air quality problems. These liabilities may result from product liability (defective design or manufacture), breach of warranty, or negligence, causing harm to people from indoor air pollution.

Everett, J.J. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM); Dreher, T.J.

1982-01-01

303

Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report comprises two separate complementary parts that address the links between CCS implementation and its subsequent impacts on GHG and air pollutant emissions on a life-cycle basis: Part A discusses and presents key findings from the latest literature, focusing upon the potential air pollution impacts across the CCS life-cycle arising from the implementation of the main foreseen technologies. Both negative and positive impacts on air quality are presently suggested in the literature - the basis of scientific knowledge on these issues is rapidly advancing. Part B comprises a case study that quantifies and highlights the range of GHG and air pollutant life-cycle emissions that could occur by 2050 under a low-carbon pathway should CCS be implemented in power plants across the European Union under various hypothetical scenarios. A particular focus of the study was to quantify the main life-cycle emissions of the air pollutants taking into account the latest knowledge on air pollutant emission factors and life-cycle aspects of the CCS life-cycle as described in Part A of the report. Pollutants considered in the report were the main GHGs CO{sub 2}, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the main air pollutants with potential to harm human health and/or the environment - nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). (Author)

Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Jozwicka, M.; Pulles, T. (TNO, Delft (Netherlands)); Odeh, N. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

2011-11-15

304

The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

1988-11-04

305

Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

2005-07-01

306

Severe ozone air pollution in the Persian Gulf region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently it was discovered that over the Middle East during summer ozone mixing ratios can reach a pronounced maximum in the middle troposphere. Here we extend the analysis to the surface and show that especially in the Persian Gulf region conditions are highly favorable for ozone air pollution. Model results indicate that the region is a hot spot of photo-smog where air quality standards are violated throughout the year. Long-distance transports of air pollution from Europe, the Middle East, natural emissions and stratospheric ozone conspire to bring about high background ozone mixing ratios. This provides a hotbed to indigenous air pollution in the dry local weather conditions, which are likely to get worse in future.

J. Lelieveld

2008-09-01

307

Air pollution impacts from demand-side management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air-polluting emission rates and energy-efficiency ratings vary widely among power plants, depending on location, age and whether the power plant is repowered. Traditional regulations require installation of specified emission control equipment that varies among power plants. These regulations do not specify that utilities first dispatch the cleanest power plants as demand varies from peak to off-peak periods. This empirical analysis shows, for 2 years out of 20, that demand-side management (DSM) programs increase air pollution. One reason for this result is that regulations require installation of specific emission-control technology but do not provide the incentive to take actual emissions or their air quality impacts into account when operating the system. For certain types of air pollutants and in some regions, regulatory programs now include markets for tradable emission credits. Such programs may alter this incentive. (author)

1995-01-01

308

Energy use and air pollution in Indonesia. Supply strategies, environmental impacts and pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book summarises the results of the ''Markal Study'', which is part of the scientific cooperation between the Indonesian and German governments. The nine chapters cover: an introduction to Indonesia and the objectives of the study; demographic and economic developments; fast increasing domestic energy use; pollution development on Jawa in the case of insufficient control; risks for ecosystems on Jawa; health risks from air pollution; pollution development and control cost in the case of reduced emissions, carbon dioxide emission analysis, and final recommendations for air quality management. A bibliography of the project reports on which the book is based as well as other sources is presented. (UK)

1994-01-01

309

Air pollutants and energy pathways: Extending models for abatement strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents the development and applications of regional and local scale models for use in integrated assessment of air pollution effects in conjunction with large-scale models. A regional deposition model called DAIQUIRI (Deposition, AIr QUality and Integrated Regional Information) for integrated assessment purposes in Finland was constructed, and regional matrices for nitrogen oxides and ammonia were developed from the results of the regional air quality model of the FMI. DAIQUIRI p...

Syri, Sanna

2001-01-01

310

Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its reactivity with the adjacent surfaces, in addition to the crack geometry and pressure difference. Infiltrating air can also travel through wall cavities, where the penetration of particles and ozone is predicted to vary substantially, depending mainly on whether air flow passes through fiberglass insulation. For ozone, its reactivity with the insulation materials is also an important factor. The overall pollutant penetration factor is governed by the flow-weighted average from all air leakage pathways. Large building leaks would strongly influence the overall penetration factor, because they permit much larger flow.

Liu, De-Ling

2002-09-01

311

Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. PMID:24552771

Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

2014-05-01

312

Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China....

Xing, J.; Wang, S. X.; Chatani, S.; Zhang, C. Y.; Wei, W.; Hao, J. M.; Klimont, Z.; Cofala, J.; Amann, M.

2011-01-01

313

Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality  

Science.gov (United States)

The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

2012-04-01

314

Lichens as bioindicators of geothermal air pollution in central Italy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The suitability of lichens as bioindicators of geothermal air pollution was evaluated in central Italy. Fifty-one sites were sampled in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field, an area of about 15 km{sup 2}. Lichens on 1-5 trees per station were sampled, using 30 x 50 cm grids on tree boles, where lichens were most dense. Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) was calculated as the sum of the frequencies of all lichen species present at the station. Using automatic mapping programs, the area was divided into four air quality zones and the lowest IAP values were found within about 500 m of geothermal power plants. No direct measurements of air pollution are available for the whole study area, however, other studies show that air pollution levels (mercury, boron) fall with distance from a geothermal source. Also no substrate parameter (height, circumference, bark pH, and buffer capacity of the trees) discriminates between IAP zones. This suggests that air pollution arising from geothermal emissions is responsible for the zonation shown, with values for species richness and IAP rising with distance from geothermal installations. It is concluded that lichens are reliable bioindicators of geothermal pollution. 64 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Loppi, S. [Universita di Siena (Italy)

1996-11-01

315

Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people ({ge}60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection.

Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J. (Pan American Health Organization, Mexico City (Mexico))

1991-09-01

316

Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth: a potential mechanistic link.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G; O'Neill, Marie S

2014-02-01

317

The air pollution and municipal waste forecast in 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the situation for air pollution control in the USA in 1997. New air pollution regulations for power plants and municipal waste incinerators are tougher than their predecessors, but deregulation has given utilities more choice over where and when pollution permits will be used. The USA`s emission of SO{sub 2} and greenhouse gases is still high by international standards, and will come down in the next few years as old plant is closed. Asia is expanding coal use for power generation, leading to an increase in demand for pollution control equipment, while demand in the Americas and Europe remains roughly even. Among expanding markets are those for catalytic reduction technologies, electrostatic precipitators, and emission monitoring equipment. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

McIlvaine, R.W. [McIlvaine Company (United States)

1997-01-01

318

Fruticose lichen transplant technique for air pollution experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouz. and Vezta lichens were transplanted into small plastic containers and placed in the area surrounding a chemical factory and in built-up areas in Oulu, Northern Finland. The changes occasioned in the lichens by the effects of air pollution were determined under the microscope, by photography, by measuring their net assimilation rate (URAS-2), chlorophyll content, pH and electrical conductivity, and by various chemical analyses. The results obtained from two autumn series of experiments are presented here. The lichens reacted fairly sharply to pollutants in the air, in a manner reflecting the qualitative differences between the town environment and the fertilizer factory as sources of pollution. The technique described here is compared with transplants of corticolous lichens. It seems that fruticose lichens may be successfully used as pollution indicators provided that the exposure period is short; only a few months.

Kauppi, M.

1976-01-01

319

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AIR POLLUTANTS, AS PARAMETERS OF COMPLEX AIR QUALITY INDICES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human health is essentially influenced by air quality. Atmospheric air in residential areas contains many pollutants. The monitoring and the plain publishing of the measured values are important both for the authorities and the public. Air quality is often characterized by constructing air quality indices, and these indices are used to inform the public. The construction of an advanced air quality index is usually done by averaging the measured data usually in time and space; hereby important...

2007-01-01

320

Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

SULISTIJORINI

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Seasonal ARIMA for Forecasting Air Pollution Index: A Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Both developed and developing countries are the major reason that affects the world environment quality. In that case, without limit or warning, this pollution may affect human health, agricultural, forest species and ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the monthly and seasonal variations of Air Pollution Index (API) at all monitoring stations in Johor. Approach: In this study, time series models will be discussed to analyze future ai...

Lee, Muhammad H.; Rahman, Nur H. A.; Suhartono; Latif, Mohd T.; Nor, Maria E.; Kamisan, Nur A. B.

2012-01-01

322

Outdoor air pollution, low birth weight, and prematurity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was monitored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particles (TSP), and nitrous oxides (NOx) in each trimester of pregnancy were estimated as the arithmetic mea...

2000-01-01

323

The distribution of air pollution in Canada: Exploring injustices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The environmental justice movement initiated an interest amongst academics to explore this topic empirically. Researchers attempted to determine if harms attributed to pollution and toxic wastes were disproportionately distributed to poor minority groups. This thesis explores air pollution exposure and its relationship to socioeconomic status in a Canadian context. A brief discussion on current social, economic, and political factors and its relationship to corporate violence and environmenta...

Glenn, Heather

2006-01-01

324

Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of (long-range) airborne transport. It has a heterogeneous composition in time and space and consists of many known and unknown compounds. Given the unknown chemical identity and toxicity of many constituents of this mix...

Hamers, T. H. M.

2002-01-01

325

Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In xerophytes, like conifers, the epicuticular wax is well developed. Especially in and around stomatal entrances, a thick wax coating is present. Epicuticular waxes are modified by changes in plant growth conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, irradiance, and wind, or acid rain. The fine structure of epicuticular waxes, their chemistry, and ecophysiological function are modified, especially in evergreen, long-lived conifer needles with characteristic crystalline wax structures. During needle flushing and development, wax structure is easily modified. Acid rain-treated Scots pine needles had 50% less epicuticular waxes in early August. Pollution-induced delayed development, destruction, and disturbances have been identified in many plant species. The structural changes in wax crystals are known. Acid rain or polluted air can destroy the crystalloid epicuticular waxes in a few weeks. In Pinus sylvestris, the first sign of pollution effect is the fusion of wax tubes. In Picea abies and P. sitchensis, modifications of crystalloid wax structure are known. In Californian pine trees phenomena of recrystallization of wax tubes on second-year needles were observed after delayed epicuticular wax development in Pinus ponderosa and P. coulteri. Thus, the effects of air pollutants are modified by climate. Accelerated senescence of leaves and needles have been associated with natural and anthropogenic stresses. The accelerated erosion rate of epicuticular waxes has been measured under air pollution conditions. Many short-term air pollution experiments have failed to show any structural changes in epicuticular wax structures. The quantity and quality of needle waxes grown in open-top chambers, glass houses, or polluted air before treatment, differ from field conditions and make it difficult to detect effects of any treatment. (orig.)

1994-01-01

326

Air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past decade, an increasing body of scientific evidence has accrued associating outdoor air pollution with certain types of cancer. Ambient air, particularly in densely populated urban environments, contains a variety of known human carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene and benzene, inorganic compounds (e.g., arsenic and chromium, and radionuclides. Now, it is well recognized that urbanization and lung cancer mortality are linked. This association could arise from differences in the distributions of other lung cancer risk factors, such as smoking and occupational exposures, by degree of urbanization, etc. Air pollution has positively been associated with lung cancer mortality and cardiopulmonary disease mortality, but not with mortality from other causes combined. New studies will need to develop and apply improved epidemiologic methods and to compare the effect of exposure to the pollutant mixtures on lung cancer in different cities while effectively controlling confounding factors including cigarette smoking and diet.

Niki? Dragana

2005-01-01

327

A pound of prevention: Air pollution and the fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The expanded use of fuel cells in transportation and power generation is an exciting proposition for public health officials because of the potential of this technology to help reduce air pollution levels around the globe. Such work is about prevention -- prevention of air emissions of hazardous substances. Prevention is a key concept in public health. An example is quarantine, which aims to prevent the spread of a disease-causing organism. In the environmental arena, prevention includes cessation of pollution. Air pollution prevention policies also have a practical impact. Sooner or later ideas on technology, especially new technology, must be sold to policy makers, legislators, and eventually the public. Advocating technologies that will improve human health and welfare can be an effective marketing strategy.

Johnson, B.L. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States); Rose, R. [Fuel Cells, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

328

Back-ground air pollution on mountain Medvednica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A theory of the background pollution has been derived which enables to determine a local background pollutant concentration, Cb, by means of simultaneous series of wind velocities and pollutant concentrations data. The value of Cb can be obtained as a limit of a pollutant concentration, C, when wind velocity approaches its maximum. That way the background value of SO2 concentrations at Puntijarka (988 m high, Medvednica mountain) was determined for the general case and particularly for winds from the city of Zagreb (southeastern foot of Medvednica). An intercomparison of these Cb values proves the top of Medvednica reliable for the detection of pollutants brought to the northeastern Croatia by air streams from distant emission sources. (orig.)

Sinik, N.; Marki, A. [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Science, Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia); Loncar, E. [Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Zagreb (Croatia)

1994-12-31

329

Use of mass spectroscopy in the analysis of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that mass spectroscopy can be successfully applied in all three fields of air pollution investigations. In the case of the inorganic components of aerosols and gas phase pollutants mass spectroscopy provides the most economical method of survey analysis. In the field of organic pollutants even the routine control can be successfully made by the use of mass spectroscopy, taking the advantage of the very powerful performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy systems. The authors' reasoning is supported by many illustrative examples.

Gal, T. (Pedagogicka fakulta, Katedra fizike, Nitra (Czechoslovakia))

1981-01-01

330

Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

1997-12-31

331

Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in the assimilatory cells, especially from palisade parenchyma. The necrotic areas shows hypertrophied assimilatory cells with thick walls and tannin deposits. Solid deposits are present on both on upper and lower epidermis.

Irina Neta GOSTIN

2009-05-01

332

Are children safe indoor from outdoor air pollution? A short review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Air pollution is a serious threat to children health. Given that children spend over 80% of their time indoors, understanding transport of pollutants from outdoor to indoor environments is important for assessing the impact of exposure to outdoor pollution on children health. The most common advice given during a smoke pollution episode is to stay indoors. How well this works depends on how clean the indoor air is and how pollutants from outdoor air contribute to pollutants load i...

Giovanni Ghirga; Mara Pipere

2012-01-01

333

Air pollution more dangerous than nuclear risk?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reported view of the United Kingdom Engineering Council is that in order to make a significant contribution towards helping reduce the effects of environmental pollution and global warming, the country must press ahead with new plans to introduce and develop skills in nuclear power technology for the design of standard low-cost nuclear power plants for widespread implementation in the United Kingdom and developing countries. (author)

1990-01-01

334

Air pollution in the Eastern-Bohemian region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Eastern Bohemian region covers a surface of 11,240 kmat2 and has 1,288,000 inhabitants. In 1978 emission of solid particles into the atmosphere was 153,194 t per year, and amount of gases discharged to the atmosphere was 192,861 t per year. Situation in 11 urban and industrial centers of the region is evaluated. It is stressed that power stations using coal are one of the main sources of air pollution in the region. The power stations produce about 25% of the solid particles polluting the atmosphere and about 40% of gaseous pollution in the air. The share is actually higher as many local power stations are not classified in the power producing branch of the economy but are regarded as part of the industrial plants in which they are located (e.g. the chemical plant VCHZ Semtin which has its own power station producing 10,400 t of sulfur dioxide yearly). In some areas of the Eastern Bohemian region power stations are the largest source of air polution. In the area of Trutnov and Pardubice the power stations produce over 55% of air pollution with solid particles and gases, mainly sulfur dioxide. It is suggested that measures aimed at reducing air pollution by power stations are inadequate. The situation deteriorates as power stations use coal with increasing content of sulfur compounds. In some areas, e.g. Hradec Kralove-Pardubice, air pollution creates intensive hazards to the natural environment in recreational areas such as Orlicke Hory and the Zelezne Hory mountains. (5 refs.) (In Czech)

Rudolf, E.

1980-01-01

335

Temporal variability of air-pollutants over Abu Dhabi, UAE  

Science.gov (United States)

Air quality, the measure of the concentrations of gaseous pollutants and size or number of particulate matter, is one of the most important problems worldwide and has strong implications on human health, ecosystems, as well as regional and global climate. The levels of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), etc. show an alarming increase in urban cities across the world and in many cases, the concentrations have grown well above the World Health Organization's guidelines for ambient air-quality standards. Here, we present the periodic fluctuations observed in the concentrations of air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, O3, CO, H2S, NMHC (Non methane Hydro Carbon) and VOC (volatile organic compounds) based on the measurements collected during the period 2008-2010 at Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (24.42oN, 54.61oE, 7m MSL). The measurements were carried out using an Air Quality Monitoring System (AQM60). All these pollutant species showed statistical periodic: diurnal, monthly, seasonal and annual variations. Diurnally, all the species, except ozone, depicted an afternoon low and nighttime/early morning high, attributed to the dynamics of the local atmospheric boundary layer. Whereas, an opposite pattern with daytime high and nighttime low was observed for O3, as the species is formed in the troposphere by catalytic photochemical reactions of NOx with CO, CH4 and other VOCs. Seasonally, the pollutants depicted higher values during summer and relatively lower values during winter, associated with changes in synoptic airmass types and/or removal processes. Concentrations of all the gaseous pollutants are within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) throughout the year, whereas the PM10 often exceeded the limits, especially during dust storm episodes.

Ghedira, H.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Beegum S, N.

2013-12-01

336

Air pollution in Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reykjavik, with its 110,000 inhabitants, is the capital of Iceland, a volcanic island in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, located far away from the continents of Europe and America. Icelanders enjoy non-polluting central heating from natural geothermal heat and electricity from hydroelectric station which is relatively inexpensive. In Iceland there are only three relatively large scale aluminium and ferrosilicon factories as the major air-contaminating industry. The only pollution from the combustion of fuel in Iceland is from the fishing fleet, fishmeal factories and car traffic. The concentrations of main polluting gases has been measured systematically in Reykjavik since 1990. It is apparent that the main source of pollution in Reykjavik is from car traffic. However, pollution originating from continental Europe and America has been observed. High background ozone concentration in the air, especially in late winter months has a profound effect on the concentration of nitrogen oxides from car traffic. The nitrogen monoxide in car exhaust react with the high background ozone and is converted to nitrogen dioxide. In calm winterdays when the background ozone is high the exhausted nitrogen monoxide concentration tends to escalate causing the nitrogen dioxide to exceed the air quality limits. The high background ozone thus seem to play important role in the effect of emissions from car traffic on the air quality in Reykjavik. (Author)

Benjaminsson, Jon [Reykjavik City Dept. of Hygiene and Environmental Control, Div. of Environmental Control, Reykjavik (Iceland)

1999-07-01

337

Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

1995-12-31

338

Indoor Air-Assessment Indoor Biological Pollutants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological aerosols have been recognized as indoor hazards for several hundred years. Pasteur demonstrated that infectious diseases are transmitted through indoor air. Dust has been a recognized allergen since the mid-19th century. Recently, however, the ...

1992-01-01

339

Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

2004-01-01

340

Air quality in the municipality of Loznica: The characteristics of the main air polluters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Researches of existing environmental state represent the basis of the researches for the needs of planning new activities or increasing existing activities in space, but also the basis for population’s health research and protection and maintains of areas with important natural and cultural-historic values. Investigations of air pollution and air quality fall into group of basic activities during describing and evaluating the total environmental state in certain area. This paper identifies the main sources of air pollution in the municipality of Loznica and, according to results of measured values of air pollutants (emission and imission values, concludes about air quality. It also proposes in the end mitigation measures for improvement of the air quality, and therefore of entire environment.

Obradovi? Danijela

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slovak air protection legislation is fully identical with the relevant EU legislation. The results of air pollution monitoring in Slovakia in 2004 are summarised in the presented report. The territory of Slovakia was partitioned into 8 zones (identical with administrative counties) and 2 agglomerations (the largest towns Bratislava and Kosice). In 2004 were specified 17 areas with controlled air quality, which totally include 2 774 km2 and 1 460 000 inhabitants (27 % of population). The Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) maintains national air pollution monitoring network in Slovakia. In 2004, it consisted of 29 real-time monitoring stations, 6 real-time ground level ozone monitoring stations only and 5 regional background stations. The monitoring network was built in accordance with the rules given in EU directives. Only reference or equivalence measuring methods are used. (authors))

2005-01-01

342

Recognition, evaluation, and control of indoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor air pollution is typically associated with terms sick building syndrome, tight building syndrome, building related illness, and problem building. Indoor air pollution is a relatively new public health concern (approximately 15 years old) although this issue is an age-old problem dating back to prehistoric times when humans came to live indoors. This presentation summarizes indoor air quality issues in order to provide you with usable information concerning the recognition and evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and the subsequent control measures which can be used for maintaining or improving the indoor air environment for better occupant health and comfort control. Why has the subject become so vocalized in the last fifteen years? Why the sudden interest and awareness concerning indoor air quality issues? During the last half of the 1970's and all of the 1980's, buildings were built or remodeled to minimize air handling, heating, and cooling costs, often limiting the amount of outside air brought into the buildings to near minimums. Paralleling these developments, complaints related to modern buildings increased. The new terms tight building syndrome, sick building syndrome, and indoor air quality became widely used by health and safety professionals and subsequently by newspaper columnist and the general public

1992-10-13

343

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

2011-10-01

344

Progress in the prevention and control of air pollution in 1988: Report to congress. Annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contents of this study: air quality trends, monitoring, and modeling; air pollution research programs; development of national ambient air; quality standards; assessment and control of toxic air pollutants; status of air quality management programs; control of stationary source emissions; stationary source compliance; control of mobile source emissions; stratospheric ozone protection; indoor air quality; acid deposition; radon assessment and remediation; litigation

1990-01-01

345

Air pollution in the megacities of Asia (APMA) | Projects at SEI  

...Air pollution in the megacities of Asia (APMA) | Projects at SEI Air pollution in the megacities of Asia (APMA)...org +44 1904 432917 Air pollution in the megacities of Asia (APMA) APMA built upon the efforts of UNEP/WHO to improve air pollution policies ... Urban air pollution in most Asian megacities (with a population of more than ten million) such as Beijing, Delhi and ...Programme, World Health Organization and SEI initiated the Air Pollution in the Megacities of Asia (APMA) project.APMA focused on the development ...

346

Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution. Doctoral thesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis several experiments have been described on the applicability of lichens as biomonitors for trace-element air pollution. The aim of the thesis was to gain knowledge about the relationships between trace-element concentrations in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and/or depositions of trace elements on a regional and national scale, and about the processes involved in the element uptake and release by lichens. (Copyright (c) 1993 by J.E. Sloof.)

Sloof, J.E.

1993-09-27

347

Assessing the health benefits of air pollution reduction for children.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Benefit-cost analyses of environmental regulations are increasingly mandated in the United States. Evaluations of criteria air pollutants have focused on benefits and costs associated with adverse health effects. Children are significantly affected by the health benefits of improved air quality, yet key environmental health policy analyses have not previously focused specifically on children's effects. In this article we present a "meta-analysis" approach to child-specific health impa...

2004-01-01

348

Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. parti...

Müller Daniel; Klingelhöfer Doris; Uibel Stefanie; Groneberg David A

2011-01-01

349

Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It...

Mu?ller, Daniel; Klingelho?fer, Doris; Uibel, Stefanie; Groneberg, Jan David Alexander

2011-01-01

350

Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures.

Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle

2013-01-01

351

An Integrated Agent-Based Framework for Assessing Air Pollution Impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution has considerable impact on human health and the wellbeing. Thus many regions of the world have established air pollution standards to ensure a minimum level of air quality. Precise assessment of the health and socio-economic impacts of air pollution is, however, a complex task; indeed, methods based within an epidemiological tradition generally underestimate human risk of exposure to polluted air. In this study, we introduce an agent-based modeling approach to ascertaining the i...

David Newth; Don Gunasekera

2012-01-01

352

Traffic related air pollution : spatial variation, health effects and mitigation measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is probably the most intensely studied field in today’s environmental health research. The extensive body of literature on health effects associated with air pollution exposure has lead to prioritization of air pollution as public health risk factor and air quality regulations worldwide. At current levels air pollution, however, still has a significant health impact. Science could play an important role in the continuing policy debate on this issue, by providing a solid eviden...

2011-01-01

353

Air pollution control apparatus and process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved rotatable collector, which by its position becomes a filtering and adsorbing station and a combustion and desorbing station, and an oxidizer are utilized in an apparatus and process for removing airborne particulate materials and organic vapors from an air stream. The rotatable collector comprises an assembly of alternate layers of refractory microfiber, metal screens, and a thin layer of adsorbent carbon.

Foss, G.D.

1982-09-07

354

Market Report : The air pollution control market in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents some facts about how Canadian companies can work within the many innovative programs designed by the Canadian federal government to facilitate the export of Canadian products and services into the Argentine air pollution control market. As the economy stabilizes in Argentina, more effort is being given to issues of environmental protection and the Argentine government is increasing funding on environmental programs. The country is also strengthening its environmental legislation and increasing enforcement. The Kyoto and Montreal Protocols have brought attention to air quality issues such as climate change, emissions trading, and ozone depleting substances. Several initiatives currently focus on air quality monitoring and data collection since much information has to be gathered on air pollution levels. Emission control equipment for chemical, petrochemical, mining and power sectors are the best prospects for air pollution control, along with monitoring equipment, consulting services and fuel conversion equipment for vehicles and industrial plants. It was noted that there are legal and practical difficulties regarding new contract negotiations in Argentina, particularly with the decline in credit availability. This paper outlined the key factors shaping market growth. Most opportunities lies with projects funded by international financial institutions. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics focused on issues such as direct sales, import regulations, and export credit risks. It is recommended that companies interested in the Argentine market contact the Embassy in Buenos Aires for information. refs., tabs

2002-01-01

355

Market Report : The air pollution control market in Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents some facts about how Canadian companies can work within the many innovative programs designed by the Canadian federal government to facilitate the export of Canadian products and services into the Argentine air pollution control market. As the economy stabilizes in Argentina, more effort is being given to issues of environmental protection and the Argentine government is increasing funding on environmental programs. The country is also strengthening its environmental legislation and increasing enforcement. The Kyoto and Montreal Protocols have brought attention to air quality issues such as climate change, emissions trading, and ozone depleting substances. Several initiatives currently focus on air quality monitoring and data collection since much information has to be gathered on air pollution levels. Emission control equipment for chemical, petrochemical, mining and power sectors are the best prospects for air pollution control, along with monitoring equipment, consulting services and fuel conversion equipment for vehicles and industrial plants. It was noted that there are legal and practical difficulties regarding new contract negotiations in Argentina, particularly with the decline in credit availability. This paper outlined the key factors shaping market growth. Most opportunities lies with projects funded by international financial institutions. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics focused on issues such as direct sales, import regulations, and export credit risks. It is recommended that companies interested in the Argentine market contact the Embassy in Buenos Aires for information. refs., tabs.

NONE

2002-06-01

356

Distribution of annual quantile and extreme value of air pollutant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt is made to obtain a relationship between the annual mean concentration of an air pollutant and the probability of the annual quantile or the maximum value exceeding a given environmental standard for the pollutant. Since the distribution of air pollutant concentration is often represented by a log-normal distribution, the asymptotic distributions of the sample quantile and extreme value in the case of a log-normal distribution are proposed. These results are applied to determine the design annual mean concentration of NO/sub 2/ or SO/sub 2/ with a fixed calculated risk which is the probability of the annual quantile or the maximum value exceeding the standard level.

Itoh, M.

1981-01-01

357

Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution in Homes with Infants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infants spend most of their indoor time at home; however, residential air quality is poorly understood. We investigated the air quality of infants’ homes in the New England area of the U.S. Participants (N = 53 were parents of infants (0–6 months who completed telephone surveys to identify potential pollutant sources in their residence. Carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?0.5 µm (PM0.5, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs were measured in 10 homes over 4–7 days, and levels were compared with health-based guidelines. Pollutant levels varied substantially across homes and within homes with overall levels for some homes up to 20 times higher than for other homes. Average levels were 0.85 ppm, 663.2 ppm, 18.7 µg/m3, and 1626 µg/m3 for CO, CO2, PM0.5, and TVOCs, respectively. CO2, TVOCs, and PM0.5 levels exceeded health-based indoor air quality guidelines. Survey results suggest that nursery renovations and related potential pollutant sources may be associated with differences in urbanicity, income, and presence of older children with respiratory ailments, which could potentially confound health studies. While there are no standards for indoor residential air quality, our findings suggest that additional research is needed to assess indoor pollution exposure for infants, which may be a vulnerable population.

Michelle L. Bell

2011-12-01

358

Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public?s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

2014-07-01

359

Database of air and noise pollution in Lebanon. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing global public concern over deteriorating air quality and greenhouse gases emissions released from various combustion processes, and particularly power plants and transportation system, led governments and local authorities, especially in industrialised countries into taking these issues seriously and establishing standards to reduce air pollution down to acceptable levels, (clean air act, earth summit,...). The transportation sector has another unwanted product, noise pollution caused by different segments of this sector including the noise produced by the engine, tires noise and exhaust noise, in addition to the noise product by private standby generals operating during electricity cut-off periods. To be able to estimate the environmental impacts of the national power plants and the transportation sector, it is necessary to collect enough data (samples of lead emissions, SO2 concentration, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, ozone and carbon monoxide) using specified planning procedures. These samples will then be analyzed and the results will be compared to international standards to assess the implication of these pollutants. For this purpose, the proposed project is aimed at developing data base, over a period of two or more years, for air and noise pollution based on results to be obtained from extensive sampling procedure and under different atmospheric conditions (author)

1996-01-01

360

Determination of air pollution using the analytical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods of determining air pollution (gas, dust, etc.) using analytical methods are demonstrated. Measuring techniques modified by the ZfI and the advanced equipment developed for this purpose are described, and their parameters and characteristics given. Practical experiences are evaluated using examples of application, and these are discussed with a view to possible future developments. (author)

1981-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review of application of lichens and mosses as biomonitors of air pollution have been presented. The neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy have been used for trace element content determination in lichens and mosses taken from different regions of Europe

2001-03-15

362

Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Air Pollution Model  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present the discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the problem of the two-dimensional air pollution model. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is called the semidiscrete formulation. We show the existence and uniqueness of the ODE system and provide the error estimates for the numerical error.

Zhao, Lite; Hou, Qinzhi

2011-01-01

363

Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Air Pollution Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present the discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the problem of the two-dimensional air pollution model. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is called the semidiscrete formulation. We show the existence and uniqueness of the ODE system and provide the error estimates for the numerical error.

Xijian Wang

2013-06-01

364

Economic growth, international trade and air pollution. A decomposition analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study analyzes the impact of economic growth and international trade on the level of air pollution. This is done by the estimation of the Structural Equation Model with two factors describing the structure of economic activity and air pollution intensity. It is further assumed that there is causal link between these two factors and that they are influenced by per capita income, international trade intensity and the Freedom House Index. The estimation results suggest that in the developing countries analyzed both international trade and per capita income lead to changes in the structure of economic activity and - as a consequence - to the increase in air pollution. In addition, the estimation results suggest that the impact of economic growth on air pollution intensity varies between the developing and developed countries. In the developing countries, this impact occurs through the change of the structure of economic activity, while in the developed countries, this impact is mainly direct and occurs through the sum of the scale effect and income effect. The positive sign of this impact suggests the dominance of the scale effect over the income effect. (author)

2009-03-15

365

HANDBOOK ON CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: HAP MANUAL  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is based on an examination of engineering design and study type (+/- 30%) cost estimation procedures for 10 add-on control techniques for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). he examination updated and revised the first edition of the EPA's HAP manual to reflect advances in...

366

Leaf wettability as a measure of air pollution effects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Droplet contact angle (DCA) is a technique that can be used to measure wettability and, in turn, provide an assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of a surface. As adapted to plant bioligy, DCA measurements have been useful in characterizing changes in the type or condition of leaf epicuticular waxes. Environmental as well as temporal factors can modify the biophysical features of epicuticular wax surfaces and thereby affect DCA measurements. An understanding of the role of these non-pollutant factors is necessary before pollution damage can be accurately assessed. Controlled chamber experiments and field pollutant gradient studies have shown that DCA is generally reduced when plants are exposed to air pollutants such as ozone, So{sub 2}, and acidic fog. In some cases, environmental influences, such as temperature, have been separated from the pollutant effect. However, mixtures of anthropogenic pollutants or anthropogenic and natural compounds (sea salts, dust particles) which are often present in field studies can confound the interpretation of DCA measurements. A few studies that attempt to separate these factors have been conducted, but more are needed before the potential for using DCA measurements in long-term bioindicator studies can be fully realized. Some studies have demonstrated that pollutants do not necessarily affect leaf surfaces in a uniform pattern, but rather are specific for certain structures such as stomates or trichomes; deposition levels can also be different on ad- and abaxial surfaces. The degree to which these inhomogeneities of action can affect DCA measurements needs further study. (orig.)

Jagels, R. [Dept. of Forest Biology, Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

1994-12-31

367

Leaf wettability as a measure of air pollution effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Droplet contact angle (DCA) is a technique that can be used to measure wettability and, in turn, provide an assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of a surface. As adapted to plant bioligy, DCA measurements have been useful in characterizing changes in the type or condition of leaf epicuticular waxes. Environmental as well as temporal factors can modify the biophysical features of epicuticular wax surfaces and thereby affect DCA measurements. An understanding of the role of these non-pollutant factors is necessary before pollution damage can be accurately assessed. Controlled chamber experiments and field pollutant gradient studies have shown that DCA is generally reduced when plants are exposed to air pollutants such as ozone, So_2, and acidic fog. In some cases, environmental influences, such as temperature, have been separated from the pollutant effect. However, mixtures of anthropogenic pollutants or anthropogenic and natural compounds (sea salts, dust particles) which are often present in field studies can confound the interpretation of DCA measurements. A few studies that attempt to separate these factors have been conducted, but more are needed before the potential for using DCA measurements in long-term bioindicator studies can be fully realized. Some studies have demonstrated that pollutants do not necessarily affect leaf surfaces in a uniform pattern, but rather are specific for certain structures such as stomates or trichomes; deposition levels can also be different on ad-and abaxial surfaces. The degree to which these inhomogeneities of action can affect DCA measurements needs further study. (orig.)

1994-01-01

368

microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

Jardim, Melanie J., E-mail: melaniejardim@gmail.com [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-12-01

369

Ambient air pollution associated to domestic wood burning heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main publications are considering effects of wood burning appliances on indoor air quality, which is a major issue in some countries. But impacts on ambient air, close environment and human exposure are rather poorly characterised so far. Besides, woods burning for domestic purpose may develop in the next years while promoting bio fuels. The aim of the ongoing study is to assess in which conditions associated air pollution and population exposure could be significant, this poster shows preliminary results of the impact of a village of 98 houses equipped with a wood burning heating system. (N.C.)

Friboulet, I.; Durif, M.; Malherbe, L. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France)

2009-03-15

370

Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on the pollutant concentrations in the Arctic in spring and summer, even for species that are produced exclusively by humans, such as POPs.

Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.

2007-12-01

371

Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.  

Science.gov (United States)

Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors. PMID:16448686

Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

2006-08-01

372

Determining carrying capacity of air pollutant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Define the definition of carrying capacity is very difficult. It is complicated by background concentration and stack height in studied regions. However, this issue is important for balancing the economical development and environment protection. Various ways for determining carrying capacities are compared. It is found the size of studied area should be properly chosen in order to calculate the capacity. We suggest the size should be larger than 20 km x 20 km for ground source in order to eliminate the problem of background concentration. The carrying capacity per unit studied area will be close to the concentration of air quality standard multiplied by dry deposition rate.

Ben-Jei Tsuang; Liao, C.M. [National Chung-Hsing Univ., Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-12-31

373

Development and evaluation of Vehicular Air Pollution Inventory model  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating emissions by road traffic is a key-issue for air pollution management in many regions. Emission models are important tools to help compute vehicular exhausts. There are several vehicular emission models available worldwide, though most of them have been developed in countries with advanced economies. Due to substantial differences in conditions and available datasets, application of these models in developing countries like India might be misleading. To bridge the gap between the available models and the tools needed in developing countries, the Vehicular Air Pollution emission Inventory (VAPI) model has been developed and evaluated. The proposed VAPI model is based on a simple approach incorporating emission factors and correction factors. This model can be used for estimating emissions for exhaust, evaporative and non-exhaust conditions in Indian cities. The temporal trend of emission estimates calculated with the VAPI model show reasonable agreement with ambient air concentrations monitored at locations significantly influenced by vehicular activity.

Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.

2012-11-01

374

METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME I. EXPERIMENTS IN THE ECONOMICS OF AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

The volume employs the analytical and empirical methods of economics to develop hypotheses on disease etiologies and to value labor productivity and consumer losses due to air pollution-induced mortality and morbidity. In the mortality work, 1970 city-wide mortality rates for maj...

375

Methods of valuing air pollution and estimated monetary values of air pollutants in various U.S. regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollutant emission values are used to determine the social costs of various technologies that cause air pollution and to estimate the benefits of emission control technologies. In this report, the authors present two methods of estimating air pollutant emission values--the damage value method and the control cost method--and review 15 recent studies in which these methods were employed to estimate emission values. The reviewed studies derived emission values for only a limited number of areas; emission value estimates are needed for other US regions. Using the emission values estimated in the reviewed studies, they establish regression relationships between emission values, air pollutant concentrations, and total population exposed, and apply the established relationships to 17 US metropolitan areas to estimate damage-based and control-cost-based emission values for reactive organic gases, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter measuring less than 10 microns, sulfur oxides, and carbon monoxide in these areas. Their estimates show significant variations in emission values across the 17 regions.

Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.; Warinner, S.A.

1994-12-01

376

Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which reacts rapidly with organics, leading to the formation of other potentially toxic air pollutants. Indoor reactive chemistry involving the nitrate radical and cleaning-product constituents is also of concern, since it produces organic nitrates as well as some of the same oxidation products generated by ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Few studies have directly addressed the indoor concentrations of TACs that might result from primary emissions or secondary pollutant formation following the use of cleaning agents and air fresheners. In this paper, we combine direct empirical evidence with the basic principles of indoor pollutant behavior and with information from relevant studies, to analyze and critically assess air pollutant exposures resulting from the use of cleaning products and air fresheners. Attention is focused on compounds that are listed as HAPs, TACs or Proposition 65 carcinogens/reproductive toxicants and compounds that can readily react to generate secondary pollutants. The toxicity of many of these secondary pollutants has yet to be evaluated. The inhalation intake of airborne organic compounds from cleaning product use is estimated to be of the order of 10 mg d(-1) person(-1) in California. More than two dozen research articles present evidence of adverse health effects from inhalation exposure associated with cleaning or cleaning products. Exposure to primary and secondary pollutants depends on the complex interplay of many sets of factors and processes, including cleaning product composition, usage, building occupancy, emission dynamics, transport and mixing, building ventilation, sorptive interactions with building surfaces, and reactive chemistry. Current understanding is sufficient to describe the influence of these variables qualitatively in most cases and quantitatively in a few. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nazaroff, W.; Weschler, Charles J.

2004-01-01

377

Sources, levels and effects of air pollution; Fonti, livelli ed effetti dell`inquinamento atmosferico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main air pollution both of natural or anthropogenic origin, the adverse health effects induced, the applied criteria to set the levels to which human population can be exposed without exhibiting adverse effects and air pollution standards.

Uccelli, Raffaella [ENEA, Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

1997-01-01

378

76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is...the May 20, 2011, Proposed Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production...

2011-07-19

379

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xx of... - Hazardous Air Pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants 1 Table 1 to Subpart XX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Systems and Waste Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. XX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XX of Part 63âHazardous Air Pollutants...

2010-07-01

380

Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

 
 
 
 
381

40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants...Category List § 63.60 Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance caprolactam (CAS number 105602) is...

2009-07-01

382

Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-04-01

383

Air Pollution Source Survey, Kingsley Air Force Station, Oregon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a stack study to determine the emissions from the Central Heating Plant, Kingsley AFS Oregon, are presented. The study was performed at the request of the Base Civil Engineering Division for the purpose of selecting appropriate air pollutio...

K. E. Hundley

1974-01-01

384

A citizen's guide to air pollution. 2. ed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is aimed at individuals who have a responsibility in dealing with air pollution issues. It presents data that addresses scientific, environmental and health issues concerning air pollution. In addition, it provides an economic analysis which proves that more money can be saved by reducing damage from air pollution than by simply controlling air pollution. The book emphasizes that air quality problems will persist until politicians, policy makers and communities comprehend the issues associated with air pollution. It was emphasized that effective legislative controls of air pollution should be based on informed public opinion. Currently, legislation is generally enacted to deal with problems from automobile emissions and the need to protect public health. The book begins with a historical introduction to the challenge of air pollution. The following chapters deal with pollution sources, emissions, concentrations, exposures and doses. Meteorology and the chemistry of air pollution are also discussed, along with the adverse health effects of air pollution. The last chapters of the book deal with the effects of air pollution on vegetation and ecosystems, community odour issues, air quality management and indoor air pollution. refs., 25 tabs., 34 figs.

Bates, D.V. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Faculty of Medicine; Caton, R.B. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2002-07-01

385

Regional and Global Impacts of Megacity Air Pollution in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Air quality has deteriorated in many megacities of China because of their rapid economic developments. For example, as the world's second largest economy, China has experienced severe air pollution, with aerosols or fine particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) reaching unprecedented high levels across many cities in recent winters. In addition to the impacts of aerosols on air chemistry, visibility, and human health, intense aerosol pollution is believed to exert profound impacts on the regional and global atmosphere and climate. In the first part of the talk, perspectives are provided on formation and transformation of haze in China. In the second part the long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over a megacity area in China will be presented, on the basis of atmospheric observations and simulations using a cloud-resolving WRF model. Our results reveal that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation, but enhances heavy precipitation. Also, we demonstrate climatically modulated mid-latitude cyclones by Asian pollution over past three decades, using a novel hierarchical modeling approach and observational analysis. Our results unambiguously reveal a large impact of the Asian pollutant outflows on the global general circulation and climate.

Zhang, Renyi

2014-05-01

386

Traffic pollution in a downtown site of Buenos Aires City  

Science.gov (United States)

It has recently been recognized that air and noise pollution constitutes an extended problem over the densely populated city of Buenos Aires. Traffic emissions are of paramount concern, especially along narrow and main traffic arteries. In spite of these considerations, few systematic studies have been undertaken to evaluate the air quality in the metropolitan area of the city. In 1996, concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and ozone (O 3) were simultaneously measured for the first time using a continuous monitoring station. This station was placed in a building at Belgrano Avenue, which is a heavy traffic street in the downtown area of the city (Bogo et al., Atmospheric Environment 33 (1999) 2587. In this work, we analyze the dependence of the measured primary pollutants, CO and the mixture of nitrogen oxides (NO x), with meteorological conditions, traffic emissions and monitoring location. We compare the registered values with the results obtained from modeling the dispersion of the pollutants emitted from mobile and area sources. We also discuss the relevance of street canyon effects compared with background concentrations of these pollutants.

Bogo, H.; Gómez, D. R.; Reich, S. L.; Negri, R. M.; San Román, E.

387

Traffic pollution in a downtown site of Buenos Aires City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has recently been recognized that air and noise pollution constitutes an extended problem over the densely populated city of Buenos Aires. Traffic emissions are of paramount concern, especially along narrow and main traffic arteries. In spite of these considerations, few systematic studies have been undertaken to evaluate the air quality in the metropolitan area of the city. In 1996, concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were simultaneously measured for the first time using a continuous monitoring station. This station was placed in a building at Belgrano Avenue, which is a heavy traffic street in the downtown area of the city (Bogo et al., Atmospheric Environment 33 (1999) 2587). In this work, we analyze the dependence of the measured primary pollutants, CO and the mixture of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), with meteorological conditions, traffic emissions and monitoring location. We compare the registered values with the results obtained from modeling the dispersion of the pollutants emitted from mobile and area sources. We also discuss the relevance of street canyon effects compared with background concentrations of these pollutants. (Author)

Bogo, H.; Negri, R.M.; San Roman, E. [INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomez, D.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Unidad de Actividad Quiimica; Reich, S.L. [Universidad de General San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia

2001-04-01

388

[Urban air pollutant exposure among traffic policemen].  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to dusts and benzene was studied in 65 traffic policemen. Samples of total dusts showed that mean personal exposure was 0.44 (SD = 0.30) mg/m3, with peaks of about 2 mg/m3. Exposure to 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), the main compound occurring in emissions from diesel engines, which was estimated from concentrations in dusts collected with high-flow samplers, was 0.28 (SD = 0.19) ng/m3 (range: 0.06-1.24 ng/m3). The mean concentration of benzene in the breathing zone was 41 (SD = 20) micrograms/m3, although a level of 100 micrograms/m3 was slightly exceeded in one subject. In urine samples collected before and after workshifts, two biological indicators of exposure to benzene were measured, urinary benzene and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (MA). The mean values of urinary benzene before and after workshift were similar (98, SD = 81 and 83, SD = 55 ng/l; n = 63; Wilcoxon's T-test = not significant), while a moderate increase in the metabolite was observed (MA = 0.08, SD = 0.11; 0.11, SD = 0.09 mg/g creatinine, in pre- and post-shift samples respectively; Wilcoxon's T-test, z = 3.00; p diesel engine emissions were comparable to those of other occupational groups with this type of risk (garage mechanics, workers operating diesel engine machinery, etc.). Traffic police exposure to benzene was similar to that of the whole population of Padova (40 micrograms/m3, mean annual 24-hour value). However, the values of urinary MA, like those reported by other authors for non-smoker controls, increased after the workshift, indicating low occupational exposure to this pollutant. It should be noted that traffic police exposure to benzene is much lower than that of other occupational categories, e.g., fuel pump distributors. PMID:9102558

Priante, E; Schiavon, I; Boschi, G; Gori, G; Bartolucci, G B; Soave, C; Brugnone, F; Clonfero, E

1996-01-01

389

Semen quality and reproductive health of young Czech men exposed to seasonal air pollution.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study of male reproductive health in the Czech Republic resulted from community concern about potential adverse effects of air pollution. We compared young men (18 years of age) living in Teplice, a highly industrialized district with seasonally elevated levels of air pollution, to those from Prachatice, a rural district with relatively clean air. Surveys were scheduled for either late winter, after the season of higher air pollution, or at the end of summer, when pollution was low. Part...

Selevan, S. G.; Borkovec, L.; Slott, V. L.; Zudova?, Z.; Rubes, J.; Evenson, D. P.; Perreault, S. D.

2000-01-01

390

Remote sensing of regional air pollution from satellites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is noted that recent scientific interest in the processes of long-range transport of air pollutants has suggested the extensive application of remote sensing methods. Satellite remote sensing of pollutant gases in the troposphere is shown to have advantages in contributing to such studies. A model is developed for calculation of the data quality which might be achieved from such a satellite observation system. A nonsunsynchronous orbit is assumed, as would be the case for the Space Shuttle. Finally, the calculations include the effects of incomplete sampling, instrument response to a varying scene, cloudiness and instrument error

1979-04-27

391

Htdroxyl and peroxy radicals in polluted tropospheric air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Model calculations show that hydroxyl is a rather conservative specie with respect to abundance and diurnal variation. Calculated maximum concentrations range from about 6 x 10-5 to 4 x 10-4 ppl. for winter and summer, clear and clouded sky, temperature ranging from 0 to 25 0C and pollutant emissions ranging from average values for Western industrialized countries to urban areas. Peroxy radicals show a much stronger variability in concentration partly due to their strong dependence on HO. Gas phase sulfate conversion rates up to 3% hr-1 are calculated. Sulfate and ozone are efficiently generated in moderately polluted air

1979-01-01

392

Effects of air pollution on heritage: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors argue that present national and international standards based on human health and vegetation considerations may be a suitable starting point for evolution of a practical standard to minimise the impact of air pollutants on ancient buildings, artwork and museum collections. Damage has already been done to the Taj Mahal, Victoria Memorial Hall and the Red Fort in Delhi for example. These are costly to clean and repair. Creation of a green belt around a heritage building should be a must, to serve both as a pollution regulor and for aesthetic purposes. 40 refs.

Obodo, G.A.; Gajghate, D.G.; Hasan, M.Z. [Imo State University, Owerri (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemistry

2002-07-01

393

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) underground testing between 1951 and 1992, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing (DOE, 1996a). No nuclear tests have been conducted since September 23,1992 (DOE, 2000), however; radionuclides remaining on the soil surface in many NTS areas after several decades of radioactive decay are re-suspended into the atmosphere at concentrations that can be detected by air sampling. Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (formerly called the Hazardous Materials Spill Center), private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses; handling, transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices or radioactive targets for the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun; and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE, 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in calendar year (CY) 2004 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and water pumped from wells used to characterize the aquifers at the sites of past underground nuclear tests, (2) onsite radioanalytical laboratories, (3) the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS facilities, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium (H3) and re-suspension of plutonium (239+240Pu) and americium (241Am) at the sites of past nuclear tests. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). At the NLVF, parts of Building A-1 were contaminated with tritium by a previous contractor in 1995. The incident involved the release of tritium as HTO. This unusual occurrence led to a very small potential exposure to an offsite person. The HTO emission has continued at lower levels (probably re-emanation from building materials), even after cleanup activities in November and December 1997. A description of the incident and the potential effective dose equivalent (EDE) for offsite exposure are set forth in Appendix A

2005-01-01

394

An analysis of secondary pollutants in Buenos Aires City.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollutant concentrations from a monitoring campaign in Buenos Aires City, Argentina, are used to investigate the relationships between ambient levels of ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a function of NO(x) (= NO + NO2). This campaign undertaken by the electricity sector was aimed at elucidating the apportionment of thermal power plants to air quality deterioration. Concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were also registered. Photo stationary state (PSS) of the NO, NO2, O3 and peroxy radicals species has been analysed. The 'oxidant' level concept has been introduced, OX (= O3 + NO2), which varies with the level of NO(x). It is shown that this level is made up of NO(x)-independent and NO(x)-dependent contributions. The former is a regional contribution that equates the background O3 level, whereas the latter is a local contribution that correlates with the level of primary pollution. Furthermore, the anticorrelation between NO2 and O3 levels, which is a characteristic of the atmospheric photo stationary cycle has been verified. The analysis of the concentration of the primary pollutants CO and NO strongly suggests that the vehicle traffic is the principal source of them. Levels of continuous measurements of SO2 for Buenos Aires City are reported in this work as a complement of previously published results. PMID:16758295

Reich, Silvia; Magallanes, Jorge; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Groselj, Neva; Zupan, Jure

2006-08-01

395

Global aspects of photochemical air pollution: A kinetic study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most serious effects of increasing photochemical air pollution on a global basis is the production of high concentration of submicron aerosol in the atmosphere, resulting in unfavorable changes in weather patterns and world climate. The probability that these changes may occur with an unchecked increase in photochemical air pollution justifies a comprehensive control of pollutant emission as well as a detailed study into their atmospheric chemistry. Structure-reactivity relationships (SRR) and linear free energy relationships (LFER) are presented for environmentally important chemical reactions of unsaturated aliphatic contaminants in air and water. SRR of the form log k (k = rate constant for reaction with O{sub 3}, OH, and NO{sub 3}) vs ionization potential, and tortional frequency as well as LFER of the form log k (A) vs. log k (B) where A and B = O{sub 3}, OH, and NO{sub 3} are presented and can be used to estimate reaction rate constants and environmental persistence (in air and water) for many unsaturated compounds for which no data exist. As examples of application, rate constants for reactions of OH (gas phase), OH (water) and NO{sub 3} (gas phase) are estimated for many unsaturated compounds.

Parmar, S.S. [Atmospheric Analysis and Consulting, Ventura, CA (United States); Fernandez, C.; Guyton, J.; Lee, C.P. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1994-12-31

396

Severe ozone air pollution in the Persian Gulf region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently it was discovered that over the Middle East during summer ozone mixing ratios can reach a pronounced maximum in the middle troposphere. Here we extend the analysis to the surface and show that especially in the Persian Gulf region conditions are highly favorable for ozone air pollution. We apply the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-climate model to investigate long-distance transport and the regional formation of ozone. Further, we make use of available in situ and satellite measurements and compare these with model output. The results indicate that the region is a hot spot of photochemical smog where European Union air quality standards are violated throughout the year. Long-distance transports of air pollution from Europe and the Middle East, natural emissions and stratospheric ozone conspire to bring about relatively high background ozone mixing ratios. This provides a hotbed to strong and growing indigenous air pollution in the dry local climate, and these conditions are likely to get worse in the future.

J. Lelieveld

2009-02-01

397

Modelled air pollution levels versus EC air quality legislation - results from high resolution simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An appropriate method for evaluating the air quality of a certain area is to contrast the actual air pollution levels to the critical ones, prescribed in the legislative standards. The application of numerical simulation models for assessing the real air quality status is allowed by the legislation of the European Community (EC). This approach is preferable, especially when the area of interest is relatively big and/or the network of measurement stations is sparse, and the available observati...

Chervenkov, Hristo

2013-01-01

398

Ambient air pollution and respiratory health effects in mail carriers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mail carriers represent an occupational group suffering from respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment. Although environmental conditions may play role, information on the effects of air pollution exposure in this population is lacking. The present study was conducted in Athens, Greece, in order to investigate the adverse effects of long-term air pollution exposure on respiratory outcomes in mail carriers. A total of 226 mail carriers and 73 office employees were enrolled. Information on respiratory symptoms, medical, occupational, residential and smoking history was obtained through a questionnaire. Flow-volume curves were performed in the workplace using a portable spirometer. Individualised personal exposure assessment has been applied based on long-term residential and occupational subject history linked with geographical air pollution distribution. Furthermore, personal measurements were obtained for forty-one mail carriers using NO(2) and O(3) passive samplers, assuming that current air pollution exposure is sufficiently representative of long-term, previous exposure to make a plausible link with current health status. The analysis based on exposures estimated on the basis of residential and work addresses showed that the most exposed to PM(10) postal workers have rhinitis at a higher rate (OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.01-2.75). In mail carriers there is indication that those exposed to higher concentrations of Omicron(3) or PM(10) have a greater possibility to present rhinitis (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 0.93-2.88 and OR=1.70, 95% CI: 0.96-3.03, respectively). The effect of O(3) on rhinitis became even more apparent in the analysis based on exposures assessed by personal measurements (OR=6.74, 95% CI: 1.24-36.55). Exposure to NO(2) was significantly associated with decrements in lung function. For office employees the exposure to air pollutants was not associated to any adverse respiratory outcome. Our findings suggest that air pollution is a contributing factor for the occurrence of rhinitis and lung function impairment in mail carriers. PMID:20047736

Karakatsani, A; Kapitsimadis, F; Pipikou, M; Chalbot, M-C; Kavouras, I G; Orphanidou, D; Papiris, S; Katsouyanni, K

2010-04-01

399

Samaa : A Software For Air Pollution Modelling and Analysis Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to better understand the qualitative and quantitative evolution of air pollu- tion in cities and their surroundings, ACRI-st has designed and developed, jointly with two French air surveillance networks, an integrated application for air pollution modelling. This simulator, called Samaa, enables testing the impact on pollution of different emission scenarios under a number of meteorological conditions. Samaa is a platform with a user-friendly interface for scenario management, including an emission module, and a GIS-based results viewing module, that may in turn be interfaced with a meteorological and a chemistry/dispersion module (or a dispersion module). The meteorological module is processed first, before any other air pollution module of the simulator. It supplies the meteorological files that will then be used by the emis- sion module and subsequently by the dispersion and chemical modules. This module calculates wind and temperature fields, as well as different meteorological parameters. The AIREMIS emission module was designed to calculate the hourly emissions of seven primary pollutants for each emission sector (transport, industry, heating and natural environment). The GIS, integrated in the emission module, executes two main tasks : - preparation of the emission data sets that the modelling system will process - results viewing for all the different calculation modules (emission, wind and concen- tration maps). The chemistry/dispersion and the dispersion modules enable reactive and non reac- tive pollutants simulation in urban and sub-urban areas. They are interfaced with the other system element to allow simulation of pollutants concentration derived from non chemical or photochemical reactions. Samaa has been validated on two 3-day simulations : the first one was dedicated to evaluate the "chemical processing" of the simulator, and the second one to the "dis- persion processing". The results have proven the strength and the robustness of the system that is however very dependent on the input data. It has now been deployed on two French cities (Nantes and Clermont-Ferrand) where the air quality survey networks use it for air quality management and engineering 1 studies. Thanks to its flexibility, the emission module of SAMAA is presently under implementation on the city of Bogota (Colombia). Examples of application of Samaa will be presented during the conference. 2

Gueguen, C.; Mangin, A.; Sanchez, O.

400

Direct effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our completed research program concentrated on the direct in vivo effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Direct air pollution effects on plant sexual reproduction have been studied for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, two of the three major air pollutants.

Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.

1987-12-08

 
 
 
 
401

Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China  

Science.gov (United States)

PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

You, Mingqing

2014-01-01

402

A review of air exchange rate models for air pollution exposure assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings where people spend their time. The AER, which is the rate of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pollutants and for removal of indoor-emitted air pollutants. This paper presents an overview and critical analysis of the scientific literature on empirical and physically based AER models for residential and commercial buildings; the models highlighted here are feasible for exposure assessments as extensive inputs are not required. Models are included for the three types of airflows that can occur across building envelopes: leakage, natural ventilation, and mechanical ventilation. Guidance is provided to select the preferable AER model based on available data, desired temporal resolution, types of airflows, and types of buildings included in the exposure assessment. For exposure assessments with some limited building leakage or AER measurements, strategies are described to reduce AER model uncertainty. This review will facilitate the selection of AER models in support of air pollution exposure assessments.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 29 May 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.30. PMID:23715084

Breen, Michael S; Schultz, Bradley D; Sohn, Michael D; Long, Thomas; Langstaff, John; Williams, Ronald; Isaacs, Kristin; Meng, Qing Yu; Stallings, Casson; Smith, Luther

2013-05-29

403

Impact of air temperature, relative humidity, air movement and pollution on eye blinking  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and pollution on occupantsâ?? eye blink frequency (BF) was examined. In total sixty subjects participated in eight 4 hour experiments without and with facially applied air movement under individual control of the subjects. Air movement of either polluted room air supplied isothermally or clean and cool air was used. Eye blinking video record for the last 15 min of each exposure were analysed. The increase of the room air temperature and relative humidity from 23 °C and 40% to 26 °C and 70% or to 28 °C and 70% decreased the BF. At temperature of 26 °C and relative humidity of 70% facially applied flow of polluted room air didnâ??t have significant impact on BF in comparison without air movement. The increase of BF due to decrease of temperature and humidity and increase of velocity may be compensated due to the increase in air cleanness.

Melikov, Arsen Krikor

2011-01-01

404

Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs

2002-01-01

405

Traffic Related Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, and Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

Context Autism is a heterogeneous disorder with genetic and environmental factors likely contributing to its origins. Examination of hazardous pollutants has suggested the importance of air toxics in autism etiology, yet little research has examined local level air pollution associations using residence-specific exposure assignments. Objective To examine the relationship between traffic-related air pollution (TRP), air quality, and autism. Design, Setting and Population This study includes data on 279 autism cases and 245 typically developing controls enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) Study in California. The mother’s address from the birth certificate and addresses reported from a residential history questionnaire were used to estimate exposure for each trimester of pregnancy and first year of life. TRP was assigned to each location using a line-source air-quality dispersion model. Regional air pollutant measures were based on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Quality System data. Logistic regression models compared estimated and measured pollutant levels for autism cases and typically developing controls. Main Outcome Measures Crude and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) for autism. Results Cases were more likely to live at residences in the highest quartile TRP exposure during pregnancy (OR=1.98, 95%CI 1.20–3.31) and the first year of life (OR=3.10, 1.76–5.57) compared to controls. Regional exposure measures of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) were also associated with autism during gestation (NO2 OR=1.81/2SD, 95%CI 1.37–3.09; PM2.5 OR=2.08/2SD, 95%CI 1.93–2.25; PM10 OR=2.17/2SD, 95%CI 1.49–3.16) and the first year of life (NO2 OR=2.06, 95%CI 1.37–3.09; PM2.5 OR=2.12, 95%CI 1.45–3.10; PM10 OR=2.14, 95%CI 1.46–3.12). Conclusions Exposure to TRP, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 during pregnancy and the first year of life was associated with autism. Further epidemiological and toxicological examination of likely biological pathways will help determine whether these associations are causal.

Volk, Heather E.; Lurmann, Fred; Penfold, Bryan; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; McConnell, Rob

2014-01-01

406

Project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Abatement Measures'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the 5-7th of March 1985 the first status report of the project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Control Measures' took place in the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe. Progress reports on the following topics assessment and analysis of the impacts of airborne pollutants on forest trees; distinction from other potential causes of recent forest dieback, research into atmospheric dispersion, conversion and deposition of airborne pollutants, development and optimization of industrial-technical processes to reduce or avoid emissions and providing instruments and making recommendations to the industrial and political sectors were presented. This volume is a collection of the work reported there. 42 papers were entered separately. (orig./MG)

1985-03-05

407

Environmental pressure group strength and air pollution. An empirical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is an established theoretical and empirical case-study literature arguing that environmental pressure groups have a real impact on pollution levels. Our original contribution to this literature is to provide the first systematic quantitative test of the strength of environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) on air pollution levels. We find that ENGO strength exerts a statistically significant impact on sulfur dioxide, smoke and heavy particulates concentration levels in a cross-country time-series regression analysis. This result holds true both for ordinary least squares and random-effects estimation. It is robust to controlling for the potential endogeneity of ENGO strength with the help of instrumental variables. The effect is also substantively important. Strengthening ENGOs represents an important strategy by which aid donors, foundations, international organizations and other stakeholders can try to achieve lower pollution levels around the world

2005-12-01

408

Environmental pressure group strength and air pollution. An empirical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is an established theoretical and empirical case-study literature arguing that environmental pressure groups have a real impact on pollution levels. Our original contribution to this literature is to provide the first systematic quantitative test of the strength of environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) on air pollution levels. We find that ENGO strength exerts a statistically significant impact on sulfur dioxide, smoke and heavy particulates concentration levels in a cross-country time-series regression analysis. This result holds true both for ordinary least squares and random-effects estimation. It is robust to controlling for the potential endogeneity of ENGO strength with the help of instrumental variables. The effect is also substantively important. Strengthening ENGOs represents an important strategy by which aid donors, foundations, international organizations and other stakeholders can try to achieve lower pollution levels around the world.

Binder, Seth; Neumayer, Eric [Department of Geography and Environment and Center for Environmental Policy and Governance (CEPG), London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom)

2005-12-01

409

Environmental epidemiology applied to urban atmospheric pollution: a contribution from the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory (LPAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Systematic investigation on the effects of human exposure to environmental pollution using scientific methodology only began in the 20th century as a consequence of several environmental accidents followed by an unexpected mortality increase above expected mortality and as a result of observational epidemiological and toxicological studies conducted on animals in developed countries. This article reports the experience of the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory at the School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, concerning the respiratory system and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in responses to exposure to pollution using toxicological and experimental procedures, complemented by observational epidemiological studies conducted in the city of São Paulo. It also describes these epidemiological studies, pointing out that air pollution is harmful to public health, not only among susceptible groups but also in the general population, even when the concentration of pollutants is below the limits set by environmental legislation. The study provides valuable information to support the political and economic decision-making processes aimed at preserving the environment and enhancing quality of life.

André Paulo Afonso de

2000-01-01

410

Absorption of gaseous air pollutants by a standardized plant canopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentration profiles for hydrogen fluoride (HF), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), ozone (O/sub 3/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and nitric oxide (NO) generated in a standardized alfalfa canopy are presented. Wind, light, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) profiles, canopy pollutant uptake rates, and canopy structural data are also given. Canopy pollutant concentration profile characteristics were studied to evaluate the relative potentials for major air pollutants to penetrate into canopies. The study was conducted in an environmental growth chamber equipped to control automatically environmental conditions and monitor continuously gas exchange rates. HF, SO/sub 2/, and NO/sub 2/ profiles suggested that these gases were removed efficiently by the upper portion of the canopy as well as by the immediate subsurface vegetation. The steady state HF profile showed the greatest displacement within the canopy. The NO profile was displaced the least. The uptake rate of NO by plants was apparently too slow in comparison with gas transport and mixing within the canopy to affect the internal profile substantially. O/sub 3/ appeared to be readily deposited on the surface tissues, but the deeper tissues in the canopy had less effect on the concentration profile. Data are also presented to show the relationship between NO/sub 2/ concentration within the canopy and changes in the air concentration above the vegetation. The results indicated that gas transport between the atmosphere and canopy interior was rapid. The data presented should be of current interest to agriculturists, researchers, administrators, and environmental planners concerned with effects of air pollutants on plants and on the fate of pollutants in the microenvironment.

Bennett, J.H.; Hill, A.C.

1973-01-01

411

Bioindication of air pollution in Niš by using epiphytic lichens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioindication of air pollution in the city of Niš, by using epiphytic lichens, was performed for the first time in 1992. In this paper the authors present the results of repeated investigations in 2002, by using new, modern method, and their comparison with the former investigations. In repeated investigations, on 59 investigated spots, the authors established the presence of 42 lichen taxa, 3 zones with different air pollution level ("lichens desert", "transitional zone" and "normal zone" and two subzones ("narrow transitional zone" and "wider transitional zone", as well. As the most sensitive, some Melanelia-species (M. elegantula, M. exasperata, M. glabra, Evernia prunastr and Flavoparmelia caperata, were established while on the other hand, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Physcia adscendens, Ph. stellaris and Lecanora argentata were the most tolerant.

Stamenkovi? S.

2003-01-01

412

Tear pH, air pollution, and contact lenses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We analyzed the tear pH of a random sample of 100 subjects, divided into 3 groups according to the stability of their precorneal tear film (normal eyes, borderline; and dry eyes). The average pH value obtained was 7.52. The pH for borderline and dry eyes was higher than for normal eyes. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of air pollution, specifically sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), on the tear pH. We found that air pollution affected the lacrimal pH, which decreased when the atmospheric SO/sub 2/ increased. Finally, we studied the effect of soft contact lens wear on tear pH after 7 days of contact lens adaptation by assessing the tear pH decrease. We took into account the influence of the sex and age of subjects on the results obtained.

Andres, S.; Garcia, M.L.; Espina, M.; Valero, J.; Valls, O.

1988-08-01

413

Hazardous air pollution emissions from coal-fired power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) contain provisions that will set standards for the allowable emissions of 190 hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Many of those HAPS could possibly be emitted from coal-fired electric steam generating units. Coal-fired electric utility boilers are the subject of a study by the EPA to determine if regulati