WorldWideScience
1

Highway toll and air pollution: evidence from Chinese cities  

OpenAIRE

Most highways in urban China are tolled to finance their construction. During the eight-day National Day holiday in 2012, highway tolls are waived nationwide for passenger vehicles. We use this to test highway tolls’ effect on air pollution. Using daily pollution and weather data for 98 Chinese cities in 2011 and 2012 and employing both a regression discontinuity design and differences-in-differences method with 2011 National Day holiday as a control, we find that eliminating tolls increase...

Fu, Shihe; Gu, Yizhen

2014-01-01

2

Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 ?g m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

2013-01-01

3

Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

4

Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few prior cohort studies exist in developing countries examining the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) with mortality. We examined the association of particulate air pollution with mortality in a prospective cohort study of 71,431 middle-aged Chinese men. Baseline data were obtained during 1990–1991. The follow-up evaluation was completed in January, 2006. Annual average PM exposure between 1990 and 2005, including TSP and PM10, were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with residential communities. We found significant associations between PM10 and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases; each 10 ?g/m3 PM10 was associated with a 1.6% (95%CI: 0.7%, 2.6%), 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8%, 2.9%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3%, 3.2%) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For TSP, we observed significant associations only for cardiovascular morality. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of particulate air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. -- Highlights: • There have been few air pollution cohort studies in developing countries. • PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in 71,431 Chinese men. • PM was not significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. -- PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in a cohort of 71,431 Chinese men

5

Short-term effect of ambient air pollution on COPD mortality in four Chinese cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambient air pollution has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity; however, few studies have examined the short-term effect of air pollution specifically on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity world wide. In this analysis, we examined the associations between daily air pollution levels [particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and COPD mortality in four Chinese cities. We used Poisson regression models with natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trends of COPD mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We did a meta-analysis to obtain the 4-city average estimates. Air pollution (PM10, SO2, and NO2) was found to be associated with increased risk of COPD mortality in these four cities. Using the random-effects model, an increase of 10 ?g m-3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 0.78% (95% CI, 0.13-1.42), 1.30% (95% CI, 0.61-1.99), and 1.78% (95% CI, 1.10-2.46) increase of COPD mortality, respectively. The concentration-response curves indicated linear associations without threshold. Only NO2 remained significant in the multi-pollutant models. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-city study in Asian developing region to report the short-term effect of air pollution on COPD mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effects of air pollution on COPD mortality for high exposure settings typical in developing countries.

Meng, Xia; Wang, Cuicui; Cao, Dachun; Wong, Chit-Ming; Kan, Haidong

2013-10-01

6

Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Students are introduced to the concept of air quality by investigating the composition, properties, atmospheric layers and everyday importance of air. They explore the sources and effects of visible and invisible air pollution. By learning some fundamental meteorology concepts (air pressure, barometers, prediction, convection currents, temperature inversions), students learn the impact of weather on air pollution control and prevention. Looking at models and maps, they explore the consequences of pollutant transport via weather and water cycles. Students are introduced to acids, bases and pH, and the environmental problem of acid rain, including how engineers address this type of pollution. Using simple models, they study the greenhouse effect, the impact of increased greenhouse gases on the planet's protective ozone layer and the global warming theory. Students explore the causes and effects of the Earth's ozone holes through an interactive simulation. Students identify the types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home, evaluating actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. By building and observing a few simple models of pollutant recovery methods, students explore the modern industrial technologies designed by engineers to clean up and prevent air pollution.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

7

Air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2on, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

8

Polluted Air = Polluted Lungs  

Science.gov (United States)

To gain a better understanding of the roles and functions of components of the human respiratory system and our need for clean air, students construct model lungs that include a diaphragm and chest cavity. They see how air moving in and out of the lungs coincides with diaphragm movement. Then student teams design and build a prototype face mask pollution filter. They use their model lungs to evaluate their prototypes to design requirements.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

9

Effect of pet ownership on respiratory responses to air pollution in Chinese children: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies examining pet ownership as a risk factor for respiratory conditions have yielded inconsistent results. Little is known about whether or not pet ownership modifies the relationship between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. In order to evaluate the interaction between pet and air pollution on respiratory health in children, we recruited 30,149 children, aged 2-12 years, from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China. Parents of the children completed questionnaires that characterized the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illnesses and associated risk factors. Average ambient annual exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were estimated from monitoring stations in each of the 25 study districts. The results showed that among children without pets at home, there were statistically significant associations between both recent exacerbations of asthma among physician-diagnosed asthmatics and respiratory symptoms and all pollutants examined. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.26] to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.24-1.61) per 31 ?g m-3 for PM10, whereas, among children with pets at home, there were no effects or small effects for either asthma or the symptoms. The interactions between dog ownership and PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 were statistically significant, such that children with a dog at home had lower reporting of both current asthma and current wheeze. In conclusion, this study suggests that pet ownership decreased the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and asthma among Chinese children.

Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Dong, Guang-Hui; Ren, Wan-Hui; Simckes, Maayan; Wang, Jing; Zelicoff, Alan; Trevathan, Edwin

2014-04-01

10

Air Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

Barker, K.; And Others

11

Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses, we focused on characterizing the VOC composition of these different pollution plumes. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HCFC-134a.

Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some of the Chinese plumes, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution in the Chinese pollution plumes and the correlations among selected compounds, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than the use of a single gas, to be used as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

B. Barletta

2009-03-01

12

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Environmental Health Fetal Health and Development Transcript Does ...

13

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... captioning, click the CC button on the lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ... exposure to air pollution increase a child’s risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Researchers recruited ...

14

Indoor air pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents an overview of indoor air pollution control. Asbestos, combustion-generated pollutants, and radon are among the problems considered. Source control, policy and regulatory considerations, and air quality diagnostics are discussed

15

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Environmental Health Fetal Health and Development Transcript Does ...

16

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Environmental Health Fetal Health and Development Transcript ...

17

Air Pollution Training Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

18

Indoor Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

19

Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses we characterized their VOC composition and we compared their background levels with those obtained during the 2004 INTEX-A mission. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HFC-134a.

Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some Chinese plume samples, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution and correlations within the Chinese pollution plumes and applying principal component analysis (PCA, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than a single gas, as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

A. J. Weinheimer

2009-07-01

20

Air pollution and society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

Brimblecombe P.

2010-12-01

21

Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

22

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air ... to air pollution increase a child’s risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Researchers recruited more than 200 non-smoking pregnant ...

23

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Science.gov (United States)

... hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air ... to air pollution increase a child’s risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Researchers recruited more than 200 non-smoking pregnant ...

24

Sensing Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about electricity and air pollution while building devices to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) by attaching VOC sensors to prototyping boards. In the second part of the activity, students evaluate the impact of various indoor air pollutants using the devices they made.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

25

Air Pollution and Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

26

Air pollution and health  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE. To review the effects of air pollution on health, with special reference to data obtained locally in Hong Kong. DATA SOURCES. Medline literature search (1960-1999), websites of the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong, and a report from the Sub-Working Group on the Review of Hong Kong's Air Quality Objectives, 1999. STUDY SELECTION. Key words for the literature search were 'air pollution' and 'health'. DATA EXTRACTION. The author ...

Brunekreef, B.; Holgate, S. T.

2002-01-01

27

Air pollution and health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of air pollution on human health is currently of international concern. A comprehensive review of the subject is given in this volume, which complements the previous title covering air quality management. Dealing with the common gaseous and particulate air pollutants, including chemical carcinogens, it reviews the epidemiological and exposure chamber study research as well as considering mechanistic studies in the case of particulate matter. The book also addresses the practical issue of setting standards for human exposure to air pollution by including the philosophy of standard setting and a review of currently available standards, along with a description of the setting of US EPA revised standards for ozone and particulate matter. Current knowledge of indoor air pollution is also discussed. Chapter headings are: air quality health issues for Government; gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 3}); chemical carcinogens; limitations of epidemiological studies; the 1997 US EPA standards for particulate matter and ozone; health effects of indoor air pollutants; setting health-based air quality standards; and mechanistic aspects of the health effects of airborne particles.

Harrison, R.M.; Hester, R.E. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

1998-09-01

28

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Does prenatal exposure to air pollution increase a child’s risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Researchers recruited ... living in an urban setting, and followed their children from before birth through 9 years of age. ...

29

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 9 years of age. They looked specifically at levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are air pollutants ... fossil fuel, tobacco and other organic material. Prenatal levels were estimated through maternal and cord blood collected ...

30

Indoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

31

Air Pollution and ADHD  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Environmental Health Fetal Health and Development Transcript Does prenatal ... combustion of fossil fuel, tobacco and other organic material. Prenatal levels were estimated through maternal and cord ...

32

Air pollution V  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical and chemical processes that take place during an air pollution episode are, nowadays, better understood. The modelling of these processes continues to grow and great success has been achieved on the development of efficient and economical monitoring devices. This volume presents and discusses advances on monitoring, modelling, management and understanding of air pollution problems. Particular attention is given to new developments in computational and experimental techniques, as well as to health problems. (author)

Power, H.; Brebbia, C.A. [eds.] [Wessex Institute of Technology Southampton (United Kingdom); Tirabassi, T. [ed.] [Istituto per lo Studio dei Fenomeni Fisici e Chimici della Bassa ed Alta Atmosfera (C.N.R.), Bologna (Italy)

1997-12-31

33

Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

2007-01-01

34

Respiratory Health and Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... CDC.gov . Healthy Places Share Compartir Respiratory Health & Air Pollution Transportation-related pollutants are one of the largest ... Motor vehicles contribute to more than 50% of air pollution in urban areas. The design of communities and ...

35

Air Pollution: What's the Solution?  

Science.gov (United States)

Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

2010-01-01

36

Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO{sub 2} concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone.

Zhou Zheng [Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Jin Yinlong [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Liu Fan [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Cheng Yibin [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Liu Jiang [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Kang Jiaqi [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); He Gongli [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Tang Ning [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Chen Xun [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Baris, Enis [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Ezzati, Majid [Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

2006-10-01

37

Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO2 concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only provie heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone

38

In Search of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

Beckendorf, Kirk

2006-01-01

39

The Federal Air Pollution Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

40

Air Pollution in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

41

China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

2014-02-01

42

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed

Wei Zhang

2014-04-01

43

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

2014-04-01

44

ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

45

Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... Your Zip Code: Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution Living near a major roadway may expose you ... on the Health Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Traffic-Related Air Pollution: A Critical Review of the Literature on ...

46

Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... User Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease Diane R. Gold , ... greenheart/ . 7 Previous Section Next Section What Is Air Pollution? Air pollution is a mixture of gases ...

47

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the environmental problems that threaten the public health. The air is a gas mixture. Air pollution is defined as the existence in the amount of pollutants harmful to humans and other organisms in the atmosphere as a result of the natural or human activity thereby changing to the gas rates in the air. The negative effects of pollution-causing particles on the health are closely related to the chemical structure of particles, whether causing a fibrotic reaction, whether having an amorphous shape and the aerodynamic diameters of particles. The particles larger than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter can not reach up to the alveoli, and can be removed by mucociliary system. If the particles are smaller than 10 microns, these particles can reach to the alveoli, and are closely associated with the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The concentration of these particles (PM10 is used as an indicator of pollution, and creates the basis for air quality index. Air pollution has several negative effects such as blood pressure changes, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress etc. In this review, the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system will be examined, and the importance of this issue will be emphasized. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 97-106

Ejder Kardesoglu

2011-02-01

48

Arctic haze and air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arctic haze is the phenomenon of large-scale industrial air pollution found all through the arctic air mass. Vertical profiles of air concentrations, obtained during several aircraft measurement programs in the Arctic, have offered the following explanation of arctic haze origin. Very long range, episodic transport of air masses over several thousand kilometers clearly affects the quality of arctic air during both summer and winter. Polluted air masses, carrying a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas have been identified in the arctic atmosphere at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km. The layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km can be traced to episodic transport of air masses from anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Pollution material in arctic haze is of submicron size and contains a substantial fraction of black carbon: it interacts strongly with solar radiation. In addition, sulfate and a wide range of heavy metals appear, affecting their natural geochemical cycles. They also serve as indicators of major source regions of emissions in the world. This paper discusses what happens to the haze-related pollutants in the Arctic, what is the contribution of natural sources to the arctic haze and what are local and global effects of arctic haze. Some indications are given of the research to be undertaken in a view to assess the role of the Arctic in global change of the environmentctic in global change of the environment

49

Air pollution control in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prior to rapid spurt in industrialization in India, people were used to inhale pure air containing about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and some carbon dioxide. But afterwards this composition of pure air was disturbed as a result of increased economic activities. Air, now a days also contains sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides etc., etc. which are extremely harmful for human health. Virulence of air pollution was realised in late eighties after Bhopal Gas Tragedy (BGT) and an effective air quality management started taking shape in India afterwards. The basic components of air quality management are legislation and regulations, emission inventory, air quality standards and monitoring, air dispersion models and installation of pollution control equipment which are being discussed in this paper. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

50

Air pollution V. Modelling, monitoring and management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers are presented under the following section headings: air pollution management; turbulence modelling at small and meso scales; wind flow and dispersion modelling; air pollution modelling; air pollution modelling and experiments; data analysis; and observations; urban air pollution; emission inventories; monitoring and laboratory studies; chemistry of air pollution; transport pollution; and health problems. Two papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

Power, H.; Tirabassi, T.; Brebbia, C.A. [eds.] [Wessex Institute of Technology, Southampton (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

51

Air Pollution Training Institute Virtual Classroom: Basic Air Pollution Meteorology  

Science.gov (United States)

This Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) course uses video presentations, text materials, and reading assignments to present basic meteorology, meteorological effects on air pollution, meteorological instrumentation, air quality modeling, and regulatory programs requiring a knowledge of meteorology. It consists of seven lessons that cover solar and terrestrial radiation, cyclones and anticyclones, wind speed and direction, atmospheric circulation, and many other topics. To finish the course, an online quiz is offered. Students may take the quiz for APTI Continuing Education Unit (CEU) credits; registration is required to receive CEU credits.

52

Air Pollution In Jammu City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aerial environment of the earth has been increasingly interfered by the activities of human beings and virtually it has become the bumping site for toxic materials produced by industrial, vehicular and urban emissions. We have introduced several toxic materials to our environment at a tremendous speed that has changed its physicchemical characteristics. The assumption that the “ nature will take care of pollutants” do not hold good anymore since the pollutants at present vary greatly in their quality as well as quantity. Throughout Asian air pollution is a significant threat to human health and the environment and our city is not the exception to this. Use of fossil fuel in transport, industrial, commercial and household sector contributes significant towards the air pollution. Solid waste disposal and its open burning also add air pollutants. In addition to gases, particles coming from variety of sources- vehicles, factories, construction sites, tilled fields, un-paved roads, stone crushers, burning of wood and fossil fuels also pollute the air. An average urban vehicle releases approximately 30-40 mg of particulate matter per mile travel. Forest fires and the contribution of biomass fuels also add pollutants.

Angelika Sharma

2013-09-01

53

Air pollution control  

OpenAIRE

There are many different views as to what constitutes pollution of the atmosphere. To some people pollution implies the increase, or even decrease of any atmospheric constituent from the value that would have existed without human activity. Given that our planent atmoshere has undergone profound changes in its constitution throughout its lifetime and the volcanic errotions forest fires and sand storms cause marked local and regional variations in atmospheric constit...

Anastasides, George A.

1994-01-01

54

Air pollution control. 3. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs

55

Associations of particulate air pollution and daily mortality in 16 Chinese cities: An improved effect estimate after accounting for the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

People typically spend most of their time indoors. We modeled the daily indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin using a set of exposure parameters, including the fraction of residences with air conditionings (AC), the fraction of time that windows are closed when cooling occurs for buildings with AC, the fractions of time that windows are open or closed for buildings with or without AC, the particle penetration factors, air change rates, and surface removal rate constant of PM10. We calculated the time-weighted average of the simulated indoor PM10 concentration of outdoor origin and the original recorded outdoor PM10 concentration. We then evaluated the acute effects of PM10 using traditional and amended exposure metrics in 16 Chinese cities. Compared with the original estimates, the new effect estimates almost doubled, with improved model fit and attenuated between-city heterogeneity. Conclusively, this proposed exposure assessment approach could improve the effect estimates of ambient particles. -- Highlights: •We accounted for the indoor exposure to ambient particles in time-series studies of 16 Chinese cities. •The proposed exposure assessment method generally doubled the effect estimates. •The proposed exposure assessment method increased the statistical assurance of a significant effect of PM10. •The proposed exposure assessment method improved the model fit with daily mortality. •The proposed exposure assessment method attenuated between-city heterogeneity of PM's effects. -- Accounting for the indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin in the exposure assessment could improve the effect estimates of ambient PM10

56

Volcanic Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon is a series of photographs of 'vog' or volcanic smog caused by the long-lasting eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Text included with the images describes how vog is created. An additional digitally enhanced map shows effects of trade winds on pollution concentration.

57

Air pollution control equipment calculations  

CERN Document Server

Unique problem-and-solution approach for quickly mastering a broad range of calculations This book''s problem-and-solution approach enables readers to quickly grasp the fundamentals of air pollution control equipment and essential applications. Moreover, the author sets forth solid principles for the design and selection of air pollution control equipment as well as for its efficient operation and maintenance. Readers gain a deep understanding of both the equipment itself and the many factors affecting performance. Following two introductory chapters, the book dedicates four chapters to examining control equipment for gaseous pollutants, including adsorption, absorption, and incineration equipment. The remaining six chapters deal with equipment for managing airborne particulate pollutants, including gravity settlers, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers, and baghouses. The appendix contains discussions of hybrid systems, the SI system (including conversion constants), and a cost-equipment model. E...

Theodore, Louis

2008-01-01

58

Air pollution and allergic diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

Ring, J.

1987-03-13

59

Leaves and Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Laposata, Matt

60

Air-Pollutant-Philic Plants for Air Remediation  

OpenAIRE

In this communication, we review our work over two decades on air-pollutant-philic plants that can grow with air pollutants as the sole nutrient source. We believe that such plants are instrumental in mitigating air pollution. Our target air pollutant has been atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and our work on this subject has consisted of three parts: Variation in plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants among naturally occurring plants, genetic improvement of plants’ abi...

Hiromichi Morikawa; Misa Takahashi

2012-01-01

61

Various air pollutants in Torino  

OpenAIRE

The trend of concentrations of some pollutants (total particulate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chromium, nickel, lead, vanadium) in the urban air of Turin for the years 1986-87-88 was studied. The air was sampled daily by glass fiber's filters; a ponderal determination of total particulate was made; PAH was dosed by gas-chromatography and by mass spectrometry, metals was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. These are the values of the three years mea...

Maina, Giovanni; Piolatto, Pier Giorgio

1988-01-01

62

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY  

Science.gov (United States)

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

63

Mercury Air Pollution Reflected in Ocean Fish  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercury Air Pollution Reflected in Ocean Fish, Study Says Concentrations in ... mercury in the open ocean is fallout from air pollution, especially from coal-fired power plants and artisanal ...

64

Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a givenveral elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

65

Lung cancer and air pollution.  

OpenAIRE

Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung ca...

Cohen, A. J.; Pope, C. A.

1995-01-01

66

Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.  

OpenAIRE

Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts ...

Leikauf, George D.

2002-01-01

67

Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings  

OpenAIRE

The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

Evdokimova, Ekaterina

2011-01-01

68

Air pollution control policy in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a lot of reasons why emissions of air pollutants have to be reduced. Acid deposition and its consequences are among them, but they are not the only ones. This paper presents the comprehensive legal basis of air pollution control policy in Switzerland as well as the overall air pollution control strategy. The present situation with respect to air pollution is discussed. A list of implemented and planned measures is given as well as emission trends of major air pollutants from 1950 to 2010. 6 refs., 1 fig

69

REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM  

OpenAIRE

Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN) on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for ...

Raja Vara Prasad Y; Mirza Sami Baig; Mishra, Rahul K.; Rajalakshmi, P.; Desai, U. B.; Merchant, S. N.

2011-01-01

70

Air pollution measurement in Dhaka city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution in Dhaka City has become an alarming issue in recent days. Unless necessary measures are taken for the abatement of air pollution, it is going to bring adverse consequences inhuman lives. The aim of this work is to measure air pollutants of different parts of Dhaka City and also to determine breathing air quality. The field experiments revealed the concentrations of RDP (Respirable Dust Particle) suspended in air, Nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and Sulfur dioxides (So/sub 2/). A respirable dust sampler was employed to measure the concentrations of air pollutants. This work also covers an in depth study of types of air pollutants, sources, effects on human and materials and ways of controlling air pollution. This investigation is an endeavor to start a systematic collection of technical information with reliable chemical analysis using available equipment. (author)

71

Statistical modeling of air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present communication deals with the application of several chemometric methods (principal components analysis, source apportioning on absolute principal components scores, chemical mass balance, self-organizing maps) to various aerosol data collections from different regions in Europe. It is shown that different latent factors explaining over 75 % of the total variance are responsible for the data structure and could be reliable identified and interpreted. Further, the contribution of each identified source to the formation of the particle total mass and chemical compounds total concentration is calculated. Thus, a reliable assessment of the air quality in the respective region is done. Classification by self-organizing maps makes it possible to better understand the role of different discriminating tracers in the air pollution. The use of chemical mass balance approach ensures a sound modeling of the pollution sources. The requirements of the sustainability concept for ecological indicators in this case is easily transformed to a multivariate statistical problem taking into account not separate indicators but the specific multivariate nature of the aerosol pollution. PMID:22217080

Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonova, Pavlina A; Simeonov, Vasil D

2012-01-01

72

Diagnosing vegetation injury caused by air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury is discussed. The sources, atmospheric chemistry, monitoring data, symptomatology, factors affecting plant response, injury threshold doses, air quality standards, relative sensitivity of plants, and leaf tissue analysis are discussed for major air pollutants. Among the pollutants discussed are: the photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides). Minor pollutants discussed in the same framework are chlorine, hydrogen chloride, ethylene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and mercury), particulates, and pesticides. Other subjects discussed include: interactions between pollutants and between pollutants and pathogens, mimicking symptoms, meteorology and air pollution injury, and basic diagnostic procedures of suspected air pollution injury to vegetation. 76 references, 128 figures, 28 tables.

1978-02-01

73

Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures.

Thoft-Christensen, Palle

2014-01-01

74

A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX  

Science.gov (United States)

A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

75

Radioactive pollution of atmospheric air at ground level in Poland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the results of studies on radioactive pollution of the atmospheric air at the ground level in Poland during 1975-1977. The methods of sample collection and measurements are described. The mean monthly values of concentration of the following radioisotopes were determined: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 125Sb, 131J, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce. The analysis of each particular artificia radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland results from Chinese nuclear explosions is given. The equivalent doses received by the lungs, bones and the whole body as a result of inhaling radioactive isotopes from the air are determined. (author)

76

Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean.  

OpenAIRE

The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an attitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation. In the middle troposphere, Asian and to a lesser extent North American pollution is transp...

Lelieveld, J.; Berresheim, H.; Borrmann, S.; Crutzen, Pj; Dentener, Fj; Fischer, H.; Feichter, J.; Flatau, Pj; Heland, J.; Holzinger, R.; Korrmann, R.; Lawrence, Mg; Levin, Z.; Markowicz, Km; Mihalopoulos, N.

2002-01-01

77

Biological monitors of air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

78

Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

T.SUBRAMANI

2014-06-01

79

Austrian air pollution law. Oesterreichisches Luftreinhaltungsrecht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book is divided into three parts: Part I introduces into the basic elements of environmental economics and environmental policy as well as into the system and tools of air pollution regulations. Part II undertakes a description of air-pollution regulations for the most important groups of emittors: Industrial plants, residential heating systems and motor vehicles. Part III summarizes the results of the individual explanations and discusses drafts for new air-pollution regulations or to revise existing ones.

Schwarzer, S.

1987-01-01

80

Indoor Air Pollution and Asthma in Children  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this article is to review indoor air pollution factors that can modify asthma severity, particularly in inner-city environments. While there is a large literature linking ambient air pollution and asthma morbidity, less is known about the impact of indoor air pollution on asthma. Concentrating on the indoor environments is particularly important for children, since they can spend as much as 90% of their time indoors. This review focuses on studies conducted by the Johns Hopkins...

Breysse, Patrick N.; Diette, Gregory B.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Mccormack, Meredith C.

2010-01-01

81

Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation. In the middle troposphere, Asian and to a lesser extent North American pollution is transported from the west. Additional Asian pollution from the east, transported from the monsoon in the upper troposphere, crosses the Mediterranean tropopause, which pollutes the lower stratosphere at middle latitudes. PMID:12399583

Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

2002-10-25

82

Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for devareas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

83

SPECIAL PROJECTS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

Science.gov (United States)

Special projects undertaken by the Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, include the Orimulsion Research Study, Real-Time Monitoring of Dioxins and Other Trace Organics, and Environmental Technology...

84

Effects of air pollutants on plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of air pollutants on plants are described. Air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and ozone may cause acute, chronic, and invisible or physiological damages to plants by deteriorating the growth, yield, and quality. The extent of the damage progresses with increasing pollutant concentration, rather than the length of exposure time. Both SO/sub 2/ and HF interfere with photosynthesis, and the former metabolizes chlorophyll to pheophytin, while HF interferes with porphyrine synthesis. Both SO/sub 2/ and HF deplete the water reserve of the plant organism. Inert dust is injurious in keeping light away from the leaves and clogging the somate, while toxic, water-soluble dust components act directly on the exposed parts. Air pollution reduces the resistance of plants to frost and pests. Due to their response to air pollutants, certain plants can be used as bioindicators of air pollution.

Guderian, R.

1972-01-01

85

Air pollution model for point source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical models of air pollution have a broad practical application. They are irreplaceable wherever it is not possible to determine a state of air pollution by measuring of a noxious agent concentration. By creating of a suitable model of air pollution we can assess a state of the air quality but we also to predict the pollution that can occur at given atmospheric conditions. The created model is a suitable tool for controlling the activity of TEKO and for the evaluation of the quality of air in a monitored area of the city of Košice. A sufficient knowledge in the given field is a condition. The input data and information necessary for creating such a model of polluted air is another important factor.

Jozef Ma?ala

2006-12-01

86

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

87

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

88

Catalytic control of air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving the quality of our environment has become a growing concern in this country and around the globe. Research efforts in this field have recently been accelerated by the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act. This book reports on a symposium that is part of a continuing series on the surface science of catalysis. Including stationary and mobile source chapters alike in one volume allows the reader to note the similarities and differences between the two fields and possibly to apply ideas from one area to the other. The coverage is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as a survey of some of the most current topics of interest in this field. The intended audience for this book is the chemist or engineer interested in pollution control, or prevention, or both in the automotive, chemical, petroleum, and other industries, or otherwise involved in the environmental applications of catalysts

89

Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Much research on the health effects of outdoor air pollution has been published in the last decade. The goal of this review is to concisely summarize a wide range of the recent research on health effects of many types of outdoor air pollution. A review of the health effects of major outdoor air pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, acid gases, metals, volatile organics, solvents, pesticides, radiation and bioaerosols is presented. Numerous studies have linked atmospheric pollutants to many types of health problems of many body systems including the respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, hematological, neurological and reproductive/ developmental systems. Some studies have found increases in respiratory and cardiovascular problems at outdoor pollutant levels well below standards set by such agencies as the US EPA and WHO. Air pollution is associated with large increases in medical expenses, morbidity and is estimated to cause about 800,000 annual premature deaths worldwide [Cohen, A.J., Ross Alexander, H., Ostro, B., Pandey, K.D., Kryzanowski, M., Kunzail, N., et al., 2005. The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 68: 1-7.]. Further research on the health effects of air pollution and air pollutant abatement methods should be very helpful to physicians, public health officials, industrialists, politicians and the general public. PMID:16730796

Curtis, Luke; Rea, William; Smith-Willis, Patricia; Fenyves, Ervin; Pan, Yaqin

2006-08-01

90

Plants as air-pollution indicators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with the use of plants as biological indicators of air pollution. The author acquaints the reader with some sensitive methods of air pollution monitoring which are based on the use of plants. Some of the pollutants considered are sulfur dioxide, ozone, fluorides, chlorine, ethylene, and carbon dioxide. Some of the indicator plants discussed are alfalfa, buckwheat, clovers, gladiolus, june grass, petunia, nettle, rye grass, spinach, tobacco, and tulips.

Meeuse, B.J.D.

91

Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

1978-01-01

92

Air-Pollutant-Philic Plants for Air Remediation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this communication, we review our work over two decades on air-pollutant-philic plants that can grow with air pollutants as the sole nutrient source. We believe that such plants are instrumental in mitigating air pollution. Our target air pollutant has been atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and our work on this subject has consisted of three parts: Variation in plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants among naturally occurring plants, genetic improvement of plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants, and the plant vitalization effect of NO2. So far, an estimation of the half-life of nitrogen derived from NO2 uptake in plants belonging to the 217 taxa studied to date has shown no plants to be naturally occurring air-pollutant-philic. However, we found that an enormous difference exists in plants’ ability to uptake and assimilate atmospheric NO2. Future studies on the causes of this process may provide an important clue to aid the genetic production of plants that are effectively air-pollutant-philic. Both genetic engineering of the genes involved in the primary nitrate metabolism and genetic modification by ion-beam irradiation failed to make plants air-pollutant-philic, but mutants obtained in these studies will prove useful in revealing those genes critical in doing so. During our study on air-pollutant-philic plants, we unexpectedly discovered that prolonged exposure of plants to a sufficient level of NO2 activates the uptake and metabolism of nutrients that fuel plant growth and development. We named this phenomenon “the plant vitalization effect of NO2” (PVEON. Investigations into the mechanisms and genes involved in PVEON will provide an important clue to making plants air-pollutant-philic in the future.

Hiromichi Morikawa

2012-10-01

93

Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice. PMID:25285972

Huang, Yuh-Chin T

2014-10-01

94

Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

Hertel, O.

2009-09-15

95

Air pollution research needs with animals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information in this paper is directed toward anyone concerned with problems of air pollution on or from animal agriculture. Based on published reports, air pollution problems relating to livestock are identified. These are discussed under two categories: pollutants from industrial-urban sources affecting livestock and pollutants originating from animal production units. The available knowledge concerning these problems is briefly described. Specific pollutants discussed in the first category include fluorine, lead, molybdenum, and cadmium. In the second category, available information on specific pollutants identified as arising from various livestock production systems is presented. The significance of these pollutants with respect to farm livestock and the general public is discussed. Of all problems identified, extensive information is available only for fluorosis, and in all cases the knowledge to assess the situation completely is lacking. 107 references.

Aschbacher, P.W.

1972-01-01

96

Influence of air pollution on birth weight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

Stankovi? Aleksandra

2011-01-01

97

RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

98

BLUME - the Berlin air pollution monitoring network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report compiles the BLUME air pollution chracteristics obtained in winter 1987/88. Figures and tables summarize and compare the measuring results obtained for sulfur dioxide, airborne particles, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone. Air pollution in winter 1987/88 was not as critical as in the previous years. The 1987/88 mean sulfur dioxide concentrations were found to be the lowest values determined since BLUME measurements started in 1975, and the mean values obtained for airborne particles and for most of the remaining pollutants were lower than in the previous year. The causes of these relatively low pollutant concentrations are discussed. (orig./BBR)

99

Statistical aspects of air pollution quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study on the relations between the level of air pollutant concentration, its exposure time and its frequency of occurrence, as well as their associated adverse effects on man, would be the first step of establishing air quality standards, and through such standards we can establish a reasonable land utilization plan. The general models of air pollutant distributions are discussed in the first half of the paper from both theoretical and actual points. Then three typical properties of air pollutant concentration, i.e. exceeding probability, maximum value, and exceeding number, are introduced. Arrowhead chart model is one of the main informations from air pollution issue, which is discussed in the latter half. (author)

100

Cancer risk of air pollution: epidemiological evidence.  

OpenAIRE

Epidemiological studies on the effect of urban air pollution on lung cancer were surveyed. Overall, the studies from many countries point to a smoking-adjusted risk in urban areas over countryside areas that is higher by a factor of up to 1.5. The extent to which urban air pollution contributes to this excess remains unknown. Studies on diesel-exposed occupational groups show that urban air pollution may have a causative role in lung cancer. Model calculations on unit risk factors of known hu...

Hemminki, K.; Pershagen, G.

1994-01-01

101

Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers  

OpenAIRE

We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B) aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air ...

Weinheimer, A. J.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Mckeachie, R. J.; Novak, B. J.; Midyett, J. R.; Yang, M.; Blake, N. J.; Baker, A. K.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Atlas, E. L.

2009-01-01

102

Event Processing in Air Pollution Monitoring Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is very necessary to detect the environmental conditions of remote places in real time in order to prevent natural disasters such as a flood, a typhoon, an earthquake, and breaks of an embankment. In this paper, we present the event processing in air pollution monitoring system by using geosensor network and spatial information. This system detects sign of air pollution, recognizes the pollution event, and provides the alarm message for predicted dangerous area in near future. The system utilizes sensor data abstraction, context model, and pollution spread model to recognize the pollution events. The designed event process is useful in a monitoring service such as a home network, pollution and ecosystem monitoring, battle field analysis with reconnaissance, and transportation control.

JongSuk Ruth Lee

2013-03-01

103

Air pollution in Karachi: a study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air population is a necessary adjunct to the advancement of civilisation. It was an offshoot or rapid industrialisation of Europe during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when most of the industrial plants coming up in the big industrial cities were based on the use of coal as a source of energy. This caused an enormous amount of air pollution. Air pollution therefore is a man made phenomenon which creates environmental degradation and it generally builds up over a period of time. Pollution of Karachi which was less than half a million at the time of partition of India has crossed ten million mark during the last decade. This rapid and more or less unplanned expansion of population of this teeming metropolis has entailed environmental degradation of Karachi. As this matter needs detailed and in depth monitoring we have limited our scope to the study of its effect on air pollution alone. (A.B.)

104

Air pollution, public health, and inflation  

OpenAIRE

Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

Ostro, Bart David

1980-01-01

105

ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

106

Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure  

OpenAIRE

Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM?

Maura Lodovici; Elisabetta Bigagli

2011-01-01

107

Bioindicator method of determining air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of lichens as bioindicators of sulfur dioxide air pollution is reviewed. The studies cited are drawn mostly from the literature in England and Canada. While lichens cannot replace gas analyzers, they are often the cheapest, most accurate and effective method of determining the degree of air pollution. The species discussed include: Pleurococcus viridans, Lecanora comizacoides, Lecanora expallens, Lepraria incana, Parmelia saxaitlis, Parmelia sulcata, Hypogimnia physodes, and Lecidea sealaris. 1 table.

Ermakov, Yu.G.

1974-01-01

108

Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

109

Ambient air pollution and the fetus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

Kadriye Yurdakök

2013-06-01

110

REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for sensing concentration of gases like CO2, NO2, CO and O2 are calibrated using appropriate calibration technologies. These pre-calibrated gas sensors are then integrated with the wireless sensor motes for field deployment at the campus and the Hyderabad city using multi hop data aggregation algorithm. A light weight middleware and a web interface to view the live pollution data in the form of numbers and charts from the test beds was developed and made available from anywhere on the internet. Other parameters like temperature and humidity were also sensed along with gas concentrations to enable data analysis through data fusion techniques. Experimentation carried out using the developed wireless air pollution monitoring system under different physical conditions show that the system collects reliable source of real time fine-grain pollution data.

Raja Vara Prasad Y

2011-06-01

111

Indoor air pollution and airway disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growing scientific evidence has shown that because people generally spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor pollution plays a significant role in affecting health and is thus an important health issue. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. In developing countries, relevant sources of indoor pollution include biomass and coal burning for cooking and heating. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Approximately 1 million of these deaths occur in children aged under 5 years due to acute respiratory infections and significant proportions of deaths occur due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. Today, indoor air pollution ranks tenth among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of indoor pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

Viegi, G.; Simoni, M.; Scognamiglio, A.; Baldacci, S.; Pistelli, F.; Carrozzi, L.; Annesi-Maesano, I. [CNR, Pisa (Italy). Inst. of Clinical Physiology

2004-12-15

112

Photographs of plants damaged by air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plant damage by air pollutants are displayed in hundreds of photographs. Pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone cause necrosis between veins of leaves, hydrogen fluoride causes necrosis at the edges of leaves. Oxidants such as aldehydes and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) cause the formation of silver-grey color on the backs of leaves. At lower pollutant concentrations, chlorosis of leaves or invisible injuries such as plant growth retardation occurs. Plants weak in resistance to SO/sub 2/ are alfalfa, barley, cotton, marvel-of-Peru, rhubarb, cosmos, and sweet pea; those strong in resistance are musk melon, citrus, fruits, celery, and chrysanthemum. The resistance to SO/sub 2/ increases as the humidity decreases. The threshold value of HF was several ppb using gladiolus as the indicator plant. The resistances of plants to air pollutants depend not only on the plant and pollutant, but also on meteorological conditions and planting conditions.

1973-01-01

113

Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. PMID:25108840

Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

2014-12-01

114

Variance Design and Air Pollution Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution control authorities were forced to relax air quality standards during the winter of 1972 by granting variances. This paper examines the institutional characteristics of these variance policies from an economic incentive standpoint, sets up desirable structural criteria for institutional design and arrives at policy guidelines for…

Ferrar, Terry A.; Brownstein, Alan B.

1975-01-01

115

Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors  

Science.gov (United States)

Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

Healy, Bud

1970-01-01

116

Effects of environmental air pollution on the eye  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The eye is vulnerable to the effects of air pollution. Manifestations of air pollution can range from minimal or no symptoms to chronic discomfort and eye irritation. There may also be specific situations, in contact lens wearers for example, where the eyes may be adversely affected by air pollution. Despite the presence of air pollution in many indoor and outdoor environments, the ocular effects of air pollution are often overlooked by optometrists when examining their patients. In this article, background knowledge needed to understand the effects of air pollution on the eye will be reviewed. Suggestions for management of air pollution-related eye symptoms are provided.26 references.

Klopfer, J. (Eye Institute, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-10-01

117

ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

118

RESEARCH AREA -- CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DESTRUCTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

Science.gov (United States)

Six thermal oxidation (incineration) processes were approved by the Montreal Protocol for the disposal of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has eva...

119

Climatological variability in regional air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

120

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

121

Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

1995-12-31

122

Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

NONE

1997-07-01

123

Air pollution control policy in Switzerland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

1995-12-31

124

Air Pollution in the Pacific Northwest  

Science.gov (United States)

Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the model's performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.

CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

125

Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are indications that the fluorine analyses of the leaf tips of tulips grown in glasshouses supply more reliable information about the intensity of HF air pollution than those of the tulips grown in the open. Tomato plants were fumigated just at the start of flowering with ethylene in concentrations of about 0.1-0.2 ppm during 14 days. The plants reacted mainly with flower drop; only a slight epinasty occurred. Continuous attention is paid to the air pollution of an aluminium factory causing leaf injury to trees and shrubs in the surroundings of the industry. Agricultural crops were not affected. Dust and soot deposits on fruit in orchards, originating respectively from the stacks of a cement factory and the stacks of heavy oil heated glasshouses were also investigated. The deposit of these materials caused a lower quality of the fruit, respectively at great distance and in the vicinity of the sources of the air pollution.

Spierings, F.H.F.G.; Van Raay, A.; Wolting, H.G.

1968-01-01

126

the role of industry in air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

127

Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving cargo. The air quality impacts of ports are significant, with particularly large emissions of diesel exhaust, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides. The health effects of these air pollutants to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. In children, there are links with asthma, bronchitis, missed school days, and emergency room visits. The significance of these environmental health impacts requires aggressive efforts to mitigate the problem. Approaches to mitigation encompass a range of possibilities from currently available, low-cost approaches, to more significant investments for cleaner air. Examples of the former include restrictions on truck idling and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuel; the latter includes shore-side power for docked ships, and alternative fuels. A precautionary approach to port-related air pollution would encourage local production of goods in order to reduce marine traffic, greener design for new terminals, and state-of-the art approaches erminals, and state-of-the art approaches to emissions-control that have been successfully demonstrated at ports throughout the world

128

Health impact of air pollution to children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed differential expression of 104 genes. Specifically, biological processes related to immune and defense response were down-regulated in Ceske Budejovice. Our studies demonstrate that air pollution significantly affect child health. Especially noticeable is the increase of respiratory morbidity. With the development of molecular epidemiology, we can further evaluate the health risk of air pollution using biomarkers. PMID:23312845

Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

2013-08-01

129

Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of Chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of stove operation, beyond those evaluated with the WBT. PMID:24784418

Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

2014-06-01

130

Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke  

Science.gov (United States)

Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Jan 9,2014 Whether you live in a city where smog forecasts are routine or in a ... people who are elderly or already struggling with heart disease , said Dr. Luepker, who is also an epidemiologist. ...

131

Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

132

Effects of air pollution on vascular thrombosis  

OpenAIRE

Increases in air pollution, especially the particulate component, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, possibly through increases in thrombogenic mechanisms. The research presented in this thesis addresses the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) increase thrombogenicity by impairing the release of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) from vascular endothelial cells, thus inhibiting the endogenous fibrinolytic mechanisms that promote thrombus brea...

Tabor, Caroline Mary

2011-01-01

133

Breathing Easy About New Air Pollution Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

A town meeting is the backdrop for a role-playing case about ground-level ozone air pollution. The case consists of a flier and scripts drawn from public comment records on the government mandate to reduce ground-level ozone by limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. Students play the parts of stakeholders and develop recommendations for reducing emissions.

Rowberg, Kathryn L.

2000-01-01

134

Human health effects of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O{sub 3}), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed.

Kampa, Marilena [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: kampa@med.uoc.gr; Castanas, Elias [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: castanas@med.uoc.gr

2008-01-15

135

Human health effects of air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O3), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

136

AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

Maja Nikoli?

2004-12-01

137

Transboundary air Pollution in Peruvian Amazonia  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass burning in the tropics is an important source of pollution to the atmosphere with different and not well understood consequences to the climate and the atmospheric chemistry. Burning over Amazonia is related mainly to land use cover change. During the dry season (May to November) high amount of fires are produced in Amazonia. The resulting pollutants under some conditions could produce tropospheric ozone, which reaches long distances far from the sources, the same occurs with aerosols, both could be detected by ground and satellite measurements. The work focused on the transboundary air pollution between Brazil and Peru during the last years. In this sense, this research determines the seasonal variations and the spatial coverage of this pollution in Peruvian Amazonia. We used satellite data and ground measurements to make a detailed evaluation of the transport and production of pollutants (tropospheric ozone and aerosols) related to biomass burning in order to quantify the levels of pollution based on tropospheric ozone and aerosol index and optical depth. Also, we evaluate the climatology of fires detected by satellites. It is expected that the results will provide basic information to policy makers about possible effects of this pollution in the natural resources of Peru. Also, we will provide the scientific basis for the National Program for Prevention of Forest Fires.

Luis, S.; Luis, C.

2007-05-01

138

Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

139

76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-11-01

140

Influence of air pollution on cultural crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When tulips were fumigated with fluoric acid, resp. sulfur dioxide under circumstances which cause condensation of very small drops of water on the leaves, the symptoms consist of very small white spots instead of normally appearing white fields. These white spots originate from the gas dissolved in the drops of water on the leaves. Several vegetables and flowerbulbs were fumigated with different concentrations of HF and SO/sub 2/ and the appearing symptoms were described. In relation to the damage of plants, which was thought to be caused by certain organic chemicals, a method was developed to fumigate plants with known concentrations of the chemicals, probably occurring in the polluted area. Research on the air pollution in the vicinity of several industries is going on in fields and in the laboratory. In most of the cases HF or SO/sub 2/ was the cause of the air pollution, in some others zinc oxide or chlorine. In 1959 more attention was paid to the damage by dust, originating from railways (Fe), chimneys (ash), etc. This dust may cover plants and glasshouses. The dust covered plants are inferior in quality (vegetables, fruits). On the glasshouses the dust causes a decrease of light intensity for the crops. During this year new cases of damage to crops due to some unknown air pollution were brought to our attention, and are under investigation now.

Spierings, F.H.F.G.

1960-01-01

141

Integration of a computational grid and virtual geographic environment to facilitate air pollution simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution, which is a global environmental problem, has been the hot research area among the scientists in the geoscience community. Air pollution simulation is of low-efficiency caused by the computation-intensive models, such as MM5 or WRF, and the complicated and unfriendly user interface. These issues are addressed in this paper by integrating computational grid and virtual geographic environment (VGE). The computational grid is employed to improve the computation efficiency of air pollution models. The VGE is used as a straightforward and easy to use interface to navigate the air pollution modeling workflow and improve the operational efficiencies of the models with respect to initiation, computation, and output visualization. On the aspect of technique implementation, this paper designs a framework and addresses the methodologies of the integration of computational grid and VGE. The prototype system, which integrates the computation grid of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUGrid) and a VGE to facilitate air pollution simulation based on the Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5), was developed. Based on the prototype system, a case was tested and the results indicate that the efficiencies of air pollution simulation on the model computation and workflow operation based on MM5 are increased significantly. This success also proves the reasonability of our general contribution of integrating computational grid and VGE to facilitate air pollution simulation.

Xu, Bingli; Lin, Hui; Gong, Jianhua; Tang, Sammy; Hu, Ya; Nasser, Ibrahim Abdoul; Jing, Tao

2013-04-01

142

Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

143

Regional scale air pollution - Sources and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several independent types of information relating to the sources and effects of regional-scale air pollution are reviewed. Much of the information was obtained by in situ observations of plumes and field studies of individual pollution episodes. Attention is given to anthropogenic pollution sources in the U.S. (primarily fossil fuel combustion), rates of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ emission from such sources, ambient concentrations of sulfur compounds, the long-range transport of sulfate aerosol, and visibility trends in the eastern U.S. It is concluded that an episode of extreme haziness covering multistate regions of the eastern U.S. appeared to have been largely caused by secondary sulfate aerosol, that coal combustion and sulfate are only one factor in the production of optical effects, and that spatial and temporal aerosol trends and distributions of coal use, sulfate, light extinction, turbidity, and solar radiation exhibit reasonable internal consistency

144

VALMET-A valley air pollution model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

1983-09-01

145

Air pollution in Kosice by solid particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was monitoring of fibre and non-fibre solid pollutants in the air of selected cross-roads of Kosice town. Maximum concentration of dust was 0.145 and 0.136 mg · m-3. The values of number concentration of micro-fibres was 92 to 241 fibres in 1 m3 of air, i.e. 92 · 10-6 to 241 · 10-6 fibres · cm-3. Chemical analysis of dust show that it contains different heavy metals but limit values are overrun for lead and copper. Limit value for the lead is overrun on 15 to 40 % and for the copper on 100 %. Sources of solid pollutants are unknown

146

Alveolar Macrophage Interaction With Air Pollution Particulates  

OpenAIRE

We applied flow cytometric analysis to characterize the in vitro response of alveolar macrophages (AM) to air pollution particulates. Normal hamster AM were incubated with varying concentrations of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or concentrated ambient air particulates (CAP). We found a dose-dependent increase in AM-associated right angle light scatter (RAS) after uptake of ROFA (e.g., mean channel number 149.4 +/- 6.5, 102.5 +/- 4.1, 75.8 +/- 3.5, and 61.0 +/- 4.6 at 200, 100, 50, and 25 mg/ml,...

Goldsmith, C. A.; Frevert, C.; Imrich, A.; Sioutas, C.; Kobzik, Lester

1997-01-01

147

Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China: The Possibility and Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The air environmental pollutants exhausted by China have attracted the attention from the world, especially the neighboring countries including Japan. Japan has put forward a conceived model named Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China. This article analyzes the background and causations of air environmental pollution problems in China, and the efforts that Chinese government has made in energy conservation and lessening the pollutants exhaust of car. On this basis, we analyze the mutual interests and stance of the governments and car manufacturers in the aspect of establishing Air Pollution Prevention Alliance between Japan and China, and consider that there will be further cooperation between Japan and China on air pollution problems in the governmental levels, and the operation can be expanded to be a multilateral frame which is among Korea, Japan, China and other East Asian countries. But at this stage, as for the aspect of car manufacturers in Japan and China, the bifurcation between these two countries decides that there is just a little possibility of establishing an alliance which focuses on solving the air pollution problems in China.

Lin Sun

2009-08-01

148

Report 'Effects of air pollution on allergy'  

OpenAIRE

In the last decade the prevalence of asthma and allergy is increasing. Epidemiological studies have frequently shown that allergic diseases and asthma are more prevalent in children living in areas with relative high traffic intensity. To study whether the urban air pollution adversely affects the allergic responses to pollen and house dust mite, the present study was performed in allergic and non-allergic children living in the city of Utrecht (Zuilen and Ondiep). 119 Scho...

Pa, Steerenberg; Ewma, Bischoff; Klerk A de; Apj, Verlaan; Lmn, Jongbloets; van Loveren H; Opperhuizen A; Zomer G; Sh, Heisterkamp; Hady M; Ftm, Spieksma; Ph, Fischer; Jama, Dormans; Jgc, Amsterdam

2007-01-01

149

Household Electri cation and Indoor Air Pollution  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides the first empirical evidence that household electrification leads to direct and substantial welfare improvements via reductions in indoor air pollution. In the setting of a recent electrification program in northern El Salvador, we exploit a unique data-set on minute-by-minute fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) concentration within the framework of a clean experimental design. Two years after baseline, overnight PM 2.5 concentration was on average 67% lower among househol...

Barron, Manuel; Torero, Maximo

2015-01-01

150

Satellite data for the air pollution mapping  

OpenAIRE

This article investigates the potentials of satellite imagery for the mapping of air quality parameters. Concentrations of black particulates, sulphur dioxide and other pollutants measured in the city of Nantes with ground stations were compared to coincident Landsat TM6 data (thermal infrared band data). The black particulates concentration and the apparent temperature from satellite data are highly correlated. Finally, it is demonstrated that the spatial distribution of the black particulat...

Wald, Lucien; Basly, Ludovic; Baleynaud, Jean-michel

1998-01-01

151

Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an area, where tulips had been damaged, experimental plots with tulip varieties of different sensitivities to HF were laid out in the open and in greenhouses. It was proven that the injury decreased with increasing distance from the factory. In the same area irises were injured. But in this case the cause of the damage proved to be SO2 derived from the stove in the greenhouse. In an industrial area, where fruit trees were damaged last year, potatoes were injured in a very typical way. Varieties of this crop also showed differences in sensitivity to air pollution. During another period of 1958 air pollution of high intensity occurred in the same area, so that several crops were severely damaged. The damage of the fruit and vegetables turned out to be caused by HF. In several other areas of air pollution the cause of the damage proved to be HF or SO2. Shrubs surrounding the fields were able to prevent the spread of the gases to a small extent. In an area, where the concentration of HF in the atmosphere proved to be too low to cause damage, a conifer species, Chamaecyparis, showed a rather high content of F in the leaves. It is possible that this tree species, which keeps its green color during the whole year, continuously absorbs small quantities of fluorine and may become injured. In an area surrounding an enamel industry plants were damaged by HF. Several new cases of air pollution were investigated. In two of these, the cause of the damage to the plants proved to be hydrochloric acid.

Spierings, F.H.F.G.

1958-01-01

152

Air pollution study by NAA in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this research is to enhance use of a nuclear analytical technique (instrumental neutron activation analysis) in the field of air pollution studies through a feasibility study of the usefulness of a routine monitoring tool in assessing and comparing air pollution levels in the region, in order to identify critical air pollution sources. For the collection of airborne particulate matter(APM) for the fine (< 2.5 ?m EAD) and coarse particle (2.5-10 ?m EAD) fractions, the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sampler and two types of Nuclepore polycarbonate filters were employed. Samples were collected on selected sampling dates (working and non-working days) at two regions (suburban residential site and industrial complex of Taejon city in the Republic of Korea). Trace elements in the samples collected were analyzed by INAA. Variations of the concentrations of particulate matter, elements and elemental carbon were measured monthly and enrichment factors with the sampling sites were calculated. The analytical data were treated statistically to estimate the relationship between two variables, the concentrations of elements and two particulate matters. The results were used to describe the emission sources and their correlations. (author)

153

Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

154

Population Dynamics and Air Pollution : The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; SØrensen, Jan

2013-01-01

155

Raman lidar techniques for air pollution measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman lidar has been demonstrated to provide vertical profiles of several of the key parameters needed for investigations of air quality. The time sequence of atmospheric profiles is most valuable for understanding the meteorological processes controlling the evolution of events and exposure associated with air pollution. The vibrational and rotational Raman lidar signals provide simultaneous profiles of meteorological data, ozone and measurements of airborne particulate matter. An operational prototype Raman lidar instrument makes use of 2nd and 4th harmonic generated laser beams of a Nd:YAG laser to provide both daytime and nighttime measurements. The Raman scatter signals from vibrational states of water vapor and nitrogen provide robust profiles of the specific humidity in the lower atmosphere. The temperature profiles are measured using the ratio of rotational Raman signals at 530 and 528 nm from the 532 nm beam of the Nd:YAG laser. In addition, the optical extinction profiles can be determined from the measured gradients in each of several molecular species scattering profiles compared to the molecular scale height. Wavelengths at 284 nm, 530 nm and 607 nm have been used routinely to determine profiles of optical extinction. The ozone profiles in the lower troposphere are measured using a DIAL analysis of the ratio of the vibrational Raman signals for nitrogen (284 nm) and oxygen (278 nm), which are on the steep side of the Hartley band of ozone. Examples from several data sets are used to demonstrate the utility of Raman lidar to describe the evolution of air pollution events. The examples presented have been selected to show the new level of understanding of air pollution events that is being gained from applications of lidar techniques.

Philbrick, C. Russell

2002-01-01

156

Indoor air pollution in developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the four principal categories of indoor pollution (combustion products, chemicals, radon and biologicals), research in developing countries has focused on combustion-generated pollutants, and principally those from solid-fuel-fired cooking and heating stoves. Such stoves are used in more than half the world's households and have been shown in many locations to produce high indoor concentrations of particulates, carbon monoxide and other combustion-related pollutants. Although the proportion of all such household stoves that are used in poorly ventilated situations is uncertain, the total population exposed to excessive concentrations is potentially high, probably several hundred million. A number of studies were carried out in the 1980s to discover the health effects of such stove exposures. The majority of such studies were done in South Asia in homes burning biomass fuels or in China with coal-burning homes, although a sprinkling of studies examining biomass-burning have been done in Oceania, Latin America and Africa. Of the health effects that might be expected from such exposures, little, if any, work seems to have been done on low birthweight and eye problems, although there are anecdotal accounts making the connection. Decreased lung function has been noted in Nepali women reporting more time spent near the stove as it has for Chinese women using coal stoves as compared to those using gas stoves. Respiratory distress symptoms have been associated with use of smoky fuels in West India, Ladakh and in several Chinese studies among different age groups, some with large population samples. Acute respiratory infection in children, one of the chief causes of infant and childhood mortality, has been associated with Nepali household-smoke exposures. Studies of chronic disease endpoints are difficult because of the need to construct exposure histories over long periods. Nevertheless, chronic obstructive lung disease has been associated with the daily time spent near the stove for Nepali women and found to be elevated among coal-stove users compared to gas-stove users in Shanghai. In contrast to early reports, there seems to be little or no risk of nasopharyngeal cancer from cookstove smoke. Several studies in China, however, have found smoke to be a strong risk factor for lung cancer among non-smoking women. In addition, severe fluorosis has been observed in several parts of China where coal fluoride levels are high.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2238693

Chen, B H; Hong, C J; Pandey, M R; Smith, K R

1990-01-01

157

Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

158

Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

Engel, J.A.

1995-08-01

159

Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index  

OpenAIRE

Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR) and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI). Eight roadside tree species wer...

SULISTIJORINI; ZAINAL ALIM MAS’UD; NIZAR NASRULLAH; AHMAD BEY; SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO

2008-01-01

160

Rapid guide to hazardous air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concise and easy to use, this book brings together a wealth of hard-to-gather information in one compact pocket guide. It offers--in alphabetical order--detailed profiles of the 189 elements and compounds determined to be hazardous air pollutants by the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act. The profile for each pollutant includes: fundamental identification data (CAS number, molecular formula, formula weight, synonyms); uses (primarily in the manufacture of chemicals and as a component in the manufacturing process); physical properties (such as boiling point, density, vapor pressures, color); chemical properties (such as air/water reactivity, reactivity with skin or metal, flash point, heat of combustion); health risks, including toxic exposure guidelines, toxicity data, and acute and chronic risks; hazard risks (the substance`s potential for accidents, fires, explosions, corrosion, and chemical incompatibility); exposure routes tracking the activities, environment, sources, and occupations that tend to lead to exposure; regulatory status, listing the primary laws and citations of regulated chemicals; and important additional information on symptoms, first aid, firefighting methods, protective equipment, and safe storage.

Beim, H.J.; Spero, J.; Theodore, L.

1998-12-31

161

Impaired visibility: the air pollution people see  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost every home and office contains a portrayal of a scenic landscape whether on a calendar, postcard, photograph, or painting. The most sought after locations boast a scenic landscape right outside their window. No matter what the scene - mountains, skyscrapers, clouds, or pastureland - clarity and vividness are essential to the image. Air pollution can degrade scenic vistas, and in extreme cases, completely obscure them. Particulate matter suspended in the air is the main cause of visibility degradation. Particulate matter affects visibility in multiple ways: obscures distant objects, drains the contrast from a scene, and discolors the sky. Visibility is an environmental quality that is valued for aesthetic reasons that are difficult to express or quantify. Human psychology and physiology are sensitive to visual input. Visibility has been monitored throughout the world but there are few places where it is a protected resource. Existing health-based regulations are weak in terms of visibility protection. Various techniques, including human observation, light transmission measurements, digital photography, and satellite imaging, are used to monitor visibility. As with air pollution, trends in visibility vary spatially and temporally. Emissions from the developing world and large scale events such as dust storms and wildfires affect visibility around much of the globe.

Hyslop, Nicole Pauly

162

Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ? The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ? Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ? The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ? Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern clim

163

Air pollution control and energy conservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Growing environmental awareness and dwindling fossil fuel reserves have led to the adoption of clean and proven energy efficient technologies. Through Ignifluid combustion process, besides ensuring efficient combustion of fuels, having diverse characteristics, formation of harmful gaseous pollutants viz. nitrous oxides and carbon dioxides, is greatly reduced. These apart, CO and hydrocarbons leaving the combustion chamber are of a low order. The paper brings to the fore the versatile features of the environment friendly Ignifluid process through performance feedback from the operating installations related to air pollution control. Ignifluid technology is the answer for retrofit for existing scores of large sized steam generating plants which are operating at a dismally low thermal efficiency thereby bulging out tons of gaseous pollutants to the landscape. By retrofitting with Ignifluid combustor besides achieving lowered gaseous emissions, due to improved thermal efficiency, energy conservation of a high order is ensured. Also, this technology is well established for burning multi fuels including industrial wastes in varying proportions with fossil/biomass fuels in the most efficient fashion. Through installation of stack gas cooler as an outfit to the Ignifluid boiler, energy conservation due to enhanced thermal efficiency and substantial reduction in generation of gaseous pollutants are ensured. Thus by improving overall plant efficiency, CO2 emission toant efficiency, CO2 emission to atmosphere is drastically reduced thus abetting green house effect. Global warming is reduced by effecting reduction in gas exit temperature. Realizing this immense potential of Ignifluid system as an energy saving/pollution control device, government should give encouragement by way of granting fiscal benefits like tax concessions etc. (author). 1 fig., 6 tabs

164

Coordination of air pollution abatement programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is a presentation of a study the author computed as a consultant for the Ministry of the Environment. Due to growth of the energy production capacity Finland is reaching a situation where it will be impossible to hold on the long term goals of the air pollution control. The main obstacle will be enormous costs. The author prefers an option in which economic incentives are used to suppress the growth of the energy capacity and traffic volume. The report also recommends a long-term national strategy by which the international competitive ability in Finland would be based upon low-energy commodities

165

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer  

OpenAIRE

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex...

Wei Zhang; Chao-Nan Qian; Yi-Xin Zeng

2014-01-01

166

Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, Ox, SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impactsd health impacts

167

Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

Yu Shun-Zhang

2003-11-01

168

Nitrogenous air pollutants: Chemical and biological implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical and experimental studies on the health effects and chemistry of gaseous and particulate nitrogenous air pollutants are presented. Specific topics include Fourier transform infrared studies of nitrogenous compounds, the mechanism of peroxynitric acid formation, N-nitroso compounds in the air, the chemical transformations of nitrogen oxides during the sampling of combustion products, the atmospheric chemistry of peroxy nitrates, and the effects of nitrogen dioxide on lung metabolism. Attention is also given to the interaction of nitrogen oxides and aromatic hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions, the characterization of particulate amines, the role of ammonia in atmospheric aerosol chemistry, the relationship between sulfates and nitrates and tropospheric measurements of nitric acid vapor and particulate nitrates

169

RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

170

Indoor Air Pollution in China:Analysis of Global Warming Contributions and Exposure to Particles  

OpenAIRE

About 60% of the Chinese population lives in rural areas, where biomass and coal are the main sources of energy for cooking and heating. Indoor air pollution from household fuel burning is a major health concern, responsible for at least 420,000 premature deaths annually in China alone. However, less is known about the emissions of greenhouse compounds from the household sector. Therefore, this work aims to quantify the global warming contribution (GWC) from main household fuels in rural Chin...

Alnes, Line Winther Hansen

2008-01-01

171

Kerbside DOAS measurements of air pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

Emission sources as well as wind speed and direction and MLH are important factors which influence high air pollutant concentrations. This is generally known (Schäfer et al., 2006) but the detailed understanding of processes directing certain air pollutant concentrations like HCHO is not complete. To study these processes a long-term campaign in Augsburg, Germany, was performed since March 2012. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO, which were measured with a DOAS from OPSIS across a main traffic road and a nearby park area, are analysed. A ceilometer CL31 from Vaisala which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system is applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. Special software for this ceilometer with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Meteorological data were measured by a ground-based weather station at the measurement site as well as taken from monitoring data archives of the German National Meteorological Service (DWD), which are measured by radiosondes (Oberschleißheim). Correlation analyses are applied to show the coupling of temporal variations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO concentrations with temperature, mixing layer height and wind speed. HCHO which is emitted from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources is studied especially.

Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Legelli, Stefan; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

2014-10-01

172

Study of urban air pollution in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

173

Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M. [Toronto Public Health, ON (Canada)

2007-11-15

174

Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figssport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

175

Air pollution and non-respiratory health hazards for children  

OpenAIRE

Air pollution is a global health issue with serious public health implications, particularly for children. Usually respiratory effects of air pollutants are considered, but this review highlights the importance of non-respiratory health hazards. In addition to short-term effects, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with low birth weight, increase in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-commu...

Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

2010-01-01

176

A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System  

OpenAIRE

Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to moni...

Khedo, Kavi K.; Rajiv Perseedoss; Avinash Mungur

2010-01-01

177

Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

2001-01-01

178

Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

179

77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA...

2012-10-15

180

77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes and...

2012-04-12

181

Monitoring of trace element air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ?50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

182

AIR QUALITY POLLUTION DISCHARGE POINTS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Management, Air Quality Section in cooperation with the North Carolina Center for Geographical Information and Analysis developed the digital Air Quality Pollution Discharge Poi...

183

Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution  

OpenAIRE

Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued i...

Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

2012-01-01

184

Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for unadapted and adapted persons according to logarithmic index evaluation method, combined with percentage of dissatisfaction and joint effect of indoor air pollution caused by these two kinds of sources.

Wang J., Zhang X.

2010-07-01

185

AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT BY FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourier transform spectroscopy substantially reduces the limitations on infrared methods of pollution measurement. EPA has used long path cells and Fourier transform spectrometers for pollutant measurement both in the laboratory and in the field. Labile pollutants are best measur...

186

Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts, and content of mobile heavy metals. The volume of APC residue is presently increasing due to the increased focus on utilization of renewable energy sources, and thus occupation of new waste–to-energy plants. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions, however, most commercial solutions are concerned with deposition; e.g. in abandoned mines. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. Some main challenges are the extremely high soluble fraction together with the fact that many of the toxic elements are encapsulated in the particles rather than adsorbed to their surface.

Jensen, Pernille Erland

187

Effects of air pollution on plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are three principal air pollutants of major interest to agriculture - viz., sulfur dioxide, fluorine compounds, and smog. The last is a complex mixture, only partially understood at this time. There are at least two distinct types of smog, with many intermediate grades: the London type, which is a mixture of coal smoke and fog with enough sulfur dioxide to impart reducing properties to the mixture; and the highly oxidizing Los Angeles type, which usually contains neither coalsmoke nor fog, but rather is a mixture of ozone and peroxidized organic compounds formed by photochemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and innocuous organic compounds formed by photochemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and innocuous organic compounds such as gasoline vapors or partially burned fuel. In addition to the two types of smog, certain organic compounds, such as ethylene, DDT, and some heterocyclic bases, are known to have powerful phytotoxicity and have done considerable plant damage in some locations. 129 references.

Thomas, M.D.

1961-01-01

188

Plasma treatment of air pollution control residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution control (APC) residues from waste incineration have been blended with silica and alumina and the mix melted using DC plasma arc technology. The chemical composition of the fully amorphous homogeneous glass formed has been determined. Waste acceptance criteria compliance leach testing demonstrates that the APC residue derived glass releases only trace levels of heavy metals (Pb (<0.007mg/kg) and Zn (0.02mg/kg)) and Cl(-) (0.2mg/kg). These are significantly below the limit values for disposal to inert landfill. It is concluded that plasma treatment of APC residues can produce an inert glass that may have potential to be used either in bulk civil engineering applications or in the production of higher value glass-ceramic products. PMID:17702563

Amutha Rani, D; Gomez, E; Boccaccini, A R; Hao, L; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

2008-01-01

189

Lichens as integrating air pollution monitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioindication using epiphytic lichens has developed rapidly in the last decades. Both mapping of lichen vegetation and multielement analysis of Hypogymnia physodes collected on a national scale were used. A simple method based on the assessment of the cover and frequency of crustose, foliose and fruticose lichens on different tree species was performed in 1991 and 1995 and the so-called Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) was calculated, providing a picture of the general air quality in the country. However, by analysis of lichen material using k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis detailed information about its composition and levels of pollutants was obtained. In the present work an attempt to combine the IAP results with the quantitative levels of certain trace elements together with available results for SO2 in the atmosphere using multivariate statistical methods is presented and discussed. (author)

190

Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fruits harvested in the neighborhood of a cement factory and covered with cement dust did not show a decline in keeping quality during cold storage of four months compared with fruits stored under the same conditions and harvested at a great distance of the factory. In some cases necrotic spots were observed on leaves and fruits of trees growing near stacks of installations burning heavy oil. In an area of HF air pollution it appeared that the HF-less sensitive variety (Preludium) contained a much higher fluorine content in the 2.5 cm leaf tip than the very sensitive variety (Blue Parrot) growing on the same experimental plots. For detecting chronic HF-injury in field-grown tulips, it was decided to set up experimental plots in the area in question, applying Blue Parrot as an injury-indicator together with Preludium for analysing the fluorine in the leaf tips.

Spierings, F.H.F.G.; Rayy, V.A.; Wolting, H.G.

1965-01-01

191

Urban air pollution control in Peru  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

NONE

2006-12-20

192

Air pollution and allergy: experimental studies on modulation of allergen release from pollen by air pollutants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fact that allergic diseases increase in prevalence is a generally accepted and worldwide phenomenon. The causes for this increase are not known: only hypothetical concepts exist. Epidemiological studies comparing Eastern and Western European populations have shown a striking difference in the prevalence of respiratory atopic diseases, which is lower in the East. At the same time, different patterns of air pollution have been described, namely 'classical' type I, characterized by SO2 and dust prevailing in the East, and 'modern' type II, characterized by organic compounds, fine particles and ozone, which is more prominent in the West. Type II was associated in multivariate regression analysis with increased prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy. Pollen grains collected from industrial regions with high polyaromatic hydrocarbon load in West Germany, but not in East Germany, were shown to be agglomerated with airborne particles. In vitro exposure of pollen to particles indicated morphological changes and increased allergen release from the pollen. In vitro exposure of pollen to gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) under different conditions of humidity resulted in SO2-induced, but not NO2-induced reduction of allergen release from pollen. It is concluded that the bioavailability of grass pollen allergens may be modulated by air pollutants, supporting the concept of an interaction between pollen and pollutants in the atmosphere outside the organism which in turn may affect allergy-relevant phenomena. PMID:9130487

Behrendt, H; Becker, W M; Fritzsche, C; Sliwa-Tomczok, W; Tomczok, J; Friedrichs, K H; Ring, J

1997-01-01

193

A Prognostics Framework for Health Degradation and Air Pollution Concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is known to cause a wide range of diseases that have led to countless cases of premature mortality. Although pollution in a massive scale is uncontrollable by individual inhabitant, the negative impact on health as a direct result on indoor air pollution can be reduced by appropriate preventive actions. Smart home technology allows ventilation to be controlled through condition-based monitoring of the air pollutant concentration in the room. This paper describes a prognostics framework that regulates in-room ventilation, the algorithm can be fed into a smart home control system for prevention of a number of respiratory diseases.

Bernard Fong

2012-02-01

194

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...For all surface mining activities...air pollution control plan which includes...provide sufficient data to evaluate the...fugitive dust control practices as required...other surface mining activities the...air pollution control plan which includes...provide sufficient data to evaluate...

2010-07-01

195

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM...26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...associated with underground mining activities, the application...contain an air pollution control plan which includes the...to provide sufficient data to evaluate the...

2010-07-01

196

Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City  

Science.gov (United States)

Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

197

Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

Shaw, Manny

198

An Analytical Air Pollution Model with Time Dependent Eddy Diffusivity  

OpenAIRE

Air pollution transport and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled by the advection-diffusion equation, that is, essentially, a statement of conservation of the suspended material in an incompressible flow. Many models simulating air pollution dispersion are based upon the solution (numerical or an...

Tiziano Tirabassi; Marco Túllio Vilhena; Daniela Buske; Gervásio Annes Degrazia

2013-01-01

199

The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

1995-12-31

200

Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

Giever, Paul M., Ed.

201

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 16: Developer's Manual No. 6.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Developer's Manual No. 6 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

202

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

203

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

204

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

205

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 12: Developer's Manual No. 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Developer's Manual No. 2 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

206

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 14; Developer's Manual No. 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Developer's Manual No. 4 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

207

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

208

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 13: Developer's Manual No. 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Developer's Manual No. 3 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

209

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 11: Developer's Manual No. 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Developer's Manual No. 1 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

210

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 15: Developer's Manual No. 5.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Developer's Manual No. 5 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two section, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

211

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 17: Developer's Manual No. 7.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Developer's Manual No. 7 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

212

Thirty years of air pollution monitoring. 30 Jahre Luftqualitaetsueberwachung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starting from the state of air pollution monitoring and extensive measuring programmes at the beginning of the sixties, the most important advances in the past thirty years are traced: the greatly enlarged range of pollutants, the coming to pre-eminence of continuous measuring techniques and more focal approaches, as well as the greater importance of secondary air pollutants. Furthermore, there are such subjects as measurement planning, quality assurance and standardization which, throughout, carry great weight. (orig./DG)

Puetz, M. (Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany). Abt. Immissionsschutz)

1993-01-01

213

Monte Carlo Study of Particle Transport Problem in Air Pollution  

OpenAIRE

The actual transport of the air pollutants is due to the wind. This normally called “advection of the air pollutants”. Diffusion and deposition are other two major physical processes, which take place during the transport of pollutants in the atmosphere. In this paper we study two classes of grid-free Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms for solving an elliptic boundary value problem, where the partial differential equation contains advection, diffusion and deposition parts. The grid-free MC...

Papancheva, R.; Gurov, T.; Dimov, I.

2003-01-01

214

Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of exposure to oxidative air pollutants  

OpenAIRE

Background: The negative effects of air pollution on morbidity and mortality have been known since the mid 20th century. The two most well known examples are the Meuse Valley disaster in the 1930’ies and the London black fog in December 1952. Whilst there are numerous epidemiological studies, in which associations between morbidity and mortality and high levels of pollutants have been reported, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Two of the main air pollutants are particulate matter (P...

Barath, Stefan

2011-01-01

215

12 - Mortality, Temperature and Air Pollution in Palermo, Italy  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is to show how short-term effects of air pollution can depend on temperature in studying daily deaths in Palermo, Italy. The influence of both temperature and air pollution on mortality has been proved in several studies, but their synergic effect, although suggested by someone, has never been explicitly modelled. The results, concerning mortality for all natural causes and for cardiovascular diseases, suggest a greater effect of some pollutant in hotter days. Also a sig...

Muggeo, Vito; Lovison, Gianfranco

2002-01-01

216

Air pollution and daily mortality in Inchon, Korea.  

OpenAIRE

The association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 1-year period (January 1995 to December 1995) in Inchon, Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality. Concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particles (PM10), and gaseous pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, were measured daily during the stu...

Hong, Y. C.; Leem, J. H.; Ha, E. H.

1999-01-01

217

Valuation Of Health Impacts Of Air Pollution In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper surveys the studies measuring the economic impacts of air pollution on health in India. Air pollution has potentially large impacts on the health and well-being of households, especially the poor families. The literature shows that the distribution of the impacts of air pollution is not uniform across the cross sections of societies. It notes that though there are some case studies on the valuation of health impacts of outdoor air pollution, there is rarely any study on the valuation of health outcomes of indoor air pollution which uses consumer choice or behavior models. It identifies that studies should focus on both individual specific characteristics as well as the neighborhood specifications and these studies should be dynamic as the static studies fails to capture the effects of change in socio-economic features on health outcomes.

Surender Kumar

2013-09-01

218

Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

Niklas Berglind

2010-03-01

219

Human Health Cost of Air Pollution in Kazakhstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kazakhstan, like other former Soviet Republics, inherited a number of serious environmental problems. Air pollution is one of these serious problems, leading to significant environmental health effects on the population of Kazakhstan. This study provides a baseline analysis of health damages from air pollution, based on readily available information. Mean estimates of mortality risk attributable to air pollution are about 16,000 cases per year with a 95% confidence level of the risk not exceeding 25,500. Even taking into account all the uncertainties related to the collection and processing of primary data, as well as the application of risk analysis methodology, we conclude that air pollution in Kazakhstan constitutes a significant contribution to the environmental burden of diseases. In relative terms, the impact of air pollution on premature mortality in Kazakhstan is notably higher than in Russia and the Ukraine.

Ussen Kenessariyev

2013-07-01

220

Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

Byoung-Ju Kim

2012-06-01

221

The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease Comparative Risk Assessment, the burden of disease attributable to urban ambient air pollution was estimated in terms of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Air pollution is associated with a broad spectrum of acute and chronic health effects, the nature of which may vary with the pollutant constituents. Particulate air pollution is consistently and independently related to the most serious effects, including lung cancer and other cardiopulmonary mortality. The analyses on which this report is based estimate that ambient air pollution, in terms of fine particulate air pollution (PM(2.5)), causes about 3% of mortality from cardiopulmonary disease, about 5% of mortality from cancer of the trachea, bronchus, and lung, and about 1% of mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under 5 yr, worldwide. This amounts to about 0.8 million (1.2%) premature deaths and 6.4 million (0.5%) years of life lost (YLL). This burden occurs predominantly in developing countries; 65% in Asia alone. These estimates consider only the impact of air pollution on mortality (i.e., years of life lost) and not morbidity (i.e., years lived with disability), due to limitations in the epidemiologic database. If air pollution multiplies both incidence and mortality to the same extent (i.e., the same relative risk), then the DALYs for cardiopulmonary disease increase by 20% worldwide. PMID:16024504

Cohen, Aaron J; Ross Anderson, H; Ostro, Bart; Pandey, Kiran Dev; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Gutschmidt, Kersten; Pope, Arden; Romieu, Isabelle; Samet, Jonathan M; Smith, Kirk

222

A technical overview of air pollution problems and its control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution is a well known phenomenon experienced in every day life. The air we breathe consist of gases and aerosol particles on which pollutants such as toxic elements and bacteria reside. These microscopic particles are transported to long distances from the source of origin the direction and magnitude of which depends upon the prevailing meteorological conditions. In order to assess the impact of air pollution, systematic studies are carried out which consist of: 1) sampling of air, 2) measurement of pollutants, 3) identification of pollutant source and 4) adoption of control methods. Each of these topics are fairly exhaustive and their understanding requires accurate scientific approach. An overview of these topic has been presented in this talk. Air samples are best collected by filtering air through suitable medium and analyses are carried out by diverse analytical techniques. Source identifications is a very important step which is done either by emission modeling or receptor modeling techniques. A general survey of these techniques, especially receptor modeling is presented in this talk. The control of air pollution is carried out by using carried devices and the processes especially developed for this purpose. Air pollution has given rise to a number of global problems such as depletion of stratospheric ozone, acid rain and greenhouse effect, which are being tackled on international scale. These problems have been discussed very briefly and a summary of i discussed very briefly and a summary of international efforts has been presented. (author)

223

A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

2012-07-01

224

Aerosol chemical components in Alaska air masses: 1. Aged pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-year Alaska chemical data set of aerosols or "dust" in the air clearly reveals a mixture of distinct aerosol components with different and interesting chemical composition, one or two being ascribed to pollution imported to Alaska by winds all the way from other continents. Of particular note is a strong chemical contrast between what we imagine to be highly scavenged, orographically lifted, northern Pacific air (Pacific marine air mass) and stagnant Arctic air (polar air mass), the latter containing seasonal average concentrations of between 2-4 times the concentration of the former, at least for pollution markers noncrustal vanadium, noncrustal manganese, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and antimony. The findings concur our old discovery that Arctic air is persistently polluted (Arctic haze), but Pacific air is relatively clean, in spite of the fact that Alaska is downwind of major pollution sources in the Orient. This is remarkable. In this the first of a two-part paper, we concentrate on the pollution component found primarily during incursion of Arctic polar air. Two major occurrences of visual haze with optical depths of approximately 0.2 and elevated aerosol concentration lasting about a month (spring 1985 and 1986) were affiliated with strong incoming transport of polar air, temperatures ranging from 10° to 20°C below normal (polar air) and air trajectory hindcasts leading back to industrial pollution sources in Eurasia. These long-range transport pollution events brought metal-rich aerosol of removal-resistant submicron particles. The size, chemistry, and meteorology all strongly suggest the presence of a well-aged (10-100 day) polluted air mass. An important implication is that in spring a large fraction of the Arctic polar air mass becomes charged with by-products of industrial pollution. In this multiyear chemical data set one finds a notable summer-winter contrast, changing by factors of 2 to 4 for pollution markers As, Se, Sb, and noncrustal manganese (NcMn) with the minima occurring in the summer months and the maxima in March and April. There is also a twofold-threefold decrease in pollution markers between the interior or geographic center of Alaska and Barrow in Arctic Alaska, a gradient, completely in accord with the picture of a generally polluted Arctic air mass system about the size of Africa in area.

Shaw, Glenn E.

1991-12-01

225

76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-06-24

226

76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-08-23

227

77 FR 66429 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2012-11-05

228

76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-07-28

229

75 FR 1716 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...authority to regulate sources of air pollution. The fee provision of CAA...

2010-01-13

230

76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-05-06

231

75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-09-23

232

75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No....

2010-05-21

233

76 FR 45199 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, CA AGENCY: Environmental...Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion...185 obligation based on our concurrent proposal to fully approve...protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-07-28

234

77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New...

2012-06-21

235

77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New...

2012-10-03

236

78 FR 21542 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...411) * * * (i) * * * (G) Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

2013-04-11

237

76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution...SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Placer...

2011-01-31

238

76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...disapproval of revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...359) * * * (i) * * * (E) Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

2011-05-31

239

76 FR 60376 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District...action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District...February 1, 2008. * * * * * (C) Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

2011-09-29

240

Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, so these policies will undoubtedly impact thermal coal supply chain member enterprises. Based on the actual situation in China, this paper figures out how the member enterprises adjust their business decisions to satisfy the requirements of air pollution prevention and control policies by establishing system dynamic models of policy impact transfer. These dynamic analyses can help coal enterprises and thermal power enterprises do strategic environmental assessments and find directions of sustainable development. Furthermore, the policy simulated results of this paper provide the Chinese government with suggestions for policy-making to make sure that the energy conservation and emission reduction policies and sustainable energy policies can work more efficiently.

Xiaopeng Guo

2014-12-01

241

The air pollution index system in Hong Kong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

1995-12-31

242

Spatial and temporal variability of air pollution in Birmingham, Alabama  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of the spatial and temporal variations of outdoor air pollutant concentrations provides important information for epidemiological and other air-pollution studies, many of which have relied in the past on data from a single, centrally-located air pollution monitoring site. A method is developed for combining air pollution measurements from multiple monitors and monitoring networks to generate daily air pollution concentration fields representing spatial variations over distances of approximately 1-10 km. Meteorological and co-pollutant data are used to estimate missing site measurements, yielding more realistic concentration fields as the number of monitoring locations with available data increases. Monitoring data are interpolated with weights computed from intersite pollutant correlations, which decay with distance, so distances between interpolation points and monitoring sites are factored into the interpolation weights. The approach minimizes the influence of source-oriented sites that represent limited areas, because data from such sites exhibit low intersite correlations and yield interpolation weights that decay rapidly to zero. Interpolated values represent pollutant concentrations averaged over spatial scales that depend on intersite distances and the interpolation grid, and do not delineate sharp spatial gradients associated with roadside or near-source conditions. The approach yields quantified interpolation errors the values of which depend on measurement uncertainties, intersite distances, and the representativeness of monitoring site locations. The method is illustrated using an 11-year period of measurements of ozone, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations from Jefferson County, Alabama. The principal city is Birmingham, which is influenced by regional-scale air pollution and by local emissions from mobile sources, industrial facilities, and residential communities. Emission sources are not distributed uniformly throughout Birmingham, the ridge-and-valley topography complicates dispersion of local emissions, and monitoring data indicate that air pollutant concentrations vary spatially as well as temporally. No single monitor represents air quality across the entire study area.

Blanchard, C. L.; Tanenbaum, S.; Hidy, G. M.

2014-06-01

243

Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 ?g m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2010-11-01

244

Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Part I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered, with an emphasis on those indoor air quality problems of greatest concern at present: passive exposure to tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from gas-fueled cooking stoves, formaldehyde exposure, radon daughter exposure, and the diverse health problems encountered by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The review concludes by briefly addressing assessment of indoor air quality, control technology, research needs, and clinical implications. 243 references

245

A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System  

CERN Document Server

Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

2010-01-01

246

Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren  

Science.gov (United States)

Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity. Even with levels of air pollutants below that allowed by law, the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and associated symptoms tended to be higher in the central region school, where there is heavy vehicular traffic. PMID:24897055

Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

2014-01-01

247

Air pollution mapping : relationship between satellite- made observations and air quality parameters  

OpenAIRE

The mapping of air quality over the city of Strasbourg and its vicinity requires an increase of the number of measurements aiming at spatializing information about air pollutants concentrations. A methodology based on a multisource approach for mapping air pollutants concentrations over the city was presented in previous communications. One step of the methodology is the estimation of pollutants concentrations by remote sensing techniques. This paper investigates the strength of linear relati...

Ung, Anthony; Wald, Lucien; Ranchin, Thierry; Weber, Christiane; Hirsch, Jacky; Perron, Gilles; Kleinpeter, Joseph

2003-01-01

248

[Air pollution and health - counselling options for physicians].  

Science.gov (United States)

While air quality is usually an environmental condition patients can little do about, there are a few options and decisions that modify the personal exposure and risk. Location - in particular the residence - time and activity are the key determinants of personal exposure. Traffic-related primary pollutants such as ultrafine particles or diesel soot are highly concentrated along busy roads but reach urban background concentrations already some 100 - 200 meters off. Morbidity and mortality follow this spatial pattern, which is usually attributed to these pollutants. Depending on ventilation systems, indoor exposure can be substantially lower. Studies done in China confirm that the use of face masks in extremely polluted cities can reduce exposure, resulting in lower inflammatory and cardiovascular responses. A diet rich in antioxidants appears to also reduce some of the oxidative and inflammatory effects of air pollution and treatments such as leucotrien receptor antagonists or statins pay interfere with some of the adverse effects of pollution. However, the benefits, if any, are unlikely to be large. A quantitative comparison of the various pollution related health effects - namely from smoking, passive smoking and air pollution - reveal a typical paradox to be well understood: the individual risks related to air pollution and that one may reduce through personal decisions are rather small. However, given the large number of people exposed (i. e. in essence the entire population), the overall air pollution related health burden is rather substantial. This underscores that sustained clean air policies are indeed the most important and efficient solution to reduce the air pollution related health effects. PMID:24297858

Künzli, Nino; Kutlar, Meltem

2013-12-01

249

Air pollutants and epidermal traits in ricinus communis l  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the effects of natural air pollutants on foliar epidermal and cuticular features of Ricinus communis L., 85 mature leaves of the plant were studied. The leaf samples were collected from four populations in an unpolluted environment and from one population in a polluted environment. While there was no significant qualitative differences in the epidermal features of healthy and polluted populations of R. communis, electron microscopic studies showed that stomatal openings and cuticular striations were more conspicuous in the leaves from the polluted environment. A correlation between idiblast frequency and pollution was also observed. (12 photos, 12 references, 4 tables)

Yundus, M.; Ahmad, K.J.; Gale, R.

1979-11-01

250

Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.

COHEN AARON J

1997-01-01

251

Particulate Matter Air Pollution, Its Influence on Life Quality and the Means of Reducing Indoor Air Pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents serious and every day increasing problem – particulate matter air pollution (PM10, PM2.5 and discusses particulate matter effect on humans health and life quality. Research reveals legal acts regulating the limit values of particulate matter. Following the requirements of the EU directives and national legislation, limit values applicable in the assessment of particulate matter concentrations are given. Recent research shows that most of their time people spent indoors, and therefore indoor air pollution may be even higher than that outdoors and this is the reason why indoor air pollution is being investigated. In conclusion, this article gives the means of reducing particulate matter air pollution indoors which are 3 main indoor air quality improvement strategies. Article in Lithuanian

Agn? Matuliauskait?

2011-04-01

252

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population

Dana Loomis

2014-04-01

253

Air pollution as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies in both humans and animals suggest that air pollution is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which air pollution mediates propensity to diabetes is not fully understood. While a number of epidemiologic studies have shown a positive association between ambient air pollution exposure and risk for T2DM, some studies have not found such a relationship. Experimental studies in susceptible disease models do support this association and suggest the involvement of tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM such as the immune system, adipose, liver, and central nervous system. This review summarizes the epidemiologic and experimental evidence between ambient outdoor air pollution and T2DM. PMID:25628401

Rao, Xiaoquan; Patel, Priti; Puett, Robin; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

2015-02-01

254

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. PART I. AIR  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication, directed towards the process and design engineer, describes types, quantities, and sources of emissions, presents the latest control device alternatives, and estimates costs for implementing the air pollution control systems. Emphasis is placed on explanation of...

255

Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

1995-12-31

256

Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution  

OpenAIRE

This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using more robust estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national level. We also take into account the urbanization rate and the average household size neglec...

Neumayer, Eric

2004-01-01

257

Air pollution and daily mortality in Rome, Italy  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relation between several daily indicators of air pollution (particulates and gases) and daily mortality in the metropolitan area of Rome and in the central part of the city. METHODS: Time series analysis. The associations between daily concentrations of pollutants (particles, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) recorded by five fixed monitors and daily total mortality in the period from January 1992 to June 1995 were evaluated. The analysis included examination of the pollution ...

Michelozzi, P.; Forastiere, F.; Fusco, D.; Perucci, C. A.; Ostro, B.; Ancona, C.; Pallotti, G.

1998-01-01

258

ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...

259

Past development and prospects for air pollution monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until 1959, the Industrial Code formed the legal basis for clean air measures. Increasingly severe environmental pollution, especially in the Ruhr mining district, finally resulted in the first Technical Code on Clean Air in 1964. But not until 1974 came the Federal Act for the Protection against Nuisances into being. It led to a reorientation and substantial cuts in, especially, SO2 and NOx pollution. An extension to include the ozone problem will be indispensable. (DG)

260

Relation between air pollution and allergic rhinitis in Taiwanese schoolchildren  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Recent findings suggest that exposure to outdoor air pollutants may increase the risk of allergic rhinitis. The results of these studies are inconsistent, but warrant further attention. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of relation between exposure to urban air pollution and the prevalence allergic rhinitis among school children. Methods We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of 32,143 Taiwanese school children. We ...

Lee Yung-Ling; Jk, Jaakkola Jouni; Hwang Bing-Fang; Lin Ying-Chu; Leon Guo Yue-liang

2006-01-01

261

The state of transboundary air pollution: 1989 update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This sixth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the seventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 21 to 24 November 1989. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country by country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two is an executive summary of the 1988 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests which was established by the Executive Body for the Convention in 1985. A total of 25 countries participated in the survey, conducted in accordance with common guidelines laid down in an ECE manual on methodologies and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Parts three and four describe the effects of mercury and some other heavy metals related to the long-range atmospheric transport of pollution. The section on mercury describes the environmental effects and the causes of mercury pollution in air and atmospheric deposition, including its sources and its transport from foreng its sources and its transport from forest soils into fresh water and aquatic organisms. The section dealing with other heavy metals (such as asbestos, cadmium and lead) describes the process of atmospheric transport and deposition, the effects on forest ecosystems, ground water, surface water and agricultural products. Refs, figs and tabs

262

Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development  

OpenAIRE

To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3...

Ching-Chun Lin; Shih-Kuan Yang; Kuan-Chia Lin; Wen-Chao Ho; Wu-Shiun Hsieh; Bih-Ching Shu; Pau-Chung Chen

2014-01-01

263

Detection of Air Pollutant Using Zigbee  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we describe use of ZigBee, sensor nodes, GPS to construct distributed system for urban airpollution monitoring and control. Zigbee module and pollution server is interfaced with GPS system todisplay real-time pollutants levels and there location on a 24h/7 days basis.

Tambe, Darshana N.; Nikita Chavan

2013-01-01

264

Association of Human Mortality with Air Pollution of Hong Kong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to investigate the general statistical association of air pollution with the cardiovascular and respiratory mortality of the elderly in Hong Kong. Based on six years of measurements including the major air pollutant concentrations (PM10, SO2, NO, NO2, O3, CO, ambient temperature, and mortality (respiratory, cardiovascular between 2005 and 2010, correlation analysis was carried out in annual, monthly and weekly time scales. From an annual perspective, it was found that the air pollution species may pose a constant effect on the respiratory and the cardiovascular mortality during the studied period since the elderly mortality rates and the air pollution annual concentrations show obvious constant trends. From a monthly time scale, it was found that NO2 and CO have high positive cross correlation with the respiratory mortality of the following 1 to 2 months. In addition, PM10 and CO also have similar delayed influence on the cardiovascular mortality. Among these four pollutants, only CO was found to exhibit high statistical association in the weekly time scale and it is most related to the cardiovascular mortality of the week after next. Therefore, it was concluded that the effect of air pollution on the elderly mortality of Hong Kong should be cumulative. This study implies that the establishment of weekly or monthly air quality indices is necessary for health implications.

Ka-In Hoi

2014-05-01

265

International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies.

Tracey J. Woodruff

2010-06-01

266

Air pollution and its health effects in Beijing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary goals of this review were to summarize the epidemiological studies carried out in Beijing, China for assessing the health effects associated with both short-term and long-term exposures to air pollution. In these investigations, a time series study design was used to evaluate the health effects of short-term air pollution exposures; cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used to evaluate the health effects of long-term air pollution exposures. Taken together, these epidemiological studies provide coherent evidence that short-term exposures to air pollution are significantly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes such as preterm delivery and low infant weight, and excess daily morbidity and mortality, whereas long-term exposures to air pollution are associated with increased respiratory symptoms or bronchitis in adults. Moreover, these investigations suggested a synergistic effect between air pollution and personal smoking. This review of environmental epidemiological studies in Beijing clearly indicates a link between human health and ecosystem health.

Xu, X.P.; Wang, L.H.; Niu, T.H. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Health

1998-12-01

267

Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. PMID:22196520

Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

2012-01-01

268

California’s Agriculture-Related Local Air Pollution Policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is a critical environmental issue for California, which has some of the nation’s most polluted air basins and also the nation’s most stringent set of state and local air quality standards. This paper reviews my previous work in Lin (2011, in which I examine the effects of agriculture-related local regulations in California on air quality, as measured by the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards, by exploiting the natural variation in policy among the different air districts in California. Agricultural burning policies and penalty fees reduce the pollution from CO. Other policies such as the prohibition on visible emission, fugitive dust, particulate matter, nitrogen and the reduction of animal matter are correlated with higher levels of CO. Regulations on orchard and citrus heaters have no significant effect on the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards.

C.-Y. Cynthia Lin

2013-07-01

269

Air  

Science.gov (United States)

... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it ... may be affected by high levels of ozone. Air Quality Index (AQI) How do you know if ...

270

The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of r anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

271

Do air pollutants damage historic stained glass windows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historic stained glass windows, namely, those of the medieval ages, have undergone an accelerated decay during the last decades of this century. The readiness of glasses to corrode under normal climatic conditions is due to their composition and to the presence of humidity. It could be shown that, in addition to the natural aging of these works of art, a correlation between the emission rate of acid air pollutants and the preservation condition of the stained glass windows exists. This implies an essential contribution of air pollutants to the damage of the windows. Pollution has intensified during the last 100 years to an alarming extent

272

Secondary air pollutants and forests--new perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution has been known to affect forests for over a century, and many of the mechanisms of pollutant deposition and effects have been established, at least for forest trees. Changes in air quality as a result of emission controls in Europe and North America, or as a result of rapid industrialisation in southern and eastern Asia, have highlighted new pollution problems. This paper, by reference to recent publications, highlights two areas where more research is required: the interactions of photochemical oxidants with biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds, and their impact on ecological signalling; and the role of atmospheric particles in changing the leaf surface environments in forests. PMID:17450275

Cape, J Neil

2007-01-01

273

How the Guangzhou Government Can Curtail Air Pollution from Road Traffic in a Least Costly Manner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis explores the relationship between the increased motorized traffic and air pollution in urban Guangzhou, the prosperous capital of the Guangdong Province in southern China that is located in the vicinity of Hong Kong and Macao. The emphasis is placed on PM 10 pollutants (particles of less than 10 microns in size). It reviews the current status of ambient air quality, the harmful effects of PM 10 emissions on human health and how to reduce the problem. It is estimated that 3300 premature deaths per year could be avoided if Guangzhou met the Class II of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM 10, and the Guangzhou Government could save 10% of its GDP in 1994. A theoretical framework for reducing pollution problems is presented based on cost-effectiveness theory. There is also an overview of possible pollution reducing measures based on worldwide experience. The theoretical framework is applied to a case study of selected measures: (1) reduced sulfur content of diesel fuel, (2) creating bus lanes, (3) fuel taxation, (4) introduction of toll roads, (5) measures on the metro line. The bus lane measure is found to be the most cost-effective one, followed by the toll road and fuel taxation measures. The metro measure is the most expensive one. Finally, the report recommends to the Guangzhou Government what measures should have first priority according to cost-effectiveness. 23 refs., 14 figs., 21 tabs.

Zhao, Xu

1998-12-01

274

IJERPH | Special Issue : Bioprocesses for Air Pollution Control  

SCPinfonet

...es/profesorado-qfeq/ quimica-fisica-e-enxeneria-quimica-i/christian-kennes E-Mail: kennes@udc.es Interests: waste gas treatment; wastewater treatment; fermentation technology; biodegradation; bioconversion; biofuels; biorefinery Special Issue Information Dear Colleague, Air pollution has become a major concern worldwide. Different technologies are available for the removal of volatile pollutants, based either on mass-transfer of the pollutants from one phase to another or on the destruction of the pollutants. Bioprocesses belong to the latter group of technologies. Bioreactors allow the complete removal of odors and other volatile compounds from ...

275

Decision Support System for the evaluation of urban air pollution control options: Application for particulate pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece  

OpenAIRE

Development of strategies to control urban air pollution is a complex and multi-disciplinary process involving a wide range of scientists with different expertise and interests. This paper presents an integrated assessment methodological scheme for the evaluation of air pollution control measures that are put forward in order to reduce sufficiently air pollution levels in urban areas. Forming long-term, efficient air pollution control strategies requires knowledge of the costs associated with...

Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Moussiopoulos, N.; Hourdakis, E.; Tsilingiridis, G.; Ntziachristos, L.; Banias, G.; Stavrakakis, N.; Sidiropoulos, C.; ????????????, ?.; ?????????????, ?.; ??????????, ?.; ????????, ?.

2011-01-01

276

Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

277

77 FR 73392 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD...standards related to multiple pollutants, including...know your identity or contact information unless you...difficulties and cannot contact you for...

2012-12-10

278

Simultaneous Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants Influences Alveolar Epithelial Cell Ion Transport  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. Air pollution sources generally release multiple pollutants simultaneously and yet, research has historically focused on the source-to-health linkages of individual air pollutants. We recently showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to a combination of particul...

279

Air ICP uses for instantaneous monitoring of airborne pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently the development of a pure AIR-ICP which breathes in and excites the analysed air without sample dilution, allowed the application of this technique to the real time analysis of airborne metallic pollutants. First results obtained on airborne Beryllium in a laboratory and a test-site apparatus are presented in this paper

280

Hold your breath: A new index of air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental quality and climate change have been discussed prominently as urgent problems that – due to air pollution – produce severe consequences affecting the everyday life of millions of people. Using a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model, we calculate a new index of air pollution and provide a ranking for 122 countries for every fifth year between 1985 and 2005. The empirical analysis supports the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, the electricity produced from coal sources, and demographic transition on air pollution. According to the index, Norway, Switzerland, Japan, Luxembourg, and Iceland are among the top 5 countries in terms of air quality performance. Eritrea, Mozambique, Tajikistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ethiopia performed worst in 2005. - Highlights: ? We calculate a new index of air pollution and provide a ranking for 122 countries. ? The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis. ? Country ranking of this air pollution index is comparable across the period 1985 to 2005. ? Definition of the underlying variables does not change and the methodology is consistent

281

Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry deposition of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) to trees can be spatially quantified. Employing nationally available road network, traffic volume, air pollutant emission/measurement and meteorological data, the developed system provides a framework for the U.S. city managers to identify spatial patterns of urban forest and locate potential areas for future urban forest planting and protection to improve air quality. To exhibit the usability of the framework, a case study was performed for July and August of 2005 in Baltimore, MD. - Highlights: ? A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed. ? The developed system enhances the functionality of i-Tree Eco. ? The developed system employs nationally available input datasets. ? The developed system is transferable to any U.S. city. ? Future planting and protection spots were visually identified in a case study. - Employing nationally available datasets and a GIS, this study will provide urban forest managers in U.S. ciurban forest managers in U.S. cities a framework to quantify and visualize urban forest structure and its air pollution removal effect.

282

Seasonal ARIMA for Forecasting Air Pollution Index: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Both developed and developing countries are the major reason that affects the world environment quality. In that case, without limit or warning, this pollution may affect human health, agricultural, forest species and ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the monthly and seasonal variations of Air Pollution Index (API at all monitoring stations in Johor. Approach: In this study, time series models will be discussed to analyze future air quality and used in modeling and forecasting monthly future air quality in Malaysia. A Box-Jenkins ARIMA approach was applied in order to analyze the API values in Johor. Results: In all this three stations, high values recorded at sekolah menengah pasir gudang dua (CA0001. This situation indicates that the most polluted area in Johor located in Pasir Gudang. This condition appears to be the reason that Pasir Gudang is the most developed area especially in industrial activities. Conclusion: Time series model used in forecasting is an important tool in monitoring and controlling the air quality condition. It is useful to take quick action before the situations worsen in the long run. In that case, better model performance is crucial to achieve good air quality forecasting. Moreover, the pollutants must in consideration in analysis air pollution data.

Muhammad H. Lee

2012-01-01

283

Evaluation of the impact of air pollution on health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, an important number of studies, carried out in different cities, have found that, even bellow air quality levels considered as safe, increases in the levels of air pollution are associated with harmful effects on health. Epidemiology has played a major role in the evaluation of the impact of air pollution on health, since it provides proofs of the association among human populations within natural conditions. Also, toxicology and clinical sciences provide convincing proofs on the etiopathogenic mechanisms of such associations.The purpose of the evaluation of impact on health is to quantify the expected number of people whose health is affected due to a specific exposure situation. In Europe, since three years ago, the APHEIS project, with 26 participating cities, has established an environmental health surveillance system which includes a database of air pollution and health. This is aimed at quantifying the effects of air pollution on public health at local, national and European levels, as well as distributing standardised reports about air pollution impact on public health.

Ferrán Ballester Díez

2003-12-01

284

Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy. PMID:25310941

Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Ch?opek, Z

2015-01-01

285

Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

2005-07-01

286

Energy use and air pollution in Indonesia. Supply strategies, environmental impacts and pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book summarises the results of the ''Markal Study'', which is part of the scientific cooperation between the Indonesian and German governments. The nine chapters cover: an introduction to Indonesia and the objectives of the study; demographic and economic developments; fast increasing domestic energy use; pollution development on Jawa in the case of insufficient control; risks for ecosystems on Jawa; health risks from air pollution; pollution development and control cost in the case of reduced emissions, carbon dioxide emission analysis, and final recommendations for air quality management. A bibliography of the project reports on which the book is based as well as other sources is presented. (UK)

287

Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its reactivity with the adjacent surfaces, in addition to the crack geometry and pressure difference. Infiltrating air can also travel through wall cavities, where the penetration of particles and ozone is predicted to vary substantially, depending mainly on whether air flow passes through fiberglass insulation. For ozone, its reactivity with the insulation materials is also an important factor. The overall pollutant penetration factor is governed by the flow-weighted average from all air leakage pathways. Large building leaks would strongly influence the overall penetration factor, because they permit much larger flow.

Liu, De-Ling

2002-09-01

288

Study on air pollution around China's largest oil refinery complex using multielements in biomonitors and neutron activation analysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three different kinds of plant leaves, Chinese white poplar, arborvitae and pine needle have been sampled from different places, Yanshan Oil refinery complex, Capital Iron and Steel Factory and Badachu, a control place in Beijing, as bio-monitors for air pollution studies. Each sample was divided into two parts, washed and unwashed, 31 trace elements, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Sb, Sm, U, W, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th and Zn have been determined by using KO method of instrument neutron activation analysis techniques with a long irradiation in the 15MW Heave Water Research Reactor, China Institute of Atomic Energy. The results indicated that: 1) the concentration of trace elements in unwashed samples are much higher than that in washed samples; 2) the area of capital iron and steel factory is polluted heavily, and Yanshan oil refinery complex area is polluted moderately, 3) All the three kinds of plant leaves can be used as air pollution biomonitors, because they can absorb some trace elements from the air pollutants. Aspen is good for monitoring in particular seasons and Pine needle is better than arborvitae for yearly monitoring; 4) Elements of As, Cd, Hg, Co, Rb, Sb, W and Zn are highly absorbed by Chinese white poplar. Pine needle is sensitive to absorb the elements of Br, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sc, Cs and rear earth elements, but arborvitae is very sensitive for the absorption of Sr. (author)

289

Economic damages of ozone air pollution to crops using combined air quality and GIS modelling  

OpenAIRE

This study aims at presenting a combined air quality and GIS modelling methodological approach in order to estimate crop damages from photochemical air pollution, depict their spatial resolution and assess the order of magnitude regarding the corresponding economic damages. The analysis is conducted within the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece, a Mediterranean territory which is characterised by high levels of photochemical air pollution and considerable agricultural activity. Ozone concentra...

Vlachokostas, Ch; ????????????, ?.; Nastis, S.; Achillas, Ch; Kalogeropoulos, K.; Karmiris, I.; Moussiopoulos, ?.; Chourdakis, E.; Banias, G.; Limperi, N.; ???????, ?.; ????????, ?.; ???????????????, ?.; ?????????, ?.; ?????????????, ?.

2011-01-01

290

Impact of the Transboundary Transport of Air Pollutants on Air Quality in Spain  

OpenAIRE

Although compliance with the European limit values for air pollutants has been achieved over large parts in Spain, some challenges remain for O3 on the maximum daily 8-hour mean and information limit values, for particulate matter on the PM10 annual and daily limit values and for NO2 on annual and hourly limit values. Transboundary transport of air pollutants has started to be recognized as a mechanism affecting air quality. Nevertheless, as a consequence of the complexi...

Fernando Martín; Gonzalo Alonso; Mª, A?ngeles Gonza?lez; Juan Luis Garrido; Inmaculada Palomino; Vivanco, Marta G.

2012-01-01

291

Air Pollution Induced Asthma and Alterations in Cytokine Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent decades, clinicians and scientists have witnessed a significant increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The factors underlying this phenomenon are clearly complex; however, this rapid increase in the burden of atopic disease has occurred in parallel with rapid industrialization and urbanization in many parts of the world. Consequently, more people are exposed to air pollutants than at any point in human history. Worldwide increases in allergic respiratory disease have mainly been observed in urban communities. Epidemiologic and clinical investigations have suggested a strong link between particulate air pollution and detrimental health effects, including cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based summary of the effects of air pollutants on asthma, focusing on particulate matter PMs, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs, and ozone as major air pollutants. An overview of observational and experimental studies linking these pollutants with asthma will be provided, followed by consideration of the mechanisms underlying pollutant induced immune response and inflammation. The cytokine response will be viewed in depth and a brief discussion of future research and clinical directions is provided.

Massoumeh Ebtekar

2006-05-01

292

A comparison of self reported air pollution problems and GIS-modeled levels of air pollution in people with and without chronic diseases  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective To explore various contributors to people's reporting of self reported air pollution problems in area of living, including GIS-modeled air pollution, and to investigate whether those with respiratory or other chronic diseases tend to over-report air pollution problems, compared to healthy people. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Oslo Health Study (2000–2001) were linked with GIS-modeled air pollution data from the Norwegian Institute of...

Nafstad Per; Næss Øyvind; Madsen Christian; Piro Fredrik; Claussen Bjørgulf

2008-01-01

293

Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people (?60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection

294

The role of air pollutants in atopic dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease and a growing health concern, especially in children, because of its high prevalence and associated low quality of life. Genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, or interactions between them contribute to the pathophysiology of AD. Therefore, it is very important to identify and control risk factors from the environment in susceptible subjects for successful treatment and prevention. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution, which are of increasing concern with urbanization, are well-known environmental risk factors for asthma, whereas there is relatively little evidence in AD. This review highlights epidemiologic and experimental data on the role of air pollution in patients with AD. Recent evidence suggests that a variety of air pollutants, such as environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, toluene, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter, act as risk factors for the development or aggravation of AD. These air pollutants probably induce oxidative stress in the skin, leading to skin barrier dysfunction or immune dysregulation. However, these results are still controversial because of the low number of studies, limitations in study design, inaccurate assessment of exposure and absorption, and many other issues. Further research about the adverse effects of air pollution on AD will help to expand our understanding and to establish a better strategy for the prevention and management of AD. PMID:25439225

Ahn, Kangmo

2014-11-01

295

Mixing layer height and air pollution levels in urban area  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceilometers are applied by KIT/IMK-IFU to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. This is necessary because not only wind speed and direction but also atmospheric layering and especially the mixing layer height (MLH) influence exchange processes of ground level emissions. It will be discussed how the ceilometer monitoring information is used to interpret the air pollution near the ground. The information about atmospheric layering is continuously monitored by uninterrupted remote sensing measurements with the Vaisala ceilometer CL51 which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system. Special software for this ceilometer provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. An intensive measurement period during the winter 2011/2012 is studied. The meteorological influences upon air pollutant concentrations are investgated and the correlations of air pollutant concentrations with ceilometer MLH are determined. Benzene was detected by department of Applied Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE) with a gas chromatograph during the measurement period. The meteorological data are collected by UDE and the monitoring station Essen of the German national meteorological service DWD. The concentrations of the air pollutants NO, NO2 and PM10 are provided by the national air pollution network LANUV.

Schäfer, Klaus; Wagner, Patrick; Emeis, Stefan; Jahn, Carsten; Muenkel, Christoph; Suppan, Peter

2012-10-01

296

AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK  

Science.gov (United States)

Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

2014-01-01

297

Evaluation of background levels of air pollutants over Israel  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper characterizes the background concentration of SO 2, NO, NO 2, NO x?, O 3, nitrate and sulfate aerosols throughout a three season campaign at a remote isolated site in southern Israel. Upper and lower thresholds were established for background levels based on two sets of criteria. The average background levels were 0.8, Israel, clearly showing that the remote background site was not influenced by local anthropogenic pollution. The nitrate and sulfate levels measured at the remote site were similar to those observed at other sites throughout Israel indicating that external sources are the major contributors to these pollution levels in Israel. The limited difference between the aerosol levels measured at a remote site as compared to polluted sites demonstrates that there is only a minor local contribution to nitrate and sulfate levels in Israel. The vast majority of the air masses that were measured showed high ratios of photochemical N-age and S-age, reflecting transport times of 2-3 days. Taken together with air trajectories, the transport time indicates that the majority of the air pollution reaching Israel is a result of long-range transport (LRT) originated in eastern and southern Europe. The present background levels provide an important database in attempts to address important policy questions regarding local air quality and the determination of the contribution of LRT to local air pollution levels. Further, regional meteorology appears to be a key influence on the concentrations in this and other background sites.

Asaf, David; Pedersen, Daniel; Peleg, Mordechai; Matveev, Valeri; Luria, Menachem

298

Climatic effects of air pollutants over china: A review  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) and aerosols are major air pollutants in the atmosphere. They have also made significant contributions to radiative forcing of climate since preindustrial times. With its rapid economic development, concentrations of air pollutants are relatively high in China; hence, quantifying the role of air pollutants in China in regional climate change is especially important. This review summarizes existing knowledge with regard to impacts of air pollutants on climate change in China and defines critical gaps needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. Measured monthly, seasonal, and annual mean surface-layer concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China are compiled in this work, with the aim to show the magnitude of concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China and to provide datasets for evaluation of model results in future studies. Ground-based and satellite measurements of O3 column burden and aerosol optical properties, as well as model estimates of radiative forcing by tropospheric O3 and aerosols are summarized. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated climate change driven by tropospheric O3 and/or aerosols in China; the predicted sign and magnitude of the responses in temperature and precipitation to O3/aerosol forcings are presented. Based on this review, key priorities for future research on the climatic effects of air pollutants in China are highlighted.

Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan; Yang, Yang

2015-01-01

299

76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air...taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD),...

2011-01-31

300

Pollution. Warning on the future of air quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article comments the results published by INERIS (the French national institute of the industrial environment and risks) and based on the use of its model Chimere which aims at measuring and foreseeing the evolution of air quality. This model simulates the concentrations of pollutants in the air. It is integrated into the national tool of prediction of air quality, PREV'AIR, which studies prospective scenarios of reduction of emissions, and is also part of the SALUT'AIR project which assesses the evolution of atmospheric concentrations of pollutants by 2050 while taking climate change into account. These models notably show the importance of atmospheric circulation over continents. The author also recalls and comments the objectives of the UN Goteborg protocol for 2020

301

Diallel analysis of resistance to air pollutants in alfalfa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inheritance of resistance to air pollutants in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was studied in two diallels in greenhouses at Beltsville, Md. Progenies were exposed to polluted ambient air that was cooled and moistened by a wet-pad cooling system, since such an environment appears to enhance pollution damage. Oxidants were often present at levels known to cause foliar damage in alfalfa. Other pollutants were not monitored. General combining ability constituted most of the genotypic variation indicating that resistant populations might be developed using simple recurrent selection, or recurrent full-sib family selection. Nonadditive genetic variation may be sufficient so that progress might also be made using hybridization. Maternal and reciprocal effects were relatively unimportant.

Campbell, T.A.; Devine, T.E.; Howell, R.K.

1977-01-01

302

Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

SULISTIJORINI

2008-09-01

303

A Zooming Technique for Wind Transport of Air Pollution  

OpenAIRE

In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a local grid refinement or zoom is often required. For the wind transport part of the models, i.e.\\ for finite volume discretizations of the transport equation, we propose a zoom technique that is pos...

Berkvens, P. J. F.; Botchev, M. A.; Lioen, W. M.; Verwer, J. G.

1999-01-01

304

Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

Aleksic, Nenad M.; Bala?, Nedeljko

305

Indoor air pollution and childhood asthma: effective environmental interventions.  

OpenAIRE

Exposure to indoor air pollutants such as tobacco smoke and dust mites may exacerbate childhood asthma. Environmental interventions to reduce exposures to these pollutants can help prevent exacerbations of the disease. Among the most important interventions is the elimination of environmental tobacco smoke from the environments of children with asthma. However, the effectiveness of reducing asthmatic children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the severity of their symptoms has not ...

Etzel, R. A.

1995-01-01

306

Combustion engine. [for air pollution control  

Science.gov (United States)

An arrangement for an internal combustion engine is provided in which one or more of the cylinders of the engine are used for generating hydrogen rich gases from hydrocarbon fuels, which gases are then mixed with air and injected into the remaining cylinders to be used as fuel. When heavy load conditions are encountered, hydrocarbon fuel may be mixed with the hydrogen rich gases and air and the mixture is then injected into the remaining cylinders as fuel.

Houseman, J. (inventor)

1977-01-01

307

Air pollution model and neural network: an integrated modelling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known that neural networks can work as universal approximators of non-linear functions and they have become a useful tool either where any precise phenomenological model is available or when uncertainty complicates the application of deterministic modelling as, for example, in environmental systems. Usually, N N models are using as regression tool. We have developed an integrated modelling system coupling an air dispersion model with a neural network method both to simulate the influence of important parameters on air pollution models and to minimize the input neural net variables. In our approach, an optimised 3-Layer Perception is used to filter the air pollution concentrations evaluated by means of the non-Gaussian analytical model ADMD. We applied this methodology to the well known Indianapolis urban data set which deals with a release of pollutants from an elevated emission source.

308

Diesel engines and air pollution: facts and figures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traffic densities and resulting air pollution, in any country are directly related to the degree of urbanization and the size and characteristics of the transportation sector. In Lebanon, the car ownership rate is among the highest in the world and its consequence is the drastic deterioration in ambient air quality in Greater Beirut and other organized regions. In this article, features of diesel engines are described. The environmental impacts of diesel engines, in relation of petrol engines are briefly presented. Pollutants provocated by diesel fuel, due to its contents in Carbon , Sulfur and gaseous emissions (noise level, smoke, Carbon Monoxide emissions, smell) as well as the economical aspects are given in comparison with petrol engines. Conclusion is given that diesel engines will help in reducing air pollution caused by transport sector in Lebanon, only if some required vehicles conditions are satisfied

309

Air pollution control process and apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a continuous process for removing pollutants from waste gases which pollutants are present in the gas in the form of acid components. The process comprises: (a) introducing the waste gas into an evaporator tower where the gas is mixed with an aqueous solution of a salt of the acid component; (b) heat-vaporizing the resulting mixture in the evaporator so as to form salt crystals from the salt solution and withdrawing the salt crystals from the gas substantially without the pollutants and solids from the gas; (c) passing the gas through a separation device to remove the formed crystals together with solids initially present in the gas prior to passing the gas to an absorption tower; (d) then passing the now substantially dry gas including residual salt crystal to the absorption tower, introducing an alkaline absorbent into the tower. The absorbent is a liquid or forms a liquid in the tower and is adapted to form salts with the acid component of the gas in the form of an aqueous concentrated solution of the salt and to dissolve residual salt crystals present in the gas and introducing fresh water to the extent necessary to form and maintain the liquid absorbent and aqueous salt solution; (e) continuously circulating the formed salt solution out of and into the absorption tower; (f) while continuously withdrawing a controlled amount of the salt solution and recycling the amount into the evaporator tower for the gas-solids separation step and (g) discharging the pollutants-free gas from the absorption tower.

Rosenberg, H.S.; Genco, J.M.

1986-11-04

310

Emission of toxic air pollutants from biomass combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combustion of biomass for power generation, home heating, process steam generation, and waste disposal constitutes a major source of air pollutants nationwide. Emissions from hog-fueled boilers, demolition wood-fired power plants, municipal waste incinerators, woodstoves, fireplaces, pellet stoves, agricultural burning, and forestry burning have been characterized for a variety of purposes. These have included risk assessment, permitting, emission inventory development, source profiling for receptor modeling, and control technology evaluations. From the results of the source characterization studies a compilation of emission factors for criteria and non-criteria pollutants are presented here. Key among these pollutants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, priority pollutant metals, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and PM10 particles. The emission factors from the biomass combustion processes are compared and contrasted with other pollutant sources. In addition, sampling and analysis procedures most appropriate for characterizing emissions from the biomass combustion sources are also discussed

311

Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually in good agreement with so called "heat islands" revealed over cities due to mobile observations. From 50 to 75% of all cases temperature growth over cities makes up from 0 to 1 ° C, while in large cities there is substantial proportion of higher values of temperature growth - from 4 to 12% is in the range 2-3 ° C of the temperature rise, and almost as many (from 4 to 9%) cases reveal temperature increase of more than 3 ° C. Air quality level was assessed on base of new approach elaborated at OIAP to assess air quality in Russian cities. It accounts for both world famous methods and official Russian legislation. General level of air pollution in Russian cities is low or moderate mostly due to favorable location and climate conditions. Extreme concentrations can happen in warm period because of wild and anthropogenic fires and other severe pollution cases. Most of high concentrations within cities during TROICA campaigns were observed near railway stations where influence of local pollution sources (diesel trains, train stoves, boiler rooms and so on) is very large.

Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

2013-04-01

312

Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

1995-12-31

313

Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

1997-12-31

314

VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

1985-04-01

315

The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evidence suggests that outdoor air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists that was assigned the task of identifying research gaps and priority goals essential for advancing this growing field and addressing an emerging human health concern. Here, we review recent findings that have established the effects of inhaled air pollutants in the brain, explore the potential mechanisms driving these phenomena, and discuss the recommended research priorities/approaches that were identified by the panel. PMID:22981845

Block, Michelle L.; Elder, Alison; Auten, Rick L.; Bilbo, Staci D.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Costa, Daniel; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Dorman, David C.; Gold, Diane; Gray, Kimberly; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Kaufman, Joel D.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Kirshner, Annette; Lawler, Cindy; Miller, David S.; Nadadur, Sri; Ritz, Beate; Semmens, Erin O.; Tonelli, Leonardo H.; Veronesi, Bellina; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind

2013-01-01

316

Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in southeast Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and important they were. I also investigate whether the mortality effects were persistent or whether they represented a short-term, mortality-harvesting effect. The results show that the smoke haze from the fires had a deleterious effect on the health of the population in Malaysia. PMID:11852832

Sastry, Narayan

2002-02-01

317

An Analytical Air Pollution Model with Time Dependent Eddy Diffusivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution transport and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled by the advection-diffusion equation, that is, essentially, a statement of conservation of the suspended material in an incompressible flow. Many models simulating air pollution dispersion are based upon the solution (numerical or analytical of the advection-diffusion equation assuming turbulence parameterization for realistic physical scenarios. We present the general time dependent three-dimensional solution of the advection-diffusion equation considering a vertically inhomogeneous atmospheric boundary layer for arbitrary vertical profiles of wind and eddy-diffusion coefficients. Numerical results and comparison with experimental data are shown.

Tiziano Tirabassi

2013-07-01

318

Air quality in the municipality of Loznica: The characteristics of the main air polluters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Researches of existing environmental state represent the basis of the researches for the needs of planning new activities or increasing existing activities in space, but also the basis for population’s health research and protection and maintains of areas with important natural and cultural-historic values. Investigations of air pollution and air quality fall into group of basic activities during describing and evaluating the total environmental state in certain area. This paper identifies the main sources of air pollution in the municipality of Loznica and, according to results of measured values of air pollutants (emission and imission values, concludes about air quality. It also proposes in the end mitigation measures for improvement of the air quality, and therefore of entire environment.

Obradovi? Danijela

2007-01-01

319

A comparison of self reported air pollution problems and GIS-modeled levels of air pollution in people with and without chronic diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore various contributors to people's reporting of self reported air pollution problems in area of living, including GIS-modeled air pollution, and to investigate whether those with respiratory or other chronic diseases tend to over-report air pollution problems, compared to healthy people. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Oslo Health Study (2000–2001 were linked with GIS-modeled air pollution data from the Norwegian Institute of Air Research. Multivariate regression analyses were performed. 14 294 persons aged 30, 40, 45, 60 or 75 years old with complete information on modeled and self reported air pollution were included. Results People who reported air pollution problems were exposed to significantly higher GIS-modeled air pollution levels than those who did not report such problems. People with chronic disease, reported significantly more air pollution problems after adjustment for modeled levels of nitrogen dioxides, socio-demographic variables, smoking, depression, dwelling conditions and an area deprivation index, even if they had a non-respiratory disease. No diseases, however, were significantly associated with levels of nitrogen dioxides. Conclusion Self reported air pollution problems in area of living are strongly associated with increased levels of GIS-modeled air pollution. Over and above this, those who report to have a chronic disease tend to report more air pollution problems in area of living, despite no significant difference in air pollution exposure compared to healthy people, and no associations between these diseases and NO2. Studies on the association between self reported air pollution problems and health should be aware of the possibility that disease itself may influence the reporting of air pollution.

Nafstad Per

2008-02-01

320

Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future.

Müller Daniel

2011-12-01

321

Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slovak air protection legislation is fully identical with the relevant EU legislation. The results of air pollution monitoring in Slovakia in 2004 are summarised in the presented report. The territory of Slovakia was partitioned into 8 zones (identical with administrative counties) and 2 agglomerations (the largest towns Bratislava and Kosice). In 2004 were specified 17 areas with controlled air quality, which totally include 2 774 km2 and 1 460 000 inhabitants (27 % of population). The Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) maintains national air pollution monitoring network in Slovakia. In 2004, it consisted of 29 real-time monitoring stations, 6 real-time ground level ozone monitoring stations only and 5 regional background stations. The monitoring network was built in accordance with the rules given in EU directives. Only reference or equivalence measuring methods are used. (authors))

322

Urban Climate and Air Pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Africa has recently been singled out by UN Habitat as the fastest urbanizing continent in the world. The most extreme case was found in the Sahelian city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, where the population is expected to almost double over the next ten years. It is well known that the rapid growth of an urban area is among the most important anthropogenic impacts on the environment, and that it has a profound impact on both the urban climate and air quality. Few studies have been focused on cities in the Sahel region, and the lack of information may consequently hinder adaptation to the extreme urbanization rates of these often heavily polluted cities. The main objective of this thesis was to study the nature of, and relationship between, urban climate and air pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Specific objectives were to; examine spatial variations in daily temperature and humidity patterns during early dry season with focus on effects of different land cover; to examine the influence of atmospheric stability on the intra-urban air temperature patterns, the urban wind field and on air pollution levels; and to examine spatial variations in air pollution levels. An additional objective was to document the status and potential development of synoptic meteorological stations in Burkina Faso. Empirical data used in analyses were collected during five field studies between 2003 and 2010. Meteorological and air pollution parameters were measured at fixed sites and through car traverses in areas of different land cover, activity, traffic density and road surface. The most distinct features in thermal patterns found in Ouagadougou were strong intra-urban nocturnal cool islands in vegetated areas, caused by evening evaporative cooling by the vegetation. Extremely stable nocturnal atmospheric conditions were observed during 80 % of days examined in early dry season, during which spatial patterns in temperature and humidity as well as in air pollution were most pronounced. An intra-urban thermal breeze generating almost opposite wind directions within the city was found during all extremely stable nights. Air pollution situation in Ouagadougou were characterized by; important spatial variations, high pollution levels in general, and extreme levels of coarse particles, commonly exceeding WHO air quality guidelines in all areas. Important sources were re-suspension of road dust, transported dust, traffic and biomass burning. Documentation of meteorological stations show that observations were made by well trained staff following a strict set of procedures. However, many risk factors potentially affecting data quality were found, such as many manual steps in data handling and limited funding for maintenance of the instrument park. In contrast to the many studies identifying urban built structure as most important land cover parameter for the nocturnal urban climate, vegetation was the dominating parameter in Ouagadougou. The strong influence of vegetation shown in this study should be carefully considered in all urban climate studies, especially in (semi) arid regions. In urban-rural comparisons, this is particularly important for the location of the rural area where vegetation often is dominant. The high frequency of extremely stable atmospheric conditions and the intra-urban thermal wind system show a very restricted ventilation of the urban air and limited dispersion of urban-derived pollutants. Large spatial differences in pollution levels found in the city are likely to create important differences in exposure situation within the population. When using data from synoptic meteorological stations in Burkina Faso, the many risk factors found should be considered. Findings presented in this thesis could used in order to increase comfort and health in urban planning, as well as in development of strategies for air pollution mitigation in this region, especially when considering the ongoing extremely rapid urban growth. The information of status and potential development of observational data may be valuable for more reliable pred

Linden, Jenny

2011-05-15

323

Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures.

Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle

2013-01-01

324

Air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer  

OpenAIRE

Over the past decade, an increasing body of scientific evidence has accrued associating outdoor air pollution with certain types of cancer. Ambient air, particularly in densely populated urban environments, contains a variety of known human carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene and benzene, inorganic compounds (e.g., arsenic and chromium), and radionuclides. Now, it is well recognized that urbanization and lung cancer mortality are linked. This association could arise from differences in the dis...

Niki? Dragana; Stankovi? Aleksandra M.

2005-01-01

325

A further study of air pollution in diesel bus garages.  

OpenAIRE

The concentrations of smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and some gaseous air pollutants have been measured in two London Transport diesel bus garages and compared with observations made in the same garages over 20 years earlier. The main feature of the results was a large reduction in the background concentrations of smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from sources such as coal fires, attributable to the implementation of the Clean Air Act. Contributions from the buses to...

Waller, R. E.; Hampton, L.; Lawther, P. J.

1985-01-01

326

Progress in the prevention and control of air pollution in 1988: Report to congress. Annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contents of this study: air quality trends, monitoring, and modeling; air pollution research programs; development of national ambient air; quality standards; assessment and control of toxic air pollutants; status of air quality management programs; control of stationary source emissions; stationary source compliance; control of mobile source emissions; stratospheric ozone protection; indoor air quality; acid deposition; radon assessment and remediation; litigation

327

Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality  

Science.gov (United States)

The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

2013-02-01

328

Urban Air Pollution by Nanoparticles in Ostrava Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution harms human health and the environment. Ostrava's agglomeration and its immediate vicinity suffer regular exceeding of air pollution limits due to its geomorphologic location and present heavy industry. Maximum exceedances of air quality standards and especially PM10 which 24 hour limit value is in EU 50?g.m-3, must not be exceeded more than 35 days per year. This limit is being still often exceeded. In the year 2011 such as situation occurred 126 times. It is very important then for identify sources of air pollution to find out maximum information about air borne dust, like size distribution, chemical composition of individual size fractions, morphology of particulate matter together with other parameters like meteorological conditions, year season etc. Our measurement started two years ago. We focus on the critical situation when there are values of PM10 over a long period above the limit. In winter season it is so called inversion. By default, during the campaign it is measured size distribution of air born dust in range 5.6 nm ?560nm by FMPS and using the sampler NanoId are collected samples in range 1nm – 35?m in 12 size fractions for chemical analysis and morphological observations. This contribution deals with results of size distributions only.

329

Lichens, a unique forage resource threatened by air pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lichens are the primary winter forage for most mainland caribou and reindeer herds in North America and for the majority of domestic and wild reindeer in Siberia and northern Europe, collectively totaling in excess of 5 million animals. Lichens represent a unique forage resource throughout much of the circumpolar North that cannot effectively be replaced by vascular plants. Lichens are particularly sensitive to the effects of air pollution. The increased pace of exploitation and processing of minerals and petroleum resources throughout the circumpolar North, with associated introduction of pollution products into the atmosphere has already resulted in losses of lichens and their reduced productivity in extensive areas adjacent to large metallurgical complexes in the Taimyr of Siberia, on the Kola Peninsula, and in adjacent parts of Finland. Losses of terricolous lichens in the Taimyr from pollution generated by the Norilsk metallurgical complex have been nearly complete within a 300 000 ha area closest to the pollution source and damage and reduced growth extends over an area in excess of 600 000 ha. The Arctic also is a sink for atmospheric pollution generated in the heavily industrialized north temperate regions of the world. Assessment of the effects on lichens of this global scale increase in air pollution is difficult because of the lack of representative controls.

David R. Klein

1992-10-01

330

Influence of industrial air pollution on crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an industrial area several varieties of tulips were injured by gases; other varieties were injured to a much lesser extent. This experience in the field has been tested in fumigation chambers with HF and SO2. The air in the chambers (+/- 280 cubic feet) was replaced every one or two minutes. It was found that Parrot-tulips, injured by the gases in that industrial area, were also injured by a very low concentration of HF in the chambers, whereas another variety (Preludium), which was less sensitive to the gases in the field, was not injured in the same experiments with HF. Fumigating with SO2 resulted in the same sensitivity to SO2 of both varieties of tulips. The sensitivity of these tulip varieties has been compared with that of tomato and cucumber plants; at 13 ppb (0.013 ppm) Hf in 7 hours the Parrot-tulip was the only one which was injured (injury 1 cm down from the tip). With a higher concentration (0.2 ppm in 6 hours) Preludium was also injured, tomato and cucumber plants were not. In some areas, where the possibility of gas damage to crops exists, indicator plants for HF injury (Snowprincess-gladiolus), and indicator plants for SO2 injury (alfalfa) were used in experimental fields at different distances from the factories. Near some of these fields a HF and a SO2 absorption apparatus were placed, which absorb the HF resp. SO2 from the air. After one month exposure to the air the absorbent from each apparatus is replaced, and the HF- resp. SO2 content of the absorbent analyzed in the laboratory. Together with the analysis of the leaf samples from the trial plots for HF and SO2 content and the extent of injury of the gladiolus and alfalfa on the different fields it gives an impression of the contamination of the air with HF or SO2.

Spierings, F.H.F.G.

1957-01-01

331

Bringing air pollution into the climate change equation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english As countries gear up for a major round of international climate talks next year in Paris, the growing problem of air pollution is fast becoming a vital part of the climate change and health debate. Fiona Fleck talks to Marit Viktoria Pettersen. [...

2014-08-01

332

Damage Costs for Air Pollution – 2006 (PDF 491 KB)  

SCPinfonet

Materials. 17. 2.9. Crop Damages. 19. 2.10 Uncertainty. 20. 3. Application of the \\Analysis. 22. 3.1. Example of the ... There are a number of potential applications \\for the use of air pollution costs values ...... Soiling is an optical effect (a \\darkening ...

333

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: LAMBERT FIELD GRAPHICAL WEATHER SUMMARY  

Science.gov (United States)

A graphical summary of National Weather Service (NWS) 3-hour weather observations from Lambert Field Airport, St. Louis, Missouri has been prepared for use by individuals involved in the analysis and application of Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data. It is intended as a ref...

334

Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public?s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

2014-07-01

335

Economic growth, international trade and air pollution. A decomposition analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study analyzes the impact of economic growth and international trade on the level of air pollution. This is done by the estimation of the Structural Equation Model with two factors describing the structure of economic activity and air pollution intensity. It is further assumed that there is causal link between these two factors and that they are influenced by per capita income, international trade intensity and the Freedom House Index. The estimation results suggest that in the developing countries analyzed both international trade and per capita income lead to changes in the structure of economic activity and - as a consequence - to the increase in air pollution. In addition, the estimation results suggest that the impact of economic growth on air pollution intensity varies between the developing and developed countries. In the developing countries, this impact occurs through the change of the structure of economic activity, while in the developed countries, this impact is mainly direct and occurs through the sum of the scale effect and income effect. The positive sign of this impact suggests the dominance of the scale effect over the income effect. (author)

336

Projection of greenhouse gases and air pollutants 2011-2015  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report outlines the expected greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2 but also methane and nitrous oxide) and air pollutants in the period 2011 up to and including 2015. Attention is paid to whether or not the Netherlands will comply with the mandatory European and international regulations.

337

Valuation of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems: A Scoping Study  

SCPinfonet

Many of these studies are concerned with impacts on forest growth and timber, \\and ... attempted to link with state of the art scientific models, many more have \\been ... uncertainty, with the degree of uncertainty increasing as the time span \\increases. .... economic analysis of ecosystem benefits from reductions in air \\pollution.

338

Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Air Pollution Model  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we present the discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the problem of the two-dimensional air pollution model. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is called the semidiscrete formulation. We show the existence and uniqueness of the ODE system and provide the error estimates for the numerical error.

Xijian Wang; Lite Zhao

2013-01-01

339

Lung Cancer and Indoor Air Pollution in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Nathaniel Rothman of the National Cancer Institute discusses Lung Cancer and Indoor Air Pollution in China. Presentation was part of Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations, a scientific symposium honoring 50 years of visionary leadership by Dr. Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., hosted by NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

340

Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Air Pollution Model  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present the discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the problem of the two-dimensional air pollution model. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is called the semidiscrete formulation. We show the existence and uniqueness of the ODE system and provide the error estimates for the numerical error.

Zhao, Lite; Hou, Qinzhi

2011-01-01

341

Biodiesel – a Real Solution for Reducing Air Pollution ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traffic emissions made up of high levels of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and particulate matter determineserious pollution in urban high agglomerations. One solution in reducing atmospheric pollution is represented byfinding not pollutant alternatives to classic fuel used for urban vehicles and one valuable solution is the replacement ofpollutant fossil fuels with biodiesel/biofuel. The reaction between glycerides and methanol, in presence of a catalystrepresents the basis of biodiesel fuel production. The main plants used for biofuel production are: soybeans, rapeseed(canola, sunflower seed, palm fruit or kernels, coconut and physic nut, etc. The legal approach of biodiesel use includesa series of national and international agreements adopted with the aim of reducing air pollution produced by the use oftraditional fuel in urban traffic, and biodiesel use remains a valuable option, in spite of high production costs.

ODAGIU Antonia

2010-12-01

342

Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from the Great Smog of 1950s in LONDON  

OpenAIRE

Since the prolonged, severe smog that blanketed many Chinese cities in first months of 2013, living in smog has become “normal” to most people living in mainland China. This has not only caused serious harm to public health, but also resulted in massive economic losses in many other ways. Tackling the current air pollution has become crucial to China’s long-term economic and social sustainable development. This paper aims to find the causes of the current severe air quality and explore ...

Dongyong Zhang; Junjuan Liu; Bingjun Li

2014-01-01

343

Tasks and problems of research on air pollution effects as a basis of practical air pollution control. Aufgaben und Probleme der Wirkungsforschung als Grundlage fuer den praktischen Immissionsschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under present air pollution conditions, characterized by long-term exposure to wide-spread low-concentrated complex air pollutants the availability of data for prophylactic as well as subsequent protection measures is very difficult. The tasks and problems of research under given air pollution conditions are demonstrated taking terrestric ecosystems as example. Special attention is given to definition of protection aims recognition of air pollution damage, monitoring of polluted areas and determination of dose-response-relationships as a basis for establishing standards. (orig.).

Guderian, R. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Architektur, Bio- und Geowissenschaften); Ballach, H.J. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Botanisches Inst.)

1989-01-01

344

microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

Jardim, Melanie J., E-mail: melaniejardim@gmail.com [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-12-01

345

microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may bges in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene–environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

346

Mortality and air pollution in Helsinki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Helsinki, Finland, from 1987 to 1993, the authors studied the associations between daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, and particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 {micro}m (PM{sub 10}), and the daily number of deaths from all causes and from cardiovascular causes. Investigators used Poisson regressions to conduct analyses in two age groups, and they controlled for temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, month, year, long-term trend, holidays, and influenza epidemics. The PM{sub 10} levels were associated significantly with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among persons under the age of 65 y of age. In the less-than-65-y age group, sulfur dioxide and ozone were also associated significantly with cardiovascular mortality. The effect of the ozone was independent of the PM{sub 10} effect, whereas sulfur dioxide became nonsignificant when modeled with PM{sub 10}. An increase of 10 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in PM{sub 10} resulted in increases in total mortality and cardiovascular mortality of 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 5.8) and 4.1% (95% confidence interval = 0.4, 10.3), respectively. A 20 {micro}g/m{sup 3} increase in ozone was associated with a 9.9% (95% confidence interval = 1.1, 19.5) increase in cardiovascular mortality; however, ozone results were inconsistent. Moreover, in addition to their separate effects, high concentrations of PM{sub 10}, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide had a further harmful additive effect. Typically, PM{sub 10} was a better indicator of particulate pollution than total suspended particulates. The authors` findings suggest that (a) even low levels of particulates are related to an increase in cardiovascular mortality; (b) ozone--even in low concentrations--is associated, independently, with cardiovascular mortality; and (c) PM{sub 10}, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide--the essential components of summertime pollution--have harmful interactions at high concentrations.

Poenkae, A.; Savela, M.; Virtanen, M. [Helsinki City Centre of the Environment (Finland)

1998-07-01

347

U.S transboundary air pollution and climate change developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) was founded in 1967 to provide technical and policy support for air quality and climate initiatives. The organization is now addressing issues related to sulphur dioxide (SO2), fine particulate matter, mercury from coal power plants, and ozone. Air quality standards are being revised in the United States as a result of litigation related to air pollutants. New standards for the emissions will range between 50-100 ppb 1-hour average. The new SO2 standard will mean that many counties in the northeast states will violate the recommended limitations. Particulate matter is derived from the same sources as SO2 pollutants. A clean air mercury rule (CAMR) was established in 2005 for coal power plants. A 2010 standard will limit ozone releases to 65 ppb with an 8-hour average. It is expected that many counties throughout the United States will violate the new standard. New federal legislation for climate change is unlikely in the near future. However, the United States Supreme Court has recently ruled that greenhouse gases (GHGs) are pollutants that must be regulated. It is expected that the ruling will have an impact on motor vehicle rules. tabs., figs.

348

Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantity of dust deposited in the surroundings of an electric power station was measured to get an impression of the fly ash contamination in the air in connection with the dust deposit on apples. In the neighborhood of a cement factory the quantity of dust collected in specially constructed dust-collecting apparatuses was investigated microscopically. The crops cauliflower and apples were examined for the degree of dust contamination, the apples also for their keeping quality during storage. Flowers of cyclamen were damaged by HF-concentrations lower than 100 ppb occurring for 6 hrs. The injury developed very gradually and spread from the leaf tip margin inwards. By means of HF-meters and trial plots with the gladiolus variety. Snow-princess it has been shown, that the very gradually increasing leaf tip injury in gladiolus fields in some places in The Netherlands was caused by frequent occurrence of traces of HF in the air. In pot experiments carried out with lettuce, lime manuring was applied to improve the soil which had been poisoned by zinc fumes from a factory. If tulips were fumigated with HF in a concentration of less than 10 ppb for 6 hrs, the variety Blue Parrot (highly sensitive) contained about five times less fluor in the 2.5 cm leaf tips than the variety Preludium (low sensitivity) which showed a considerably lower degree of leaf tip injury.

Spierings, F.H.F.G.; Van Raay, A.

1963-01-01

349

Saltsjoebaden V - Taking international air pollution policies into the future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

24-26 June 2013, 130 leading international policy makers, scientists, experts and others met at an international workshop in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to discuss and outline future directions in air pollution science and policy. The workshop, which was organised in close collaboration with the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and the European Commission, involved several themes such as linkages to climate change including SLCP, nitrogen, global governance and effects to health and environment. The output is a series of recommendations for further actions with respect to effects to health, ecosystems and near-term climate actions. Recommendations were also given with respect to heavy metals and POPs. The recommendations are directed towards several international organisations and initiatives such as CLRTAP, European Commission, Climate and Clean Air Coalition and the Arctic Council. (Author)

NONE

2013-10-15

350

Development and evaluation of Vehicular Air Pollution Inventory model  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating emissions by road traffic is a key-issue for air pollution management in many regions. Emission models are important tools to help compute vehicular exhausts. There are several vehicular emission models available worldwide, though most of them have been developed in countries with advanced economies. Due to substantial differences in conditions and available datasets, application of these models in developing countries like India might be misleading. To bridge the gap between the available models and the tools needed in developing countries, the Vehicular Air Pollution emission Inventory (VAPI) model has been developed and evaluated. The proposed VAPI model is based on a simple approach incorporating emission factors and correction factors. This model can be used for estimating emissions for exhaust, evaporative and non-exhaust conditions in Indian cities. The temporal trend of emission estimates calculated with the VAPI model show reasonable agreement with ambient air concentrations monitored at locations significantly influenced by vehicular activity.

Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.

2012-11-01

351

Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from the Great Smog of 1950s in LONDON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the prolonged, severe smog that blanketed many Chinese cities in first months of 2013, living in smog has become “normal” to most people living in mainland China. This has not only caused serious harm to public health, but also resulted in massive economic losses in many other ways. Tackling the current air pollution has become crucial to China’s long-term economic and social sustainable development. This paper aims to find the causes of the current severe air quality and explore the possible solutions by reviewing the current literature, and by comparing China’s air pollution regulations to that of the post London Killer Smog of 1952, in the United Kingdom (UK. It is hoped that China will learn the lesson from the UK, and decouple its economic growth from the detrimental impact of environment. Policy suggestions are made.

Dongyong Zhang

2014-08-01

352

Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

2013-01-01

353

Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fumigation experiments were carried out with tulips, gladioli and freesia to investigate the correlation between the extent of leaf injury caused by hydrogen fluoride, the fluor content of the damaged leaves and the fluor content of the air in the fumigation chambers. Fumigation experiments with SO/sub 2/ were carried out on several vegetables, e.g. endive, spinach, celery and tomato. On 28 experimental plots distributed throughout a horticultural area, the symptoms of HF damage were studied on freesia plants. At a distance of 6 km from the industrial area, 20% of the length of the leaves appeared to be damaged. 10 km from this area the percentage of damage was 15 and on the most distant plots an injury of 5% was still present. On more than 20 places in The Netherlands investigations have been carried out about injury of plants in the neighborhood of factories. In the vicinity of a cement-industry, an investigation has been started about the extent and the composition of dust from this industry deposited on vegetables and fruits. The monthly quantity of rain water was determined and the solid deposits in the rain were quantitatively and qualitatively investigated under the microscope. In the area near a hydrocyanic acid factory, damage was done to grass and to fruit trees. It was demonstrated by leaf analyses in both cases that the damage was caused by SO/sub 2/. Other cases of crop damage were imputed to poisoning of the air by sulfur dioxide or hydrogen fluoride, to acid containing soot deposits, to zinc oxide vapors and phenol containing vapors of resins.

Spierings, F.H.F.G.; Van Raay, A.

1962-01-01

354

Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-04-01

355

40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants...Category List § 63.60 Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance caprolactam (CAS number 105602) is...

2010-07-01

356

75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public...

2010-12-23

357

76 FR 298 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Action A. How is EPA evaluating the rule? Generally...Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical...95% efficient Air Pollution Control (APC) device...Executive Order has the potential to influence the regulation...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2011-01-04

358

Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

359

76 FR 60405 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento Municipal...SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD),...

2011-09-29

360

78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District and South Coast...SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD)...

2013-04-11

361

75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers...for Existing Sources: Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units;...

2010-06-09

362

75 FR 42676 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers...for Existing Sources: Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units...

2010-07-22

363

Air Pollution May Be Linked to Higher Rates of Kidney Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Air Pollution May Be Linked to Higher Rates of ... Dallas Monday, November 17, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Chronic Kidney Disease SATURDAY, Nov. 15, 2014 ( ...

364

76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Air Pollutants emitted by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source...

2011-05-17

365

Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

366

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) underground testing between 1951 and 1992, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing (DOE, 1996a). No nuclear tests have been conducted since September 23,1992 (DOE, 2000), however; radionuclides remaining on the soil surface in many NTS areas after several decades of radioactive decay are re-suspended into the atmosphere at concentrations that can be detected by air sampling. Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (formerly called the Hazardous Materials Spill Center), private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses; handling, transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices or radioactive targets for the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun; and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE, 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in calendar year (CY) 2004 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and water pumped from wells used to characterize the aquifers at the sites of past underground nuclear tests, (2) onsite radioanalytical laboratories, (3) the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS facilities, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium (H3) and re-suspension of plutonium (239+240Pu) and americium (241Am) at the sites of past nuclear tests. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). At the NLVF, parts of Building A-1 were contaminated with tritium by a previous contractor in 1995. The incident involved the release of tritium as HTO. This unusual occurrence led to a very small potential exposure to an offsite person. The HTO emission has continued at lower levels (probably re-emanation from building materials), even after cleanup activities in November and December 1997. A description of the incident and the potential effective dose equivalent (EDE) for offsite exposure are set forth in Appendix A

367

Remote sensing of regional air pollution from satellites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is noted that recent scientific interest in the processes of long-range transport of air pollutants has suggested the extensive application of remote sensing methods. Satellite remote sensing of pollutant gases in the troposphere is shown to have advantages in contributing to such studies. A model is developed for calculation of the data quality which might be achieved from such a satellite observation system. A nonsunsynchronous orbit is assumed, as would be the case for the Space Shuttle. Finally, the calculations include the effects of incomplete sampling, instrument response to a varying scene, cloudiness and instrument error

368

Effects of air pollution on heritage: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors argue that present national and international standards based on human health and vegetation considerations may be a suitable starting point for evolution of a practical standard to minimise the impact of air pollutants on ancient buildings, artwork and museum collections. Damage has already been done to the Taj Mahal, Victoria Memorial Hall and the Red Fort in Delhi for example. These are costly to clean and repair. Creation of a green belt around a heritage building should be a must, to serve both as a pollution regulor and for aesthetic purposes. 40 refs.

Obodo, G.A.; Gajghate, D.G.; Hasan, M.Z. [Imo State University, Owerri (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemistry

2002-07-01

369

Semen quality and reproductive health of young Czech men exposed to seasonal air pollution.  

OpenAIRE

This study of male reproductive health in the Czech Republic resulted from community concern about potential adverse effects of air pollution. We compared young men (18 years of age) living in Teplice, a highly industrialized district with seasonally elevated levels of air pollution, to those from Prachatice, a rural district with relatively clean air. Surveys were scheduled for either late winter, after the season of higher air pollution, or at the end of summer, when pollution was low. Part...

Selevan, S. G.; Borkovec, L.; Slott, V. L.; Zudova?, Z.; Rubes, J.; Evenson, D. P.; Perreault, S. D.

2000-01-01

370

Health effects of air pollution in Iceland : respiratory health in volcanic environments  

OpenAIRE

Air pollution has adverse effects on human health. The respiratory system is the most exposed and short-term changes in air pollution levels have been associated with worsening of asthma symptoms and increased rates of heart attacks and stroke. Air pollution in cities due to traffic is the major concern, as many people are exposed. However, natural sources of air pollution such as natural dust storms and ash from volcanic eruptions can also compromise human health. Exposure to volcanic erupti...

Carlsen, Hanne Krage

2014-01-01

371

Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest Florida: an ecological geographical study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Relatively few studies have examined the association between air pollution and stroke mortality. Inconsistent and inclusive results from existing studies on air pollution and stroke justify the need to continue to investigate the linkage between stroke and air pollution. No studies have been done to investigate the association between stroke and greenness. The objective of this study was to examine if there is association of stroke with air pollution, inco...

Ranga, Rao K.; Liebens Johan; Hu Zhiyong

2008-01-01

372

Zigbee Based Wireless Air Pollution Monitoring System Using Low Cost and Energy Efficient Sensors  

OpenAIRE

Air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting the developing and the developed countries alike. The effects of air pollution on health are very complex as there are many different sources and their individual effects vary from one to the other. These chemicals cause a variety of human and environmental health problems Increase in air pollution effects on environment as well on human health, so this paper contain brief introduction about air pollution. To monitor this poll...

Ustad, Vasim K.; Mali, Prof A. S.; Kibile, Suhas S.

2014-01-01

373

Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters <2.5 ?m), during CLs. Further, we speculate that the Caletones plume may trigger or promote secondary aerosol formation during CLs in the Santiago basin.

Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

374

Houseplants, Indoor Air Pollutants, and Allergic Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

The technology of using houseplant leaves for reducing volatile organics inside closed facilities has been demonstrated with formaldehyde and benzene. Philodendrons are among the most effective plants tested to date. Philodendron domesticum had demonstrated the ability to remove formaldehyde from small experimental chambers at a rate of 4.31 micro-g/sq cm leaf surface area with initial starting concentrations of 22 ppm. At initial starting concentrations of 2.3 ppm a formaldehyde removal rate of 0.57 micro-g/sq cm was achieved during a 24 hour test. Aleo vera demonstrated a much higher formaldehyde efficiency removal rate than Philodendron domesticum at low formaldehyde concentrations. During a 24 hour exposure period 5 ppm of formaldehyde were reduced to 0.5 ppm demonstrating a removal efficiency rate of 3.27 micro-g/sq cm. Removal efficiency rates can be expected to decrease with concentration levels because fewer molecules of chemicals come in contact with the leaf surface area. Several centimeters of small washed gravel should be used to cover the surface of pot plants when large numbers of plants are kept in the home. The reason for this is to reduce the exposed area of damp potting soil which encourages the growth of molds (fungi). The leaves of Philodendron domesticum and golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) have also demonstrated their ability to remove benzene and carbon monoxide from closed chambers. A combination of activated carbon and plant roots have demonstrated the greatest potential for removing large volumes of volatile organics along with smoke and possible radon from closed systems. Although fewer plants are required for this concept a mechanical blower motor must be used to pull or push the air through the carbon-root filter. NASA studies on motor sizes and bioregeneration rates should be completed by 1988.

Wolverton, B. C.

1986-01-01

375

Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ? Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ? Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ? “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ? A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ? Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Sociantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

376

77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...A. How is EPA evaluating the rule? B...SJV area. We are evaluating Rule 4352 for compliance...and their overall potential to advance the...protection, Air pollution control,...

2012-04-26

377

Addition of PM 2.5 into the national ambient air quality standards of China and the contribution to air pollution control: the case study of Wuhan, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly. PMID:24982994

You, Mingqing

2014-01-01

378

Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in comband enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs

379

Air pollution taking an intercontinental express highway in a bomb  

Science.gov (United States)

Intercontinental transport (ICT) of trace substances normally occurs on timescales ranging from a few days to several weeks. In this paper we present an extraordinary episode, where pollution transport from North America to Europe took only one day. The transport mechanism in this case was exceptional, as it involved an explosively generated cyclone, a so-called meteorological bomb. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing pollution transport in a bomb. The discovery of this event was based on transport model calculations and satellite measurements of NO_2, a species with a relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere, which could be transported that far only because of the high wind speeds produced by the bomb. Since about 50 bomb events per year occur in the Northern Hemisphere, most of them downstream of Asia and North America, there is possibly some climatological relevance of this transport mechanism for the global re-distribution of air pollution, particularly of short-lived species.

Stohl, A.; Huntrieser, H.; Richter, A.; Beirle, S.; Cooper, O.; Eckhardt, S.; Forster, C.; James, P.; Spichtinger, N.; Wagner, T.

2003-04-01

380

Project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Abatement Measures'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the 5-7th of March 1985 the first status report of the project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Control Measures' took place in the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe. Progress reports on the following topics assessment and analysis of the impacts of airborne pollutants on forest trees; distinction from other potential causes of recent forest dieback, research into atmospheric dispersion, conversion and deposition of airborne pollutants, development and optimization of industrial-technical processes to reduce or avoid emissions and providing instruments and making recommendations to the industrial and political sectors were presented. This volume is a collection of the work reported there. 42 papers were entered separately. (orig./MG)

381

Market Report : The air pollution control market in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents some facts about how Canadian companies can work within the many innovative programs designed by the Canadian federal government to facilitate the export of Canadian products and services into the Argentine air pollution control market. As the economy stabilizes in Argentina, more effort is being given to issues of environmental protection and the Argentine government is increasing funding on environmental programs. The country is also strengthening its environmental legislation and increasing enforcement. The Kyoto and Montreal Protocols have brought attention to air quality issues such as climate change, emissions trading, and ozone depleting substances. Several initiatives currently focus on air quality monitoring and data collection since much information has to be gathered on air pollution levels. Emission control equipment for chemical, petrochemical, mining and power sectors are the best prospects for air pollution control, along with monitoring equipment, consulting services and fuel conversion equipment for vehicles and industrial plants. It was noted that there are legal and practical difficulties regarding new contract negotiations in Argentina, particularly with the decline in credit availability. This paper outlined the key factors shaping market growth. Most opportunities lies with projects funded by international financial institutions. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both prion, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics focused on issues such as direct sales, import regulations, and export credit risks. It is recommended that companies interested in the Argentine market contact the Embassy in Buenos Aires for information. refs., tabs

382

Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Asian agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

The impacts of climate change on agricultural production have important ramifications for food security and policy from local to global scales. Recent research investigating these impacts has focused on the roles of temperature and precipitation on yield. However, regional climate changes are due to both global emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) as well as local emissions of aerosols and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). SLCPs can impact plant growth both directly (e.g., ozone) and indirectly, by altering regional temperature, precipitation, and surface radiation. Existing estimates of the effects of SLCPs on crop yields have been drawn from field experiments and cultivar-specific dose-response relationships; no research has as yet examined the historic role of the direct and the indirect effects of SLCPs on yields. I will present results from a statistical model of the impact of climate and air pollution on wheat and rice yields in Asia over the past 3 decades (1980-2008). This builds on work we completed for India, which was the first such analysis combining the effects of climate, aerosols, and tropospheric ozone into a statistical model. Yields across Asia in 2008 were lower for wheat and rice than they otherwise would have been, absent climate and pollutant emissions trends. Most of these losses were due to SLCPs as opposed to longer-run temperature and precipitation trends, indicating that gains from addressing regional air pollution could significantly help in offsetting expected future losses due to rising temperatures and precipitation changes. This new insight into the relative importance of these climate and air pollution factors can help inform both climate policy discussions and agricultural adaptation efforts in this critical food security region.

Burney, J. A.

2012-12-01

383

Impact of the Transboundary Transport of Air Pollutants on Air Quality in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although compliance with the European limit values for air pollutants has been achieved over large parts in Spain, some challenges remain for O3 on the maximum daily 8-hour mean and information limit values, for particulate matter on the PM10 annual and daily limit values and for NO2 on annual and hourly limit values. Transboundary transport of air pollutants has started to be recognized as a mechanism affecting air quality. Nevertheless, as a consequence of the complexity of atmospheric chemistry it is not easy to determine the importance of this effect. Photochemical models constitute an adequate tool to address this challenge, allowing the identification of pollutant pathways and the quantifi- cation of the influence of long-range transport of air pollutants. In this paper we evaluate the influence of out-of-Spain emissions on this non-compliance picture by using the CHIMERE photochemical model. For this purpose the model was run at a 0.2?-horizontal resolution for a European domain. Although at this resolution not all the local effects can be captured, transboundary transport of air pollutants can be examined. Several simulations were performed considering different emission scenarios. To see all out-of-Spain emissions influence, all the emissions were set to zero, excepting those in Spain. This includes examining European and ships effects on air quality in Spain. A second simulation was performed setting to zero just European-countries emissions, to see the effect of Europe. The third and fourth simulations were carried out by setting to zero France and Portugal emissions respectively. Ozone has been found to be the pollutant more affected by this transboundary transport, in particular in the summer period. The model indicates that the incoming air masses contributed in 2009 to the non-compliance with the European normative regulating the maximum daily 8-hour mean.

Fernando Martín

2012-09-01

384

Hazardous air pollution emissions from coal-fired power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) contain provisions that will set standards for the allowable emissions of 190 hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Many of those HAPS could possibly be emitted from coal-fired electric steam generating units. Coal-fired electric utility boilers are the subject of a study by the EPA to determine if regulation is appropriate and necessary. The Department of Energy's (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is currently conducting investigations of HAPS emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Results will be presented on two major studies that deal with sampling and analyzing stack emissions from three power plants that utilize various types of pollution control technologies, as well as other DOE-sponsored investigations of HAPS emissions from coal-fired electric utilities

385

Vehicle engines fuel consumption and air pollution. Volume 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A conference was held at Queen Mary College, London, in April 1973 to discuss present day trends and discover possible future lines in the development of automotive power plants. The resulting book, which comprises a series of chapters by experts in the field, discusses possible developments and suitable future modifications of the present day well known prime movers to meet the air-pollution and liquid-fuel economy requirements. The chapters are based on the lectures given during the conference. It is hoped that it will be of value to those interested in the problem by providing useful information in the fight to reduce air pollution and preserve fuel resources. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the eleven chapters for the Energy Data Base.

Janota, M.S. (ed.)

1974-01-01

386

A preliminary SRXRF study on moss as air pollution monitor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to explore mechanisms of moss as air pollution biomonitor, moss samples were exposed for one month at Shanghai Iron and Steel Research Institute (SISRI, as a pollution site) and Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP, as a control site) simultaneously. Elemental distributions in micro areas of the leaf and stem, and the whole moss tissue as well, were determined using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) method. The contents of metal elements of Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Ca, K in the leaf surface and stem slice were obtained. The results showed that the metallic ions were not distributed uniformly in the polluted samples. In particular, K, Ni, Fe and Pb were concentrated in the leaf apex and the intermediate rib. In samples of the air pollution, excessive Pb was adsorbed and deposited in the leaf, causing serious damage to the plant growth and their microstructure and inhibiting the plant's normal absorption to nutritive elements, such as K and Ca. (authors)

387

GEOSTATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF VALIDATION DATA OF AN AIR POLLUTION SIMULATOR  

OpenAIRE

Chemistry-transport models for air quality forecasting are affected by the uncertainty on the input data (emissions of pollutants and meteorological conditions), the approximations in the modelling of the physicochemical reactions, and numerical approximations (space and time discretization). The validation of the accuracy of these simulators can be done by comparing predictions with actual measurements. This exercise has been carried out for a model for daily forecasting at the scale of Euro...

Chile?s, Jean-paul; Se?guret, Serge Antoine; Riboud, Pierre-marc

2008-01-01

388

AIR POLLUTION (TOTAL SEDIMENT SUBSTANCES AND RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN CHILDREN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find connection between airpollution - total sediment substances and respiratory function values in children. Our study group consisted of 512 pupils (251 boys and 261 girls, 8 to 12 years of age, attending three schools of different location (in a village, the perifery the and the center of Kragujevac.The conducted analysis of respiratory functions was based on the following parameters: Forced vital capacity (FVC, Forced expiratory volumen in 1 sec (FEV1 , Peak respiratory flow (PEF, Mid-expiratory flow at 25% of FVC (MEF25% , and calculating index FEV1/FVC (Tiffeneau index.Starting from the fact that there was no influence of air pollution - total sediment substances from the city centre on children living in a village, we further noticed that the factor of air pollution registered in the city periphery school in September was 0,44 (in February f=0,67, and in the inner city school 0,50 (in February f=1,71. As it was previously expected, the last case points to the lowest grade of air pollution. The results of repeated spirometric examination indicated improvement of considered parameters VC and FEV1. On the basis of conducted research, we found a spirometric damage of respiratory tract in 22.69% of pupils, which, with a group having respiratory function parameters at the lower limit, made even 82.92%.During one-year period with lower grade of air pollution - total sediment substances, significantly better results of respiratory function were evidented in children living in the city.

Mila Hadnadjev

2005-01-01

389

Air Pollution Control in Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators  

OpenAIRE

Municipal solid waste (MSW) remains a major problem in modern societies, even though the significant efforts to prevent, reduce, reuse and recycle. At present, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is one of the main management options in most of the developed countries. The technology for recovering energy from MSW has evolved over the years and now sophisticated air pollution control (APC) equipment insures that emissions comply with the st...

Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joa?o C. M.; Quinta-ferreira, Rosa

2011-01-01

390

The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop  

OpenAIRE

Accumulating evidence suggests that outdoor air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists that was assigned the task of identifying research gaps and priority goals essential for advancing this growing field and addressing an emerging human health concern. Here, we review recent findings that have ...

Block, Michelle L.; Elder, Alison; Auten, Rick L.; Bilbo, Staci D.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Jiu-chiuan; Cory-slechta, Deborah A.; Costa, Daniel; Diaz-sanchez, David; Dorman, David C.; Gold, Diane; Gray, Kimberly; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Kaufman, Joel D.; Kleinman, Michael T.

2012-01-01

391

Complex mixtures and indoor air pollution: overview of epidemiologic methods.  

OpenAIRE

The likelihood of an epidemiologic study correctly identifying an adverse health outcome associated with exposure to indoor air pollutants is increased if a) substantial variation exists in the frequency or level of exposure among study subjects otherwise at similar risk of the health outcome; b) the number of study subjects or study communities is large; c) the health outcome can be assessed with accuracy; d) relevant exposure levels can be measured with accuracy; e) an unbiased sample of ex...

Weiss, N. S.

1993-01-01

392

Curbing transboundary air pollution : protecting health through legal action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns regarding coal-fired power plants in North America were addressed in this report with particular reference to facilities in the United States that negatively impact the air quality and the health of residents in the City of Toronto. Aging coal-fired plants in the United States generate more pollutant emissions per unit of electricity produced than coal-fired plants in Ontario and as such, contribute to smog, acid rain and global warming. They also contribute to the contamination of fish through deposition and biotransformation of mercury in the aquatic ecosystem. Toronto's concerns also stem from actions to extend the life of several plants in the United States without investing in modern pollution control technology, an action that contradicts the requirements of the United States Clean Air Act, and which is contrary to Ontario's commitment to phase out coal-fired electricity production. Lawsuits have been filed against power plants that failed to install pollution control technology. The City of Toronto was granted Friend of the Court status in the United States court deliberating on the case involving the American Electric Power (AEP) Corporation and its contravention of the Clean Air Act. The next phase of legal proceedings will be to determine the remedy should the court find AEP in violation of the Act. The outcome of this court case could result in improvements in Toronto's air quality. The proposed United States Clear Skies legislation, however, may aes Clear Skies legislation, however, may also delay reductions of pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants until 2018. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs., 3 appendices

393

Study of air pollution plumes with imaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work examines the possibilities of atmospheric dispersion studies through the use of small scale images of air pollution plumes, particularly through the use of Landsat imagery. The major points are: 1) A historical description of the uses of imaging techniques in atmospheric and plume dispersion studies. 2) A review of dispersion theories used with smoke and air pollution photography. 3) A study of a plume (up to 200 km) spreading over the ocean and visible in Landsat images is developed. Sixteen cases of this plume indicated that its shape and length depend mainly on the wind speed. Long plumes were characteristic of winds stronger than 5 m/s and spread within an angle of 50 to 7.50. An association with Reynolds' (1983) experiments is made in spite of a difference of six orders of magnitude between the length of the plumes in these two works. Pasquill's (1961) horizontal dispersion coefficients were within an expected variation when compared to the values measured from the images. Nevertheless, this variation is associated with limitations in the dispersion equation and in the dispersion coefficients. 4) A study of Landsat multi-spectral data showed that plumes over water have their own spectral signature and that they can be located with an unsupervised classification technique (Cluster). 5) The remote sensing of plumes is suggested as a viable tool for environmental problems such as acid rain and long-range transport of air pollutants. T long-range transport of air pollutants. The use of existing (as well as future) satellite images is a virtually unexplored source of data for environmental studies

394

Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

1995-12-31

395

Removal of air pollutants using zeolite type A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beside having offensive odour, organic solvents act as pollutants, when present in excess in air and may cause a number of health problems. To remove these compounds from air, requires pure component equilibrium data as a function of temperature and pressure. The sorption of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and methyl acetate in zeolite A was carried out at different temperature employing Cahn 1000 electro balance sensitivity of -+ 1 mu g. The heat of sorption was calculated using Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The date fitted in Langmuir and BET equations. Monolayer capacity of the sorbate at different temperatures was computed, from which the surface area of zeolite A was calculated. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that the sorption of all the four pollutants are endothermic and sorbed amount decreases with increase in temperature. The increase and decrease in the heat of sorption was also interpreted. The advantage of using zeolites for the removal of air pollutants is that it can be regenerated by heating vacuum at 800 C for one hour and can be used again. (authors)

396

Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials. PMID:25242593

Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

2014-09-23

397

Mechanisms and implications of air pollution particle associations with chemokines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammation induced by inhalation of air pollutant particles has been implicated as a mechanism for the adverse health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. The inflammatory response is associated with upregulation of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a significant constituent of air pollution particulate matter in many urban areas, bind and concentrate IL-8, an important human neutrophil-attracting chemokine, and that the chemokine remains biologically active. In this report, we examine possible mechanisms of this association and the effects on clearance of the chemokine. The binding appears to be the result of ionic interactions between negatively charged particles and positively charged chemokine molecules, possibly combined with intercalation into small pores in the particles. The association is not limited to diesel exhaust particles and IL-8: several other particle types also adsorb the chemokine and several other cytokines are adsorbed onto the diesel particles. However, there are wide ranges in the effectiveness of various particle types and various cytokines. Finally, male Fisher 344 rats were intratracheally instilled with chemokine alone or combined with diesel exhaust or silica particles under isofluorane anesthesia. In contrast to silica particles, which do not bind the chemokine, the presence of diesel exhaust particles, which bind the chemokine, prolonged the rewhich bind the chemokine, prolonged the retention of the chemokine

398

Air Pollution, Global Change and Forests in the New Millennium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chapters in this book present a snapshot of the state of knowledge of air pollution effects at the beginning of the 21st century. From their different disciplines, a distinguished collection of authors document their understanding of how leaves, trees, and forests respond to air pollutants and climate change. Scenarios of global change and air pollution are described. The authors describe responses of forests to climate variability, tropospheric ozone, rising atmospheric CO2, the combination of CO2 and ozone, and deposition of acidic compounds and heavy metals. The responses to ozone receive particular attention because of increasing concern about its damaging effects and increasing concentrations in rural areas. Scaling issues are addressed - from leaves to trees, from juvenile trees to mature trees, from short-term responses to long-term responses, and from small-scale experiments and observations to large-scale forest ecosystems. This book is one major product of a conference sponsored by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, the USDA Forest Service Global Change Northern Stations Program, the Arthur Ross Foundation, NCASI, the Canadian Forest Service, and Michigan Technological University. The conference was held in May 2000 in Houghton, Michigan, USA

399

Controlling transboundary air pollution in Europe: new targets for France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the first international agreement adopted to combat transboundary air pollution (the 1979 Geneva Convention), the Goteborg Protocol was signed on 1 December 1999. It heralds a new approach in implementing the European strategy. The new Protocol is based on a multi-pollutant/ multi-effect approach, taking into account the interconnected nature of the three issues of acidification, eutrophication and the formation of tropospheric (ground-level) ozone. It aims to achieve, at the least cost, a significant reduction in emissions of the pollutants that cause these phenomena. France is one of the first countries to become involved in this effort. Although emissions of the pollutants in France are among the lowest in Europe, France will nevertheless have to halve her SO2 and NOx emissions in the next 10 years at an annual cost of Euros 9 billion. International negotiations on transboundary pollution issues are based on policy-makers decisions and estimates produced through scientific modelling. However, when interpreting the results, the fundamental question arises as to how the efforts required are to be divided among the countries that are Party to the Protocol, and to how acceptable the corresponding costs are to the market. (author)

400

Leaf wettability as a measure of air pollution effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Droplet contact angle (DCA) is a technique that can be used to measure wettability and, in turn, provide an assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of a surface. As adapted to plant bioligy, DCA measurements have been useful in characterizing changes in the type or condition of leaf epicuticular waxes. Environmental as well as temporal factors can modify the biophysical features of epicuticular wax surfaces and thereby affect DCA measurements. An understanding of the role of these non-pollutant factors is necessary before pollution damage can be accurately assessed. Controlled chamber experiments and field pollutant gradient studies have shown that DCA is generally reduced when plants are exposed to air pollutants such as ozone, So2, and acidic fog. In some cases, environmental influences, such as temperature, have been separated from the pollutant effect. However, mixtures of anthropogenic pollutants or anthropogenic and natural compounds (sea salts, dust particles) which are often present in field studies can confound the interpretation of DCA measurements. A few studies that attempt to separate these factors have been conducted, but more are needed before the potential for using DCA measurements in long-term bioindicator studies can be fully realized. Some studies have demonstrated that pollutants do not necessarily affect leaf surfaces in a uniform pattern, but rather are specific for certain structures such as stomates or trichomes; depuctures such as stomates or trichomes; deposition levels can also be different on ad-and abaxial surfaces. The degree to which these inhomogeneities of action can affect DCA measurements needs further study. (orig.)

401

Particulate Matter Air Pollution, Its Influence on Life Quality and the Means of Reducing Indoor Air Pollution  

OpenAIRE

This article presents serious and every day increasing problem – particulate matter air pollution (PM10, PM2.5) and discusses particulate matter effect on humans health and life quality. Research reveals legal acts regulating the limit values of particulate matter. Following the requirements of the EU directives and national legislation, limit values applicable in the assessment of particulate matter concentrations are given. Recent research shows that most of their...

Agn? Matuliauskait?

2011-01-01

402

Toxic and hazardous air pollutants from co-firing biomass fuels, fossil fuels, MSW and RDF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toxic and hazardous pollutants are defined and then are considered from the perspective of pollutants which enter the combustion process with the fuel (principally the metals and metallic compounds) and pollutants which are formed as products of incomplete combustion. Control strategies are reviewed through the entire process including fuel preparation and storage, combustion control and the application of air pollution control devices. Measurement techniques for specific toxic and hazardous air pollutants are discussed

403

Mother's Awareness Regarding Air Pollution And Its Effects On The Health Of Their School Going Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is the environmental factor with the greatest impact on health and is responsible for the largest burden of environmental related diseases. Pollutants in the air causing health risk to everyone particularly the children. Over a decade, a considerable number of research studies have reported adverse health effects associated with air pollution. The harm caused by air pollutants has been already recognized by medical practitioners, and researcher. There are basically two types of air pollutants, outdoor and indoor. Whatever may be the sources, the pollutant in the air can damage lungs at cellular levels, can reduce lung functions, increases the chances of respiratory illness and asthma ,increases sickness rates and may even increases the death rate. Children are the most vulnerable groups among us who are the worst sufferer of air pollution.

Kaberi Saha

2012-10-01

404

Benefits of European Climate Policies for Mercury Air Pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology and results of impact assessment of renewable energy policies on atmospheric emissions of mercury in Europe. The modeling exercise described here involves an interaction of several models. First, a set of energy scenarios has been developed with the REMix (Renewable Energy Mix model that simulates different levels of penetration of renewable energies in the European power sector. The energy scenarios were input to the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model, which prepared projections of mercury releases to the atmosphere through 2050, based on the current air pollution control policies in each country. Data on mercury emissions from individual sectors were subsequently disaggregated to a fine spatial resolution using various proxy parameters. Finally, the dispersion of mercury in the atmosphere was computed by the chemistry transport model, implemented to the air quality system, Polyphemus. The simulations provided information on changes in concentrations and depositions of various forms of mercury over Europe. Scenarios that simulate a substantial expansion of renewable energies within the power sector indicate extensive co-benefits for mercury abatement, due to the restructuring of the energy system and changes in the fuel mix. The potential for mercury reductions in Europe depends on the rate of fuel switches and renewable technology deployment, but is also influenced by the stringency and timing of the air quality measures. The overall scope for co-benefits is therefore higher in regions relying on coal combustion as a major energy source.

Peter Rafaj

2014-01-01

405

Household energy, air pollution and health in Maputo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey was carried out in 1188 low-income households in Maputo, Mocambique, in order to assess the degree of exposure to air pollution and health effects associated with this exposure. The hypothesis was that pollution from biomass fuels, especially wood, impairs the health of the women using them, and that it would be possible to discern this effect in a general population. Average exposure levels during cooking time were found to be high, with a level of respirable particulates at 1200, 540 and 380 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for wood, charcoal and electricity users respectively. Similarly carbon monoxide levels were 42, 37 and 5 ppm for the same groups. Wood users were found to have significantly more symptoms of respiratory problems than users of other fuels, but also significantly more symptoms that could not be immediately associated with household fuel pollution. Thus, wood users had lower literacy, poorer housing, and more primitive access to water and sanitation. There was little difference in health aspects between charcoal users and users of modern fuels, though exposure to air pollution was higher among charcoal users. In statistical analysis it was found that cough were significantly associated with the use of wood as a principal fuel, but not with the use of charcoal. Other variables that influenced the health outcome were the age when a woman started helping her mother to cook, daily cooking time and kitchen ventilation. Most of the variables associated to ill health were correlated to wood use. In contrast, charcoal use was associated with a better health status in many respects. From the point of pollution exposure and health, wood use should be limited, while charcoal appears to be a feasible intermediate substitute for wood in the short term in Maputo. 48 refs, 31 figs, 33 tabs

Ellegaard, A.

1997-05-01

406

Household energy, air pollution and health in Maputo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was carried out in 1188 low-income households in Maputo, Mocambique, in order to assess the degree of exposure to air pollution and health effects associated with this exposure. The hypothesis was that pollution from biomass fuels, especially wood, impairs the health of the women using them, and that it would be possible to discern this effect in a general population. Average exposure levels during cooking time were found to be high, with a level of respirable particulates at 1200, 540 and 380 ?g/m3 for wood, charcoal and electricity users respectively. Similarly carbon monoxide levels were 42, 37 and 5 ppm for the same groups. Wood users were found to have significantly more symptoms of respiratory problems than users of other fuels, but also significantly more symptoms that could not be immediately associated with household fuel pollution. Thus, wood users had lower literacy, poorer housing, and more primitive access to water and sanitation. There was little difference in health aspects between charcoal users and users of modern fuels, though exposure to air pollution was higher among charcoal users. In statistical analysis it was found that cough were significantly associated with the use of wood as a principal fuel, but not with the use of charcoal. Other variables that influenced the health outcome were the age when a woman started helping her mother to cook, daily cooking time and kitchen ventilation. Most of the variables associated to ill health were correlated to wood use. In contrast, charcoal use was associated with a better health status in many respects. From the point of pollution exposure and health, wood use should be limited, while charcoal appears to be a feasible intermediate substitute for wood in the short term in Maputo. 48 refs, 31 figs, 33 tabs

407

Air pollution from ships in three Danish ports  

Science.gov (United States)

The operational meteorological air quality model (OML) was used to calculate the urban dispersion of air pollutants originating from ships in three Danish ports: Copenhagen, Elsinore and Køge. Oxides of nitrogen (NO x=NO+NO 2) emitted by ships in the port of Copenhagen contributed substantially to the overall NO x pollution in central Copenhagen. This would have an impact on human health if most of the NO were occasionally transformed into NO 2, for which the European Community's legal limit is defined by the 19th-highest annual hourly value being 200 ?g m -3 NO 2. Emissions by the ships caused a maximum 19th hourly NO x concentration of 615 ?g m -3. In a small area of housing estates and office blocks near the harbour, it exceeded 200 ?g m -3 NO x, and over several square kilometres of central Copenhagen, the emission by ships in harbour similarly caused values of 50-200 ?g m -3 NO x. In the port of Elsinore, ferries contributed significantly to the NO x pollution in the neighbourhood around the harbour. Emissions of particulate matter (PM) by ships in Copenhagen harbour caused neighbourhood concentrations equivalent to only 0.2-0.4% of the European Community's legal annual mass-based limit value for the protection of human health. However, ship emissions are dominated by ultrafine particles, as are diesel vehicle emissions, which adversely affect human health. Particulate emissions from ships contribute 8-15% of that of all urban road traffic to the background PM 10 levels in the harbour neighbourhoods. In Elsinore, the PM problem was less significant than in Copenhagen. Ships in both harbours will contribute insignificantly to urban pollution with sulphur dioxide (SO 2), once the anticipated regulations on sulphur content in marine fuels are implemented. In Køge, the low activity in the harbour meant that ships did not significantly affect urban air quality.

Saxe, H.; Larsen, T.

408

Mapping of particulate air pollution in Beijing by plant bio-monitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beijing is known for its high level of air pollution, but the town is only equipped with a small air monitoring network and for this reason nothing is known about the location of the different polluted areas, their surface, and their level of pollutants. In a first step, Beijing was divided in a 211 grid plots system. During summer 1998, leaves have been sampled on one poplar in each plot (Populus tomentosa). Among the different elements analysed in the particles collected by the leaves, two elements Fe and S, are particularly interesting: Fe is a tracer of the air pollution linked to road or railway traffic, and S is a tracer of the air pollution linked to domestic or industrial use of energy from coal or fuel. From the identification of 3 classes of iron and sulphur levels, the first air pollution maps of Beijing have been drawn up. Concerning S pollution, the analysis and the air pollution map show that this pollution is mainly present downtown, area of old habitat where coal is still largely used as an energy source, but also on some places, just at the periphery of the town of Beijing. Concerning Fe pollution, the analysis and the air pollution map show that now, on Beijing, as on all megacities of the world, the air pollution coming from the road traffic is widespreading. This pollution is detected everywhere on the town of Beijing, but particularly near and between the two main circle boulevards of the town. (author)

409

Air pollution and daily mortality in a city with low levels of pollution.  

OpenAIRE

The concentration-response relationship between daily ambient inhalable particle (particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micro m; PM(10)) concentrations and daily mortality typically shows no evidence of a threshold concentration below which no relationship is observed. However, the power to assess a relationship at very low concentrations of PM(10) has been limited in studies to date. The concentrations of PM(10) and other air pollutants in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from Janu...

Vedal, Sverre; Brauer, Michael; White, Richard; Petkau, John

2003-01-01

410

Intercontinental transport of air pollution: will emerging science lead to a new hemispheric treaty?  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the emergence of InterContinental Transport (ICT) of air pollution on the agendas of the air quality and climate communities and consider the potential for a new treaty on hemispheric air pollution. ICT is the flow of air pollutants from a source continent (e.g., North America) to a receptor continent (e.g., Europe). ICT of air pollutants occurs through two mechanisms: (i) episodic advection and (ii) increasing the global background, which enhances surface concentrations. We outline the current scientific evidence for ICT of aerosols and ozone, both of which contribute to air pollution and radiative forcing. The growing body of scientific evidence for ICT suggests that a hemispheric-scale treaty to reduce air pollutant concentrations may be appropriate to address climate and air quality concerns simultaneously. Such a treaty could pave the way for future climate agreements. PMID:14594358

Holloway, Tracey; Fiore, Arlene; Hastings, Meredith Galanter

2003-10-15

411

Simulation of urban and regional air pollution in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a regional scale air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to assess the suitability of such an advanced modeling system for predicting the air quality of Bangladesh and its surrounding region. The Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) was used as the emission input in this modeling approach. Both meteorological and chemical model performance were evaluated with observations including satellite data. Comparison between simulated and observed meteorological parameters revealed that the WRF can generate the necessary meteorological inputs for CMAQ. Comparison of observed and simulated concentrations of different air pollutants revealed that CMAQ greatly underestimates the concentrations of key pollutants. Comparison with satellite observations revealed that CMAQ reproduces the spatial distribution of NO2with some underestimation in Bangladesh and India. The simulated AOD and satellite-retrieved AOD showed good temporal and spatial agreement mutually, with a correlation coefficient of 0.58. Sensitivity simulation using higher horizontal resolution emission data made by re-gridding the REAS inventory with the population distribution improved the CMAQ performance. Nevertheless, CMAQ underestimated the pollutant concentrations in Dhaka. Uncertainties in the emission inventory and in the lack of time variation in emissions input mainly contributed to the model underestimation. Model predictions show that 36-72% PM10 and 15-60% PM2.5 in Dhaka might be contributed from brick kiln emissions in monthly average of January 2004. The chemical composition of PM2.5showed that the considerable amounts of secondary aerosols in Dhaka and carbonaceous components (particularly organic carbon) are most responsible for the model underestimation. Results suggest that improvements of emission inputs and more detailed sensitivity analysis of CMAQ model are important to assess the reliability and applicability of WRF-CMAQ modeling system in this region.

Muntaseer Billah Ibn Azkar, M. A.; Chatani, Satoru; Sudo, Kengo

2012-04-01

412

Multilevel analysis of air pollution and early childhood neurobehavioral development.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester ? = -0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester ? = -0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age ? = -0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (? = -8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung

2014-07-01

413

Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester ? = ?0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester ? = ?0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age ? = ?0.091, se = 0.034. Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC levels during the second and third trimesters (? = ?8.742, se = 3.512. Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age.

Ching-Chun Lin

2014-07-01

414

Industrial air pollution in the horticultural centre Ymond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Near the steelworks west of Amsterdam where flower bulbs are cultivated, investigations on air pollution by HF continued. During the growing season, F/sup -/ was monitored weekly by the limed paper method. Higher concentrations were measured in December 1974 and in January 1975 when mild weather coincided with prevailing wind from SW. The persistence of these conditions favorable for air pollution led to several complaints from growers of cut tulips. In April and May, claims by growers for crop losses of tulips (grown for bulb production) were received; in August, growers complained of damage to cut gladioli grown outdoors. From May until October, in the center of this area HF concentrations were measured by the silver pellets method to investigate the effects of chronic HF pollution on bulb and corm plants. Further prolonged fumigation trials with tulips in 1976 were to be based on these measurements in practice. In 1975 proportional incidence of mass concentrations of F/sup -/ higher than 0.3 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ was about 50% of the incidence in 1974.

Wolting, H.G.

1976-01-01

415

China's air pollution and Japan's response to it  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-range transport of air pollutants has been a serious global environment problem. Japan's Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) researchers are investigating the possibility of acid rain from China. So far, the acid rain that has appeared in Japan has not had a significant effect. However, because of the high economic growth projected for the coming years in China, acidic fallout from that country is likely to cause serious damage there and in Japan as well. China is one of the largest coal users in the world. One of the biggest factors making air quality worse is the lack of appropriate technologies. Although Japanese desulfurization technologies are well advanced, they cannot be directly applied to stationary pollution sources in China, because of their cost. Japan has sophisticated technologies, but lacks experience in and knowledge of alternative, intermediate, and low-technology solutions. Given this, Japan may attempt to buy pollution control technology equipment from the United States, which provides a wider range of desulfurization technologies, as a part of the Official Development Assistance program. At the same time, international support that includes the establishment of additional global environmental monitoring stations in China are also necessary

416

Air pollution and ecology. From local to global impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human impact on nature is increasing - not only in magnitude, but also in geographical scale. It has been known for centuries, that vegetation does not thrive near air pollution sources, but it was not before after the Second World War that the importance of long range transport of pollutants was realized - first for sulphur and nitrogen compounds, later for photochemical oxidants. The results have been acidification of rivers and lakes, forest dieback and eutrophication of inner waters. In recent decades the attention has been focused on global effects: Ozone depletion and increased greenhouse effect. Here air pollution threatens to alter the conditions of life on the entire Earth. In the political and public debate - and sometimes in science as well - the problems are treated separately. Since however, the basic phenomena all take place in the same atmosphere, they are more or less interrelated. Also the environmental effects must be considered a result of a complex impact. This complexity should be taken into account in the planning of an effective abatement strategy. (au) 11 refs.

Fenger, J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

1996-11-01

417

A fuzzy mathematics approach in measuring air pollution from motor vehicles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution from motor vehicle in cities specially in developing countries has been a major source of urban air pollution and hence a cause of concern for the administrators of the cities as well as for researchers in the field of ecology and mathematics. In the present work, the fuzzy membership functions for some of the attributes regarding air pollution from motor vehicle are proposed. To study the index of air pollution in different area of a city, the air pollution index is proposed, which takes into account the membership function for the attributes of pollution. By applying a suitable interpolation formula (in our case Lagrange's interpolation formula a polynomial curve is obtained, which gives the measure of air pollution at any point of the city under certain assumptions. The effectiveness and suitability of the method is established by taking an example.

Soumak Biswas

2012-09-01

418

[Transport characteristics of air pollutants over the Yangtze Delta].  

Science.gov (United States)

Meteorological field of January, April, July and October in 2004 was obtained by running MM5 with NCEP datasets. Then we used HYSPLIT 4.8 model to calculate the backward and forward trajectories of representative cities. Distributions of trajectories and the affected areas vary with seasons. Transport current affecting Yangtze River Delta is mainly from Mongolia, North China or Northeast region, via Yellow Sea area, Shandong, Jiangsu province or Shanghai. Another important transport path is current from southwest because of the Southwest monsoon. A movement of East Asia monsoon plays an important part in the mesoscale transport of pollutants in Yangtze Delta. Winter monsoon is a main mechanism which moves the air pollutants in Yangtze Delta to South China and West Pacific ocean. Another important transport system is the subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific Ocean which controls the east coast of our country in spring and summer. This circulation system mainly affects the inland area of our country. PMID:18624219

Wang, Yan; Chai, Fa-He; Wang, Yong-Hong; Liu, Ming

2008-05-01

419

[Influence of atmospheric transport on air pollutant levels at a mountain background site of East China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Transport characteristics of air pollutants transported to the background atmosphere of East China were investigated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) 4.8 model driven by NCEP reanalysis data during June 2011 to May 2012. Based on the air pollutants monitoring data collected at the National atmospheric background monitoring station (Wuyishan station) in Fujian Province, characteristics of different clustered air masses as well as the origins of highly polluted air masses were further examined. The results showed that 65% of all the trajectories, in which air masses mainly passed over highly polluted area of East China, Jiangxi province and upper air in desert areas of Northwest China, carried polluted air to the station, while the rest of trajectories (35%) with air masses originated from ocean could effectively remove air pollutants at the Wuyishan station. However, the impact on the air pollutants for each air mass group varied with seasons. Elevated SO2 concentrations observed at the background station were mainly influenced by coal burning activities in Northern China during heating season. The high CO concentrations were likely associated with the pollutants emission in the process of coal production and consumption in Anhui province. The elevated NO(x), O3, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were mostly impacted by East China with high levels of air pollutants. PMID:25338354

Su, Bin-Bin; Xu, Ju-Yang; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Ji, Xian-Xin

2014-08-01

420

Efficient air pollution abatement for regions in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper computes the efficient air pollution abatement ratios of 30 regions in China during the period 1996-2002. Three air emissions (SO{sub 2}, soot and dust) are considered. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with a single output (real GDP) and five inputs (labour, real capital stock, SO{sub 2}, dust and soot emissions) is used to compute the target emissions of each region for each year. The efficient abatement ratios of each region in each year are then obtained by dividing the target emission by the actual emission of an air pollutant. Our major findings are: 1. The eastern area is the most efficient region with respect to SO{sub 2}, soot and dust emissions in every year during the research period. 2. The eastern, central and western areas have the lowest, medium and highest 1996-2002 average target abatement ratios of SO, (22.09%, 42.23% and 57.58%), soot (26.19%, 56.34% and 66.37%) and dust (15.20%, 29.09% and 40.59%), respectively. 3. These results are consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory, whereby a more developed area will use environmental goods more efficiently than a less developed area. 4. Compared to dust emission, the average target abatement ratios for SO{sub 2} and soot emissions (as direct outcomes of burning coal) are relatively much higher for all three areas.

Hu, J.L. [National Chiao Tung University, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. for Business & Management

2006-08-15

421

Air pollution in the plateau of the Iberian Peninsula  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the air pollution in the central Iberian Peninsula, NO, NO2, O3, SO2 and PM10 hourly data were collected at eight air quality stations (urban and suburban) belonging to the Air Quality Network of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) during the 2008-2011 period. Weather conditions and air mass patterns were investigated, and three atmospheric transport patterns were identified. The mean levels of O3, NO2, SO2 and PM10 ranged between 51 and 64, 12 and 25, 2and 7 and 23 and 34 ?g m- 3, respectively, although some peaks of O3, SO2 and NO2 exceeded the thresholds defined in the European Directives. Monthly and daily variations showed typical cycles, with SO2 peaks in industrial areas, or high ozone levels in downwind zones strongly affected by traffic emissions. The weekend effect was observed mainly for NO2 and PM10, while there was a low effect for ozone and NO effect for SO2. Dependence of NO, NO2 and O3 with the NOx levels was also investigated through oxidant concentrations OX (O3 + NO2). NOx-independent regional contribution to the oxidant levels showed a strong seasonality and high values. Maximum values of OX concentrations at low levels of NOx were found in areas strongly affected by urban plumes, whereas maximum OX levels at high NOx values indicated the influence of local sources. The studied area can be divided into three groups, that located downwind of strong traffic emissions, that influenced by industrial emissions (in these two zones the main air pollution problems are focused) and finally that group conditioned by local sources.

Notario, A.; Adame, J. A.; Bravo, I.; Cuevas, C. A.; Aranda, A.; Díaz-de-Mera, Y.; Rodríguez, A.

2014-08-01

422

Global Scenarios of Air Pollution until 2030: Combining Air Quality, Climate Change and Energy Access Policies  

Science.gov (United States)

Outdoor air pollution is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to global health outcomes. This has led to the implementation of a number of air quality policies worldwide, with total air pollution control costs in 2005 estimated at US$195 billion. More than 80% of the world's population is still found to be exposed to PM2.5 concentrations exceeding WHO air quality guidelines and health impacts resulting from these exposures estimated at around 2-5% of the global disease burden. Key questions to answer are 1) How will pollutant emissions evolve in the future given developments in the energy system and how will energy and environmental policies influence such emission trends. 2) What implications will this have for resulting exposures and related health outcomes. In order to answer these questions, varying levels of stringency of air quality legislation are analyzed in combination with policies on universal access to clean cooking fuels and limiting global temperature change to 2°C in 2100. Bottom-up methodologies using energy emissions modeling are used to derive sector-based pollutant emission trajectories until 2030. Emissions are spatially downscaled and used in combination with a global transport chemistry model to derive ambient concentrations of PM2.5. Health impacts of these exposures are further estimated consistent with WHO data and methodology. The results indicate that currently planned air quality legislation combined with rising energy demand will be insufficient in controlling future emissions growth in developing countries. In order to achieve significant reductions in pollutant emissions of the order of more than 50% from 2005 levels and reduce exposures to levels consistent with WHO standards, it will be necessary to increase the stringency of such legislations and combine them with policies on energy access and climate change. Combined policies also result in reductions in air pollution control costs as compared to those associated with current legislations. Health related co-benefits of combined policies are also found to be large, especially in developing countries- a reduction of more than 50% in terms of pollution related mortality impacts as compared to today.

Rao, S.; Dentener, F. J.; Klimont, Z.; Riahi, K.

2011-12-01

423

Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG)

424

European air pollution in 2050, a regional air quality and climate perspective under CMIP5 scenarios  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution and climate change are closely related. They share both driving geophysical processes and mitigation strategies. Increased temperature, changes in weather regimes and precipitation patterns will alter the formation of pollution episodes. At the same time curbing greenhouse gases emission will also induce indirect co-benefits for air pollutant emissions. As a consequence, understanding the long-term efficiency of air pollution mitigation strategies requires the integrated implementation of comprehensive geophysical and economical models. Coupling air pollution and climate models for long term projections raise a number of scientific and technical issues. Global scale circulation outputs must be downscaled in order to provide high resolution three dimensional meteorological fields at high temporal frequency to the chemistry transport model. The computational cost of the air quality model is comparable to the cost of the regional climate model. So that the computing demand and storage call for an efficient design of a complex modelling suite. Moreover the cost of the project prohibits the implementation of large ensemble of model, thereby raising concerns on the treatment of uncertainty analyses of the projections. We present an integrated assessment of future air quality that relies on up-to-date emission scenarios and full-frame geophysical models of climate and atmospheric chemistry which are themselves embedded in monetised economical models to propose a cost-benefit assessment. Emissions: For long lived trace species, we use the Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP) produced for the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of IPCC whereas regional air quality modelling is based on the updated emissions scenarios produced in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) that offer an explicit representation of air quality policies. Climate and chemistry models: We use the latest sources of recent coordinated model intercomparison projects, each time selecting the IPSL or INERIS member of the ensemble: CMIP5 for global climate, ACCMIP for global atmospheric chemistry, EURO-CORDEX for regional climate. Cost-Benefit analysis: The health impacts of air pollution are evaluated and monetised using the Alpha-RiskPoll tool in order to compare the sanitary benefits to the economical cost of climate mitigation extracted from the GEA scenarios. This first assessment of projected air quality and climate at the regional scale based on CMIP5 is in line with the existing literature using CMIP3. The sensitivity to the climate model selected in the ensemble is pointed out. Sensitivity simulations show that the main factor driving future air quality projections is air pollutant emissions, rather than climate change or long range transport. Whereas the well documented 'climate penalty' bearing upon ozone over Europe is confirmed, other features appear less robust compared to the literature such as the impact of climate on PM2.5. The cost-benefit analysis allows demonstrating that the expected sanitary benefits induced by air pollutant reductions in Europe exceed the economical cost of climate mitigation.

Colette, A.; Bessagnet, B.; Vautard, R.; Szopa, S.; Rao, S.; Schucht, S.; Klimont, Z.; Holland, M.; Menut, L.; Meleux, F.; Rouïl, L.

2013-12-01

425

Photochemical and other air pollutants in South Holland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This year at fifteen places, regularly distributed over the industrial area west of Rotterdam, indicator plants for air pollution were again set out in the open. Tulip, gladiolus and freesia, indicators for HF, all demonstrated the same two sites to have maximum HF concentration. Spinach, an indicator for O/sub 3//SO/sub 2/, showed maximum injury in April and May and more south of the New Waterway than north of it. Medicago sativa, a plant species rather sensitive for SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, showed little damage, and the reaction of petunia indicated a possible effect of ethylene only in a few cases. The photochemical air pollutant PAN caused in a few cases as well a slight injury to the indicator plants Urtica urens and Poa annua. The frequency of the injury to tobacco Bel W3 by O/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ was maximum during some periods in summer and autumn. This year again the effect of air pollution on growth and yield of tulips, tobacco and tomato plants was studied at six sites at the mouth of the Rhine with filtered and unfiltered greenhouses. The climatic conditions in these greenhouses were completely alike. Tulips in all the unfiltered greenhouses showed twice as heavy leaf injury as those in the filtered greenhouses. Tobacco plants had a higher average fresh and dry weight in the filtered greenhouses than in the unfiltered ones. The same usually held for tomato plants and also for the number of fruits and the average fresh and dry weight of tomato fruits.

Posthumus, A.C.

1975-01-01

426

Polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars in air-cured tobacco leaves injured by ozone air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves of several production types were analyzed chemically to determine the effects of ozone-induced weather fleck on polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars. Seven domestic cultivars provided leaf samples for analysis of polyphenols and phytosterols. Quantities of chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin, free quinic acid, and phytosterols were higher in severely flecked leaves than in leaves flecked only minimally. Greenhouse studies disclosed that leaves grown in carbon-filtered air analyzed as greenpunch samples contained significantly higher levels of reducing sugars than leaves grown in polluted air, regardless of plant injury.

Menser, H.A.; Chaplin, J.F.; Cheng, A.L.S.; Sorokin, T.

1977-03-13

427

Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

Ren Cizao

2008-11-01

428

Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ? 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ? 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone and fine particulate matter, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7023-7037, 2013.

Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

2013-12-01

429

Spatiotemporally-Resolved Air Exchange Rate as a Modifier of Acute Air Pollution-Related Morbidity in AtlantaMorbidity in Atlanta  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies frequently use central site concentrations as surrogates of exposure to air pollutants. Variability in air pollutant infiltration due to differential air exchange rates (AERs) is potentially a major factor affecting the relationship between central site c...

430

Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

431

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal - 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T2O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

432

The impact of winter heating on air pollution in china.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating. PMID:25629878

Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

2015-01-01

433

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Black, S.C.

1998-06-01

434

Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

435

The Impact of Winter Heating on Air Pollution in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004–2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating. PMID:25629878

Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

2015-01-01

436

Opportunities for using spatial property assessment data in air pollution exposure assessments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants use ambient air pollution measurements as a proxy for personal exposure levels. When pollution levels vary at neighbourhood levels, using ambient pollution data from sparsely located fixed monitors may inadequately capture the spatial variation in ambient pollution. A major constraint to moving toward exposure assessments and epidemiological studies of air pollution at a neighbourhood level is the lack of readily available data at appropriate spatial resolutions. Spatial property assessment data are widely available in North America and may provide an opportunity for developing neighbourhood level air pollution exposure assessments. Results This paper provides a detailed description of spatial property assessment data available in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, and provides examples of potential applications of spatial property assessment data for improving air pollution exposure assessment at the neighbourhood scale, including: (1 creating variables for use in land use regression modelling of neighbourhood levels of ambient air pollution; (2 enhancing wood smoke exposure estimates by mapping fireplace locations; and (3 using data available on individual building characteristics to produce a regional air pollution infiltration model. Conclusion Spatial property assessment data are an extremely detailed data source at a fine spatial resolution, and therefore a source of information that could improve the quality and spatial resolution of current air pollution exposure assessments.

Keller C Peter

2005-10-01

437

LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION PROJECT (TAPP) (MAIN REPORT)  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was to obtain air quality data for a full year at three border monitoring sites to assess anthropogenic and biogenic emission impacts and transboundary air pollution transport in the Lower Rio...

438

Identifying exposure disparities in air pollution epidemiology specific to adverse birth outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 147 million people in the US live in areas where pollutant levels are above regulatory limits and pose a risk to health. Most of the vast network of air pollutant monitors in the US are located in places with higher pollution levels and a higher density of pollutant sources (e.g., point sources from industrial pollution). Vulnerable populations are more likely to live closer to pollutant sources, and thus closer to pollutant monitors. These differential exposures have an impact on maternal and child health; maternal air pollutant exposures have been linked to adverse outcomes such as preterm birth and infant low birth weight. Several studies are highlighted that address methodological approaches in the study of air pollution and health disparities.

Geer, Laura A.

2014-10-01

439

[Particulate matter (PM10) air pollution, daily mortality, and hospital admissions: recent findings].  

Science.gov (United States)

The first studies conducted to evaluate a possible association between air pollution and mortality date back to the serious events that occurred in the Mosa Valley, Belgium (1930), in the small city of Donora ("killer fog" incident of 1948) and in London (1952). The latter episode led to the introduction of air pollution control policies. Following the introduction of air pollution control measures in economically advanced cities in the 60s and 70s, the concentration levels of pollutants reached were believed, for many years, to be risk free. However, despite improvements in air quality achieved by many industrialized countries the negative effects of air pollution remain today an important public health problem. Among all air pollutants, particulate matter is the type of air pollution that causes the most numerous and serious effects on human health, because of the broad range of diverse toxic substances it contains,. For this reason, when assessing human health risk, PM10 may be considered to be a reliable indicator of the impact of global air pollution. Various epidemiologic studies conducted in the last 10 years, such as the Air Pollution and Health-European Approach (APHEA) project, the National Morbidity, Mortality and Air Pollution (NMMAPS) Study and Italian Meta-analysis of Studies on the short-term effects of Air pollution (MISA), have shown that current ambient concentrations of PM10 may lead to increased mortality and morbidity. Various studies have reported mean increases in mortality below 1% for 10 ?g/mc increases of ambient PM10. Studies have also underscored the role of particulate matter in aggravating cardiorespiratory diseases and consequently increasing hospital admissions. Air quality standards have been recently revised by legislation. The EU has issued a directive that sets limiting values and, where appropriate, threshold values, for the different air pollutants. PMID:17206202

Colucci, Maria Eugenia; Veronesi, Licia; Roveda, Anna Maria; Marangio, Emilio; Sansebastiano, Giuliano

2006-01-01

440

The Global Contribution of Outdoor Air Pollution to the Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Hospital Admission for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the quantitative effects of outdoor air pollution, represented by 10 µg/m3 increment of PM10, on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China, United States and European Union through systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Publications in English and Chinese from PubMed and EMBASE were selected. The Cochrane Review Handbook of Generic Inverse Variance was used to synthesize the pooled effects on incidence, prevalence, mortality and hospita...

Qingkun Song; Christiani, David C.; XiaorongWang; Jun Ren

2014-01-01