WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

2

Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 ?g m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

2013-01-01

3

Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on lung function among Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung function among Chinese schoolchildren in Southern China (Hong Kong). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 3168 schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in 3 districts in Hong Kong. Annual means of ambient PM10 (particulate matter <10 µm), SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate the individual exposure of the subjects. Children's lung function was measured for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF(25-75)) and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC (FEF75). Analysis of covariance was performed separately by gender to estimate the impact of air pollution on lung function, with adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics, respiratory morbidities, height and weight, physical activity level, indoor air contaminants and short-term exposure to the air pollutants. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounding factors, FEV1, FEF(25-75) and FEF75 for boys in a high-pollution district (HPD) were significantly lower than those in a low-pollution district (LPD) by 3.0%, 7.6% and 8.4%, respectively. No significant differences were found for girls. Results from the comparison between a moderate-pollution district (MPD) and the HPD were similar. There were no differences between children in the LPD and MPD, except that a higher FEF75 was found in boys in the MPD. PM10 is the primary pollutant responsible for the lung function deficit. Asthmatic children were more vulnerable to exposure to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to higher ambient air pollution levels was associated with lower lung function in Chinese schoolchildren, especially among boys. Adverse effects were observed on large and small airways, with a stronger effect on the latter.

Gao Y; Chan EY; Li LP; He QQ; Wong TW

2013-02-01

4

Systematic review of Chinese studies of short-term exposure to air pollution and daily mortality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health effects attributable to air pollution exposure in Chinese population have been least understood. The authors conducted a meta-analysis on 33 time-series and case-crossover studies conducted in China to assess mortality effects of short-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 and 2.5 ?m (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). Significant associations between air pollution exposure and increased mortality risks were observed in the pooled estimates for all pollutants of interest. In specific, each 10 ?g/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.38% (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.31, 0.45) increase in total mortality, a 0.51% (95% CI: 0.30, 0.73) in respiratory mortality, and a 0.44% (95% CI: 0.33, 0.54) in cardiovascular mortality. When current annual PM2.5 levels in mega-Chinese cities to be reduced to the WHO Air Quality Guideline (AQG) of 10 ?g/m(3), mortality attributable to short-term exposure to PM2.5 could be reduced by 2.7%, 1.7%, 2.3%, and 6.2% in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an, respectively. The authors recommend future studies on the nature of air pollution concentration and health effect relationships in Chinese population to support setting stringent air quality standards to improve public health.

Shang Y; Sun Z; Cao J; Wang X; Zhong L; Bi X; Li H; Liu W; Zhu T; Huang W

2013-04-01

5

Seasonality and dynamic spatial contagion of air pollution in 42 Chinese cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To monitor and improve the urban air quality, the Chinese government has begun to make many efforts, and the interregional cooperation to cut and improve air quality has been required. In this paper, we focus on the seasonality of the first and second moments of the daily air pollution indexes (APIs) of 42 Chinese sample cities over 10 years, from June 5, 2000 to March 4, 2010, and investigate the dynamic correlation of air pollution indexes (APIs) between 42 Chinese cities and their corresponding regional and national levels; comparison with the model without seasonal consideration is made. By adopting a DCC-GARCH model that accounts for the seasonality, we found that (i) the transformed DCC-GARCH model including seasonality dummies improves the estimation result in this study; (ii) the seasonality feature of the second moment follows that of the first moment, with the condition mean and variance of the second and autumn significantly lower than spring, whereas that of winter is higher than spring; (iii) the correlation between local APIs and their corresponding regional and national levels is dynamic; (iv) comparing with the DCC-GARCH model estimation, the transformed model does not change the feature of the dynamic correlations very much.

He Z; Sriboonchita S; He M

2013-01-01

6

Seasonality and dynamic spatial contagion of air pollution in 42 Chinese cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

To monitor and improve the urban air quality, the Chinese government has begun to make many efforts, and the interregional cooperation to cut and improve air quality has been required. In this paper, we focus on the seasonality of the first and second moments of the daily air pollution indexes (APIs) of 42 Chinese sample cities over 10 years, from June 5, 2000 to March 4, 2010, and investigate the dynamic correlation of air pollution indexes (APIs) between 42 Chinese cities and their corresponding regional and national levels; comparison with the model without seasonal consideration is made. By adopting a DCC-GARCH model that accounts for the seasonality, we found that (i) the transformed DCC-GARCH model including seasonality dummies improves the estimation result in this study; (ii) the seasonality feature of the second moment follows that of the first moment, with the condition mean and variance of the second and autumn significantly lower than spring, whereas that of winter is higher than spring; (iii) the correlation between local APIs and their corresponding regional and national levels is dynamic; (iv) comparing with the DCC-GARCH model estimation, the transformed model does not change the feature of the dynamic correlations very much. PMID:23533348

He, Zhanqiong; Sriboonchita, Songsak; He, Min

2013-03-03

7

Short-term effect of ambient air pollution on COPD mortality in four Chinese cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambient air pollution has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity; however, few studies have examined the short-term effect of air pollution specifically on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity world wide. In this analysis, we examined the associations between daily air pollution levels [particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and COPD mortality in four Chinese cities. We used Poisson regression models with natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trends of COPD mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We did a meta-analysis to obtain the 4-city average estimates. Air pollution (PM10, SO2, and NO2) was found to be associated with increased risk of COPD mortality in these four cities. Using the random-effects model, an increase of 10 ?g m-3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 0.78% (95% CI, 0.13-1.42), 1.30% (95% CI, 0.61-1.99), and 1.78% (95% CI, 1.10-2.46) increase of COPD mortality, respectively. The concentration-response curves indicated linear associations without threshold. Only NO2 remained significant in the multi-pollutant models. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-city study in Asian developing region to report the short-term effect of air pollution on COPD mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effects of air pollution on COPD mortality for high exposure settings typical in developing countries.

Meng, Xia; Wang, Cuicui; Cao, Dachun; Wong, Chit-Ming; Kan, Haidong

2013-10-01

8

Effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on respiratory health of Chinese children from 50 kindergartens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Concentrations of ambient air pollution and pollutants in China have changed considerably during the last decade. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of current ambient air pollution on the health of kindergarten children. METHODS: We studied 6730 Chinese children (age, 3-7 years) from 50 kindergartens in 7 cities of Northeast China in 2009. Parents or guardians completed questionnaires that asked about the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and risk factors. Three-year concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxides (NO2) were calculated at monitoring stations in 25 study districts. A 2-stage regression approach was used in data analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher among children living near a busy road, those living near chimneys or a factory, those having a coal-burning device, those living with smokers, and those living in a home that had been recently renovated. Among girls, PM10 was associated with persistent cough (odds ratio [OR]PM10 = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.77), persistent phlegm (ORPM10 = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81), and wheezing (ORPM10 = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65). NO2 concentration was associated with increased prevalence of allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.27-3.02) among girls. In contrast, associations of respiratory symptoms with concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 were not statistically significant among boys. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution is particularly important in the development of respiratory morbidity among children. Girls may be more susceptible than boys to air pollution.

Liu MM; Wang D; Zhao Y; Liu YQ; Huang MM; Liu Y; Sun J; Ren WH; Zhao YD; He QC; Dong GH

2013-01-01

9

Indoor air pollution and risk of lung cancer among Chinese female non-smokers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate indoor particulate matter (PM) level and various indoor air pollution exposure, and to examine their relationships with risk of lung cancer in an urban Chinese population, with a focus on non-smoking women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in Taiyuan, China, consisting of 399 lung cancer cases and 466 controls, of which 164 cases and 218 controls were female non-smokers. Indoor PM concentrations, including PM(1), PM(2.5), PM(7), PM(10), and TSP, were measured using a particle mass monitor. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals after adjusting for age, education, annual income, and smoking. RESULTS: Among non-smoking women, lung cancer was strongly associated with multiple sources of indoor air pollution 10 years ago, including heavy exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work (aOR = 3.65), high frequency of cooking (aOR = 3.30), and solid fuel usage for cooking (aOR = 4.08) and heating (aOR(coal stove) = 2.00). Housing characteristics related to poor ventilation, including single-story, less window area, no separate kitchen, no ventilator, and rarely having windows open, are associated with lung cancer. Indoor medium PM(2.5) concentration was 68 ?g/m(3), and PM(10) was 230 ?g/m(3). PM levels in winter are strongly correlated with solid fuel usage for cooking, heating, and ventilators. PM(1) levels in cases are more than 3 times higher than that in controls. Every 10 ?g/m(3) increase in PM(1) is associated with 45 % increased risk of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor air pollution plays an important role in the development of lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese women.

Mu L; Liu L; Niu R; Zhao B; Shi J; Li Y; Swanson M; Scheider W; Su J; Chang SC; Yu S; Zhang ZF

2013-03-01

10

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first part of the conference discussed numerical modelling of air pollution. Papers are presented under the session headings: meteorological modelling; turbulence and diffusion modelling; chemical transformation modelling; and global studies. The second part covered the analysis, monitoring, management and engineering aspects of air pollution. Papers in this part are presented under the session headings: data analysis and observation; monitoring and laboratory studies; pollution management; and pollution engineering. Selected papers have been abstracted separately.

Zannetti, P.; Brebbia, C.A.; Garcia Gardea, J.E.; Ayala Milian, G. (eds.) (Failure Analysis Associates Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1993-01-01

11

Associations between ambient air pollution and prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases in 33 Chinese communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Inconsistent results have been reported that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to examine whether the exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with the prevalence of stroke and CVDs among people living in a heavy industrial province of northeast China, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 24,845 Chinese adults, ages 18-74 years old, from 33 communities in the 11 districts of the three Northeastern Chinese Cities during 2009. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and Ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. We used two-level logistic regressions models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. We found significant associations between PM10 and SO2 levels and stroke prevalence after accounting for important covariates: the adjusted odds ratio for stroke increased by 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.30) per 19 ?g m-3 increase in PM10, and 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01-1.29) per 20 ?g m-3 increase in SO2, respectively. When stratified analysis by gender, these associations were significant only in men, but not in women. In conclusion, this study shows the association between long-term exposure to PM10 and SO2 and increased stroke prevalence, and the associations were more apparent in men than in women.

Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Wang, Jing; Chen, Weiqing; Ma, Wenjun; Trevathan, Edwin; Xaverius, Pamela K.; DeClue, Richard; Wiese, Andrew; Langston, Marvin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui

2013-10-01

12

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

Strauss, W.; Mainwaring, S.J.

1984-01-01

13

Meta-analysis of adverse health effects due to air pollution in Chinese populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pooled estimates of air pollution health effects are important drivers of environmental risk communications and political willingness. In China, there is a lack of review studies to provide such estimates for health impact assessments. METHODS: We systematically searched the MEDLINE database using keywords of 80 major Chinese cities in Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan on 30 June 2012, yielding 350 abstracts with 48 non-duplicated reports either in English or Chinese after screening. We pooled the relative risks (RR) per 10 mug/m3 of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3). RESULTS: For short-term effects, the pooled RR (p < 0.05) ranges were: 1.0031 (PM10) to 1.0140 (NO2) for all-cause mortality, 1.0034 (cardiopulmonary, PM10) to 1.0235 (influenza and pneumonia, SO2) for 9 specific-causes mortality, 1.0021 (cardiovascular, PM10) to 1.0162 (asthma, O3) for 5 specific-causes hospital admissions. For birth outcomes, the RR (p < 0.05) ranged from 1.0051 (stillbirth, O3) to 1.1189 (preterm-birth, SO2) and for long-term effect on mortality from 1.0150 (respiratory, SO2) to 1.0297 (respiratory, NO2). Publication bias was absent (Egger test: p = 0.326 to 0.624). Annual PM10 and NO2 concentrations were inversely associated with RR of mortality (p = 0.017-0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on short-term effects of air pollution is consistent and sufficient for health impact assessment but that on long-term effects is still insufficient.

Lai HK; Tsang H; Wong CM

2013-04-01

14

Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study proposes an integrated multi-pollutant co-control strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the co-control strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multi-pollutant co-control routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though co-control strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China.

Mao X; Zeng A; Hu T; Zhou J; Xing Y; Liu S

2013-10-01

15

Indoor air pollution and lung function growth among children in four Chinese cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Ambient air pollution has been associated with decreased growth in lung function among children; but little is known about the impact of indoor air pollution. We examined relationships between indoor air pollution metrics and lung function growth, among children (n = 3273) aged 6-13 years living in four Chinese cities. Lung function parameters (FVC and FEV(1) ) were measured twice a year. Questionnaires were used to determine home coal burning and ventilation practices. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations. Use of coal as a household fuel was associated with 16.5 ml/year lower (33%, P < 0.001) and 20.5 ml/year lower (39%, P < 0.001) growth in children's FEV(1) and FVC, respectively. FEV(1) growth was 10.2 ml/year higher (20%, P = 0.009), and FVC growth was 17.0 ml/year higher (33%, P < 0.001) among children who lived in houses with the presence of a ventilation device. Among children living in houses where coal was used as a fuel and no ventilation devices were present, adjusted FVC and FEV(1) growth, respectively, were 37% and 61% that of the average growth per year in the full cohort. This suggests that household coal use may cause deficits in lung function growth, while using ventilation devices may be protective of lung development. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Nearly 3.4 billion people use solid fuels in homes for cooking and/or heating. We report the following findings from a longitudinal study: (i) household coal use is significantly associated with reduction in children's lung function growth and (ii) the use of household ventilation devices is significantly associated with higher lung function growth, particularly among children living in households where coal is used as a fuel. These findings not only provide evidence that indoor coal use impairs children's lung development but also point to the importance of improving ventilation conditions in reducing harmful effects of indoor air pollution sources.

Roy A; Chapman RS; Hu W; Wei F; Liu X; Zhang J

2012-02-01

16

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review of applications of analytical chemistry to air pollution studies includes analysis for NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and various substances in aerosols, and measurement of aerosol particle size.

1981-04-01

17

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book covers the whole range of air pollutants. The text requires only limited prior knowledge of elementary chemistry. Includes material on sources of pollution and its impact on man, animals, vegetation and inanimate objects. The book provides insights to the best current methods for measurement, control and monitoring within realistic socio-economic circumstances.

Strauss, W.; Mainwaring, S.J.

1984-01-01

18

Air pollution; Pollution atmospherique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

Anon

2008-03-15

19

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review covers the literature from late 1980 to December 1982. The major source of information was Chemical Abstracts Selects: Pollution Monitoring. In addition, journals in the air pollution and analytical chemistry fields were surveyed. The organization consists of two major divisions: gaseous methods, which have single letter designations after reference numbers, and aerosol and particulate methods, which have two letter designations after the reference numbers. The most important species were discussed and techniques used for their analysis are described.

Fox, D.L.; Jeffries, H.E.

1983-04-01

20

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report considers five documents issued by the European Commission all addressing the control of air pollution. The report is divided into four parts. Part I considers briefly the content of each of the five Commission proposals, and reviews the background to the problems of acid deposition. Part II addresses a number of general issues arising from consideration of Community policy for the control of air pollution. Part III discusses at greater length the proposals and the evidence received. Part IV contains the opinion of the Committee and their recommendation. The minutes of evidence are included.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Air Pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to cl...

Clifton, Marjorie

22

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that it is generally recognized that most alternative fuels will reduce such air pollutants as ozone, carbon monoxide, and air toxics, but there is disagreement over the extent of the reductions, as well as concerns that some alternative fuels may increase the levels of other pollutants. Although research has been done on the air quality implications of alternative fuels, the results reported by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the petroleum and automobile industries vary. For example, EPA estimates the alternative fuels are capable of reducing ozone-forming hydrocarbons by approximately 80 percent or more compared to conventional gasoline burned in vehicles meeting the more stringent emission standards proposed by the agency. While industry groups also believe that hydrocarbons can be reduced by using alternative fuels, they are less optimistic about the extent of these reductions.

1990-07-01

23

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air above company-controlled property is not considered ambient air and is exempted by EPA from meeting Clean Air Act requirements for six widespread pollutants. This paper presents a GAO report on this EPA policy which was adopted to allow flexibility in implementing the act and to allow certain industries to continue operations. This policy has been stretched as some sources have been allowed to increase emissions by acquiring additional land where violations of ambient air quality standards had been recorded and restricting public access to it. EPA's guidelines on the use of air quality models need to be applied consistently to assure fair and uniform treatment of entities being regulated. Noncompliance with EPA's recommended modeling policies and procedures may have resulted in the approval of high emission limits than would have otherwise been approved.

1989-08-01

24

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review is extracted from the literature from January 1987 to October 1988 and is an extension of literature previously discussed (A1). The major source of information was Chemical Abstracts Selects: Pollution Monitoring. In addition journals related to air pollution and environmental chemistry were surveyed. This review reflects the increase in technical literature in non-English publications. The organization consists of two major divisions: gaseous methods, which have single letter designations before reference numbers; and aerosol and particulate methods, which have two letter designations before the reference numbers.

Fox, D.L. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1989-06-15

25

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review is extracted from the literature from late 1984 to December 1986. A major source of information was Chemical Abstracts Selects: Pollution Monitoring. In addition journals related to air pollution and environmental chemistry were surveyed. The organization consists of two major divisions: gaseous methods, which have single letter designations after reference numbers, and aerosol and particulate methods, which have two letter designations after the reference numbers. It was not possible to have subdivisions for every compound and only some species are discussed individually. Analytical techniques may be applied to several compounds.

Fox, D.L.

1987-06-15

26

Polluted Air = Polluted Lungs  

Science.gov (United States)

To gain a better understanding of the roles and functions of components of the human respiratory system and our need for clean air, students construct model lungs that include a diaphragm and chest cavity. They see how air moving in and out of the lungs coincides with diaphragm movement. Then student teams design and build a prototype face mask pollution filter. They use their model lungs to evaluate their prototypes to design requirements.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

27

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report responds to a request that the GAO assess the effectiveness of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to control air pollution from motor vehicles. The report discusses the adequacy of EPA'S efforts to identify vehicles exceeding emission standards before and after they are sold to the public, ensure that such vehicles are returned to compliance, and monitor state programs to reduce motor vehicle emissions.

1990-07-01

28

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Questions concerning the adequacy of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's air pollution controls on the trans Alaska pipeline systems have been raised. In late 1986, the pipeline's oil producers began using a new process that condenses more of the natural gas liquids recovered from their oil fields, resulting in a greater amount of NGLS entering the pipeline and ultimately arriving at the Valdez terminal. These added NGLS increase the volatile organic compounds - a precursor to ozone - emitted from the terminal, raising the issue of whether air quality violations have occurred. The increase in volatile organic compounds and other changes to terminal facilities have led the State of Alaska and the Environmental Protection Agency to conclude that these are major modifications and, therefore, Alyeska should apply to the state for a new air quality control permit. Under the permit, the terminal would be monitored for volatile organic compounds and other air pollutants. Alyeska disagrees that the modifications warrant a new permit. This work reports on the status of the Valdez terminal dispute.

1989-01-01

29

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Questions concerning the adequacy of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's air pollution controls on the Trans Alaska Pipeline Systems have been raised. In late 1986, the pipeline's oil producers began using a new process that condenses more of the natural gas liquids recovered from their oil fields, resulting in a greater amount of NGLs entering the pipeline and ultimately arriving at the Valdez terminal. These added NGLs increase the volatile organic compounds-a precursor to ozone-emitted from the terminal, raising the issue of whether air quality violations have occurred. The increase in volatile organic compounds and other changes to terminal facilities have led the State of Alaska and the Environmental Protection Agency to conclude that these are major modifications and, therefore, Alyeska should apply to the state for a new air quality control permit. Under the permit, the terminal would be monitored for volatile organic compounds and other air pollutants. Aleyska disagrees that the modifications warrant a new permit, and the status of the Valdez terminal dispute is unsettled, although some progress is being made.

1988-01-01

30

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Questions concerning the adequacy of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's air pollution controls on the Trans Alaska Pipeline Systems have been raised. In late 1986, the pipeline's oil producers began using a new process that condenses more of the natural gas liquids recovered from their oil fields, resulting in a greater amount of NGLS entering the pipeline and ultimately arriving at the Valdez terminal. These added NGLS increase the volatile organic compounds - a precursor to ozone - emitted from the terminal, raising the issue of whether air quality violations have occurred. The increase in volatile organic compounds and other changes in terminal facilities have led the State of Alaska and the Environmental Protection Agency to conclude that these are major modifications and, therefore, Alyeska should apply to the state for a new air quality control permit. Alyeska disagrees that the modifications warrant a new permit, and the status of the Valdez terminal dispute is discussed in this paper.

1989-01-01

31

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review covers the literature from late 1978 to October 1980. A major source of information was Chemical Abstracts Selects: Pollution Monitoring. In addition, journals in the air pollution and analytical chemistry fields were surveyed. The authors also selected several key proceedings and books for inclusion. Many contract reports and articles not readily available were not included. The organization consists of two major divisions: gaseous methods, which have single letter designations after reference numbers, and aerosol and particulate methods, which have two letter designations after the reference numbers. Within these two categories, reviews were first organized by compound and then by technique. It was not possible to have subdivisions for every compound and only the most important species were discussed by techniques used for their analysis. The major divisions discussed above are followed by Table I which contains some of the recent reports from the Quality Assurance Division/Environmental Monitoring and Surveillance Laboratory of the Environmental Protection Agency. The complete EPA requirements associated with the provisions of the Clean Air Act may be found in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) under Title 40 Protection of the Environment. Chapter 1 is on the Environmental Protection Agency. This chapter has several divisions entitled Parts. Parts 50 to 59 contain informationabout standards, state implementation plans, ambient air monitoring, reference and equivalent methods, and ambient air quality surveillance. Parts 60 to 80 are concerned with stationary sources and parts 85 to 87, mobile source. Extensive additions were promulated on May 10, 1979 creating a new Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Surveillance, which delineates criteria for quality assurance, monitoring methods, siting and operating schedules for reporting ambient air quality data, and information.

Fox, D.L.; Jeffries, H.E.

1981-04-01

32

Air pollution VII  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers in the proceedings include those on turbulence modelling at small and meso scales; pollution engineering; pollution management; urban and suburban transport emissions; urban air pollution; emission inventories and modelling; health problems; indoor pollution; fluid mechanics for environmental problems; monitoring and field studies; chemistry of air pollution; air pollution modelling; aerosols and particles; air pollution meteorology. Selected papers have been abstracted separately.

Brebbia, C.A.; Jacobsen, M.; Power, H. [eds.

1999-07-01

33

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a GAO report. The Environmental Protection Agency reports that over 100 million people live in areas where air pollution exceeds national air quality standards. This conclusion was reached primarily on the basis of the results of a nationwide network of air monitors that measure compliance with the standards. Although EPA regulations required the agency to have a national air monitoring network in place by July 1982, GAO found that the network is still incomplete. EPA has cited insufficient funds at the federal, state, and local levels as a major barrier to completion of the network. More funds will be needed to complete the monitoring network and will continue to be needed to by additional monitors and replace aging equipment. GAO also found that EPA quality control measures, such as bi-annual reviews of state and local monitoring programs, have not ensured the accuracy and reliability of data provided by national, state, and local monitoring networks. In some cases, quality controls do not meet EPA criteria for thoroughness or effectiveness. Further, EPA's accuracy testing of state and local air monitors in questionable since the agencies are allowed to choose which monitors are to be tested.

1989-12-01

34

Geographical, spatial, and temporal distributions of multiple indoor air pollutants in four Chinese provinces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use depends on fuel, stove, housing characteristics, and stove use behavior. Three important indoor air pollutants - respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were monitored for a total of 457 household-days in four poor provinces in China (Gansu, 129 household-days; Guizhou, 127 household-days; Inner Mongolia, 65 household-days; and Shaanxi, 136 household-days), in two time intervals during the heating season to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution. The two provinces where biomass is the primary fuel (Inner Mongolia and Gansu) had the highest RPM concentrations (719 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in the single cooking/living/bedroom in Inner Mongolia in December and 351-661 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Gansu); lower RPM concentration were observed in the primarily coal-burning provinces of Guizhou and Shaanxi (202-352 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 187-361 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Guizhou and Shaanxi, respectively). Inner Mongolia and Gansu also had higher CO concentrations. Among the two primarily coal-burning provinces, Guizhou had lower concentrations of CO than Shaanxi. In the two coal-burning provinces, SO{sub 2} concentrations were substantially higher in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. Relative concentrations in different rooms and provinces indicate that in the northern provinces heating is an important source of exposure to indoor pollutants from energy use. Day-to-day variability of concentrations within individual households, although substantial, was smaller than variation across households. The implications of the findings for designing environmental health interventions in each province are discussed. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Yinlong Jin; Zheng Zhou; Gongli He [and others] [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

2005-12-15

35

Air Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

Barker, K.; And Others

36

Air pollution detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At least one air pollutant is concentrated at the source from which the sample of air is obtained; thus concentrated at least one air pollutant is provided through conduits to a central analyzer for analysis. Concentration of the air pollutant results in reducing transport losses and also the sensitivity of the detector utilized to detect at least one air pollutant can be greatly increased.

Dennis, W.H.

1983-08-23

37

Air pollution VII. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains over 100 contributions from the Seventh International Air Pollution Conference, held in July 1999. Bringing together recent results from state-of-the-art research projects world-wide, the goal of this meeting was to increase public awareness of air pollution issues and lay the groundwork for further investigations. Topics discussed include turbulence modelling at small and meso scales, pollution engineering, pollution management, urban and suburban transport emissions, urban air pollution, emission inventories and modelling, health problems, indoor pollution, fluid mechanics for environmental problems, monitoring and field studies, chemistry of air pollution, air pollution modelling, aerosols and particles, and air pollution meteorology. (Author)

Brebbia, C.A.; Power, H. [Wessex Inst. of Technology, Southampton (United Kingdom); Jacobson, M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (US)] [eds.

1999-07-01

38

Geographical, spatial, and temporal distributions of multiple indoor air pollutants in four Chinese provinces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use depends on fuel, stove, housing characteristics, and stove use behavior. We monitored three important indoor air pollutants-respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2)-for a total of 457 household-days in four poor provinces in China (Gansu, 129 household-days; Guizhou, 127 household-days; Inner Mongolia, 65 household-days; and Shaanxi, 136 household-days), in two time intervals during the heating season to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution. The two provinces where biomass is the primary fuel (Inner Mongolia and Gansu) had the highest RPM concentrations (719 microg/m3 in the single cooking/living/bedroom in Inner Mongolia in December and 351-661 microg/m3 in different rooms and months in Gansu); lower RPM concentration were observed in the primarily coal-burning provinces of Guizhou and Shaanxi (202-352 microg/m3 and 187-361 microg/m3 in different rooms and months in Guizhou and Shaanxi, respectively). Inner Mongolia and Gansu also had higher CO concentrations (7.4 ppm in the single cooking/living/bedroom in Inner Mongolia in December and 4.8-11.3 ppm in different rooms and months in Gansu). Among the two primarily coal-burning provinces, Guizhou had lower concentrations of CO than Shaanxi (1.2-1.8 ppm in Guizhou vs 2.0-13.3 ppm in different rooms and months in Shaanxi). In the two coal-burning provinces, SO2 concentrations were substantially higher in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. Relative concentrations in different rooms and provinces indicate that in the northern provinces heating is an important source of exposure to indoor pollutants from energy use. Day-to-day variability of concentrations within individual households, although substantial, was smaller than variation across households. The implications of the findings for designing environmental health interventions in each province are discussed. PMID:16475318

Jin, Yinlong; Zhou, Zheng; He, Gongli; Wei, Huangzhang; Liu, Jiang; Liu, Fan; Tang, Ning; Ying, Bo; Liu, Yangchang; Hu, Guohua; Wang, Hongwei; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Watson, Kimber; Baris, Enis; Ezzati, Majid

2005-12-15

39

Geographical, spatial, and temporal distributions of multiple indoor air pollutants in four Chinese provinces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use depends on fuel, stove, housing characteristics, and stove use behavior. We monitored three important indoor air pollutants-respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2)-for a total of 457 household-days in four poor provinces in China (Gansu, 129 household-days; Guizhou, 127 household-days; Inner Mongolia, 65 household-days; and Shaanxi, 136 household-days), in two time intervals during the heating season to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution. The two provinces where biomass is the primary fuel (Inner Mongolia and Gansu) had the highest RPM concentrations (719 microg/m3 in the single cooking/living/bedroom in Inner Mongolia in December and 351-661 microg/m3 in different rooms and months in Gansu); lower RPM concentration were observed in the primarily coal-burning provinces of Guizhou and Shaanxi (202-352 microg/m3 and 187-361 microg/m3 in different rooms and months in Guizhou and Shaanxi, respectively). Inner Mongolia and Gansu also had higher CO concentrations (7.4 ppm in the single cooking/living/bedroom in Inner Mongolia in December and 4.8-11.3 ppm in different rooms and months in Gansu). Among the two primarily coal-burning provinces, Guizhou had lower concentrations of CO than Shaanxi (1.2-1.8 ppm in Guizhou vs 2.0-13.3 ppm in different rooms and months in Shaanxi). In the two coal-burning provinces, SO2 concentrations were substantially higher in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. Relative concentrations in different rooms and provinces indicate that in the northern provinces heating is an important source of exposure to indoor pollutants from energy use. Day-to-day variability of concentrations within individual households, although substantial, was smaller than variation across households. The implications of the findings for designing environmental health interventions in each province are discussed.

Jin Y; Zhou Z; He G; Wei H; Liu J; Liu F; Tang N; Ying B; Liu Y; Hu G; Wang H; Balakrishnan K; Watson K; Baris E; Ezzati M

2005-12-01

40

Indoor Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

 
 
 
 
41

Air pollution control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

??????????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????? , The purpose of this project is to find a solution to the harmful results of air pollution. Emphasis was given ?? pollution due to motor vehicles. Firstly the main air pollutants were stated as well as th...

Anastasides, George A.

42

Bibliography on indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography on Indoor Air Pollution highlights Sources of Indoor Air Pollution, Factors Contributing to Indoor Air Pollution, the Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollution, and Measures to Mitigate Indoor Air Pollution.

1985-06-01

43

Bibliography on Indoor Air Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bibliography on Indoor Air Pollution, which highlights Sources of Indoor Air Pollution, Factors Contributing to Indoor Air Pollution, the Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollution, and Measures to Mitigate Indoor Air Pollution.

1985-01-01

44

Air pollution IX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers are presented under the following session headings: policy of strategic issues; air pollution modelling; urban air pollution; air quality management; pollution engineering; pollution management and control; data acquisition and analysis; aerosols and particles. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Clean Coal Centre database.

Latini, G.; Brebbia, C.A. (eds.) [University of Ancona (Italy)

2001-07-01

45

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides information on toxic bioaccumulation and the extent to which air deposition contributes to this problem. It also discusses the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) planned approach to addressing the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments' requirements for reporting on and controlling air deposition to surface waters. Specifically, this report discusses the need for EPA to complete its planning as soon as possible and, if it finds that it cannot fully comply with the amendments' requirements, to inform the Congress of any anticipated delays and suggest possible remedies.

1991-05-01

46

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GAO examined the reliability of EPA's mobile source emission facilitator model (MOBILE4) and the effect of budget constraints on its reliability. The model is used in estimating motor vehicle emissions of ozone precursors (hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides) and carbon monoxide and in devising measures to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of these pollutants. This report has found that while the precision and reliability of MOBILE4 needs to be improved, it remains an important tool for formulating plans to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of ozone and carbon monoxide pollution. When the model assumptions are revised to reflect changes in the vehicle fleet and other refinements resulting from additional emissions tests, it should produce more precise estimates of motor vehicle emissions. Funding limitations hindered the development of MOBILE4, but EPA appears to have begun addressing this situation by increasing funding for emissions testing in fiscal year 1989 and 1990.

1990-06-01

47

Fundamentals of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Second Edition, a textbook for undergraduate and graduate level courses in air pollution, covers elements, sources, effects, measurement, monitoring, meteorology, and regulatory and engineering control of air pollution. Existing knowledge of these topics are reviewed and the book is updated to include acidic deposition, long-distance transport, atmospheric chemistry, and mathematical modeling. The authors discuss current air pollution standards, such as air quality and new source performance.

Stern, A.C.; Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, B.

1984-05-01

48

Indoor air pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents an overview of indoor air pollution control. Asbestos, combustion-generated pollutants, and radon are among the problems considered. Source control, policy and regulatory considerations, and air quality diagnostics are discussed.

1989-01-01

49

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After 4 years of development and expenditures of $3 million the Environmental Protection Agency received an advanced utility simulation model (AUSM) for testing air quality that could not be used as an analytical tool because of major technical problems in several key components. EPA subsequently awarded a contract complete and test the AUSM. This report states that the EPA estimates that development of the AUSM will be completed by the end of FY 1989 and that its total cost will be about $5.2 million.

1988-03-01

50

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After 4 years of development and expenditures of $3 million, under a cooperative agreement with the Universities Research Group on Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency received an Advanced Utility Simulation Model for testing air quality that could not be used as an analytical tool because of major technical problems in several key components. EPA subsequently awarded a contract to Science Applications Internal Corporation to complete and test the AUSM. EPA estimates that development of the AUSM will be completed by the end of FY 1989 and that its total costs will be about $5.2 million.

1988-01-01

51

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1977 amendments to the Clean Air Act gave states and localities 10 years to meet the national ozone standard, but many areas were unable to meet the final deadline of December 31, 1987. Over the last year Congress has been considering various legislative proposals to address this situation but has not agreed on a solution. In the interim, the Environment Protection Agency proposed a policy that extends the attainment deadlines for meeting the ozone standard, requires areas to submit revised plans, requires a minimum 3-percent annual reduction in hydrocarbon emissions, and outlines economic sanctions to be applied if area do not develop or implement their plans. While EPA's proposed policy is a positive step towards addressing the ozone problem, it does not currently have the proper legal authority to implement it. This report concludes that the Clean Air Act were amended to provide the agency with sufficient authority, several features of the proposed policy would help reduce the recurrence of problems.

1988-12-01

52

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that carbon monoxide replaces oxygen in the bloodstream and can affect a person's vision and alertness; it can be especially harmful to people with heart and long problems. Beginning in 1992, oxygenated fuels will have to be offered for sale in 41 cities identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as exceeding national air quality standards. Officials in six cities-Albuquerque, Denver, Las Vegas, Phoenix, Reno, and Tucson-the that the use of these fuels has cut carbon monoxide emissions. However, these same officials believe that, by itself, the use of oxygen-standards. They believe that other measures, such as the mandatory testing of vehicle emissions and trip-reduction programs are needed to ensure the most expeditious attainment of the standards. Information on the experience of these six cities should be useful to EPA and other cities required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 to use oxygenated fuels and implement other carbon monoxide reduction programs.

1991-06-01

53

Air pollution. An introduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a comprehensive survey of all the main air pollution issues, it is recommended for undergraduate and postgraduate level courses specialising in air pollution, whether from an environmental science or an engineering perspective. It will also be of interest to air pollution specialists in consultancies and local authorities. (author)

Colls, J. [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

1996-07-01

54

Air Pollution Training Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

55

Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B) aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses, we focused on characterizing the VOC composition of these different pollution plumes. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl), while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HCFC-134a. Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some of the Chinese plumes, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution in the Chinese pollution plumes and the correlations among selected compounds, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than the use of a single gas, to be used as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, and Halon-1211). In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

B. Barletta; S. Meinardi; I. J. Simpson; E. L. Atlas; A. J. Beyersdorf; A. K. Baker; N. J. Blake; M. Yang; J. R. Midyett; B. J. Novak; R. J. McKeachie; H. E. Fuelberg; G. W. Sachse; M. A. Avery; T. Campos; A. J. Weinheimer; F. Sherwood Rowland; D. R. Blake

2009-01-01

56

Air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gasoline vapors from motor vehicles contributed to smog and can aggravate respiratory problems of millions of Americans. In 1987 the Environmental Protection Agency proposed a regulation requiring that motor vehicles be equipped with onboard systems to control about 90 percent of refueling vapors. The Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, however, raised concerns about the safety of these systems, thereby locking approval of the regulation. EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration have not yet resolved their four-year impasses over whether onboard vapor recovery systems will increase the likelihood of vehicle crash fires and fuel spillage. As a result, no agreement has been reached on the data and analysis needed to address the safety risk of onboard systems. GAO recommends that EPA go forward with the onboard regulation by November 1991 as required by the Clean Air act Amendments of 1990 unless EPA determines that onboard systems pose an unreasonable risk to public safety. This paper reports that to identify and correct any safety defects or flaws well in advance of the 1996 model year so that an orderly phase-in occurs, GAO also recommends that EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration develop a joint approach to safety evaluations of manufacturer's onboard systems.

1991-06-01

57

Air pollution in cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air quality in cities is the result of a complex interaction between natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem - especially in the developing countries. The air pollution path of the urban atmosphere consists of emission and transmission of air pollutants resulting in the ambient air pollution. Each part of the path is influenced by different factors. Emissions from motor traffic are a very important source group throughout the world. During transmission, air pollutants are dispersed, diluted and subjected to photochemical reactions. Ambient air pollution shows temporal and spatial variability. As an example of the temporal variability of urban air pollutants caused by motor traffic, typical average annual, weekly and diurnal cycles of NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and O{sub x} are presented for an official urban air-quality station in Stuttgart, southern Germany. They are supplemented by weekly and diurnal cycles of selected percentile values of NO, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3}. Time series of these air pollutants give information on their trends. Results are discussed with regard to air pollution conditions in other cities. Possibilities for the assessment of air pollution in cities are shown. In addition, a qualitative overview of the air quality of the world's megacities is given. (author)

Mayer, H. [University of Freiburg (Germany). Meteorological Institute

1999-10-01

58

Gender differences and effect of air pollution on asthma in children with and without allergic predisposition: northeast Chinese children health study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Males and females exhibit different health responses to air pollution, but little is known about how exposure to air pollution affects juvenile respiratory health after analysis stratified by allergic predisposition. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between air pollutants and asthmatic symptoms in Chinese children selected from multiple sites in a heavily industrialized province of China, and investigate whether allergic predisposition modifies this relationship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 30139 Chinese children aged 3-to-12 years were selected from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China in 2009. Information on respiratory health was obtained using a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. Routine air-pollution monitoring data was used for particles with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxides (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)) and carbon monoxide (CO). A two-stage regression approach was applied in data analyses. The effect estimates were presented as odds ratios (ORs) per interquartile changes for PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), O(3), and CO. The results showed that children with allergic predisposition were more susceptible to air pollutants than children without allergic predisposition. Amongst children without an allergic predisposition, air pollution effects on asthma were stronger in males compared to females; Current asthma prevalence was related to PM(10) (ORs?=?1.36 per 31 µg/m(3); 95% CI, 1.08-1.72), SO(2) (ORs?=?1.38 per 21 µg/m(3); 95%CI, 1.12-1.69) only among males. However, among children with allergic predisposition, more positively associations between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and diseases were detected in females; An increased prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was significantly associated with SO(2) (ORs?=?1.48 per 21 µg/m(3); 95%CI, 1.21-1.80), NO(2) (ORs?=?1.26 per 10 µg/m(3); 95%CI, 1.01-1.56), and current asthma with O(3) (ORs?=?1.55 per 23 µg/m(3); 95%CI, 1.18-2.04) only among females. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ambient air pollutions were more evident in males without an allergic predisposition and more associations were detected in females with allergic predisposition.

Dong GH; Chen T; Liu MM; Wang D; Ma YN; Ren WH; Lee YL; Zhao YD; He QC

2011-01-01

59

Air pollution and society  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment ca...

Brimblecombe P.

60

Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

 
 
 
 
61

Indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book covers the most current aspects of indoor pollution research, including vitally important topics such as radon, bioaerosols, and volatile organic compounds. The book presents information on microbial contamination abatement, chemical characterization of air samples, sick building syndrome, biological pollutants, liability of indoor air pollution, and measurement and control of radon.

Kay, J.G. (Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Keller, G.E.; Miller, J.F. (Union Carbide Corp. (US))

1991-01-01

62

Australian air pollution legislation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent air pollution legislation, introduced as a Clean Air Act into New South Wales, the most populous and most heavily industrialized Australian State relies mainly upon the establishment of maximum limits of emission of air impurities. Regulations made under the Act set out the first of a series of such limits which cover the more commonly encountered pollutants. Other limits will be included later as knowledge is accumulated but, in the meantime, where standards have not been fixed the best practicable means of controlling air pollution must be used. To facilitate administration and to provide financial support for scientific and engineering services in the form of the Air Pollution Control Board, industries of significant air pollution potential have been designated as scheduled premises and pay annual license fees. Further technical support for the legislation is provided by an Air Pollution Advisory Committee.

Sullivan, J.L.

1984-01-01

63

Effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health in three Chinese cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the winter of 1988--1989, parents of 2,789 elementary-school students completed standardized questionnaires. The students were 5--14 y of age and were from three urban districts and one suburban district of three large Chinese cities. The 4-y average ambient levels of total suspended particles in the three cities differed greatly during the period 1985--1988: Lanzhou, 1,067 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; urban Wuhan, 406 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; Guangzhou, 296 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; and suburban Wuhan, 191 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The authors constructed unconditional logistic-regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prevalences of several respiratory symptoms and illnesses, adjusted for district, use of coal in the home, and parental smoking status. There was a positive and significant association between total suspended particle levels and the adjusted odds ratios for couch, phlegm, hospitalization for diseases, and pneumonia. This association was derived from only the 1,784 urban children and, therefore, the authors were unable to extrapolate it to the suburban children. The results also indicated that parental smoking status was associated with cough and phlegm, and use of coal in the home was associated only with cough prevalence.

Qian, Z.; Chapman, R.S.; Tian, Q.; Chen, Y.; Lioy, P.J.; Zhang, J.

2000-04-01

64

Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B) aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses we characterized their VOC composition and we compared their background levels with those obtained during the 2004 INTEX-A mission. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl), while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HFC-134a. Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some Chinese plume samples, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution and correlations within the Chinese pollution plumes and applying principal component analysis (PCA), we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than a single gas, as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, and Halon-1211). In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

B. Barletta; S. Meinardi; I. J. Simpson; E. L. Atlas; A. J. Beyersdorf; A. K. Baker; N. J. Blake; M. Yang; J. R. Midyett; B. J. Novak; R. J. McKeachie; H. E. Fuelberg; G. W. Sachse; M. A. Avery; T. Campos; A. J. Weinheimer; F. S. Rowland; D. R. Blake

2009-01-01

65

Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - Phase B (INTEX-B) aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses we characterized their VOC composition and we compared their background levels with those obtained during the 2004 INTEX-A mission. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl), while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HFC-134a. Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some Chinese plume samples, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution and correlations within the Chinese pollution plumes and applying principal component analysis (PCA), we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than a single gas, as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, and Halon-1211). In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I. J.; Atlas, E. L.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Baker, A. K.; Blake, N. J.; Yang, M.; Midyett, J. R.; Novak, B. J.; McKeachie, R. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Avery, M. A.; Campos, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

2009-07-01

66

Air pollution information system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovative solutions are required to manage the steadily increasing traffic problems. Among them the air pollution problem plays a dominant role. In a global sense, air pollution is of interest everywhere. Being more specific, the problem of air pollution is mainly attached to areas with dense population and, thus, usually strong traffic. In addition, quite often heavy industry in these areas intensifies the situation. The investigations of the air pollution information system as proposed in this contribution may be restricted to urban areas without losing generality, i.e., the system may be generalized to larger areas, countries or even continents without requiring a significant change of the concept. Following the concept of the proposed system, public transportation means (preferably buses and tramways) serve as measuring sources. During the service hours of these transportation vehicles, air pollution information data are measured en route together with the position of the bus or tramway. This information is transmitted to a central computing station and processed immediately to reflect the current air pollution situation of the area under consideration. This data set is stored in the air pollution information system, i.e., a data base. The update rate may vary to account for the more critical rush-hour periods properly. The air pollution information system covers two main objectives. First, extensive air pollution measurements are available. Second, preventive traffic countermeasures are possible for roads or specific areas if a critical pollution threshold threatens. (orig.)

Heiland, R.; Hofmann-Wellenhof, B. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria)

1999-07-01

67

Handbook of air pollution analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low cost methods of air pollution analysis are addressed in this book. Other topics covered include the following: general sampling techniques; air pollution meteorology; air pollution chemistry; analysis of particulate pollutants; metal analysis; nitrogen and sulphur compounds; secondary pollutants; hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide; halogen compounds; remote monitoring techniques; physico-chemical speciation techniques for atmospheric particles; analysis of precipitation; low-cost methods for air pollution analysis; planning and execution of an air pollution study; and quality assurance in air pollution monitoring.

Harrison, R.M.; Perry, R.

1986-01-01

68

Air pollution control equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These volumes provide the fundamentals of air pollution control equipment with appropriate practical applications and an introduction to design principles. Divided into two parts, this book addresses air pollution control equipment for particulate pollutants and control equipment for gaseous pollutants. Each of the control equipment chapters in Parts I and II contain sections dealing with introductory material description of equipment, design and performance equations, operation and maintenance, maintaining and improving equipment performance, illustrative examples, review problems, and a bibliography. Equipment description, design information, operation, and maintenance is presented and many of the repetitive problems that have plagued users of air pollution control equipment are explored.

Theodore, L.; Buonicore, A.J.

1988-01-01

69

Air pollution VI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings contain most of the papers presented at the conference. A total of 92 papers are published, in fifteen sections entitled: chemical transformation modelling; turbulence modelling at small and meso scales; monitoring and laboratory studies; data analysis and observation; pollution engineering; pollution management; urban and suburban transport emissions; urban air pollution; emissions inventories; health problems; damage to cultural heritage; fluid mechanics for environmental problems; chemistry of air pollution; air pollution modelling; and aerosols and particles. A total of 10 papers have been abstracted separately.

Brebbia, C.A.; Ratto, C.F.; Power, H. [eds.] [Wessex Institute of Technology, Southampton (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31

70

Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

1988-01-01

71

Air pollution; Pollution de l`air  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.).

Feugier, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1996-10-01

72

Air pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book presents theory and application data as related to air pollution control. A suitable background is provided relevant to behavior theories and control techniques for capturing gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The significant application data available are summarized and combined with the theories to provide a needed relation between the two. Numerous detailed example problems are worked throughout the book to serve as guides in the use of both the theoretical relationships and the data. General information on air pollution control is presented, with emphasis on what can be done to minimize pollution emissions while conserving energy. Problem areas of interest include particulate and gas control mechanisms, control devices, and control systems

1979-01-01

73

Air pollution and asthma.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of air pollution in the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma has been widely debated, but results to date indicate that the normally encountered levels of air pollution are unlikely to contribute to a worsening of asthma. When the levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2) are exceptionally hi...

Barnes, P. J.

74

Air Pollution and Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

75

Sensing Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about electricity and air pollution while building devices to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) by attaching VOC sensors to prototyping boards. In the second part of the activity, students evaluate the impact of various indoor air pollutants using the devices they made.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

76

Ground water pollution through air pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.)

1989-01-01

77

Asthma and Outdoor Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution can make asthma symptoms worse and trigger attacks. If you or your child has asthma, have you ... get worse when the air is polluted? Air pollution can make it harder to breathe. It can ...

78

Interregional air pollution modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents information on the following topics: general features of interregional transport models; air pollution components; numerical methods; deposition; removal and transformation processes in the atmosphere with respect to SO/sub 2/ and NO /SUB x/ ; chemical conversion in the atmosphere; concentration of hydroxyl radicals in ambient air; conversion of sulfur dioxide; nitrogen oxides; a comparison between four different interregional air pollution models; dispersion from a hypothetical source in a homogeneous flow field; data bases; and analysis of phases.

Zwerver, S.; Van Ham, J.

1985-01-01

79

Air pollution - monitoring particulates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clean air is an essential requirement for the health and well being of both the human race and the environment we live in, but achieving it is a constant battle with air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, more than two million premature deaths each year can be attributed to the effects of urban outdoor and indoor air pollution. An effective monitoring strategy allows the impact from particulates to be assessed and controlled. 5 refs.

Noakes, G. [Casella Measurement (United Kingdom)

2010-01-15

80

Indoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Air Pollution and Epigenetics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is a global problem with far-reaching environmental impacts. Exposure has been linked to a number of different adverse health effects. Understanding the impact of ambient air pollution is complicated given the diversity of both the pollutants involved as well as the complexity of associated diseases. While we see a positive correlation between levels of exposure and health issues, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are still under investigation. The study of epigenetic regulation as it relates to disease is emerging as an exciting new way to interpret the possible effects of ambient air pollution on DNA. In this review we provide an overview of epigenetic modifications as well as an analysis of how epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the adverse effects associated with the most common components of ambient air pollution.

Aleena Syed; Kinjal Hew; Arunima Kohli; Greg Knowlton; Kari C. Nadeau

2013-01-01

82

UK Air Pollution Bulletin  

Science.gov (United States)

Hourly updates of levels of benzyne, 1-3 butadiene, ozone, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles in Britain's air are accessible at the UK Air Pollution Bulletin Website. Provided by the United Kingdom Department of Transport, Environment and the Regions, this site gives air quality information along with yearly average concentrations of the above-mentioned chemicals, graphical summaries, historical summaries, and maps and information about monitoring sites. The data pages are arranged in a versatile way so that users can view information by geographic site, pollutant, or year. Daily, weekly, and annual summaries of pollutant concentrations are available.

83

Representativeness of Urban Highest Polluted Zones for Sitting Traffic-Oriented Air Monitoring Stations in a Chinese City  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive sampling technique was used to preliminary assess the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution in Suzhou (P.R. China) in 2003, with the aim to determine the representativeness of zones where to monitor air quality. 100 sites were selected to measure 15-days average concentrations of SO2, NOx, NO2, O3, NH3, Benzene, Toluene and Xylene in winter and summer. The distribution trend of NO and NO2, as well as the ratio of NO2/NOx was used to identify the heavy traffic polluted zones and design a network of monitoring stations (macrositing). NO2/NOx ratios varied throughout the two selected seasons and from site to site clearly demonstrating the different extent and completeness of NO ? NO2 oxidation processes in time and space. The exceedance frequencies of pollutants was used to design the type of monitoring equipment to be installed at each station (micrositing). An air quality monitoring network composed by 9 monitoring stations has been finally established in 2004 according to the result of this survey and is now currently running.

Costabile, Francesca; Desantis, Franco; Hong, Weimin; Liu, Fenglei; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Wang, Fenjuan; Allegrini, Ivo

84

Indoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

1985-01-01

85

Air pollution and health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book presents a comprehensive account of air pollution science and its impact on human health. It ranges in scope from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and particle physics, to the aetiology and epidemiology of allergic reactions and respiratory, cardiovascular and related disorders. There is also international coverage and sections on cost implications, risk assessment, regulation, standards and information networks. The multidisciplinary approach and the range of issues covered should provide readers with information on all issues relating to ambient air pollution.

Holgate, S.T.; Samet, J.M.; Koren, H.S.; Maynard, R.L. [Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

1999-03-01

86

Indoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

2005-01-01

87

Obesity enhanced respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in Chinese children: the Seven Northeastern Cities study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Experimental data suggest that obesity enhances the effects of ambient air pollutants on exacerbation of asthma; however, there is little supporting epidemiological evidence. The aim of present study is to evaluate whether obesity modifies the association between ambient air pollution and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. METHODS: In Northeast China, 30?056 children aged 2-14 years were selected from 25 districts of seven cities. Parents of the children completed questionnaires that characterized the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illness, and associated risk factors. Overweight and obesity were calculated with an age and sex-specific body mass index (BMI, kg?m(-2)), with BMIs of greater than the 85th and 95th percentiles defining overweight and obesity, respectively. Average annual ambient exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?10??m (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxides (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) was estimated from data collected at monitoring stations in each of the 25 study districts. RESULTS: We observed consistent and significant interactions between exposure and obesity on respiratory symptoms and asthma. The associations between each pollutant's yearly concentrations and respiratory symptoms and asthma were consistently larger for overweight/obese children than for normal-weight children, with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.17 per 31??g?m(-3) for PM(10) on wheeze (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.36) to 1.50 per 10??g?m(-3) for NO(2) on phlegm (95% CI: 1.21, 1.87) and cough (95% CI: 1.24, 1.81). CONCLUSION: These results showed that overweight/obesity enhanced respiratory health effects of air pollution in the study children.

Dong GH; Qian Z; Liu MM; Wang D; Ren WH; Fu Q; Wang J; Simckes M; Ferguson TF; Trevathan E

2013-01-01

88

Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

2007-01-01

89

Respiratory Health and Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Respiratory Health & Air Pollution Transportation-related pollutants are one of the largest ... Motor vehicles contribute to more than 50% of air pollution in urban areas. The design of communities and ...

90

Air Pollution: What's the Solution?  

Science.gov (United States)

Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

2010-01-01

91

Air pollution and family health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution is classified according to chemical characteristics of the pollutants and sources: reducing air pollution, photochemical air pollution, point-source emission and indoor air pollution. The primary pollutants are particulates, oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, ozone, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and lead. A knowledge of the effects of these on healthy people and impaired patients can provide the physician with specific measures to apply in individual cases.

Guidotti, T.L.; Goldsmith, J.R.

1983-04-01

92

Aircraft and air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Clean Air Act of 1977 directs EPA to issue emission standards for aircraft engines that may contribute to air pollution and thus endanger public health or welfare. Critics argue that the regulations are overly complex and stringent, and that immediate energy shortages may take precedence over the need for aircraft emission controls. Proponents of the regulations claim that ambient air standards are freqeuntly violated and will continue to be unless the best available control technology is applied to all sources, including aircraft. The contribution of aircraft to total emissions is discussed. Engineering problems and costs of retrofitting pollution controls on aircrafts are examined.

Naugle, D.F.; Fox, D.L.

1981-04-01

93

Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Cancer in Children Transcript Decades of research has shown that air ... to polluted air during pregnancy may affect a child's health after birth. Researchers identified more than 35 ...

94

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3): 221-226

Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

2007-01-01

95

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as ?indoor air pollution?. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000): 221-226

Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

2007-01-01

96

Air pollution and forests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is a synthesis and overview of the complex interactions between atmospheric contaminants and forest ecosystems. The author provides a compendium of the most significant relationships between forests and air pollution under low, intermediate, and high dose conditions. He reviews the ability of forests to function as both a source of and a sink for air contaminants. The varied biological interactions between pollutants and forests - involving, for example, altered reproduction and species composition, nutrient cycling and foliar growth, insect outbreaks and microbial diseases, as well as increased morbidity and mortality - are examined from an individual tree and total ecosystem perspective.

Smith, W.H. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-01-01

97

Environmental Pollution: Air Pollution - Particulate Matters.  

Science.gov (United States)

This bibliography contains citations of reports dealing with air pollution - particulate matters; analysis of atmospheric aerosols and particulate matters, specifically particle size, measurement, distribution and identification of pollutants; atmos;heric...

1977-01-01

98

Air pollution and human cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This original, multidisciplinary work presents a general spectrum of information on air pollution and human cancer and analyses the evidence for the possible contribution of air pollution to the origin of human cancer. Distinguished experts in various areas of cancer research report on: Air pollution and cancer - an old and a new problem. Sources, nature and levels of air pollutants. Measurement and monitoring of individual exposures. Experimental evidence for the carcinogenicity of air pollutants. Epidemiological evidence on air pollution and cancer. Cancer risk estimation and prevention. (VHE) With 7 figs., 10 tabs.

Tomatis, L. (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France)) (ed.)

1990-01-01

99

Air pollution control process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An air pollution control process employing an improved rotatable collector, which by its position becomes a filtering and adsorbing station and a combustion and desorbing station, and an oxidizer are utilized in an apparatus and process for removing airborne particulate materials and organic vapors from an air stream. The rotatable collector comprises an assembly of alternate layers of refractory microfiber, metal screens, and a thin layer of adsorbent carbon.

Foss, G.D.

1983-11-15

100

Air pollution and health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE. To review the effects of air pollution on health, with special reference to data obtained locally in Hong Kong. DATA SOURCES. Medline literature search (1960-1999), websites of the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong, and a report from the Sub-Wor...

Chan-Yeung, MNW

 
 
 
 
101

[Carpeting and air pollution?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After some introductory remarks concerning the frequency of the usage of textile floor-coverings from 1970 to 1979, the manufacturing processes and the composition of these coverings are briefly discussed with special regard to components which may pollute indoor air. As the back of the carpeting may be considered to be a source for air pollution, the composition of the most wide-spread coatings is given. Some difficulties in evaluating these data are due to the fact that it is difficult to analyze odours. During the last years the question of contamination of the air in kindergartens, schools and hospitals due to the use of carpets has been discussed. The results of different investigations which consider carpets to be the reason for either a decrease or an increase of the concentration of microorganisms in indoor air, are presented. Important criteria for evaluation are the frequency of use and the quality, intensity and frequency of cleaning. House-dust allergies are also discussed in relation to textile floor-coverings. The conclusion is drawn that a carefully manufactured carpet, when suitably used and well entertained, hardly adds to indoor air pollution.

Meckel L

1982-01-01

102

Urban Air Pollution Problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

Sivertsen, B.

1995-09-01

103

Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer HealthDay April 10, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Cancer in Children Transcript Decades of research ...

104

Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer HealthDay April 10, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Cancer in Children Transcript Decades of research has ...

105

Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer HealthDay April 10, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Cancer in Children Transcript Decades of research has ...

106

Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer HealthDay April 10, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Cancer in Children Transcript Decades of research has ...

107

Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... corner of the player. Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer HealthDay April 10, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Cancer in Children Transcript Decades of research has shown ...

108

Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO{sub 2} concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone.

Zhou Zheng [Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Jin Yinlong [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Liu Fan [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Cheng Yibin [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Liu Jiang [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Kang Jiaqi [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); He Gongli [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Tang Ning [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Chen Xun [National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China); Baris, Enis [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Ezzati, Majid [Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

2006-10-01

109

Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces  

Science.gov (United States)

Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%) in the two coal-using provinces, SO2 concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone.

Zhou, Zheng; Jin, Yinlong; Liu, Fan; Cheng, Yibin; Liu, Jiang; Kang, Jiaqi; He, Gongli; Tang, Ning; Chen, Xun; Baris, Enis; Ezzati, Majid

2006-10-01

110

Air pollution control equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following an introductory chapter, the book is divided into two volumes: air pollution control equipment for particulate pollutants, and control equipment for gaseous pollutants. Volume I begins with a chapter devoted to fluid-particle technology. This is followed by chapters concerned with gravity settlers cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers, and baghouses. Following introductory principles, Volume II examines control equipment for gaseous pollutants, including chapters devoted to condensation, adsorption, absorption, and incineration. Each of the control equipment chapters in Volume I and II contains sections dealing with introductory material, description of equipment, design and performance equations, operation and maintenance, maintaining and improving equipment performance, illustrative examples, review problems and a bibliography. The book explores many of the repetitive operation and maintenance problems that have plagued users of air pollution control equipment (the existence of these problems may be related to the complexity of the process or to a lack of well-defined operational techniques, among other reasons) and emphasizes where and how these factors can have a major impact on the performance of the various control devices.

Theodore, L.; Buonicore, A.J.

1988-01-01

111

Exhaled carbon monoxide and its associations with smoking, indoor household air pollution and chronic respiratory diseases among 512 000 Chinese adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) level is positively associated with tobacco smoking and exposure to smoke from biomass/coal burning. Relatively little is known about its determinants in China despite the population having a high prevalence of smoking and use of biomass/coal. METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank includes 512 000 participants aged 30-79 years recruited from 10 diverse regions. We used linear regression and logistic regression methods to assess the associations of COex level with smoking, exposures to indoor household air pollution and prevalent chronic respiratory conditions among never smokers, both overall and by seasons, regions and smoking status. RESULTS: The overall COex level (ppm) was much higher in current smokers than in never smokers (men: 11.5 vs 3.7; women: 9.3 vs 3.2). Among current smokers, it was higher among those who smoked more and inhaled more deeply. Among never smokers, mean COex was positively associated with levels of exposures to passive smoking and to biomass/coal burning, especially in rural areas and during winter. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of air flow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio <0.7) for never smokers with COex at 7-14 and ?14 ppm, compared with those having COex <7, were 1.38 (1.31-1.45) and 1.65 (1.52-1.80), respectively (Ptrend <0.001). Prevalence of other self-reported chronic respiratory conditions was also higher among people with elevated COex (P <0.05). CONCLUSION: In adult Chinese, COex can be used as a biomarker for assessing current smoking and overall exposure to indoor household air pollution in combination with questionnaires.

Zhang Q; Li L; Smith M; Guo Y; Whitlock G; Bian Z; Kurmi O; Collins R; Chen J; Lv S; Pang Z; Chen C; Chen N; Xiong Y; Peto R; Chen AZ

2013-09-01

112

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is one of the environmental problems that threaten the public health. The air is a gas mixture. Air pollution is defined as the existence in the amount of pollutants harmful to humans and other organisms in the atmosphere as a result of the natural or human activity thereby changing to...

Ejder Kardesoglu; Murat Yalcin; Zafer Isilak

113

Indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As national trends accelerate towards the reduction of ventilation and infiltration rates in buildings, coupled with an increased use of synthetic chemicals in the indoor environment, a new phenomenon has arisen: the ''sick buildng'' syndrome. Traditional approaches to environmental health developed for the outdoor air, or for the industrial occupational setting, are inadequate to deal with this problem. It is argued that a comprehensive approach to the problem of indoor air pollution is necessary to protect public health.

Repace, J.L.

1982-01-01

114

Concept of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) is intended to help environmental science students connect the real-world problem of air pollution to the application of math, science, technical and critical thinking knowledge and skill concepts. The activity should take about 90 minutes of class time to complete, and requires a few easily obtainable materials. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

2011-03-11

115

Air pollution and respiratory illness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

2005-07-01

116

Changing air pollution in London  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the changing character of London air pollution over approximately the last thirty years. The killer smogs of earlier years have disappeared, only to be replaced by other pollutants. Levels of sulfur dioxide, smoke, and lead have been reduced, but nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels have increased. The emphasis for air pollution control is now on motor vehicles, particularly automobiles, which are now the main source of air pollution in London

1993-01-01

117

Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

1994-12-31

118

The Federal Air Pollution Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

119

In Search of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

Beckendorf, Kirk

2006-01-01

120

Water, Air and Soil Pollution ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water, Air, & Soil Pollution is an international, interdisciplinary journal covering all aspects of pollution and solutions to pollution in the biosphere. This includes chemical, physical and biological processes affecting flora, fauna, water, air and soil. Coverage is diverse and includes al...

 
 
 
 
121

Air pollution III. Volume 3: urban pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The third of four volumes of these conference proceedings contains a collection of papers relating to urban pollution. Topics covered include: wind flow in the Athens Basin; simulation of the Paris heat island; nested dispersion simulation over the Lisbon region; urban air quality evaluation in Budapest; air pollution levels in Toluca; and transport and distribution of air pollutants in Athens. One paper, on an environmental audit of fossil-fired heat and power plants in St. Petersburg, Russia, has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

Moussiopoulos, N.; Power, H.; Brebbia, C.A. [eds.] [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

122

Air pollution estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global and limited area pollutant transport models based on the 3-D transport diffusion equation are considered provided that the air velocity field is known. As a first approximation, climatic monthly mean velocities are taken, though more precise velocity field can be obtained with a special dynamic model. The problem of pollutant flows through the open horizontal and vertical boundaries is discussed. Different boundary conditions are set at the {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} parts of such boundaries in order to get the well-posed problems according to Hadamard when either solution is unique and stable to initial perturbations. In the non-diffusion limit, these conditions are reduced to the well-known ones for the pure advection problem, when the only {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} boundary conditions are to be set, while the {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} conditions are not prescribed, and determined by the characteristics method.

Skiba, Y.N.

1997-12-31

123

Air pollution predictions in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many cities, overloaded with traffic and industry, air pollution concentrations can quickly rise to undesirable levels during unfavourable weather situations. Predictions of such situations are aimed at facilitating measures such as warning systems and emission reductions. Although high pollution episodes are rare in Finland and pollution levels there seldom reach that of big cities in Central Europe, air pollution forecasts are considered useful. Predictions of pollution levels have been made since 1988 by the Air Quality Department of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Because pollution levels are usually low during summer, predictions are only made during the cold season (15.10 - 30.4). Air pollution forecasts are made daily for the Helsinki region. Alerts are only given when high pollution episodes are expected to occur. Predictions are made for the next day and the subsequent morning

Bremer, P.; Valtanen, K. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

1995-12-31

124

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCE DATABASE  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper, directed to individuals interested in indoor air pollution, is an introduction to, and directions for the use of, the indoor air pollution source data-base (also known as the indoor air source emissions database). The database is a computerized system containing source...

125

Air Pollution in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

1997-01-01

126

Canadian perspectives on air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a general overview of the nature of the atmosphere and atmospheric pollution, the causes of air pollution are discussed, focusing on human activities related to energy production and consumption. The effects of air pollution on human health, plants, animals, materials, and climates are described. Data are presented on the sources, emissions, levels, and environmental/health effects of the six common air pollutants in Canada: airborne particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ground-level ozone, and hydrocarbons. Since the characteristics of toxic air pollutants are more difficult to describe because there are so many of them, the variety of approaches used in their study is illustrated by case studies involving lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, residential wood combustion, and localized industrial pollution. Several regional and global air pollution issues of importance to Canadians are examined: acid rain, pollution in the Arctic, ozone depletion in the stratosphere, the greenhouse effect or global warming, and atmospheric radioactivity. Finally, a discussion is presented of the significance of air pollution problems to the Canadian public and the efforts by government to prevent air pollution through legislation. 166 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.

Hilborn, J.; Still, M.

1990-09-01

127

Air pollution and air pollution control in the Katowice district  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluates types of air pollution from coal mines, coal-fired power plants, coking plants and industrial plants in the Katowice district in Upper Silesia. Air pollution by fly ash from power plants, dust from coking plants, metallurgy and from cement plants as well as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides from power plants is evaluated. Statistical data on air pollution from 1981-1983 and in 1984 are given. In the analyzed period dust emission slightly declined but proportion of dust emitted from metallurgical plants increased. Air pollution by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides decreased. Environmental policy in Upper Silesia and program for environmental protection in the district are evaluated. Major investment projects in 1986-1990 are discussed: installation of electrostatic precipitators, desulfurization systems, installation of equipment for air pollution control in coking plants, modernization of industrial boilers, etc. 6 refs.

Gibaszewska, A.

1987-04-01

128

Air pollution reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a method for reducing the levels of air pollution resulting at least in part from the combustion of diesel fuel in diesel engines. It comprises deriving, in an oil refinery, a diesel fuel from a whole crude or a fraction thereof; then blending at least 10 volume percent of the diesel fuel produced per day from the refinery with dimethyl carbonate so as to provide a diesel fuel composition containing dimethyl carbonate in a concentration of at least about 0.5 volume percent, followed by; delivering a major portion of the blended fuel composition to storage facilities supplying fuel for use with the diesel engines; and combusting the blended fuel in the engines.

Kanne, D.D.

1991-04-02

129

Allergic diseases and air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation. PMID:23956961

Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

2013-07-30

130

Allergic diseases and air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2013-01-01

131

Allergic diseases and air pollution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

Lee SY; Chang YS; Cho SH

2013-07-01

132

Air pollution control technology handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Handbook serves as a single source of information on commonly used air pollution control technology. It covers environmental regulations and their history, process design, the cost of air pollution control equipment, and methods of designing equipment for control of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter. This book covers how to: review alternative design methods; select methods for control; evaluate the costs of control equipment; and examine equipment proposals from vendors.

Schnelle, K.B. Jr.; Brown, C.A. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

2001-07-01

133

Air pollution in the United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book gives a brief but authoritative and up-to-date overview of air pollution in the UK. It describes the major air pollution problems facing the country, illustrated in part with data provided by the national monitoring network. Chapters are entitled: indoor air pollution; urban air pollution in the United Kingdom; rural air pollution in the United Kingdom; global air pollution problems - present and future; the health effects of air pollution in the United Kingdom; current and future legislation - United Kingdom and Europe; developments in air pollution measurement techniques; quality assurance and quality control of ambient air quality; subject index.

Hewett, C.N.; Davison, G. [eds.] [Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

134

Residential weatherization - indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The important factors to be considered in determining indoor air pollution concentrations in residences are described. Predictions of indoor air pollution concentrations and their impacts on human health and the environment were made in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) written for a residential weatherization program. This program is designed to reduce energy consumption by reducing the air-infiltration (air-exchange rate), by offering air-infiltration reduction measures to eligible electrically-heated residences. Indoor air pollutant concentrations are predicted in four residence types: single family attached (i.e., duplexes, fourplexes), single family detached, mobile homes, and apartments.) The pollutants addressed in the EIS are: radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, respirable particulates, and benzo-(a)-pyrene. The major sources of each pollutant in a residence are given. For each pollutant and each source, a range of emission rates (mass/unit/time) are determined from those given in the literature, or calculated from reported indoor concentrations, or estimated based on available data. From the emission rates, indoor air concentrations are calculated for each pollutant, in each residence type and for each air-infiltration reduction measure.

Parker, G.B.; Owczarski, P.C.; Sandusky, W.F.

1982-04-01

135

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the environmental problems that threaten the public health. The air is a gas mixture. Air pollution is defined as the existence in the amount of pollutants harmful to humans and other organisms in the atmosphere as a result of the natural or human activity thereby changing to the gas rates in the air. The negative effects of pollution-causing particles on the health are closely related to the chemical structure of particles, whether causing a fibrotic reaction, whether having an amorphous shape and the aerodynamic diameters of particles. The particles larger than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter can not reach up to the alveoli, and can be removed by mucociliary system. If the particles are smaller than 10 microns, these particles can reach to the alveoli, and are closely associated with the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The concentration of these particles (PM10) is used as an indicator of pollution, and creates the basis for air quality index. Air pollution has several negative effects such as blood pressure changes, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress etc. In this review, the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system will be examined, and the importance of this issue will be emphasized. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000): 97-106

Ejder Kardesoglu; Murat Yalcin; Zafer Isilak

2011-01-01

136

Arctic haze and air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arctic haze is the phenomenon of large-scale industrial air pollution found all through the arctic air mass. Vertical profiles of air concentrations, obtained during several aircraft measurement programs in the Arctic, have offered the following explanation of arctic haze origin. Very long range, episodic transport of air masses over several thousand kilometers clearly affects the quality of arctic air during both summer and winter. Polluted air masses, carrying a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas have been identified in the arctic atmosphere at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km. The layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km can be traced to episodic transport of air masses from anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Pollution material in arctic haze is of submicron size and contains a substantial fraction of black carbon: it interacts strongly with solar radiation. In addition, sulfate and a wide range of heavy metals appear, affecting their natural geochemical cycles. They also serve as indicators of major source regions of emissions in the world. This paper discusses what happens to the haze-related pollutants in the Arctic, what is the contribution of natural sources to the arctic haze and what are local and global effects of arctic haze. Some indications are given of the research to be undertaken in a view to assess the role of the Arctic in global change of the environment.

Pacyna, J.M.; Shaw, G.E.

1992-03-01

137

Arctic haze and air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arctic haze is the phenomenon of large-scale industrial air pollution found all through the arctic air mass. Vertical profiles of air concentrations, obtained during several aircraft measurement programs in the Arctic, have offered the following explanation of arctic haze origin. Very long range, episodic transport of air masses over several thousand kilometers clearly affects the quality of arctic air during both summer and winter. Polluted air masses, carrying a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas have been identified in the arctic atmosphere at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km. The layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km can be traced to episodic transport of air masses from anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Pollution material in arctic haze is of submicron size and contains a substantial fraction of black carbon: it interacts strongly with solar radiation. In addition, sulfate and a wide range of heavy metals appear, affecting their natural geochemical cycles. They also serve as indicators of major source regions of emissions in the world. This paper discusses what happens to the haze-related pollutants in the Arctic, what is the contribution of natural sources to the arctic haze and what are local and global effects of arctic haze. Some indications are given of the research to be undertaken in a view to assess the role of the Arctic in global change of the environment.

1991-01-01

138

Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

Streets, D. G.

1998-10-05

139

Air pollution and control. [India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prospects for control of air pollution in India are reviewed. Areas discussed include policy planning and legislation; measuring, monitoring and control technologies; sulphur and nitrogen oxides; and a case study of the Jharia coalfields.

Bagroy, P.P.; Chakrabarti, R.K.

1982-08-01

140

Air pollution and community health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides a background for understanding the fundamental conflict between the intense drive for environmental cost effectiveness vs. new epidemiological studies showning adverse effects of air pollution on human health.

Lipfert, F.W.

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
141

The price of air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mortality in the Netherlands as a result of exposure to particulates is 18,000 per year. Less known is the high number of cases of sickness cased by air pollution and related cost for the Dutch society

2006-01-01

142

Bibliography on indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bibliography of books, reports and other published material in English and French on indoor air pollution. Publications are from Canada, the United States and England and are mainly held in the CMHC library.

1990-01-01

143

Everchanging air pollution control market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While the United States is the largest single market for air pollution control equipment, it constitutes only about one-third of the total world market. This overview explores the legislative, economic, and technological factors that affect those markets.

McIlvaine, R.W.

1982-03-01

144

International environment `air pollution industry`  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The future of the air pollution control industry is discussed. The United States government must deal with the toxics in air emissions from utilities. This will call for increased spending on flue gas desulphurization systems. The future of the air pollution industry depends on utility decisions. The applicability of U.S. experience abroad is a related issue. U.S. expertise on continuous emissions monitoring systems for gaseous contaminants, the air toxics market, the NO{sub x} market, and Asia as a fast growing market are discussed. 7 figs.

McIlvaine, R.W. [McIlvaine Company, Northbrook, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

145

Air Pollution: Visible and Invisible  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students test for visible and invisible pollutants in the air and keep a journal of experimental results, procedures, and conclusions. Using simple materials, they will form groups to set up experiments around the school, keep records, research the history of acid rain, make a mural showing the acid rain cycle, and post a chart displaying the sources of visible pollutants.

146

Marketplace solutions to air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To encourage the achievement of clean air standards, EPA has proposed new pollution reduction methods and incentives. The mechanics and costs of the bubbling process are outlined. Cost savings and procedural format from offset arrangements, pollution banking, and emission fees are described. The new approaches are flexible and should encourage industries to participate in developing implementation procedures at the state level. (3 diagrams)

Seltz-Petrash, A.

1980-01-01

147

Air Pollution In Jammu City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aerial environment of the earth has been increasingly interfered by the activities of human beings and virtually it has become the bumping site for toxic materials produced by industrial, vehicular and urban emissions. We have introduced several toxic materials to our environment at a tremendous speed that has changed its physicchemical characteristics. The assumption that the “ nature will take care of pollutants” do not hold good anymore since the pollutants at present vary greatly in their quality as well as quantity. Throughout Asian air pollution is a significant threat to human health and the environment and our city is not the exception to this. Use of fossil fuel in transport, industrial, commercial and household sector contributes significant towards the air pollution. Solid waste disposal and its open burning also add air pollutants. In addition to gases, particles coming from variety of sources- vehicles, factories, construction sites, tilled fields, un-paved roads, stone crushers, burning of wood and fossil fuels also pollute the air. An average urban vehicle releases approximately 30-40 mg of particulate matter per mile travel. Forest fires and the contribution of biomass fuels also add pollutants.

Angelika Sharma; Anil Raina

2013-01-01

148

Children's response to air pollutants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is important to focus on children with respect to air pollution because (1) their lungs are not completely developed, (2) they can have greater exposures than adults, and (3) those exposures can deliver higher doses of different composition that may remain in the lung for greater duration. The undeveloped lung is more vulnerable to assault and less able to fully repair itself when injury disrupts morphogenesis. Children spend more time outside, where concentrations of combustion-generated air pollution are generally higher. Children have higher baseline ventilation rates and are more physically active than adults, thus exposing their lungs to more air pollution. Nasal breathing in adults reduces some pollution concentrations, but children are more typically mouth-breathers--suggesting that the composition of the exposure mixture at the alveolar level may be different. Finally, higher ventilation rates and mouth-breathing may pull air pollutants deeper into children's lungs, thereby making clearance slower and more difficult. Children also have immature immune systems, which plays a significant role in asthma. The observed consequences of early life exposure to adverse levels of air pollutants include diminished lung function and increased susceptibility to acute respiratory illness and asthma. Exposure to diesel exhaust, in particular, is an area of concern for multiple endpoints, and deserves further research.

Bateson TF; Schwartz J

2008-01-01

149

Assessment of urban air quality in China using air pollution indices (APIs).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study gathered and processed the available air quality daily reports in 86 cities throughout China in 2001-2011. Urban air quality was assessed in terms of the evolution of the key pollutants, the pollution level, and the PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm) concentrations. The authors conclude that PM10 is the most important pollutant in Chinese cities, especially after the national sulfur dioxide (SO2) controls during the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP; 2006-2010). A notable advance was the reduction of extremely heavily polluted days with air pollution index (API) above 150 from 7% in 2001 to 1% in 2011 in the all-city average. In addition, the average API-derived PM10 concentrations continually decreased during the past 11 yr. Additionally, the pollution pattern of "more severe from south to north "in China became less obvious due to the decline of PM10 concentrations in the northern cities and the more obvious regional characteristics of air pollution. Nevertheless, more pollutants should be included in the API system to fully reflect the air quality status and guide future air pollution controls in Chinese cities. Implications: Air quality daily report, the only publicly accessible observation database in the past decade, provides valuable insight into the air quality in Chinese cities. Using this data set, this paper assesses the status and change of urban air quality in China in 2001-2011, during which great effort was made to mitigate urban air pollution. It is valuable for the further refinement of national air quality control strategies, and the needs of updating the present daily report system are implicated.

Wang L; Zhang P; Tan S; Zhao X; Cheng D; Wei W; Su J; Pan X

2013-02-01

150

AIR POLLUTION AND RESPIRATORY DISEASE  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern about polluted air in our urban and industrial areas began gathering momentum shortly after World War II. At that time it seemed obvious that clean air, like clean water, clean food, and a clean body, was a worth while goal in itself, requiring no further justification. B...

151

Measuring Particulate Air Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The properties of gaseous and particulate pollutants are compared, and the resultant differences in measuring techniques described. The problems of establishing reference methods are reviewed, using lead as an example. It is argued that it is more useful ...

L. Brasser

1979-01-01

152

AIR POLLUTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of cardiovascular disease is a result of a chronic and complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Interest in the association between air pollution and health status has been increasingly focused on the relationship between air pollution and cardiopulmonary disease including hypertension, myocardial infarction and other circulatory disorders. There are a small number of publications on the health effects of long-term exposure. Observations related to the adverse health effects of short-term exposure are more numerous. A major challenge to systematic study in this field is the complexity of the particulate components of air pollution. Ambient air particulate matter consist of a mixture of combustive byproducts and resuspended crustal materials, as well as biological materials such as pollen, endotoxins, bacteria and viruses. Inhaled fine particles can be detected within minutes of exposure in the systemic circulation, where they can persist for hours, providing a route of entry into all organ systems. Although epidemiological studies have linked air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Current biologic knowledge suggests direct effects of pollutants on the cardiovascular system, blood, and lung receptors and indirect effects mediated through pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. We need new studies focused only to those issue because the quality of the air in our environment has a most essential and direct impact on the health and quality of life.

Dragana Niki?; Aleksandra Stankovi?

2005-01-01

153

Air pollution and forest damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regional air pollution is one of the man-made stresses causing gradual and subtle changes over wide forested areas of the U.S.A. and Canada. The article examines the issue of air pollution and forest damage. Aspects covered are: fundamentals of forest health; air pollutants and forest health; heavy metals; acid deposition; hypotheses on the effects of acid deposition on forest health; oxidants; the most significant regional air pollutant (predicted to be ozone); and the future. Forests provide products, (e.g. lumber), carbon dioxide sinks and other benefits e.g. recreation, wind reduction, and erosion management. Their integrity, productivity and value are linked to air quality. The author concludes that regional air pollution is one of the significant contemporary anthropogenic stresses imposed on some temperate forest ecosystems. More research on forest ecology and ecosystem dynamics, environmental monitoring and the consideration of the effects on forest resources when evaluating energy technologies is called for. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs., 3 photos.

Smith, W.H. (Yale University, New Haven, CT (USA). School of Forestry and Environmental Studies)

1991-11-11

154

Status of indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research.

Esmen, N.A.

1985-10-01

155

Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions.

2003-01-01

156

Volcanic Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon is a series of photographs of 'vog' or volcanic smog caused by the long-lasting eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Text included with the images describes how vog is created. An additional digitally enhanced map shows effects of trade winds on pollution concentration.

157

Indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than 80% of most individuals' time is spent indoors. With tighter insulation in buildings, pollution concentrations in internal spaces could rise to hazardous levels, the authors say. They look at the dangers posed by cigarette smoke, particle board, cement, and other materials, and by oven exhausts and other sources.

Wadden, R.A.; Scheff, P.A.

1983-01-01

158

Photochemical air pollution. Danish aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photochemical air pollution has become one of the major environmental problems, but with different impacts - and possibilities of abatement - in different parts of the world. The present report gives a review of this complex phenomenon as seen in a Danish perspective. Although the report does not cover all relevant activities in Denmark, a comprehensive presentation has been attempted. All basic data on emissions and pollution levels are continuously being updated. (EG)

Fenger, J. [ed.

1997-10-01

159

Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases.

2006-01-01

160

Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Air pollution and plant life  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The publication of this volume could hardly have been more timely, for concern about the damage to plants from air pollution has grown rapidly in the last few years. The book comprises eighteen chapters by contributors of high repute. Three early chapters deal with Dispersion and Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants, Long Range Transport and Monitoring Levels and Effects of Air Pollutants. They provide essential reading for those working on effects in the field, and they set the scene for a contribution from the Volume Editor on the problems of diagnosis. The central chapters (7 to 11) provide, in considerable depth, a summary of the knowledge of the mechanism of action of pollutants on plants, in terms of physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure. Particularly valuable is the essay entitled Impact of Air Pollutant Combinations on Plants, which concludes that even though few generalizations are possible, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that interactions between some pollutants (e.g. SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/) may seriously damage some plants.

Treshow, M.

1984-01-01

162

Geostatistical models for air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

2000-01-01

163

Air pollution control equipment calculations  

CERN Document Server

Unique problem-and-solution approach for quickly mastering a broad range of calculations This book's problem-and-solution approach enables readers to quickly grasp the fundamentals of air pollution control equipment and essential applications. Moreover, the author sets forth solid principles for the design and selection of air pollution control equipment as well as for its efficient operation and maintenance. Readers gain a deep understanding of both the equipment itself and the many factors affecting performance. Following two introductory chapters, the book dedicates four chapters

Theodore, Louis

2008-01-01

164

Leaves and Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Laposata, Matt

165

Air pollution modeling and its application II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main topic of this international meeting was physical-chemical reactions in plumes. Other topics were: air trajectory models for air pollution transport, advanced mathematical techniques in air pollution modeling, evaluation of model performance in practical applications and studies in the field of air pollution modeling.

Wispelaere, C. de (ed.)

1983-01-01

166

Air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Limited data suggest that outdoor air pollution (such as ambient air pollution or traffic-related air pollution) and indoor air pollution (such as second-hand smoking and biomass fuel combustion exposure) are associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but there is insufficient evidence to prove a causal relationship at this stage. It also appears that outdoor air pollution is a significant environmental trigger for acute exacerbation of COPD, leading to increasing symptoms, emergency department visits, hospital admissions and even mortality. Improving ambient air pollution and decreasing indoor biomass combustion exposure by improving home ventilation are effective measures that may substantially improve the health of the general public.

Ko FW; Hui DS

2012-04-01

167

Air Pollution Costs in Ukraine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents estimation of the health losses from urban air pollution in Ukraine. The methodology developed by US EPA and adjusted in Russia for Eastern European transition countries was applied for health risk assessment. PM2.5 was identified as the major source of human health risk, based on...

Strukova, Elena; Golub, Alexander; Markandya, Anil

168

The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been inte...

Phalen, Robert F.

169

Air Pollution in Road Tunnels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a part of a study of pollution of the air by motor vehicles, measurements have been made in two London road tunnels during periods of high traffic density. The concentrations of smoke and polycyclic hydrocarbons found there are much higher than the average values in Central London, but they are o...

Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

170

Air pollutants and forest decline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evidence is presented which shows that widespread dieback and decline of forests in both Europe and North America is caused by short and long-range transport of air pollutants, primarily SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/. A summary of a comprehensive report from West Germany indicating damage to 7.7% of the total forest area is included. (JMT)

Tomlinson, G.H. II

1983-06-01

171

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY  

Science.gov (United States)

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

172

Air pollution challenges and forecasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The air pollution market in the United States will be shaped by a critical US Environmental Protection Agency decision relative to simultaneous removal of utility particulate, air toxics and SO[sub 2]. Delays in Clean Air Act implementation are affecting the near-term market negatively, but will not reduce the long-term potential. The Asian market segment will be larger than the United States segment in 1994 and will continue to grow at more than 10% per year over the next five years.

McIlvaine, R.W. (McIlvaine Company, Northbrook, IL (United States))

1994-03-01

173

Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke  

Science.gov (United States)

Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 11,2012 Whether you live in a city where smog ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

174

Epidemiology and air pollution. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report explores the scientific feasibility of conducting epidemiologic investigations of the health consequences of current and future air pollution. It assesses the limits of available epidemiologic techniques for studying air-pollution problems and discusses opportunities for expanding these limits and for using epidemiologic studies effectively in an overall program of research on air pollution.

1985-10-01

175

Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... Your Zip Code: Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... studies have explored the differences in harm from air pollution to racial or ethnic groups and people who ...

176

Air pollution in Copenhagen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

1976-01-01

177

Response mechanisms of conifers to air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conifers are known to respond to SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, NO{sub x} and acid deposition. Of these pollutants, O{sub 3} is likely the most widespread and phytotoxic compound, and therefore of great interest to individuals concerned with forest resources Direct biological responses have a toxicological effects on metabolism which can then scale to effects on tree growth and forest ecology, including processes of competition and succession. Air pollution can cause reductions in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, which are the physiological parameters most rigorously studied for conifers. Some effects air pollutants can have on plants are influenced by the presence of co-occurring environmental stresses. For example, drought usually reduces vulnerability of plants to air pollution. In addition, air pollution sensitivity may differ among species and with plant/leaf age. Plants may make short-term physiological adjustments to compensate for air pollution or may evolve resistance to air pollution through the processes of selection. Models are necessary to understand how physiological processes, growth processes, and ecological processes are affected by air pollutants. The process of defining the ecological risk that air pollutants pose for coniferous forests requires approaches that exploit existing databases, environmental monitoring of air pollutants and forest resources, experiments with well-defined air pollution treatments and environmental control/monitoring, modeling, predicting air pollution-caused changes in productivity and ecological processes over time and space, and integration of social values.

Matyssek, R.; Reich, P.; Oren, R.; Winner, W.E.

1995-07-01

178

Pollution Law - Clean Air Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.)

1982-01-01

179

Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

2003-01-01

180

Indoor air pollution in Catalonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indoor air pollution was identified as a potential environmental health problem in Catalonia. The Environmental Health Service has carried out a survey to evaluate the level of the problem, the causes and solutions. Six hundred homes - chosen at random - were inspected. The occupants filled in a form of 55 questions. If necessary, analytical determinations were performed (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} HC, HCHO, etc.). The levels of indoor air pollution found were moderate. The main causes identified were faulty combustion and the misuse of domestic appliances. A threefold solution was proposed: Minor amendments to the building rules construction; action on the quality and labelling of domestic appliances and public health programmes. 350,000 booklets were distributed giving people advice on points identified as important in the fieldwork. (author)

Auli, E.; Monterde, M.R. [Autonomous Government of Catalonia (Spain). Environmental Health Service

1993-12-31

 
 
 
 
181

Croup syndrome and air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spatial comparisons show a statistical association between the prevalence of croup syndrome and air pollution in areas with different degree of exposure. In American cross-sectional studies the morbidity in polluted areas was 1.5 to 3 times as high as in regions with better air quality. In these studies confounding factors such as age, sex, smoking, size of families have been considered. Similar observations have been made in Duisburg (FRG). Rates of hospitalization in German clinics and polls of pediatrists do indicate neither an increase nor a decrease of the incidence of croup syndrome within the last ten years. Perhaps today the symptoms are less severe than in the past. In this situation prospective epidemiological studies seem necessary. These studies should also include other respiratory diseases in childhood.

Wichmann, H.E.; Kraemer, U.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.

1985-08-09

182

Slovenia air pollution master plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slovenia was the northernmost republic of Yugoslavia. It is now independent. It has a very high level of air pollution, this has damaged the forests - an important national resource. It also intends joining the European Union, so pollution levels must be brought down to EU standards. Firstly, current emissions must be accurately monitored, then EU pollution standards must be incorporated into national law. WHO guidelines are being used for SO2 control. Current Slovenian standards cover SO2, NOx and particulates. They are up to EU standards. Monitoring has been performed by the Hydrometeorological Institute of Slovenia (HM2). Data from these surveys are being used in air pollution control planning. Public health is of particular concern. The major sources of SO2 emissions are three coal fired power plants. Sostanj has recently been fitted with limestone injection systems, FGD was considered too expensive. Trboulje is more likely to be replaced than retrofitted, at Moste two units will be replaced while a third will be retrofitted with FGD. Wood, coal, gas-oil, natural gas and district heating are all used for domestic premises - domestic heating contributes 12% of SO2 emissions. There should be a switch to cleaner fuels. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

1993-01-01

183

Air pollution and forest diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the past years the large area forest diseases have become the most-discussed environmental problem. Basic problems have been outlined in aetiology, but the details present many open questions. Measures must urgently be taken. The extent and development of forest diseases are described, their possible causes discussed and the state-of-knowledge presented. Hence the crucial effects of air pollutants can be derived as exemplified by nitrogen oxides from automobile exhaust gases.

Mossmayer, H.U.

1983-01-01

184

Air pollution management in Sao Paulo City: A status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The air pollution management program of Sao Paulo is described. Areas discussed are air quality monitoring, the present status of air pollution, air pollution control administration, pollutant sources, air pollution effects on human health, air pollution control techniques, and the Brazilian automotive emission control program

1993-01-01

185

Biofiltration for air pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An approach to enhance and optimize biofiltration for the treatment of volatile organic compounds and odorous emissions was presented. The efficiency, the process aspects, the technology application and limitations involved in biofiltration were also discussed. Biofiltration is effected by microorganisms that are attached to a basically inert, porous support matrix within the biofilter. Biofiltration is simply the use of microorganisms and their metabolic activities to remove volatile organic compounds and other compounds from air emissions. Biodegradation depends on microbial oxidation of compounds that act as a nutrient or energy source for the microorganisms. Biofiltration as an air pollution control technology is well suited to conditions where moderate air flows are contaminated with low concentrations of toxic or obnoxious compounds. The technology can be used to control volatile emissions from the manufacturing of chemicals, service industries, painting, sewage treatment, kraft pulping processes, oil and gas production facilities, and the food industry.

Coleman, R.N. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

1997-11-01

186

Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1988-01-01

187

Acute effect of ambient air pollution on stroke mortality in the China air pollution and health effects study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There have been no multicity studies on the acute effects of air pollution on stroke mortality in China. This study was undertaken to examine the associations between daily stroke mortality and outdoor air pollution (particulate matter <10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide) in 8 Chinese cities. METHODS: We used Poisson regression models with natural spline-smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trends, as well as other time-varying covariates. We applied 2-stage Bayesian hierarchical statistical models to estimate city-specific and national average associations of air pollution with daily stroke mortality. RESULTS: Air pollution was associated with daily stroke mortality in 8 Chinese cities. In the combined analysis, an increase of 10 ?g/m(3) of 2-day moving average concentrations of particulate matter <10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide corresponded to 0.54% (95% posterior intervals, 0.28-0.81), 0.88% (95% posterior intervals, 0.54-1.22), and 1.47% (95% posterior intervals, 0.88-2.06) increase of stroke mortality, respectively. The concentration-response curves indicated linear nonthreshold associations between air pollution and risk of stroke mortality. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in China, or even in other developing countries, to report the acute effect of air pollution on stroke mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effect of air pollution on stroke for high-exposure settings typical in developing countries.

Chen R; Zhang Y; Yang C; Zhao Z; Xu X; Kan H

2013-04-01

188

Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures.

Thoft-Christensen, Palle

2013-01-01

189

Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and ...

Evdokimova, Ekaterina

190

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

191

A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX  

Science.gov (United States)

A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

192

Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

1996-01-01

193

The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

2008-01-01

194

On a pollution look; Sur un air de pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author, who is director of the laboratory of atmospheric pollution studies of the French national institute of agronomical research (INRA), answers the questions of a journalist about: how to detect air pollution, what are its causes, what are its impacts on health and environment, and what are the existing protection means against atmospheric pollution. (J.S.)

Garrec, J.P.; Monchicourt, M.O.

2002-07-01

195

Air pollution and bronchopulmonary disease in children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years air pollution was linked to the croup-syndrome and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). There is no doubt, that the incidence of bronchopulmonary disorders in infancy and childhood is higher than usual in more polluted areas. That has been proven especially for recurrent bronchitis and asthma syndrome. It may be possible, that there is a higher frequency of pseudo-croup in extremely polluted areas. However, there is no certain link between air pollution and SIDS. Indoor pollution, or pollution of the micro-environment, is as important as outdoor pollution regarding bronchopulmonary diseases in infants and children. Smoking parents are the most important contribution to indoor pollution. Pediatricians should not only discuss airborn pollution but equally the importance of indoor environmental pollution as having a negative influence on the respiratory system as well.

von der Hardt, H.

1985-01-01

196

Austrian air pollution law. Oesterreichisches Luftreinhaltungsrecht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book is divided into three parts: Part I introduces into the basic elements of environmental economics and environmental policy as well as into the system and tools of air pollution regulations. Part II undertakes a description of air-pollution regulations for the most important groups of emittors: Industrial plants, residential heating systems and motor vehicles. Part III summarizes the results of the individual explanations and discusses drafts for new air-pollution regulations or to revise existing ones.

Schwarzer, S.

1987-01-01

197

Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation. In the middle troposphere, Asian and to a lesser extent North American pollution is transported from the west. Additional Asian pollution from the east, transported from the monsoon in the upper troposphere, crosses the Mediterranean tropopause, which pollutes the lower stratosphere at middle latitudes. PMID:12399583

Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

2002-10-25

198

[Air pollution and the lung: epidemiological approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological evidence has concurred with clinical and experimental evidence to correlate current levels of ambient air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, with respiratory effects. In this respect, the use of specific epidemiological methods has been crucial. Common outdoor pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ozone. Short-term effects of outdoor air pollution include changes in lung function, respiratory symptoms and mortality due to respiratory causes. Increase in the use of health care resources has also been associated with short-term effects of air pollution. Long-term effects of cumulated exposure to urban air pollution include lung growth impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and probably the development of asthma and allergies. Lung cancer and COPD have been related to a shorter life expectancy. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Further epidemiological research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of air pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health. PMID:16828033

Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Dab, William

199

[Air pollution and the lung: epidemiological approach].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiological evidence has concurred with clinical and experimental evidence to correlate current levels of ambient air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, with respiratory effects. In this respect, the use of specific epidemiological methods has been crucial. Common outdoor pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ozone. Short-term effects of outdoor air pollution include changes in lung function, respiratory symptoms and mortality due to respiratory causes. Increase in the use of health care resources has also been associated with short-term effects of air pollution. Long-term effects of cumulated exposure to urban air pollution include lung growth impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and probably the development of asthma and allergies. Lung cancer and COPD have been related to a shorter life expectancy. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Further epidemiological research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of air pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

Annesi-Maesano I; Dab W

2006-06-01

200

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

 
 
 
 
201

Air pollution model for point source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical models of air pollution have a broad practical application. They are irreplaceable wherever it is not possible to determine a state of air pollution by measuring of a noxious agent concentration. By creating of a suitable model of air pollution we can assess a state of the air quality but we also to predict the pollution that can occur at given atmospheric conditions. The created model is a suitable tool for controlling the activity of TEKO and for the evaluation of the quality of air in a monitored area of the city of Košice. A sufficient knowledge in the given field is a condition. The input data and information necessary for creating such a model of polluted air is another important factor.

Viliam Carach; Jozef Ma?ala

2006-01-01

202

Air pollution model for point source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mathematical models of air pollution have a broad practical application. They are irreplaceable wherever it is not possible to determine a state of air pollution by measuring of a noxious agent concentration. By creating of a suitable model of air pollution we can assess a state of the air quality but we also to predict the pollution that can occur at given atmospheric conditions. The created model is a suitable tool for controlling the activity of TEKO and for the evaluation of the quality of air in a monitored area of the city of Kosice. A sufficient knowledge in the given field is a condition. The input data and information necessary for creating such a model of polluted air is another important factor. (authors)

2006-01-01

203

Air pollution control legislation and administration in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Air Pollution Control Act and the Air pollution Control Decree entered into force in October 1982. Before that, air pollution issues were mainly treated within the framework of the Public Health Act of 1965. The objective of the Air Pollution Control Act is to prevent the ambient air from being polluted. (orig.)

Sarkkinen, S. [Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

1995-07-01

204

Respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outdoor air pollution adversely affects human health and the quality of the environment. However, epidemiologic studies of these effects are difficult to control because of confounding variables such as age and cigarette smoking and the difficulty in estimating doses of pollutants. Drs Griffith and Levin discuss the relationship between major types of pollutants and increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory disease.35 references.

Griffith, D.E.; Levin, J.L. (Univ. of Texas Health Center, Tyler (USA))

1989-10-01

205

Eye discomfort and air pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discomfort eye syndrome (DES) comprises a series of 'minor' subjective symptoms in patients where no relevant clinical signs are observed suggesting ocular disease. Our study includes 100 DES patients, excluding video terminal users, selected from the First Aid Service of our Department over two peak periods in both winter and summer time. The Schirmer test I, ferning test, breakup time and conjunctival cytology (scraping and imprint) were performed and data were related to sex, age and air pollution indexes, recorded in the patients' living zones. Our results demonstrate that: (i) the ocular surface cytology and the analysis of tear film changes provide significant information in those patients where no other clinical signs are evident; (ii) DES symptoms are more frequent in women than in men (ratio about 2:1), both with ages over 51 years; (iii) DES is significantly associated with ocular surface inflammation, as detected by cytological methods, and (iv) ocular surface subclinical inflammation and ocular dryness are related to high concentrations of atmospheric polluters, in both sexes. PMID:9885386

Versura, P; Profazio, V; Cellini, M; Torreggiani, A; Caramazza, R

1999-01-01

206

Managing residential sources of indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sources of indoor air pollutants in residential environments can be managed to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment, and altering the amount, location, or time of use. Intelligent source management requires knowledge of the source`s emission characteristics, including chemical composition, emission rates, and decay rates. In addition, knowledge of outdoor air exchange rates, heating/air-conditioning duct flow rates, and kitchen/batch exhaust fan flow rates is needed to determine pollutant concentrations. Indoor air quality (IAQ) models use this information and occupant activity patterns to determine instantaneous and/or cumulative individual exposure. This paper describes a number of residential scenarios for various indoor air pollution VOC sources, several air flow conditions, and typical occupant activity patterns. IAQ model predictions of occupant exposures for these scenarios are given for selected source management options.

Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

1994-12-31

207

Measurements of air pollutants in the troposphere  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis, or involve automated in-situ sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse i...

Clemitshaw, Kevin C

208

Air pollution problems in Latin America  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution and associated health problems in Latin America are on the rise. This article provides an overview of conditions indicated by the admittedly limited data available, notes some of the present situation's health implications, and points out areas where air pollution data procurement and control measures could be improved.

Weitzenfeld, H. (PAHO/WHO Pan American Center for Human Ecology and Health, (Mexico))

1992-01-01

209

Indoor air pollution in solar heated buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emerging health problem of indoor air pollution is especially relevant to solar heated buildings which tend to be constructed to tighter-than-normal standards and which may have very high concentrations of contaminants such as formaldehyde and radon gas. Ventilation standards and several strategies for the control of indoor air pollution are presented.

Lord, D.

1982-01-01

210

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS ON AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA AND THEIR IMPACT ON INFANT MORTALITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing countries rank highest in air pollution worldwide, yet regulations of such pollution are still rare in these countries, thereby whether, and to what extent, those regulations lead to health benefits remain an open question. Since 1995, the Chinese government has imposed stringent regulati...

Tanaka, Shinsuke; ???, ????

211

Air-Pollutant-Philic Plants for Air Remediation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this communication, we review our work over two decades on air-pollutant-philic plants that can grow with air pollutants as the sole nutrient source. We believe that such plants are instrumental in mitigating air pollution. Our target air pollutant has been atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and our work on this subject has consisted of three parts: Variation in plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants among naturally occurring plants, genetic improvement of plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants, and the plant vitalization effect of NO2. So far, an estimation of the half-life of nitrogen derived from NO2 uptake in plants belonging to the 217 taxa studied to date has shown no plants to be naturally occurring air-pollutant-philic. However, we found that an enormous difference exists in plants’ ability to uptake and assimilate atmospheric NO2. Future studies on the causes of this process may provide an important clue to aid the genetic production of plants that are effectively air-pollutant-philic. Both genetic engineering of the genes involved in the primary nitrate metabolism and genetic modification by ion-beam irradiation failed to make plants air-pollutant-philic, but mutants obtained in these studies will prove useful in revealing those genes critical in doing so. During our study on air-pollutant-philic plants, we unexpectedly discovered that prolonged exposure of plants to a sufficient level of NO2 activates the uptake and metabolism of nutrients that fuel plant growth and development. We named this phenomenon “the plant vitalization effect of NO2” (PVEON). Investigations into the mechanisms and genes involved in PVEON will provide an important clue to making plants air-pollutant-philic in the future.

Misa Takahashi; Hiromichi Morikawa

2012-01-01

212

Management of air quality in the five pilot cities under the UNDP urban air pollution control programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Major Chinese cities are characterized by some of the highest levels of air pollution in the world Three of the ten most polluted cities monitored by the WHO Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS) in 1991 were found in China (i.e., Shenyang, Xi'an and Beijing). More recently, the World Resources Institute reported that nine of the ten most polluted cities in the world are located within China (Davis et al., 1999). (author)

Wang, W.; Sun, Y. [China International Centre for Economic and Technical Exchange (China)

2000-07-01

213

Changing patterns of air pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Past and present air pollution control efforts in the U.S. reflect prevailing public opinion as perceived by the policy-makers. Thus, the degree of emphasis on air quality and air emission controls continues to vacillate as public sentiment changes. Recent developments suggest that the true magnitude of the economic costs of air controls are becoming appreciated. However, cost-effective solutions to air pollution problems remain elusive. Still, efforts to achieve clean air requirements are proceeding on a more informed, less emotional level.

Starke, E.W.

1980-01-01

214

Air pollution in the city of Berlin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution considerably affects the air quality of the city of Berlin. The paper informs about continuous and discontinuous measurements assessing the major fossil fuel combustion products (sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides, airborne dusts) to be found in the Berlin atmosphere. The results obtained are evaluated on the basis of limiting values according to the Clean Air Technical Guide (TA Luft). Examples refer to the ratio of sulfur dioxide/airborne dust emissions from external sources and Western Berlin pollutants. The conclusion is dedicated to Berlin impact analyses. Emphasis is placed on epidemiological investigations into the relation between air pollution and the Pseudo-Croup syndrome. (BR)

Haentzsch, S.

1987-08-01

215

Air pollution threatens the health of children in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China's rapid economic development has come at the cost of severe environmental degradation, most notably from coal combustion. Outdoor air pollution is associated with >300 000 deaths, 20 million cases of respiratory illness, and a health cost of >500 billion renminbi (>3% of gross domestic product) annually. The young are particularly susceptible to air pollution, yet there has been only limited recognition of its effects on children's health and development. To fill this gap, we reviewed relevant published environmental studies, biomedical and molecular/epidemiologic research, and economic and policy analyses. China relies on coal for about 70% to 75% of its energy needs, consuming 1.9 billion tons of coal each year. In addition to CO{sub 2}, the major greenhouse gas, coal burning in China emits vast quantities of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, arsenic, and mercury. Seventy percent of Chinese households burn coal or biomass for cooking and heating, which contaminates indoor air. Adverse effects of combustion-related air pollution include reduced fetal and child growth, pulmonary disease including asthma, developmental impairment, and increased risk of cancer. A prospective molecular epidemiologic study of newborns in Chongqing has demonstrated direct benefits to children's health and development from the elimination of a coal-burning plant. Recognition of the full health and economic cost of air pollution to Chinese children and the benefits of pollution reduction should spur increased use of renewable energy, energy efficiency, and clean-fuel vehicles. This is a necessary investment for China's future.

Millman, A.; Tang, D.L.; Perera, F.P. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

2008-09-15

216

Effects of air pollution on soils. Extended activities of the VDI Air Pollution Abatement Commission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air, water and soils are indispensable constituents of our ecosystems. Air and water pollution abatement have left us with increasing quantities of solid residues which are making land pollution abatement a most central concern. Due to its increasing importance land pollution abatement has meanwhile become an integral part of the activities of the VDI air pollution abatement commission. The paper reports about the respective activities.

Peters, F.

1987-04-01

217

Air pollution in German cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German Federal Emission Control Act regulates both the emissions as they originate from the sources of contaminants and the emissions which are legally defined as air pollutants (and noise) affecting human beings, animals, plants or objects at receptor points. Special emphasis is given to emission reduction measures. The 13th Ordinance to the Federal Emission Control Act contains strict threshold values for emissions of dust, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides and other contaminants for stationary sources. As a consequence, all major furnaces had to be retrofired with de-sulfurization and de-NO{sub x} devices. Corresponding ordinances for mobile sources led to the requirement that only cars with 3-way catalytic converters may be sold in Germany. The German emission reduction policy was quite effective in some in all cases. Since power plants and industrial furnaces were the major sources of SO{sub 2}-emissions, emission reduction measures were very successful with respect to this contaminant. From 1980 to 1989 the SO{sub 2}-emission in former west Germany was reduced from 3 Mio t to roughly 1 Mio t per year, with the consequence that SO{sub 2} is no longer a prime air contaminant in the western states. The east German states are somewhat behind this development but are rapidly catching up. Emission reduction measures were much less successful for other air contaminants, the most prominent of which is NO{sub X}. The decrease in power plant emissions of NO{sub X} was nearly compensated by the increase in road traffic with its corresponding increase in vehicle emissions

Schatzmann, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

1995-12-31

218

Ambient air pollution and population health: overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 2003 approximately 200 researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers from more than 40 countries gathered to discuss the science and policy implications of air pollution and human health as part of the AIRNET/NERAM Strategies for Clean Air and Health initiative. The purpose of this paper is to review the more than 35 research posters presented at the conference, including exposure, toxicological, and epidemiological studies of air pollution. Collectively, these papers support previous evidence that both short- and long-term exposures to particulate air pollution have adverse population health impacts, including effects on children. Cellular studies also suggest that air pollution can cause mutagenic and oxidative effects, raising concerns about carcinogenicity and cellular regeneration. Studies of biomarkers, such as Clara-cell proteins and lymphocyte damage assessment, provide further evidence of air pollution effects at the cellular level. Other studies have focused on improvements to measurement and sources of air pollution. These studies suggest that particle mass rather than particle composition may be a more useful indicator of potential human health risk. It is well known that emissions from transportation sources are a major contributor to ambient air pollution in large urban centres. Epidemiologic researchers are able to reduce bias due to misclassification and improve exposure assessment models by allocating air pollution exposure according to distance from traffic sources or land-use patterns. The close association between traffic patterns and air pollution concentrations provides a potential basis for the development of transport policies and regulations with population health improvements as a primary objective. The results of the research presented here present opportunities and challenges for the development of policies for improvements to air quality and human health. However, there remains the challenge of how best to achieve these reductions. PMID:17365590

Krewski, Daniel; Rainham, Daniel

2007-02-01

219

Illness from air pollution : a Halton perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report highlights the impact of air pollution on the health of Halton residents and describes how the Health Department will be involved in many initiatives in 2002. The health effects associated with air pollution include asthma and other respiratory problems. The federal government estimates that air pollution can be linked to 5,000 premature deaths each year in eleven major cities. The Ontario Medical Association claims pollution related illnesses cost the province more than $1 billion annually. Approximately 1,000 residents of Toronto die prematurely each year as a result of air pollution. Children, the elderly, and those with respiratory conditions or heart disease are most vulnerable. The actions proposed by the Regional Municipality of Halton at the local level include: the promotion of public transit; expanding Halton's Clean Air Partnership to include private sector partners by 2003; studying the possibility of providing more bicycle paths to reduce reliance on the automobile; and, promoting public awareness of the impact of smog on public health. The Halton Partners for Clean Air is a consortium of 12 public sector organizations which was developed to help reduce smog across the region. In 2002, the Partnership will expand to include local industry where the greatest reductions in air pollution can be achieved. One of the main goals of the Partnership is to reduce traffic congestion and associated environmental and health problems associated with air pollution around schools. 1 tab.

Nosal, R.M. [Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2002-03-14

220

Some measurements of ambient air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

Hertel, O.

2009-09-15

222

Indoor air pollution; A public health perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In developed and developing countries, indoor air pollution is gaining increasing prominence as a public health problem. Time-activity studies and exposure surveys have shown the dominant contributions of indoor environments to population exposures for many pollutants. Mounting epidemiological evidence documents adverse health effects of indoor pollutants and risk assessments indicate that indoor carcinogens may contribute substantially to the population's burden of lung and other cancer. Unacceptable indoor air quality has also been identified as a common cause of symptoms. This paper addresses the public health problem posed by indoor air pollution, offering a scheme for categorizing adverse health effects of indoor air pollution, and considers the complexity of estimating the full scope of the problem. (au) ( 40 refs.)

Samet, J.M. (Department of Medicine and the New Mexico Tumor Registry, Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1994-12-01

223

Air pollution in Slovenia, year 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document gives a summary of Slovenia`s air pollution regulations and then presents emissions data (using CORINAIR methodology) for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMVoes, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CO and CO{sub 2}, divided into eleven categories of pollutant sources (including thermal power plants, production and distribution of fossil fuels, industrial boilers), for years 1980 to 1995. It details how the emissions data were collected (describing the measuring networks and methods and equipment) and gives precise results of measurements for 24 hour concentration of SO{sub 2} and black smoke, precipitation quality (pH value, wet deposition of ions, noting influence of thermal power plant and of desulphurisation equipment and monthly measurements of pollutants). It discusses air pollution trends and weather conditions and air protection measures in individual regions and records international conventions and the ensuring regulations to abate air pollution. 46 refs.

Planinsek, A. [ed.

1997-02-01

224

Air pollution and the respiratory system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

Arbex MA; Santos Ude P; Martins LC; Saldiva PH; Pereira LA; Braga AL

2012-09-01

225

RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

226

[Influence of air pollution on birth weight].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. METHODS: The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Nis at two measuring locations, in Nis and Niska Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating) was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characterisitics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Nis. RESULTS: We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. CONCLUSION: Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

Stankovi? A; Mitrovi? V; Živadinovi? R

2011-09-01

227

BLUME - the Berlin air pollution monitoring network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report compiles the BLUME air pollution chracteristics obtained in winter 1987/88. Figures and tables summarize and compare the measuring results obtained for sulfur dioxide, airborne particles, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone. Air pollution in winter 1987/88 was not as critical as in the previous years. The 1987/88 mean sulfur dioxide concentrations were found to be the lowest values determined since BLUME measurements started in 1975, and the mean values obtained for airborne particles and for most of the remaining pollutants were lower than in the previous year. The causes of these relatively low pollutant concentrations are discussed. (orig./BBR).

1988-01-01

228

Minimizing the cost of air pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technical basis exists upon which efficient and effective air pollution control strategies can be built. Air quality modeling procedures are demonstrated and, if used, would increase the confidence that emission control programs will in fact deliver promised air quality improvements. By insisting on an accompanying economic analysis of control alternatives, least-cost emission control strategies can be identified.

Cass, G.R.; McRae, G.J.

1981-07-01

229

Statistical distributions of air pollution concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methodologies and limitations in describing air quality through statistical distributions of pollutant are discussed, and the use of extreme statistics in the evaluation of different forms of air quality standards are explained. In addition, the interpretation of rollback calculations with regard to air quality standards is discussed. (JMT)

Georgopoulos, P.G.; Seinfeld, J.H.

1982-07-01

230

Air pollution monitoring - a methodological approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methodology for monitoring the emission of polluters in the air is a complex concept that in general embraces following fazes: sampling, laboratory treatment, and interpretation of results. In Company for technological and laboratory investigation and environmental protection - Mining Institute Skopje, the control of emission of polluters in the air is performing according methodology based in general on the recommendation of standard VDI 2.066 prescribe from Ministry of Ecology in Germany, because adequate legislation in our country does not exist. In this article the basic treatment of methodology for the air polluters emission control is presented. (Original)

2002-01-01

231

Reducing the impact of air pollution on the natural environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outlines the effects of air pollution on the natural environment of Britain, the regulatory framework for its control, and how such impacts can be reduced. Includes a summary of the air pollution problem; critical loads; recovery and restoration (dealing especially with lichen communities and with air pollution on the south Pennine peatlands); air pollution and Environmental Impact Assessment; and sustainable development and air quality.

Farmer, A.

1995-12-31

232

GIS implementation in air pollution analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air quality modeling and simulation is an indispensable tool used in different environmental studies that attempt to estimate air pollution levels caused by existing or planned combustion processes, to evaluate proposed emission reduction technologies, to select sites for new emission sources, and accordingly to establish emission control strategies in different energy conversion sectors. Modeling techniques, based on established mathematical formulation, are widely used for simulating air pollution caused mainly by the transportation and electric power sectors. Geographic information systems, GIS, link spatial information to alphanumeric information thus developing geographically referenced database. GIS systems have already been incorporated successfully into several fields in the energy sector and are proven to be a very efficient and robust tool for relevant analysis. In the environmental studies, GIS can answer many questions related to air pollution such as pollution sources as well as identification of regions in which the concentration may exceed limits set by local and international standards. The work presented in this paper is aimed at integrating GIS into air pollution analysis. The main objective is to estimate, using advanced graphical illustrations, the concentration levels of different types of air effluents emitted from point, line, or area sources. The integrated package is then used to examine the influence of various mitigation strategies on the air pollutants levels, and hence to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies. The paper is concluded by case studies from the transportation and power sectors.

Chaaban, F.G.

1998-07-01

233

Evaluation of air pollution trends in Istanbul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previously, SO{sub 2} and PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 {mu}m in size) concentration distributions had been investigated in order to assess air pollution in Istanbul during the winter season (November-March) in which the concentration of these pollutants had reached formidably high levels due to the consumption of low-quality fuels (mainly coal) for residential heating. In this study, the effect of the increased share of natural gas and high-quality coal consumption in residential areas on air pollution levels was investigated. Modelling employing the method of kriging by spherical interpolation was used to obtain the concentration distribution of these pollutants, and spatial distributions of concentrations were generated. The pollution map obtained by this method indicated that increased usage of natural gas and high-quality coal in residential areas significantly improved air quality.

Akkoyunlu, A.; Erturk, F. [Bhosphorus University, Istanbul (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2002-07-01

234

Air Cleaner Technologies for Indoor Air Pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes methodologies for the particle-size-dependent performance measurement of air cleaners. It discusses the use of laser optical particle counters and condensation nucleus counters with preseparators in evaluating air cleaners. The selecti...

D. S. Ensor A. S. Viner J. T. Hanley P. A. Lawless K. Ramanathan

1988-01-01

235

Air pollution in Karachi: a study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air population is a necessary adjunct to the advancement of civilisation. It was an offshoot or rapid industrialisation of Europe during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when most of the industrial plants coming up in the big industrial cities were based on the use of coal as a source of energy. This caused an enormous amount of air pollution. Air pollution therefore is a man made phenomenon which creates environmental degradation and it generally builds up over a period of time. Pollution of Karachi which was less than half a million at the time of partition of India has crossed ten million mark during the last decade. This rapid and more or less unplanned expansion of population of this teeming metropolis has entailed environmental degradation of Karachi. As this matter needs detailed and in depth monitoring we have limited our scope to the study of its effect on air pollution alone. (A.B.)

2002-01-01

236

Air Pollution, Smoking, and Plasma Homocysteine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Air pollution exposure induces short-term inflammatory changes that may determine hyperhomocysteinemia, particularly in the presence of a preexisting proinflammatory status such as tha...

Martinelli, Ida; Grillo, Paolo; Hou, Lifang; Lanzani, Guido; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea

237

Lichens as indicators of air pollution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field and laboratory studies have demonstrated that lichens are extremely sensitive to sulfur dioxide and that lichens are fairly sensitive to hydrogen fluoride and heavy metals. Further studies are necessary to assess lichens' relative sensitivity to oxidant air pollutants.

Nash TH 3rd

1976-08-01

238

Air pollution studies in the Norwegian Arctic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of sulfur pollutants at stations in the Norwegian Arctic, 1977-1983, show persistent annual variations with maximum values in the winter season. These are mostly due to low-level transport of polluted air from industrial areas in northern USSR. The pulsating character of the air pollution episodes is related to the synoptic scale pressure variations. Aircraft measurements in March 1983 show the presence of thin stratified layers of polluted air at elevated tropospheric levels. In summer the Arctic air is generally very clean, and elevated concentrations are mainly due to a direct transfer from source areas in northwestern Europe across the Norwegian Sea. The aircraft measurements show that the Arctic aerosol has a narrow and very homogeneous size distribution, indicating a stable aerosol that is not subject to chemical reactions and further growth

1984-01-01

239

AIR POLLUTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased incidents of classic and variant forms of neurodegenerative diseases suggest that environmental chemicals and susceptibility factors (e.g., genetics, diseased states, obesity, etc.) may be contributory. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that is associat...

240

Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

1983-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations on some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the patttern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives.

Spengler, J.D. (Harvard Univ. School of Public Health, Boston, MA); Sexton, K.

1983-07-01

242

Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives.

Spengler, J.D. (Harvard Univ. School of Public Health, Boston, MA); Sexton, K.

1983-07-01

243

The Changing Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The air monitoring paradigm is rapidly changing due to advances in the development of portable, lower-cost air pollution sensors report high-time resolution data in near-real time along with supporting data and communication infrastructure. These changes are bringing forward opportunities to the traditional monitoring framework (supplementing ambient air monitoring and enhancing compliance monitoring) and also is expanding monitoring beyond this framework (personal exposure monitoring and community-based monitoring). Opportunities in each of these areas as well as corresponding challenges and potential solutions associated with development and implementation of air pollution sensors are discussed.

Snyder EG; Watkins T; Solomon P; Thoma E; Williams R; Hagler G; Shelow D; Hindin D; Kilaru V; Preuss P

2013-08-01

244

Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: 1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; 2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and 3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: 1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and 2) particle emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J. B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on "sink" surfaces.

Tichenor BA; Sparks LA; White JB; Jackson MD

1990-04-01

245

The effects of air pollution on children.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollutants have been documented to be associated with a wide variety of adverse health impacts in children. These include increases in mortality in very severe episodes; an increased risk of perineonatal mortality in regions of higher pollution, and an increased general rate of mortality in chil...

Bates, D V

246

Forecasting air pollution index in Hong Kong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Environmental Protection Department (EPD) of Hong Kong Government started the reporting of the Air Pollution Index (API) and its forecast in June 1995. API is calculated by comparing the concentrations of five pollutants, namely, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, respira...

Yan, TL; Ng, CN

247

ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

248

The health effects of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chapter 11 of the book concentrates on the health effects of air pollution in the general population at normal ambient levels. It discusses factors to be considered in assessing the extensive literature on health effects and provides a brief summary of the effects on health of particulates, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and carbon monoxide. It also addresses the possible relationship between air pollution and cancer. 103 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Walters, S.; Ayres, J. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Public Health and Epidemiology, Medical School

1996-12-31

249

Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

1999-01-01

250

Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

1999-01-01

251

Indoor air pollution and airway disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific interest in indoor pollution has been increasing since the second half of the 1980s. Growing scientific evidence has shown that because people generally spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor pollution plays a significant role in affecting health and is thus an important health issue. Indoor environments include dwellings, workplaces, schools and day care centres, bars, discotheques and vehicles. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. In developing countries, relevant sources of indoor pollution include biomass and coal burning for cooking and heating. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Approximately 1 million of these deaths occur in children aged under 5 years due to acute respiratory infections, and significant proportions of deaths occur due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. Today, indoor air pollution ranks tenth among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of indoor pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health. PMID:15636485

Viegi, G; Simoni, M; Scognamiglio, A; Baldacci, S; Pistelli, F; Carrozzi, L; Annesi-Maesano, I

2004-12-01

252

Indoor air pollution and airway disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scientific interest in indoor pollution has been increasing since the second half of the 1980s. Growing scientific evidence has shown that because people generally spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor pollution plays a significant role in affecting health and is thus an important health issue. Indoor environments include dwellings, workplaces, schools and day care centres, bars, discotheques and vehicles. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. In developing countries, relevant sources of indoor pollution include biomass and coal burning for cooking and heating. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Approximately 1 million of these deaths occur in children aged under 5 years due to acute respiratory infections, and significant proportions of deaths occur due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. Today, indoor air pollution ranks tenth among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of indoor pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

Viegi G; Simoni M; Scognamiglio A; Baldacci S; Pistelli F; Carrozzi L; Annesi-Maesano I

2004-12-01

253

The effects of air pollution on children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollutants have been documented to be associated with a wide variety of adverse health impacts in children. These include: increases in mortality in very severe episodes; an increased risk of perineonatal mortality in regions of higher pollution, and an increased general rate of mortality in children; increased acute respiratory disease morbidity; aggravation of asthma, as shown by increased hospital emergency visits or admissions as well as in longitudinal panel studies; increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in children, and infectious episodes of longer duration; lowered lung function in children when pollutants increase; lowered lung function in more polluted regions; increased sickness rates as indicated by kindergarten and school absences; and the adverse effects of inhaled lead from automobile exhaust. These impacts are especially severe when high levels of outdoor pollution (usually from uncontrolled coal burning) are combined with high levels of indoor pollution. In developed countries, where indoor pollution levels are lower, increasing traffic density and elevated NO{sub 2} levels with secondary photochemical and fine particulate pollution appear to be the main contemporary problem. By virtue of physical activity out of doors when pollution levels may be high, children may experience higher exposures than adults. Air pollution is likely to have a greater impact on asthmatic children if they are without access to routine medical care.

Bates, D.V. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

1995-09-01

254

Indoor air pollution in rural China: Cooking fuels, stoves, and health status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in less developed countries the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. The authors conducted a large cross-sectional study of rural Chinese households to determine associations between individual health status and domestic cooking as a source of indoor air pollution. The study included measures of health status as well as measures of indoor air-pollution sources, such as solid cooking fuels and cooking stoves. Compared with other fuel types, coal was associated with a lower health status, including negative impacts on exhaled carbon monoxide level, forced vital capacity, lifetime prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and health care utilization. Decreasing household coal use, increasing use of improved stove technology, and increasing kitchen ventilation may decrease the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution.

Peabody, J.W.; Riddell, T.J.; Smith, K.R.; Liu, Y.P.; Zhao, Y.Y.; Gong, J.H.; Milet, M.; Sinton, J.E. [Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

2005-03-15

255

Legal aspects of transfrontier air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution deals with the technical developments and the necessary adaptation of the legal and social systems in the various states. The author first discusses provisions of international law with regard to giving proof of environmental pollution caused by a neighbour state. He then deals with the legal aspects of long-distance air pollution. Finally, the Federal German substantial air pollution control law and relevant licensing provisions are taken as an example to show how the Federal Republic of Germany comes up to the obligations set by international law, to provide for due protection of the environment in neighbour states. (orig./HSCH)

1986-01-01

256

New technology is changing air pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Air Pollution Control Equipment and Monitors used today are considerably different from those used a decade ago. Ten years from now, there will be an ever greater difference. Much of the world is functioning with the concept of using the best available control technology.'' When a device providing higher efficiencies at affordable prices comes along, it will be adopted as best available control technology, moving the entire industry another step forward. Not only is new technology replacing less efficient technology, it is providing solutions to control pollutants that previously were uncontrolled. New developments are occurring rapidly across the entire spectrum of air pollution devices.

McIlvaine, R.W.

1994-06-01

257

Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health im...

Nijland, M.E.

258

AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)  

Science.gov (United States)

The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

259

Indoor air pollution and airway disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growing scientific evidence has shown that because people generally spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor pollution plays a significant role in affecting health and is thus an important health issue. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. In developing countries, relevant sources of indoor pollution include biomass and coal burning for cooking and heating. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Approximately 1 million of these deaths occur in children aged under 5 years due to acute respiratory infections and significant proportions of deaths occur due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. Today, indoor air pollution ranks tenth among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of indoor pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

Viegi, G.; Simoni, M.; Scognamiglio, A.; Baldacci, S.; Pistelli, F.; Carrozzi, L.; Annesi-Maesano, I. [CNR, Pisa (Italy). Inst. of Clinical Physiology

2004-12-15

260

Effects of environmental air pollution on the eye  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The eye is vulnerable to the effects of air pollution. Manifestations of air pollution can range from minimal or no symptoms to chronic discomfort and eye irritation. There may also be specific situations, in contact lens wearers for example, where the eyes may be adversely affected by air pollution. Despite the presence of air pollution in many indoor and outdoor environments, the ocular effects of air pollution are often overlooked by optometrists when examining their patients. In this article, background knowledge needed to understand the effects of air pollution on the eye will be reviewed. Suggestions for management of air pollution-related eye symptoms are provided.26 references.

Klopfer, J. (Eye Institute, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

2011-01-31

262

78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. EPA...

2013-02-22

263

78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. We...

2013-09-24

264

Indoor-air-pollution source data base  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper, directed to individual interested in indoor air pollution, is an introduction, and directions for the use of, the EPA indoor air-pollution source data base (also known as the indoor air-source-emissions data base). The data base is a computerized system containing source characterization studies done in the U.S. and abroad. It addresses the entire range of indoor air sources. It provides ready access to such information as: emission factors determined for each of the pollutants and sources tested, data about the test facility, conditions of the experiment, sampling and analytical data, and an abstract of each publication. The program also includes options for researchers carrying out their own source-characterization studies. The data base is currently available in a dBase III version or a Clipper compiled version.

Bare, J.C.

1988-01-01

265

Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

1995-12-31

266

Ambient air pollution- a cause for COPD?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of ambient air pollution in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be uncertain. We review the evidence in the light of recent studies.Eight morbidity and six mortality studies were identified. These were heterogeneous in design, characterization of exposure to air pollution, and methods of outcome definition. Six morbidity studies with objectively defined COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio) were cross-sectional analyses. One longitudinal study defined incidence of COPD as the first hospitalization due to COPD. However, neither mortality nor hospitalization studies can unambiguously distinguish acute from long-term effects on the development of the underlying patho-physiological changes.Most studies were based on within-communities exposure contrasts which mainly assess traffic-related air pollution. Overall, evidence of chronic effects of air pollution on the prevalence and incidence of COPD among adults was suggestive but not conclusive despite plausible biologic mechanisms and good evidence that air pollution affects lung development in childhood and triggers exacerbations in COPD patients. To fully integrate this evidence in the assessment, the life-time course of COPD should be better defined. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods, specific definitions of COPD phenotypes, and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments are needed.

Schikowski T; Mills IC; Anderson HR; Cohen A; Hansell A; Kauffmann F; Krämer U; Marcon A; Perez L; Sunyer J; Probst-Hensch N; Künzli N

2013-03-01

267

Climatological variability in regional air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted.

1995-01-01

268

Pollutant dispersion models for issues of air pollution control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14 papers entered separately into the data base were presented at the meeting for application-oriented dispersion models for issues of air pollution control. These papers focus on fields of application, availability of required input data relevant to emissions and meteorology, performance and accuracy of these methods and their practicability. (orig./PW)

1984-05-10

269

Pollution prevention and air quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

1997-01-01

270

Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

NONE

1997-07-01

271

Outdoor air pollution and asthma in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, is associated with reversible airway obstruction and hyperresponsiveness to triggers; clinical symptoms include wheezing, episodic cough, shortness of breath, and increased mucous production. Ambient or outdoor environmental exposure to ozone, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides has been well documented to exacerbate asthma. Children appear to be most vulnerable to the harmful effects of ambient air pollutants. As their lungs are not completely developed, children may experience greater exposure to environmental pollutants than adults and the higher doses of varied composition may remain in their lungs for a greater duration. Altogether, the negative effects of air pollutants on pulmonary function place children at a greater risk of air pollutant-induced exacerbation of asthma for the duration of their lives. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to assess recently published literature regarding the influence of air pollution on asthma in children. METHODS: For this work, we reviewed articles found in PubMed using the key words "outdoor air pollution, asthma, and children" which were published between 2006 and 2009. Only those articles that had a full version available in PubMed were analyzed. RESULTS: We reviewed studies published between 2006 and 2009 examining the effect of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children. In total, we evaluated 25 articles; of these, 9 were published in 2006, 3 in 2007, 8 in 2008, and 5 in 2009. Of these 25 studies, 1 was a clinical trial, 6 were cross-sectional, 4 were case-control (2 with a case-crossover design), 12 were cohort prospective, and 2 were cohort retrospective studies with varied follow-up times ranging from 10 days to 7 years. The ages of children also differed, ranging from birth to 18 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: All studies reviewed in this work indicate that outdoor air pollution affects the appearance and exacerbation of asthma in children. Although these findings are of great interest, the limitations of noted works make future investigations of the effect of air pollution on asthma in children essential.

Tzivian L

2011-06-01

272

Air pollution control policy in Switzerland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

1995-12-31

273

Meteorological models and the air pollution simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atmosphere is the main media to transporting and dispersing the radioactive contaminants in global accidental situations. The possibilities of the air pollution simulation using the meteorological models are studied. This paper presents some possibilities in the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Federal Hydrometeorological Institute, Belgrade, for investigations of the environmental impact of chemical and radioactive pollutants released from various power plants and other energy sources. (author)

1998-10-01

274

Handbook: Control technologies for hazardous air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the handbook is to present a methodology for determining the performance and cost of air pollution control techniques designed to reduce or eliminate the emissions of potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from industrial/commercial sources. (Note: The term 'hazardous' in the document is very broad. It is not limited to the specific compounds listed under current regulations). The handbook is to be used by EPA regional, State, and local air pollution control agency technical personnel for two basic purposes: (1) to respond to inquiries from interested parties (e.g., prospective permit applicants) regarding the HAP control requirements that would be needed at a specified process or facility, and (2) to evaluate/review permit applications for sources with the potential to emit HAPs.

Sink, M.K.

1991-06-01

275

the role of industry in air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

1998-01-01

276

Does ambient air pollution trigger stillbirth?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We previously reported an increased risk of stillbirth associated with increases in trimester-specific ambient air pollutant concentrations. Here, we consider whether sudden increase in the mean ambient air pollutant concentration immediately before delivery triggers stillbirth. METHODS: We used New Jersey linked fetal death and hospital discharge data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements from particulate matter ? 2.5 mm (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) monitors across New Jersey for the years 1998-2004. For each stillbirth, we assigned the concentration of air pollutants from the closest monitoring site within 10 km of the maternal residence. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of stillbirth associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in the mean pollutant concentrations on lag day 2 and lag days 2 through 6 before delivery, and whether these associations were modified by maternal risk factors. RESULTS: The relative odds of stillbirth increased with IQR increases in the mean concentrations of CO (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.37), SO2 (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02-1.22), NO2 (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.97-1.26), and PM2.5 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.93-1.22) 2 days before delivery. We found similar associations with increases in pollutants 2 through 6 days before delivery. These associations were not modified by maternal risk factors. CONCLUSION: Short-term increases in ambient air pollutant concentrations immediately before delivery may trigger stillbirth.

Faiz AS; Rhoads GG; Demissie K; Lin Y; Kruse L; Rich DQ

2013-07-01

277

Air pollution concentration around tall buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of pollutants around tall buildings can be influenced by many factors such as down wind effects, waves, airflow due to free convection of heat transfer, building height etc. The main objective of this research was the investigation of the variation of pollutants concentration at different heights around tall buildings. Research was carried out measuring parameters such as Co or particle concentration around tall buildings. This study provided the behavior pattern of air pollution concentration variation at different heights. A comparison was made with a theoretical convection model to verify the trend of experimental results

2000-01-01

278

[Air pollution and cardiovascular disease in Trondheim].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is some evidence linking air pollution to cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to examine whether there is a correlation between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity in the city of Trondheim, Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared the mean daily number of admissions for cardiovascular disease to the St. Olav University hospital on days with relatively low and high levels of PM10 (1993-2001), PM2,5, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, toluene and paraxylene (1998-2001). A time series analysis was carried out to see how day-to-day variations in concentrations of air pollutants correlated with the number of hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, the mean daily number of hospitalizations was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) on days with NO and NO2 levels above the 80 th percentile (57.6 microg/m3 and 43.1 microg/m3, respectively) than on days with pollutant levels below the 20th percentile (11.3 microg/m3 and 16.9 microg/m3, respectively). Time series analysis did not show any statistically significant correlation between day-to-day variations in air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. INTERPRETATION: The findings regarding NO2 and NO indicate that exposure to gases and/or ultra-small particles from diesel exhaust may influence cardiovascular morbidity.

Mannsĺker B; Vikan T; Holme J

2004-05-01

279

Air pollution modelling in Cape Town  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degradation of air quality in the modern metropolitan areas has dictated the need to regulate the environmental effects of energy usage. In South Africa, the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act No. 45 of 1965 assisted in setting the basis for air-pollution control policies. An air pollution control programme, initiated in Cape Town in 1968, resulted in great improvement in the measured concentrations. Dispersion models provide the capability of assessing the effect of pollution control policies on ambient air quality. This presentation describes work carried out on a comparison of measured pollution levels in Greater Cape Town (GCT) with that predicted using an EPA environmental model. The chosen model for this study was the Industrial Source Complex Short Term 2 (ISCST2). Due allowance has to be made for the topographical complexity of the region, and the model is accepted as being applicable to certain areas under given meteorological conditions. The model`s accuracy is assessed with the use of available hourly SO{sub 2} concentrations, at three monitoring stations in the area and under different meteorological conditions

Dracoulides, D.A.; Dutkiewicz, R.K. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa)

1995-12-31

280

Air pollution sources, impact and monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improper management of socio-economic developmental activities has put a great stress on natural resources and eco-systems and has caused environmental degradation. Indiscriminate release of toxic substances into the atmosphere from power generation, industrial operations, transportation, incineration of waste and other operations has affected the quality of ambient air. Combustion of fossil fuel results in the emission of oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, particulate and organic compounds which affect the local, regional and global environment. Industrial operations release a wide variety of pollutants which directly affect the local environment. Operation of automobiles releases oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, traces of heavy metals and toxic polycyclic aromatic compounds whereas incineration of municipal waste releases particulate, acid fumes and photochemically reactive and odorous compounds. These air pollutants have varying impacts on health and environment. The intake of polluted air may produce various physiological disorders ranging from respiratory diseases to changes in blood chemistry. Therefore, the emission of pollutants should be controlled at the source and monitoring the levels of pollution should assess the quality of air. (author)

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Annual air pollution report for 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present annual report contains the data collected in the course of the continuous air pollution monitoring conducted by the Bayerische Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz (Environment Protection Agency of the Land of Bavaria). The monitored pollutants are carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen monoxide and dioxide, ozone, and air-borne dust. The report also gives a chronology of the weather for comparison pruposes. Deposition studies were performed using rainwater analysis and bioindicators in order to determine the geographical distribution of environementally harmful substances (sulphur, nitrogen, heavy metals) and ozone impact on plants. The report presents different kinds of bioindicators. (SR)

1994-01-01

282

The 1991 global air pollution control industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This market analysis of the global impact of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act on the air pollution industry includes an examination of significant requirements of the law, and the various technological developments necessary to produce emission reductions. A key point is the need for improved equipment not only in the US and other industrialized countries, but in developing countries as well. One critical component discussed is the demand for an increase in training and personnel to build, supply, and operate pollution control equipment.

McIlvaine, R.W. (The McIlvaine Co., Northbrook, IL (United States))

1991-05-01

283

The 1991 global air pollution control industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This market analysis of the global impact of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act on the air pollution industry includes an examination of significant requirements of the law, and the various technological developments necessary to produce emission reductions. A key point is the need for improved equipment not only in the United States and other industrialized countries, but in developing countries as well. One critical component discussed is the demand for an increase in training and personnel to build, supply, and operate pollution control equipment. 11 figs.

McIlvaine, R.W. (McIlvaine Company, Northbrook, IL (USA))

1991-03-01

284

Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1989-05-01

285

Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO2, CO and O3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed by a law proposed by the Italian Ministries of Health and Environment. The relation of that index with some meteorological variables is analysed by the linear multiple partial correlation statistical method. Florence, Milan and Vicence were selected to show the correlation among the air pollution index and the daily thermic excursion, the previous day's air pollution index and the wind speed. During the January-March period the correlation coefficient reaches 0.85 at Milan. The deterministic methods of forecasting air pollution concentrations show very high evaluation errors and are applied on limited areas around the observation stations, as opposed to the whole urban areas. The global air pollution, instead of the concentrations at specific observation stations, allows the evaluation of the level of the sanitary risk regarding the whole urban population. (Author)

2001-01-01

286

Indoor Air Pollution in China:Analysis of Global Warming Contributions and Exposure to Particles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

About 60% of the Chinese population lives in rural areas, where biomass and coal are the main sources of energy for cooking and heating. Indoor air pollution from household fuel burning is a major health concern, responsible for at least 420,000 premature deaths annually in China alone. However, les...

Alnes,Line Winther Hansen

287

Air pollution assessment using hierarchical fuzzy inference systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the current state of air pollution assessment. Air pollution is currently realized by air pollution indices and air stress indices. However, these approaches have some limitations which can be eliminated e.g. using systems based on fuzzy logic. Therefore, we design a hierarchical ...

Hájek, Petr; Olej, Vladimír

288

Preliminary air pollution monitoring in San Miguel, Buenos Aires.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Passive diffusion samplers were employed in San Miguel (Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area) for a preliminary air pollution monitoring. The highest loads were observed in downtown, compared with an urban background site. Total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) varied from 0.257 to 0.033 mg cm(-2) month(-1); dust was examined for particle nature and size distribution. A similar trend was observed for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and TSPM spatial distribution, suggesting that traffic is the major pollution source. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) values were low and rather homogeneous. Levels for the investigated pollutants are below EPA's guide line values. Geographic (flat area, near to Rio de La Plata) and climatologic factors (rainfalls and variable wind directions) contribute to disperse pollutants.

Fagundez LA; Fernández VL; Marino TH; Martín I; Persano DA; Rivarola Y Benítez M; Sadańiowski IV; Codnia J; Zalts A

2001-09-01

289

Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

Chiara Bertora; Francesco Alluvione; Laura Zavattaro; Carlo Grignani

2010-01-01

290

Air pollution problem in forestry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is now possible to say definitely: the causes of dying forests are quite clearly a whole bundle of factors of which each one under certain circumstances could be the decisive factor in the damage but even more so far the extent of the damage. The most important factors to consider among the atmospheric pollutants are sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, heavy metals and photo-oxidants both in isolation and in their transformation products, as well as in their joint effects. Thus, the thesis hardens that sulphur dioxide is the central factor which, in its joint effect with other atmospheric pollutants puts plants under ''chemical stress'' which make them more susceptible to other harmful effects and thus triggers the damage to the forests. In this situation the continuation of the environmental strategy pursued hitherto must be urged forward emphatically as a precautionary measure against damage to forests, especially - the removal or considerable reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions from combustion plants, especially large-scale ones - considerable reductions of sulphur-dioxide ''imports'' from other countries. Measures for the removal or reduction of emissions must start from the ''source''. This applies in principle equally to ''sources'' at home and in other countries.

Rehbock, N.

1982-01-01

291

Health impact of air pollution to children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed differential expression of 104 genes. Specifically, biological processes related to immune and defense response were down-regulated in Ceske Budejovice. Our studies demonstrate that air pollution significantly affect child health. Especially noticeable is the increase of respiratory morbidity. With the development of molecular epidemiology, we can further evaluate the health risk of air pollution using biomarkers. PMID:23312845

Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

2013-01-10

292

Health impact of air pollution to children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed differential expression of 104 genes. Specifically, biological processes related to immune and defense response were down-regulated in Ceske Budejovice. Our studies demonstrate that air pollution significantly affect child health. Especially noticeable is the increase of respiratory morbidity. With the development of molecular epidemiology, we can further evaluate the health risk of air pollution using biomarkers.

Sram RJ; Binkova B; Dostal M; Merkerova-Dostalova M; Libalova H; Milcova A; Rossner P Jr; Rossnerova A; Schmuczerova J; Svecova V; Topinka J; Votavova H

2013-08-01

293

Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised.

1997-01-01

294

Air pollution control at a DOE facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

1995-01-01

295

Uptake and physiological effects of air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollutants diffuse across the stomata and the cuticle into the interior of the aerial parts of plants. Within a limited concentration range, some are metabolized by common metabolic pathways. During increased or continuous deposition primary metabolic processes become altered, resulting in acute and chronic injuries.

Lendzian, K.J.

1987-06-01

296

Air pollutant deposition measurement on grassland ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deposition of air pollutants was measured in grassland ecosystems of the Federal Republic of Germany. The concentration of mercury oxide, lead and cadmium was monitored. The results are discussed and show that mercury dioxide is one of the main factors, which is damaging trees directly.

Fleckenstein, J.; Jaeger, H.J.

1985-01-01

297

EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

Science.gov (United States)

The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

298

Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

1987-01-01

299

HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

300

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

 
 
 
 
301

Air pollution, the automobile, and public health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author reviews a volume of articles written by experts in the study of air pollution and its effects. The Health Effects Institute, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, commissioned the articles. Described as an excellent review of scientific and technological work in the field, its weakness is a failure to adequately address risk assessment.

Wilson, R.

1989-05-01

302

Mapping air pollution. Application of nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear techniques have important applications in the study of air pollution and many of its components. However, it is in the study of airborne particulate matter (APM) that nuclear analytical techniques find many of their most important applications. This article focuses on those applications, and on the work of the IAEA in this important field of study. 2 figs

1996-01-01

303

Respiratory effects of indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. A large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This article provides a selective summary of this new information with an emphasis on health effects relevant to health care practitioners concerned primarily with immunologically mediated respiratory diseases. We address exposures associated with acute and chronic respiratory effects: tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide, wood smoke, and formaldehyde. The article also describes the diverse health problems experienced by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The importance of indoor concentrations in determining personal exposures to pollutants is emphasized.

Samet, J.M.; Marbury, M.C.; Spengler, J.D.

1987-05-01

304

AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200) live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

Dragana Niki?; Dušica Stojanovi?; Aleksandra Stankovi?; Maja Nikoli?

2004-01-01

305

Air pollution market expands worldwide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Expansion of the electrostatic precipitator market is reported. The biggest expansion appears to have taken place in the power generation industry where 95 per cent of the coal-fired power plants are said to be using electrostatic precipitators for controlling emission of particulates. The pulp and paper and the cement industry are second and third behind the electric power industry, with metals and mining, and the chemical industry being the other members of the 'big five'. Wood particle driers and paint finishing facilities have recently shown substantial increases of using electrostatic precipitators. The use of wet precipitators has also shown significant increase, primarily as a means of reducing SO3 and heavy metals emitted from power plant stacks. Combined annual expenditure on operating electrostatic precipitators is reported to exceed US$ 12 billion. New purchases in 1999 are expected to reach US$ 1.3 billion. ABB, Lurgi, FLS and Mitsubishi are the principal suppliers, with several Chinese companies making their way into the top ten. China and the United States will be the top purchasing countries, but there will be expenditures in 80 countries and regions, many of them in developing countries

1999-01-01

306

Land survey map of air pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first step toward finding a solution to the problems with air pollution is the realization of a land survey map of polluters and a constant acquisition of data from periodical controls of emission of harmful materials, which will be carried out with a determined dynamic. Such a land survey map is not a project which should be finished within a strict time limit, but is intended to create all conditions for a periodical monitoring of emission of harmful materials from registered polluters in order to make a periodical, exact picture of the quantity of harmful materials, which are conveyed by polluters in certain city, a part of the state or the whole country. (author). 4 ills

1996-01-01

307

Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

1988-05-01

308

Economic assessment of air pollution. Economic evaluation of the effects of air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cost incurred every year in West Germany due to air pollution is investigated. Damage to buildings, materials, and vegetation are evaluated as well as the cost of additional cleaning work and changes of location with the objective of getting a picture of the economic value of air pollution abatement. The findings are based on data of immission damage in high-exposure areas. Damage is assessed in consideration of the frequency of repair measures in industrial and country atmosphere. Further research will be necessary in view of the many problems concerning methods and availability of basic statistical data. The sequential cost estimated for a few selected cases of damage show that economic losses due to air pollution amount to several thousand million DM. Air pollution abatement measures thus do not only improve our quality of life but also help to save considerable cost to our national economy.

Heinz, I.

1980-01-01

309

Endothelial damage due to air pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first human deaths due to air pollution were recorded in the mid-20th century. There were 6,000 cases of illness recorded in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948 and 20,000 in London in 1952; 15 and 4,000 cases of death, respectively, were allegedly ascribed to air pollution. Since then, many countries have adopted standards of air quality in order to protect environmental and human health, although the quality of the air in some industrialized countries remains worrying. Emerging countries in the Far East and South America are also cause for concern because of the growth in the population, industrialization and transport. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimated that air pollutants, particularly PM10, are associated with a mortality rate of 5% for cancer of the respiratory system, 2% for cardiovascular diseases and about 1% for respiratory tract infections. These estimates consider the mortality but not the morbidity rate, which would increase proportionally the number of cases of these pathologies, despite the difficulty in evaluation.

Savina Nodari; Alessandra Corulli; Alessandra Manerba; Marco Metra; Pietro Apostoli; Livio Dei Cas

2010-01-01

310

Endothelial damage due to air pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first human deaths due to air pollution were recorded in the mid-20th century. There were 6,000 cases of illness recorded in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948 and 20,000 in London in 1952; 15 and 4,000 cases of death, respectively, were allegedly ascribed to air pollution. Since then, many countries have adopted standards of air quality in order to protect environmental and human health, although the quality of the air in some industrialized countries remains worrying. Emerging countries in the Far East and South America are also cause for concern because of the growth in the population, industrialization and transport. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimated that air pollutants, particularly PM10, are associated with a mortality rate of 5% for cancer of the respiratory system, 2% for cardiovascular diseases and about 1% for respiratory tract infections. These estimates consider the mortality but not the morbidity rate, which would increase proportionally the number of cases of these pathologies, despite the difficulty in evaluation.

Savina Nodari; Alessandra Corulli; Alessandra Manerba; Marco Metra; Pietro Apostoli; Livio Dei Cas

2006-01-01

311

THE STATUS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH 1976  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous research projects have examined the occurrences of air pollution in outdoor and workplace environments. A smaller, newer body of research has examined air pollution in nonworkplace, indoor environments. A new emphasis on measures to conserve energy in buildings, curbing ...

312

Modeling Forest Responses to Air Pollution: Discussion Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discussion session outlined three required elements of any approach to modeling forest responses to air pollution: deposition models, models of primary plant responses to air pollutants, and models to translate those responses into altered patterns of...

P. J. Hanson

1988-01-01

313

Integration of a computational grid and virtual geographic environment to facilitate air pollution simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution, which is a global environmental problem, has been the hot research area among the scientists in the geoscience community. Air pollution simulation is of low-efficiency caused by the computation-intensive models, such as MM5 or WRF, and the complicated and unfriendly user interface. These issues are addressed in this paper by integrating computational grid and virtual geographic environment (VGE). The computational grid is employed to improve the computation efficiency of air pollution models. The VGE is used as a straightforward and easy to use interface to navigate the air pollution modeling workflow and improve the operational efficiencies of the models with respect to initiation, computation, and output visualization. On the aspect of technique implementation, this paper designs a framework and addresses the methodologies of the integration of computational grid and VGE. The prototype system, which integrates the computation grid of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUGrid) and a VGE to facilitate air pollution simulation based on the Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5), was developed. Based on the prototype system, a case was tested and the results indicate that the efficiencies of air pollution simulation on the model computation and workflow operation based on MM5 are increased significantly. This success also proves the reasonability of our general contribution of integrating computational grid and VGE to facilitate air pollution simulation.

Xu, Bingli; Lin, Hui; Gong, Jianhua; Tang, Sammy; Hu, Ya; Nasser, Ibrahim Abdoul; Jing, Tao

2013-04-01

314

Sources of Indoor Air Pollution- Improving Indoor Air Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: source control, improved ventilation, and air cleaners. This site offers the reader some insights to improving air quality through increased ventilation, air cleaners for particle removal, and other common sense methods that may be employed. Many times the quality of the air in our homes and public or office buildings is marginal at best. The sources of indoor pollution may be outside of our ability to rectify or it may be as simple as adjusting the flame on our furnace or kitchen stove or maybe something as simple as opening a door or window. However, in many instances we have no control over the air quality because of the materials used in the construction of the building.

2007-01-21

315

Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 ?m (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ?35 years. For an increase of 10 ?g·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs. PMID:23314899

Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

2013-01-11

316

Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 ?m (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ?35 years. For an increase of 10 ?g·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

Faustini A; Stafoggia M; Colais P; Berti G; Bisanti L; Cadum E; Cernigliaro A; Mallone S; Scarnato C; Forastiere F

2013-08-01

317

Air pollution and congenital heart defects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Environmental factors such as ambient air pollution have been associated with congenital heart defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital heart defects. We conducted a registry-based cohort study with a total of 135,527 live- and still-births in the Tel-Aviv region during 2000-2006. We used a Geographic Information System-based spatiotemporal approach with weekly inverse distance weighting modeling to evaluate associations between gestational exposure to ambient air pollution during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk for congenital heart defects. The following pollutants were studied: carbon monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, ozone, sulfur-dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 ?m and 2.5 ?m (PM10, PM2.5 respectively). Logistic models, adjusted for socio-demographic covariates were used to evaluate the associations. We found that maternal exposure to increased concentrations of PM10 was associated with multiple congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10 for 10 ?g/m(3) increment). An inverse association was observed between concentrations of PM2.5 and isolated patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91 for 5 µg/m(3) increment). Sensitivity analyses showed that results were consistent. Generally there were no evidence for an association between gaseous air pollutants and congenital heart defects.Our results for PM10 and congenital heart defects confirm results from previous studies. The results for PM2.5 need further investigations.

Agay-Shay K; Friger M; Linn S; Peled A; Amitai Y; Peretz C

2013-07-01

318

Ozone, air pollution, and respiratory health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of the outdoor air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act of 1970 (and recently revised in 1990), ozone has been the one pollutant most difficult to control within the federal standards. The known human health effects are all on the respiratory system. At concentrations of ozone which occur during summer air-pollution episodes in many urban metropolitan areas of the United States, a portion of the healthy population is likely to experience symptoms and reversible effects on lung function, particularly if exercising heavily outdoors. More prolonged increase in airway responsiveness and the presence of inflammatory cells and mediators in the airway lining fluid may also result from these naturally occurring exposures. Serial exposures to peak levels of ozone on several consecutive days are more characteristic of pollution episodes in the Northeast United States and may be associated with recurrent symptoms. No 'high-risk' or more sensitive group has been found, in contrast to the case of sulfur dioxide, to which asthmatics are more susceptible than normals. The occurrence of multiple exposure episodes within a single year over many years in some areas of California has led to studies looking for chronic effects of ozone exposure on the lung. To date, no conclusive studies have been reported, although further work is under way. Much of what we know about the effects of this gas on the lung are based on controlled exposures to pure gas within an environmental exposure laboratory. Interactions between substances which commonly co-occur in air-pollution episodes are also under investigation.22 references.

Beckett, W.S. (Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (Unites States))

1991-03-01

319

Air pollution and congenital heart defects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental factors such as ambient air pollution have been associated with congenital heart defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital heart defects. We conducted a registry-based cohort study with a total of 135,527 live- and still-births in the Tel-Aviv region during 2000-2006. We used a Geographic Information System-based spatiotemporal approach with weekly inverse distance weighting modeling to evaluate associations between gestational exposure to ambient air pollution during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk for congenital heart defects. The following pollutants were studied: carbon monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, ozone, sulfur-dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 ?m and 2.5 ?m (PM10, PM2.5 respectively). Logistic models, adjusted for socio-demographic covariates were used to evaluate the associations. We found that maternal exposure to increased concentrations of PM10 was associated with multiple congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10 for 10 ?g/m(3) increment). An inverse association was observed between concentrations of PM2.5 and isolated patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91 for 5 µg/m(3) increment). Sensitivity analyses showed that results were consistent. Generally there were no evidence for an association between gaseous air pollutants and congenital heart defects.Our results for PM10 and congenital heart defects confirm results from previous studies. The results for PM2.5 need further investigations. PMID:23623715

Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

2013-04-25

320

Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

1996-04-01

322

POLUTE. Forest Air Pollutant Uptake Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

POLUTE is a computer model designed to estimate the uptake of air pollutants by forests. The model utilizes submodels to describe atmospheric diffusion immediately above and within the canopy, and into the sink areas within or on the trees. The program implementing the model is general and can be used, with only minor changes, for any gaseous pollutant. The model provides an estimate describing the response of the vegetarian-atmosphere system to the environment as related to three types of processes: atmospheric diffusion, diffusion near and inside the absorbing plant, and the physical and chemical processes at the sink on or within the plant.

Murphy, C.E. Jr. [Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC (United States); Sinclair, T.R. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

1992-02-13

323

Respiratory effects of air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evaluation of the effects of long-term exposure and 24 hr exposure to SO/sub 2/ and particles is based mainly on epidemiological data. Together with other pollutants SO/sub 2/ and particles can produce an increased incidence of acute and chronic symptoms in airways and impaired lung function in adults. These effects occur at annual means of about 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ and at daily means of 150-300 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. In recent studies of short term exposure to SO/sub 2/ healthy adults exhibited increased airway resistance at 3000 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ and asthma patients at 700 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, measured during physical exercise. The outdoor threshold limit value for 1 hr (at most 1 per cent of the time) which is at present used in Sweden is almost equal to the level at which asthmatics are affected. Risk evaluation of NO/sub 2/ is based almost entirely on experimental data. Experiments using humans and animals indicate adverse effects such as irritation and/or increased susceptibility to bacterial infections in airways as a result of exposure to about 1000 ..mu..g NO/sub 2//m/sup 3/. Recent experiments in humans indicate that levels lower than 1000 ..mu..g//sup 3/, may be as low as 200-500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, might affect lung function. Data on these low levels must however be considered ambiguous. As a rather large number of people in Sweden, healthy as well as ill, may be exposed to levels of about 200 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ and above, it is reasonable to suspect that adverse effects are produced at the levels occuring today in urban areas. Short-term exposure to ozone can produce adverse effects at levels of 200-500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. In epidemiological studies short-term exposure to 200-500 ..mu..g O/sub 3//m/sup 3/ has been associated with impaired lung function in adults and children, increased frequency of asthmatic symptoms and irritation of the eyes as well as reduced athletic capacity. It should be emphasized that a larger number of people are exposed to high levels of oxidants than to high levels of NO/sub 2/, in outdoor situations.

Camner, P.; Ewetz, L.; Lindvall, T. (Statens miljoemedicinska laboratorium, Stockholm (Sweden))

1983-03-01

324

Air pollution control in an age of prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the case of air pollution control technology, the case for pollution prevention is frequently cast as a case against pollution control technology. The errors in this argument are that pollution control technology is always the more expensive compliance option and that pollution prevention techniques exist to solve all or most of US air quality problems. A true market-based clean air policy would not contain these assumptions, would set a goal and appoint the market as the arbiter of final compliance decisions. This article discusses the market-based option and the balance needed between pollution prevention and pollution control technologies.

Smith, J.C. [Institute of Clean Air Companies, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-01-01

325

Continuous air pollution monitoring. Schadgase kontinuierlich messen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Details are given about continuous air pollution monitoring techniques and their rapid development. Reliable measuring techniques are available today for analysis of a large number of pollutants. Ever smaller concentrations can be measured applying these techniques to highly automated measuring systems. New measuring methods are developed and existing measuring systems are optimized for measurement of the very low maximum permissible concentrations dictated by the stricter legal regulations. Approved and well-tried measuring instruments are available for most of the known pollutants. The problems one still faces measuring concentrations of hydrochloric acid can be solved through simpler, more reliable measuring systems. The manufacturers are making efforts to improve the systems' cost-benefit relations. (orig.)

Brandl, A. (TUEV Bayern, Muenchen (Germany)); Fabinski, W. (Hartmann und Braun AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

1993-03-01

326

Regional scale air pollution - Sources and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several independent types of information relating to the sources and effects of regional-scale air pollution are reviewed. Much of the information was obtained by in situ observations of plumes and field studies of individual pollution episodes. Attention is given to anthropogenic pollution sources in the U.S. (primarily fossil fuel combustion), rates of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ emission from such sources, ambient concentrations of sulfur compounds, the long-range transport of sulfate aerosol, and visibility trends in the eastern U.S. It is concluded that an episode of extreme haziness covering multistate regions of the eastern U.S. appeared to have been largely caused by secondary sulfate aerosol, that coal combustion and sulfate are only one factor in the production of optical effects, and that spatial and temporal aerosol trends and distributions of coal use, sulfate, light extinction, turbidity, and solar radiation exhibit reasonable internal consistency

1979-01-12

327

VALMET-A valley air pollution model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

1983-09-01

328

Motor Vehicles Air Pollution in Nairobi, Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air quality monitoring in most developing countries is not routinely conducted, and in some urban areas such information does not even exist, though signs of deteriorating air quality and health problems related to air pollution are visible. By measuring air pollutants (i.e., Nitrogen Oxides, ozone, suspended particulates matter (PM10), and trace elements e.g. lead), this study investigated air quality in Nairobi, one of the largest cities in eastern Africa and the capital of Kenya. Sampling was done once a week from February to April 2003. Hourly average concentrations of NOx and O3 were measured using a technique that is based on "chemilumiscent" reaction at a site connecting two main highways in Nairobi (University and Uhuru) from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. PM10 was collected using “Gent” Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) air sampler fitted with nucleopore filters (0.4 and 8.0 mm pore size for fine and coarse filters, respectively) that were analyzed for trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF) technique. An automatic vehicle counter was used for determining the vehicle density at the sampling site. Results show that most pollutants, for example, lead (0.05 1 to 1.106 µg/m3), bromine (LLD to 0.43 µg/m3), NO2 (0.011-0.976 ppm), NO (0.001-0.2628 ppm) and O3 (LLD-0.1258 ppm) are within the WHO guidelines. PM10 levels (66.66 - 444.45 µg/m3) were above the WHO guidelines for most of the days, with coarse particulate accounting for more than 70%. Strong correlation (r = 0.966) between fine (0.4 µm) particulates, NOx, and motor vehicle density, indicate the importance of traffic as a common source for both fine particulates and NOx.

George Odhiambo; A.M. Kinyua, C.K. Gatebe and J. Awange

2010-01-01

329

Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 1 May 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.15.

Ozkaynak H; Baxter LK; Dionisio KL; Burke J

2013-05-01

330

Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

1996-12-01

331

Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (micrograms/m3) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5--15 micrograms in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (less than 2.5 micrometers). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

Perry, G.B.; Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

1983-01-01

332

1986 air pollution control market forecast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are more employees in small air pollution control companies and fewer employees in large air pollution control companies than there were four years ago. The trend has been for the larger companies to shrink and divest and for new companies to appear on the scene. One of the main reasons is that, in general, the larger companies have focused almost exclusively on the utility industry. They have purposely shed activities in the steel, chemical, foundry and other smaller market segments to focus on what was once a huge utility market. This may be a good long-term strategy because of the very promising future for the utility segment. However, at present, these companies have had to reduce their staffs to skeletons of their former selves. Many of these companies are now expanding their horizons to include waste-to-energy plants to tide them over.

McIlvaine, R.W.

1986-03-01

333

Uncertainty in exposure to air pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess exposure to air pollution for a person or for a group of people, one needs to know where the person or group is as a function of time, and what the air pollution is at these times and locations. In this study we used the Albatross activity-based model to assess the whereabouts of people and the uncertainties in this, and a probabilistic air quality system based on TAPM/EPISODE to assess air quality probabilistically. The outcomes of the two models were combined to assess exposure to air pollution, and the errors in it. We used the area around Rotterdam (Netherlands) as a case study. As the outcomes of both models come as Monte Carlo realizations, it was relatively easy to cancel one of the sources of uncertainty (movement of persons, air pollution) in order to identify their respective contributions, and also to compare evaluations for individuals with averages for a population of persons. As the output is probabilistic, and in addition spatially and temporally varying, the visual analysis of the complete results poses some challenges. This case study was one of the test cases in the UncertWeb project, which has built concepts and tools to realize the uncertainty-enabled model web. Some of the tools and protocols will be shown and evaluated in this presentation. For the uncertainty of exposure, the uncertainty of air quality was more important than the uncertainty of peoples locations. This difference was stronger for PM10 than for NO2. The workflow was implemented as generic Web services in UncertWeb that also allow for other inputs than the simulated activity schedules and air quality with other resolution. However, due to this flexibility, the Web services require standardized formats and the overlay algorithm is not optimized for the specific use case resulting in a data and processing overhead. Hence, we implemented the full analysis in parallel in R, for this specific case as the model web solution had difficulties with massive data.

Pebesma, Edzer; Helle, Kristina; Christoph, Stasch; Rasouli, Soora; Timmermans, Harry; Walker, Sam-Erik; Denby, Bruce

2013-04-01

334

Industrial emissions and air pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of recent environmental initiatives and regulatory requirements in Canada is presented, focusing on emission control options and approaches that have proven to be useful in meeting some of the requirements. End-of-pipe treatment technologies currently being utilized to meet air quality requirements and which touch on key federal government initiatives such as meeting targets established under the Kyoto Protocol, are also reviewed. Emission reduction and control technologies with regard to air pollutants such as carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides are highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Hansen, K. J. [Amec Earth and Environmental, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2003-12-01

335

Air pollution from wood energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rising fossil fuel costs since the Arab oil embargo in 1973 have led to expanded use of wood as an energy resource. Regions with substantial forestland such as New England, the Southeast, and Northwest have increased use of wood for home heating, industrial uses, and even generation of electricity. Wood combustion has, however, already created significant air pollution loads in some areas. Therefore, the attention of scientists, environmentalists, industries, and government regulatory agencies has focused on air emissions from wood combustion and methods to control them. The sizeable volume of literature, developing in response, is reflected in the bibliography.

Sullivan, E.O.; Mullin, E.D.

1980-01-01

336

Fighting corrosion in air pollution control systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that materials is the name of the game for corrosion prevention in air pollution control equipment. Whether the system is already in place, a retrofit, are specified for a new power pant, preventing corrosion is critical, because such deterioration easily undermines reliability. Hence, materials can heavily influence power plant compliance to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, perhaps the most vulnerable area to corrosion, are expected to be the method of choice for sulfur removal in many power plants in the near term. Components of these systems have various degrees of susceptibility to corrosion and related problems

1991-01-01

337

Estimation of Citywide Air Pollution in Beijing  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been discrepancies between the daily air quality reports of the Beijing municipal government, observations recorded at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, and Beijing residents’ perceptions of air quality. This study estimates Beijing’s daily area PM2.5 mass concentration by means of a novel technique SPA (Single Point Areal Estimation) that uses data from the single PM2.5 observation station of the U.S Embassy and the 18 PM10 observation stations of the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau. The proposed technique accounts for empirical relationships between different types of observations, and generates best linear unbiased pollution estimates (in a statistical sense). The technique extends the daily PM2.5 mass concentrations obtained at a single station (U.S. Embassy) to a citywide scale using physical relations between pollutant concentrations at the embassy PM2.5 monitoring station and at the 18 official PM10 stations that are evenly distributed across the city. Insight about the technique’s spatial estimation accuracy (uncertainty) is gained by means of theoretical considerations and numerical validations involving real data. The technique was used to study citywide PM2.5 pollution during the 423-day period of interest (May 10, 2010 to December 6, 2011). Finally, a freely downloadable software library is provided that performs all relevant calculations of pollution estimation.

Wang, Jin-Feng; Hu, Mao-Gui; Xu, Cheng-Dong; Christakos, George; Zhao, Yu

2013-01-01

338

Critical issues in air pollution epidemiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The epidemiological studies which have had significant impact on the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) were performed more than twenty years ago. Most of the more recent studies have been seriously flawed in their design and/or execution because they neglected to account for important variables such as: pollutant exposures other than those from ambient air; the influence of personal activity on pollutant uptake; host responsiveness; and the separate contributions of recent transient peak exposures and long-term chronic exposures on the effects endpoints. For particulate pollutants, the influence of composition and size distribution has also received too little consideration. In order to address these deficiencies, research and methods development are needed on: indices for particulate exposures; identification of exposures relevant to the effects; improved indices of effects; acquisition of response data; identification of exposed populations; and identification of susceptible subgroups. Approaches to these needs are discussed, along with brief reviews of several recent studies that have focused on critical issues of concern, made the necessary efforts to characterize the relevant exposures of the populations being studied, and demonstrated human responses to ambient pollutants at current exposure levels.

Lippmann M; Lioy PJ

1985-10-01

339

Estimation of citywide air pollution in Beijing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been discrepancies between the daily air quality reports of the Beijing municipal government, observations recorded at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, and Beijing residents' perceptions of air quality. This study estimates Beijing's daily area PM(2.5) mass concentration by means of a novel technique SPA (Single Point Areal Estimation) that uses data from the single PM(2.5) observation station of the U.S Embassy and the 18 PM(10) observation stations of the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau. The proposed technique accounts for empirical relationships between different types of observations, and generates best linear unbiased pollution estimates (in a statistical sense). The technique extends the daily PM(2.5) mass concentrations obtained at a single station (U.S. Embassy) to a citywide scale using physical relations between pollutant concentrations at the embassy PM(2.5) monitoring station and at the 18 official PM(10) stations that are evenly distributed across the city. Insight about the technique's spatial estimation accuracy (uncertainty) is gained by means of theoretical considerations and numerical validations involving real data. The technique was used to study citywide PM(2.5) pollution during the 423-day period of interest (May 10, 2010 to December 6, 2011). Finally, a freely downloadable software library is provided that performs all relevant calculations of pollution estimation.

Wang JF; Hu MG; Xu CD; Christakos G; Zhao Y

2013-01-01

340

[Air pollution and health risk communication  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The risk communication processes concerning atmospheric pollution and health effects in Modena, Reggio Emilia and Bologna, are described from the public health service point of view. The description includes the chronological developments, the principal events which influenced, or have been influenced by these risk communication processes, their most significant and critical aspects. Finally the air quality evaluation and its impact on risk communication is discussed.

Guberti E; Biocca M; Martini M

1995-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Air pollution modeling and its application VIII  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The eighteenth International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its application was held in Vancouver, Canada. 103 papers were presented in 5 sessions, and the subject was divided as follows: model assessment and policy implications; regional acid deposition and oxidant modelling; regional scale modelling; global scale dispersion studies including sub-grid scale parameterization of transport and exchange processes; accidental releases including radioactivity and dense gas dispersion; and new developments in dispersion modelling and theory. Two papers are abstracted separately.

van Dop, H.; Steyn, D.G. (eds.) (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland))

1991-01-01

342

Procedure for description of air pollution sources in coking plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes a standardized method for data compilation on air pollution in coking plants. The following pollution sources are considered: coal storage, crushing, mixing, coal haulage to coke ovens, coal charging to coke ovens, coke discharge from coke ovens, dry coke quenching, discharge of gases from dry coke quenching systems, cooling towers, coke grading, coke transport and failures of coking machines and installations. Documentation on pollution sources and causes also supplies information on pollutant types: coal or coke dusts, gases and vapors (phenols, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfides, hydrocyanic acid and hydrocarbons). Standardized documentation on pollution supplies information on pollutant concentration, method used for pollution measurement, exact position of measuring instruments (for repetition of measurements and comparative evaluations of air pollution). Examples of a standardized system for data compilation on air pollution in coking plants are discussed. Selected methods for determining air pollution in coking plants used in the USSR are also evaluated. (14 refs.)

Karandashova, G.V.; Nechaeva, O.V.; Zaidenberg, M.A.; Stefanenko, V.T.

1983-05-01

343

Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

B?nl?kke, Jakob; Br?nnum-Hansen, Henrik

2013-01-01

344

Population dynamics and air pollution: the impact of demographics on health impact assessment of air pollution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. METHODS: Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. RESULTS: The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005-2050. CONCLUSION: The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

Flachs EM; Sřrensen J; Břnlřkke J; Brřnnum-Hansen H

2013-01-01

345

Population Dynamics and Air Pollution : The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; SŘrensen, Jan

2013-01-01

346

Modelling of air pollution - its use and limitations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article offers a different perspective on modelling for air pollutants and has been written in response to Dr. Middleton's article, Discourse on Air Quality Modelling, carried in Clean Air, No. 6, 1997. (Author)

Scorer, R.S. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)

1998-06-01

347

Critical review of toxic air pollutants - revisited  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1983, the author wrote a critical review on toxic air pollutants. A major focus of that review was the scientific methods and concepts which underlie decisions on how to regulate atmospheric hazards. Part of that focus was on the need for crucial scientific studies and obtaining additional information for decision making. A few months after the publication of the review the author began a two year period as head of the Environmental Protection Agency's Research and Development Program, reviewing the science behind EPA regulations and making decisions on where to invest scarce research dollars to address the numerous, diverse and tough scientific questions behind environmental regulation. Given this experience, the author's perspective on the issue of toxic substances in the air has changed. Although he has not changed his opinion as to the role of science and technology, if written today his review of toxic air pollutants would add another emphasis - the clean Air Act. The law, its limitations, underlying assumptions and legal interpretations have a major impact on formulating a research and development program responsive to the Agency's needs. It has become apparent that not only is a sound understanding of the basic principles of toxicology necessary for intelligent action by a regulatory agency, it is also needed by those writing our laws in Congress.

Goldstein, B.D.

1986-04-01

348

Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

1995-01-01

349

Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

Engel, J.A.

1995-08-01

350

Plants witness of air pollution; Des plantes temoins de la pollution de l'air  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The list of plants liable to be used as markers of air pollution is long. Tobacco and clover can be used to monitor ozone, cabbage or scots pine for organic compounds such dioxin, benzene, pesticides. Other ones are multi targets, as mosses that accumulate heavy metals, pesticides and other pollutants. Cabbages or ray-grass (through cow milk) are one link in the food chain and then are indicators of sanitary impact. (N.C.)

Clicquot de Mentque, C.

2000-05-01

351

Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM10), while the associations with SO2 and NO2 are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs.

2000-01-01

352

Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM{sub 1}0), while the associations with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs.

Hansen, A.C. [Statistics Norway, Oslo (Norway); Selte, H.K. [Norwegian Competition Authority, Oslo (Norway)

2000-05-01

353

EFFECTIVENESS OF AIR CLEANERS FOR REDUCING RISK FROM INDOOR POLLUTANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Air cleaners may provide a cost effective way of reducing individual exposure and risk to indoor air pollutants. The effectiveness of indoor air cleaners depends on factors such as the single pass efficiency, the rate that air is circulated through the air cleaner, the air cleane...

354

Air pollution and daily mortality in Cracow.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several studies indicated that short-term increases in concentration of pollution in the atmosphere of a town may result in increased mortality in the days following the episode. To evaluate this relationship we analyzed data on daily mortality in Cracow, Poland, in the period 1977-1989 and data on daily concentrations of suspended particulates (PM 20) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the town area. This analysis was restricted to winter months. In 1167 winter days, an average of 18.4 deaths of Cracow residents occurred daily. PM 20 concentration exceeded 300 micrograms/m3 in 21%, and SO2 exceeded 200 micrograms/m3 in 19% of those days. The correlation coefficient of the daily number of deaths with the air pollution in the 24 hours preceding the day of death was 0.093 (p < 0.01) for PM 20, and was 0.141 (p < 0.001) for SO2. Similar correlations were found for air pollution levels in the four days preceding death, and the correlation decreased for earlier days. The effects were more pronounced in people over 65 years of age than in those younger, especially in males. After adjustment for SO2 levels, PM 20 had no additional effect on mortality. It was estimated that with an increase of SO2 concentration of 100 micrograms/m3, the daily number of deaths due to respiratory system diseases increased by 19% and deaths due to circulatory system diseases by 10%.

Krzyzanowski M; Wojtyniak B

1992-01-01

355

Asthma, air pollution and climate: a Christchurch study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship of hospital attendances for acute asthma attacks to air pollution levels in Christchurch was studied over the winter months of 1981. Attendances for acute asthma did not increase with increases in air pollution; indeed, higher pollution tended to be characterised by lower hospital attendances. This trend increased when multiple regression analysis was used to control the effects of climatic factors.

Dawson, K.P.; Allan, J.; Fergusson, D.M.

1983-03-09

356

A Prognostics Framework for Health Degradation and Air Pollution Concentrations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution is known to cause a wide range of diseases that have led to countless cases of premature mortality. Although pollution in a massive scale is uncontrollable by individual inhabitant, the negative impact on health as a direct result on indoor air pollution can be reduced by appr...

Bernard Fong; G. Y. Hong

357

Behind closed doors: the problem of indoor air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scientists are becoming increasingly convinced that indoor air pollution is a serious problem--one that may, in fact, pose an even greater threat to health than outdoor air pollution. This first of two companion articles discusses the individual pollutants, their known concentrations inside homes, the health problems they pose, and possible methods of controlling them.

Kirsch, L.S.

1983-03-01

358

International environmental policy and air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In several articles attention is paid to the title subject. Several international agreements in which plans to reduce the emission of air pollutants are formulated are discussed: the Maastricht Treaty of the European Community, The United Nations Treaty on Transfrontier Pollution. The action program KWS 2000 (Hydrocarbons 2000) in the Netherlands, which program aims at the reduction of hydrocarbon emissions, is compared with the European regulations on the reduction of volatile matter. Also a comparison is made of the Dutch emission regulation system (NeR) with similar systems in other European countries. Finally an overview is given of the development and adjustments of the Montreal Protocol and its effects on a European and national level

1994-01-01

359

Indoor air pollution by building materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to better insulation and improved airtightness of doors and windows, the supply of fresh air entering a room has been greatly reduced. This in turn causes an accumulation of pollutants emitted by different insulation and building materials. In the present study, the influence of the room temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation rate on the emission rates of formaldehyde from particle boards is described. Field investigations in new buildings have shown that the admissible limits of formaldehyde were often exceeded for a prolonged time; concentrations above 0.2 ..mu..L/L were found even after a year. In a few buildings different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons have been measured. It is concluded that stricter regulations are necessary to limit the emissions of pollutants from insulation and building materials.

Wanner, H.U.; Kuhn, M.

1986-01-01

360

CCMS air pollution model intercomparison study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four air pollution transport models were tested and compared in an area of approx. 400 x 400 km/sup 2/. Three models were Eulerian grid models, the fourth a Lagrangian trajectory model. The data base (emissions and meteorological observations) were essentially the same for all models. Differences in model output could only be a result of the different (numerical) structure of the models and of the differences in processing of the meteorological data. It turned out that the latter was the major source of differences in model results. Generally there was a satisfactory correlation between model results and observed concentrations. Mainly due to the negligence of transport of pollutants into the modelling region, predicted concentrations were considerably lower than the observed.

van Dop, H.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Bangkok and its air pollution problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

Panich, S.

1995-12-31

362

Rapid guide to hazardous air pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concise and easy to use, this book brings together a wealth of hard-to-gather information in one compact pocket guide. It offers--in alphabetical order--detailed profiles of the 189 elements and compounds determined to be hazardous air pollutants by the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act. The profile for each pollutant includes: fundamental identification data (CAS number, molecular formula, formula weight, synonyms); uses (primarily in the manufacture of chemicals and as a component in the manufacturing process); physical properties (such as boiling point, density, vapor pressures, color); chemical properties (such as air/water reactivity, reactivity with skin or metal, flash point, heat of combustion); health risks, including toxic exposure guidelines, toxicity data, and acute and chronic risks; hazard risks (the substance`s potential for accidents, fires, explosions, corrosion, and chemical incompatibility); exposure routes tracking the activities, environment, sources, and occupations that tend to lead to exposure; regulatory status, listing the primary laws and citations of regulated chemicals; and important additional information on symptoms, first aid, firefighting methods, protective equipment, and safe storage.

Beim, H.J.; Spero, J.; Theodore, L.

1998-12-31

363

Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, Ox, SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

2003-01-01

364

Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API) derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API). Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40). Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65). Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

Cui Yan; Zhang Zuo-Feng; Froines John; Zhao Jinkou; Wang Hua; Yu Shun-Zhang; Detels Roger

2003-01-01

365

Air pollution control and energy conservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Growing environmental awareness and dwindling fossil fuel reserves have led to the adoption of clean and proven energy efficient technologies. Through Ignifluid combustion process, besides ensuring efficient combustion of fuels, having diverse characteristics, formation of harmful gaseous pollutants viz. nitrous oxides and carbon dioxides, is greatly reduced. These apart, CO and hydrocarbons leaving the combustion chamber are of a low order. The paper brings to the fore the versatile features of the environment friendly Ignifluid process through performance feedback from the operating installations related to air pollution control. Ignifluid technology is the answer for retrofit for existing scores of large sized steam generating plants which are operating at a dismally low thermal efficiency thereby bulging out tons of gaseous pollutants to the landscape. By retrofitting with Ignifluid combustor besides achieving lowered gaseous emissions, due to improved thermal efficiency, energy conservation of a high order is ensured. Also, this technology is well established for burning multi fuels including industrial wastes in varying proportions with fossil/biomass fuels in the most efficient fashion. Through installation of stack gas cooler as an outfit to the Ignifluid boiler, energy conservation due to enhanced thermal efficiency and substantial reduction in generation of gaseous pollutants are ensured. Thus by improving overall plant efficiency, CO2 emission to atmosphere is drastically reduced thus abetting green house effect. Global warming is reduced by effecting reduction in gas exit temperature. Realizing this immense potential of Ignifluid system as an energy saving/pollution control device, government should give encouragement by way of granting fiscal benefits like tax concessions etc. (author). 1 fig., 6 tabs

1993-01-01

366

Mortality and air pollution: lessons from statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross sectional studies which attempt to link persistent geographic differences in mortality rates with air pollution are reviewed. Some early studies are mentioned and detailed results are given for seven major contemporary studies, two of which are still in the publication process. Differences among the studies are discussed with regard to statistical techniques, trends in the results over time (1959 to 1974), and interpretation and use of the results. The analysis concludes that there are far too many problems with this technique to allow causality to be firmly established, and thus the results should not be used for cost benefit or policy analysis

1982-05-07

367

Air pollution modelling and simulation. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book collates the written contributions of the Second Conference on Air Pollution Modelling and Simulation (APMS 2001). A wide range of current topics is covered, focusing on three challenging issues: (1) the modelling issue of complex, multiphase, atmospheric chemistry; (2) the numerical issue associated with comprehensive three-dimensional chemistry-transport models; and (3) the key issues of data assimilation and inverse modelling. State-of-the art research is presented with many operational procedures applied at either forecast agencies or companies. (orig.)

Sportisse, B. (ed.) [Ecole National des Ponts et Chaussees, Marne la Vallee Cedex (France)

2002-07-01

368

Air pollution modeling and its application VIII  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is the Proceedings of the Eighteenth NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling, which was held 13-17 May 1990 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This meeting was the eighth in the series; it specifically addressed modeling applications. The proceedings contains 88 of the 103 papers that were presented at the meeting. They are grouped into six topical areas: model assessment and policy implication; regional acid deposition and oxidant modeling; regional scale modeling; global scale dispersion studies, including sub-grid scale parameterization of transport and exchange processes; accidental releases, including radioactivity and dense gas dispersion; and new developments in dispersion modeling and theory.

Van Dop, H.; Steyn, D.G.

1991-01-01

369

Issue Backgrounder : Energy Efficient New Homes and Indoor Air Pollutants.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This booklet discusses what indoor air pollution is and how it can affect your health. It describes how energy-efficient new homes can affect indoor air quality. It also describes features that can help ensure clean indoor air, and tells how to detect and control indoor pollutants commonly found in homes.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1985-07-01

370

Harzardous air pollutant emissions from lumber drying.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methanol and formaldehyde are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and need to be estimated to ensure compliance with the Clean Air Act. Methanol, formaldehyde, and total hydrocarbon emissions were measured during the drying of ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, southern pine, Douglas-fir, and white fir lumber. Methanol emissions ranged from 0.06 to 0.12 pounds per 1,000 board feet. Total hydrocarbon emissions ranged from 0.24 to 1.42 pounds per 1,000 board feet and were not a good indicator of the relative amount of methanol emissions from a species. Formaldehyde emissions were less than the methanol emissions by at least a factor of 10.

Milota MR

2006-07-01

371

Elemental bioaccumulators in air pollution studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

K0-Based instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0 INAA) was used to determine the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Sb and Hg in the vascular plants Cistus salvifolius and Inula viscosa and in the lichen Parmelia sulcata. The samples were collected in the neighbourhood of industrial complexes. The elemental accumulation in the vascular plants and the lichen are compared to optimize the choice of the bioaccumulator. It is concluded that P.sulcata seems to be the best accumulator of the three species for the element studied; Cistus salvifolius is sensitive to the contents of Zn, Fe, Cr and Sb in the air; Inula viscosa seems to accumulate Fe, Sb, Co, Cr and Zn. Nevertheless, it is concluded that lichen is a good air pollution indicator, while the vascular plants are not due to the large seasonal variations found in the elemental concentrations. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

1995-01-01

372

Air pollution levels and regulations in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one of a series of three prepared for the Office of Fossil Energy of the US Department of Energy. Each report deals with one county in which acid deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, has been a prominent issue of public discussion. The three countries covered in this series of reports are Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom. For each country, air pollution control regulations are trends in air quality and emissions are broadly outlined, then are compared with corresponding regulations and trends in the United States. Since acid rain is the intended field of application, the reports generally deal only with sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and total suspended particulates.

Monarch, M.

1986-08-01

373

Indoor air pollution. Schadstoffbelastung in Innenraeumen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains the full version of the lectures of the conference 'Indoor air pollution' of March 30-31, 1991 in Duesseldorf attended by 500 participants. The interdisciplinary event was divided in the areas fundamental lectures (municipal problems, measuring technique, toxicity, sick-building-sydrome, low-emission materials) and working groups which held their meeting at the same time on the subjects: halogenated organic compounds, asbestos and other mineral fibre dusts, isocyanates/formaldehyde, microbiology, determination of limits. An important result of the conference was the 'Duesseldorf statement on indoor air' which is given in the appendix. This statement contains a number of demands on legislators, builders and the industry which should be satisfied in future. (orig./MG)

1992-01-01

374

Assessment of regional air pollution variability in Istanbul  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution concentrations have temporal and spatial variations depending on the prevailing weather conditions, topographic features, city building heights and locations. When the measurements of air pollutants are available at set measurement sites, the regional variability degree of air pollutants is quantified using the point cumulative semi-variogram (PCSV). This technique provides a systematic method for calculating the changes in the concentrations of air pollutants with distance from a specific site. Regional variations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and total suspended particulate (TSP) matter concentrations in Istanbul city were evaluated using the PCSV concept. The data were available from 16 different air pollution measurement stations scattered all over the city for a period from 1988 to 1994. Monthly regional variation maps were drawn in and around the city at different radii of influence. These maps provide a reference for measuring future changes of air pollution in the city. (author)

2001-01-01

375

Remedial measures to reduce air pollution losses in horticulture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since air pollution injury to horticulture plants has not been controlled by reduction at the source, other methods of protection must, therefore, be considered. Factors influencing air pollution injury to plants are discussed. Several environmental, soil, and physiological factors influence plant response to air pollutants. Regulation of these factors may lead to the ability to reduce the plant's sensitivity to injurious gases. The effects of nutrients on the response of plants of air pollutants are described, especially the effects of nitrogen. Cultural practices, chemical protectants, cultivar sensitivity and plant breeding, all of which affect the damage caused by gaseous air pollutants, are described. Detailed and complete economic studies are needed to document losses caused by air pollutants to assess their impacts on horticulture.

Kender, W.J.; Forsline, P.L.

1983-10-01

376

Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

377

Regulations for air pollution abatement. Vorschriften zur Reinhaltung der Luft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication presents the first general administrative order concerning the Federal Air Pollution Control Act (Clearn Air Technical Guide - TA Luft), as of August 28, 1974, including the latest version passed by the Bundesrat on February 4, 1983 (BR publication 528/82). It further contains the fourth general administrative order concerning the Federal Air Pollution Control Act (Detection of immissions in polluted areas - 4th BImSchVwV), as of April 8, 1975.

Langner, G.

1983-01-01

378

Air pollution - Trends in Austria 1980 - 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Austrian federal environmental office (Umweltbundesamt) carries out an annual inventory of the air pollution to fulfill obligatory duties derived from national and international agreements (UNFCCC; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto-protocol, EU monitoring mechanism (Decision 93/389/EWG). This inventory includes the anthropogenic emissions for the period 1980 - 2002 and the steps followed to reduce them. It is divided into 11 parts as follows: 1. summary, 2. inventory basis, 3. greenhouse gases (emissions trends 1990-2002, actual development 2001-2, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide, F- gases (SF6, partial fluorinated hydrocarbons, total fluorinated hydrocarbons), 4. ozone promoters (nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, methane), 5. acidification and eutrophication (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides), 6. dust, 7. heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury), 8. persistent organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxine, hexachlorobenzene), 9. pollution trends by sectors (power generation, traffic, industry, agriculture), 10. international comparison of Austrian emissions (greenhouse gases, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons without methane, ammonia, carbon monoxide), 11. bibliography and an appendix. Data were collected following the guidelines by the International panel on climate exchange and the EMEP/CORINAIR emission inventory guidebook. Those chapters which are in the INIS subject scope were treated individually. 36 ref., 30 tabls., 74 figs. (nevyjel)

2004-01-01

379

Air pollutant uptake by xerophytic vegetation: fluoride  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Drought resistance has been found to correlate in some species with resistance to air pollutants. In xerophytic species, drought resistance is often associated with anatomical and physiological leaf characteristics, which control plant water loss. The characteristic path of pollutant uptake in these species could be different from that reported as widespread among mesophytic plants. Measurements of fluoride content in intact and washed plant leaves, leaf water potentials, and exposure to pollutant carrying winds were performed in the vicinity of an aluminum smelter. Electronic fluorine specific microprobe measurements were made to localize fluoride in leaf tissues. The results indicate that fluoride uptake by these species consists in a deposition-adsorption upon the external leaf surface, followed by a slow diffusion to inner tissues which is regulated by the water potential at the piedermis and cuticle. The absence of fluorine accumulation in substomatic tissues suggests that the uptake of gaseous fractions of fumes through stomata would be relatively unimportant when quantitatively compared to the above mechanism.

Ares, J.O.; Villa, A.; Mondadori, G.

1980-01-01

380

Athletic performance and urban air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, ''reducing smog'' of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance.

Shephard, R.J.

1984-07-15

 
 
 
 
381

Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

2001-01-01

382

Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

2001-01-01

383

Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (..mu..g/m/sup 3/) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5-15 ..mu..m in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (<2.5 ..mu..m). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time period actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

Perry, G.B. (Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver); Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

1983-01-01

384

76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality...Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

2011-01-31

385

75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan...District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air...approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD),...

2010-05-05

386

77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act...regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes and adequate...

2012-04-12

387

75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan...District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air...approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD),...

2010-05-05

388

77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA...

2012-10-15

389

"Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health"  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 ?g/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.

Rizwan, SA; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2013-01-01

390

"Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 ?g/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.

Rizwan S; Nongkynrih B; Gupta SK

2013-01-01

391

Early life exposure to air pollution: how bad is it?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing concentrations of air pollution have been shown to contribute to an enormity of adverse health outcomes worldwide, which have been observed in clinical, epidemiological, and animal studies as well as in vitro investigations. Recently, studies have shown that air pollution can affect the developing fetus via maternal exposure, resulting in preterm birth, low birth weight, growth restriction, and potentially adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. This review will provide a summary of the harmful effects of air pollution exposure on the developing fetus and infant, and suggest potential mechanisms to limit the exposure of pregnant mothers and infants to air pollution.

Backes CH; Nelin T; Gorr MW; Wold LE

2013-01-01

392

Surface mining as a source of atmospheric air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deals with technological processes related to surface mining and substances produced by these processes that cause atmospheric air pollution. Air pollution is analyzed on the example of brown coal mining. Data are given on air pollution caused by dust carried away by wind from external spoil heaps in the Turoszow brown coal mine at distances up to 5 km (dust concentrations of 1.4-7 mg/m{sup 3}). Dust concentrations produced by drilling and blasting are discussed. Composition of aerosols emitted by gasoline or oil fuelled vehicles used in surface mines is given. Legal regulations valid in Poland and methods of air pollution estimation are reviewed. 17 refs.

Mazurek, C.; Zwozdziak, J.

1991-03-01

393

Indoor air pollution and housing technology. Research report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reviews the scientific literature on indoor air pollution. Many materials and conditions which contribute significantly to indoor air pollution are known to be present in Canadian homes. Major pollutants include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, radon gas, formaldehyde, tobacco smoke, ozone, asbestos, dust and mold, bacteria and viruses, and a host of organic chemical vapors, some of which are known or suspected carcinogens. The study states that indoor air pollution is a total population problem and that a significant number of Canadians are in high-risk categories with respect to pollutant exposure. There is a small but growing population of chemically susceptible persons in Canada who require low-pollution housing, low-pollution design and construction. Techniques employed in Sunnyhill Low-Pollution Research Centre are outlined and suggestions are made on their applicability to new and existing housing in Canada. Further research and discussion on this subject is advocated.. 376 refs., 28 figs., 42 tabs.

Small, B.M.

1983-01-01

394

Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates.

Setälä H; Viippola V; Rantalainen AL; Pennanen A; Yli-Pelkonen V

2013-12-01

395

Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?  

Science.gov (United States)

It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO(2), anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. PMID:23274234

Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

2012-12-27

396

Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for unadapted and adapted persons according to logarithmic index evaluation method, combined with percentage of dissatisfaction and joint effect of indoor air pollution caused by these two kinds of sources.

Wang J., Zhang X.

2010-01-01

397

Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for unadapted and adapted persons according to logarithmic index evaluation method, combined with percentage of dissatisfaction and joint effect of indoor air pollution caused by these two kinds of sources.

Wang, J.; Zhang, X. [Institute of HVAC and GAS Engineering, College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2010-07-01

398

AIR QUALITY POLLUTION DISCHARGE POINTS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Management, Air Quality Section in cooperation with the North Carolina Center for Geographical Information and Analysis developed the digital Air Quality Pollution Discharge Poi...

399

Cadastre of air polluters for city of Skopje  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a review of the condition with harmful articles emission in the air from industrial, energetic and communal emitters on the area of city Skopje is presented. The results of researches taken in the period 1994-1996, as a second phase of the project: 'Cadastre of air polluters and map of air pollution of Republic of Macedonia' are given. The level of data processing represents a base for prognosis of expected air pollution of city of Skopje, with what a possibility of air quality control will be provided. (author)

1997-01-01

400

Monitoring of trace element air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ?50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

1993-04-02

 
 
 
 
401

AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT BY FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourier transform spectroscopy substantially reduces the limitations on infrared methods of pollution measurement. EPA has used long path cells and Fourier transform spectrometers for pollutant measurement both in the laboratory and in the field. Labile pollutants are best measur...

402

Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts, and content of mobile heavy metals. The volume of APC residue is presently increasing due to the increased focus on utilization of renewable energy sources, and thus occupation of new waste–to-energy plants. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions, however, most commercial solutions are concerned with deposition; e.g. in abandoned mines. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. Some main challenges are the extremely high soluble fraction together with the fact that many of the toxic elements are encapsulated in the particles rather than adsorbed to their surface.

Jensen, Pernille Erland

403

Residential wood burning and air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of wood as a primary or secondary source of residential heating has been increasing rapidly in Australia, USA, and elsewhere since the early 1970s. This sharp increase in wood burning is having a detrimental impact on air quality, the effects being quite acute in some areas. The emissions normally include particulates, organic compounds, polycyclic organic materials, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and carbon monoxide. The nature and amounts of compounds emitted into the atmosphere are highly variable and depend on many factors such as fuel type, operating conditions, and combustor designs. Concerned by the health implications of wood smoke, a number of environmental agencies and research groups are working towards characterizing and quantifying emissions and to identify the factors affecting emissions. This paper reviews the literature available to date, which is quite extensive, and presents information pertinent to the different pollutional aspects of wood burning.

Quraishi, T.A.

1985-01-01

404

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01

405

Urban air pollution control in Peru  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

NONE

2006-12-20

406

Air pollution emission inventory survery for Israel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High ozone levels are regularly measured during summer months over the inland and mountainous regions of Israel. Studies analyzing the back trajectories of air masses responsible for the high ozone levels showed that the precursors originated from the densely populated Israeli coastline. In order to better understand the contribution of those emission sources to ozone production, it is essential to have an accurate emission inventory that can be inputted into a photochemical model. The present paper describes the methods used in preparing all emission inventory for Israel based on information available and published until 1998. The source and accuracy of the data available are described. The calculations performed and the assumptions taken in order to obtain data not directly available are clarified. The Sources reported in the inventory were the major polluters (power plants, oil refineries, and cement industries); industry; transportation; and biogenic sources. The pollutants studied were SO{sub 2}, NOx, CO, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, ethylene, isoprene, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, and aldehydes. The inventory showed that transportation is responsible for almost the entire CO and 30% of the volatile organic compounds emitted, although transportation itself accounts for only a fifth of total fuel consumption. About 75% of the NOx emitted can be attributed to industrial sources and the remaining 25% to transportation. Model simulations using the emission inventory were performed and compared to data available from a monitoring station situated 30 km east of Tel Aviv. The results showed good agreement, validating the accuracy of the emission inventory.

Weinroth, E.; Luria, M.; Ben-Nun, A.; Kaplan, J.; Peleg, M.; Mahrer, I. [Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel). Faculty for Natural Science

2006-07-01

407

Air pollution and risk of lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pilot study among other things was intended to establish and to test a suitable sampling instrument, to develop quantification concepts in order to derive from the large amount of detailed sets of data the appropriate exposure measures, and to determine the distribution pattern of the main risk factors. The approach chosen for epidemiological screening was a case-control study covering a total each of 194 lung cancer cases, hospital controls, and population controls drawn in the Lands of North Rhine-Westfalia and northern Germany. This case-control approach proved to be feasible in principle. In particular, the sampling instrument for description of the risk factors 'occupation', 'smoker', and 'air pollution' proved to be suitable in combination with data in other potential influencing factors. The concepts chosen for a quantification of these factors yielded exposure measures appropriately reducing the large dimension of data of the questionnaire, without however completely exploiting it. The data ascertained within the framework of the pilot study allow to make a risk assessment for only two factors, namely 'smoker' and 'occupation'. For the index of the overall occupational exposure, covering contributions from exposure to asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chronium, PAH, and radionuclides, a relative risk of 1.8 was determined. The study indicated that there is a link between occupational exposure to asbestos or PAH, and the occurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilot study did not give an answer to the question of whether air pollution contributes to the formation of bronchial carcinoma. This question will have to be solved by a more extensive study. (orig./MG)

1991-01-01

408

Earth under siege: from air pollution to global change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This textbook is primarily aimed at university students. Its contents are: introduction; Part 1. Fundamentals; air-the medium of change; basic physical and chemical principles; evolution of the earth; Part II. Local and regional pollution issues; pollutant sources and dispersion; smog - the urban syndrome; effects of exposure to pollution; indoor air pollution; acid rain; Part III. Global scale pollution issues; global biogeochemical cycles; the climate machine; greenhouse warming; the stratospheric ozone layer; global environment engineering; Appendix A. Scientific notion, units and constants; Appendix B Demonstrations of physical and chemical phenomena; index.

Turco, R.P. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

1997-01-01

409

Air pollution and health. The role of epidemiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of epidemiology in assessing the relation between exposure to air pollution and (public) health is described. The general aims of environmental epidemiology, and the causality chain (from emission of the pollutant in the air to the manifestation of health effects) are presented. Various indicators for pollutant exposure and for health are introduced. The use of these indicators is illustrated in three examples: a study on the effects of air pollution episodes on pulmonary function; a study on the health effects of chronic cadmium exposure; and, a study on the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. 1 fig., 10 refs.

Lebret, E.; Kreis, I.A.

1988-12-01

410

A Prognostics Framework for Health Degradation and Air Pollution Concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is known to cause a wide range of diseases that have led to countless cases of premature mortality. Although pollution in a massive scale is uncontrollable by individual inhabitant, the negative impact on health as a direct result on indoor air pollution can be reduced by appropriate preventive actions. Smart home technology allows ventilation to be controlled through condition-based monitoring of the air pollutant concentration in the room. This paper describes a prognostics framework that regulates in-room ventilation, the algorithm can be fed into a smart home control system for prevention of a number of respiratory diseases.

Bernard Fong; G. Y. Hong

2012-01-01

411

Behind closed doors: indoor air pollution and government policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the problem of indoor air pollution and policy options it presents. It discusses the individual pollutants, their known concentrations inside homes, the health problems they pose, and possible methods of controlling them. The potential for applying three currently existing federal statutes to the regulation of indoor air pollution is included. The discussion indicates the need for an expanded government role in the control of indoor air pollution, evaluates the possible strategies which Congress might consider, and presents a proposal for federal legislation.

Kirsch, L.S.

1982-01-01

412

Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma.

Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S

2008-01-01

413

Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

Giever, Paul M., Ed.

414

Particulate air pollution, systemic oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air pollution has been associated with significant adverse health effects leading to increased overall morbidity and mortality of worldwide significance. Epidemiological studies have shown that the largest portion of air pollution-related mortality is due to cardiovascular diseases, predominantly th...

Araujo, Jesus A.

415

The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

1995-12-31

416

AIR POLLUTANTS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS IN IRAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigations have been carried out on the indoor air pollution in .different workshops of food processing plants in Iran. In order to evaluate the exposure of workers to the three most commonly used indices of air pollution ten food processing plants representing ten groups of food industry with 2...

F. Akbarkhanzadeh; P. Meshgi

417

Effects of air pollutants on plant-pathogen interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollutants can affect the plant - plant pathogen interaction. Over the past several years, research on this topic has resulted in a few generalities and many unanswered questions. This study is a review of the literature concerning air pollutant - plant - plant pathogen interactions. In addition, interpretations for some of the pertinent results are presented, and possible directions for the future are offered.

Laurence, J.A.

1981-01-01

418

12 - Mortality, Temperature and Air Pollution in Palermo, Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to show how short-term effects of air pollution can depend on temperature in studying daily deaths in Palermo, Italy. The influence of both temperature and air pollution on mortality has been proved in several studies, but their synergic effect, although suggested by someone...

MUGGEO, VITO; LOVISON, GIANFRANCO

419

The air pollution. Causes, consequences, solutions; La pollution de l'air. Causes, consequences, solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The air pollution is everywhere: ozone, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, sulfur and other particles or aerosols and also greenhouse effects, acid rain, ozone layer. Today the human being realizes with terror that the scientific progress threatens per contra the earth equilibrium and his own health. This book proposes to answer to the three following questions: what is the actual situation? What is the part of the reality and the part of the alarmist information? What are the possibilities to keep a durable economic development and also to protect the ecosystem? The integral texts on the european directive and on the air law are also included. (A.L.B.)

Arques, Ph. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69 - Ecully (France)

1998-07-01

420

Secondary effects of air pollution: enhanced aphid growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of urban air - ambient Munich air - on aphid growth was investigated. Rose bushes (Rosa sp., cv. Nina Weibull) were fumigated with either ambient Munich air or charcoal-filtered air. Then the plants were infected with aphid Macrosiphon rosae nymphs. The mean relative growth rate of aphids feeding on roses in ambient air was about 20% higher than those feeding in the filtered atmosphere. This result confirms previous studies that air pollution enhances the pest potential of aphids.

Dohmen, G.P.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Canadian perspectives on air pollution. Perspective canadienne sur la pollution atmospherique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a general overview of the nature of the atmosphere and atmospheric pollution, the causes of air pollution are discussed, focusing on human activities related to energy production and consumption. The effects of air pollution on human health, plants, animals, materials, and climates are described. Data are presented on the sources, emissions, levels, and environmental/health effects of the six common air pollutants in Canada: airborne particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ground-level ozone, and hydrocarbons. Since the characteristics of toxic air pollutants are more difficult to describe because there are so many of them, the variety of approaches used in their study is illustrated by case studies involving lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, residential wood combustion, and localized industrial pollution. Several regional and global air pollution issues of importance to Canadians are examined: acid rain, pollution in the Arctic, ozone depletion in the stratosphere, the greenhouse effect or global warming, and atmospheric radioactivity. Finally, a discussion is presented of the significance of air pollution problems to the Canadian public and the efforts by government to prevent air pollution through legislation. 166 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.

Hilborn, J.; Still, M.

1990-09-01

422

Valuation Of Health Impacts Of Air Pollution In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper surveys the studies measuring the economic impacts of air pollution on health in India. Air pollution has potentially large impacts on the health and well-being of households, especially the poor families. The literature shows that the distribution of the impacts of air pollution is not uniform across the cross sections of societies. It notes that though there are some case studies on the valuation of health impacts of outdoor air pollution, there is rarely any study on the valuation of health outcomes of indoor air pollution which uses consumer choice or behavior models. It identifies that studies should focus on both individual specific characteristics as well as the neighborhood specifications and these studies should be dynamic as the static studies fails to capture the effects of change in socio-economic features on health outcomes.

Surender Kumar; and Paramjit

2013-01-01

423

Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

Niklas Berglind; Petter Ljungman; Jette Möller; Johan Hallqvist; Fredrik Nyberg; Mĺrten Rosenqvist; Göran Pershagen; Tom Bellander

2010-01-01

424

Human Health Cost of Air Pollution in Kazakhstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kazakhstan, like other former Soviet Republics, inherited a number of serious environmental problems. Air pollution is one of these serious problems, leading to significant environmental health effects on the population of Kazakhstan. This study provides a baseline analysis of health damages from air pollution, based on readily available information. Mean estimates of mortality risk attributable to air pollution are about 16,000 cases per year with a 95% confidence level of the risk not exceeding 25,500. Even taking into account all the uncertainties related to the collection and processing of primary data, as well as the application of risk analysis methodology, we conclude that air pollution in Kazakhstan constitutes a significant contribution to the environmental burden of diseases. In relative terms, the impact of air pollution on premature mortality in Kazakhstan is notably higher than in Russia and the Ukraine.

Ussen Kenessariyev; Alexander Golub; Michael Brody; Askhat Dosmukhametov; Meiram Amrin; Aya Erzhanova; Dinara Kenessary

2013-01-01

425

Ambient air pollution patterns in Amsterdam 1971-1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ambient air quality monitorings have been performed in Amsterdam since 1963. These monitorings started with sulfur dioxide, which was the predominant air pollutant in those years. Gradually, the air pollutant research activities were expanded and in the end concerned all major constituents which are typical for urban air pollution. The objective of this study is to present a long-term overview of the most important results, encompassing trends of pollutant behaviour in both space and time as well as compliance with ambient air quality standards. The analysis is based on the research data produced by the local monitoring networks as well as on data from a few National Network Stations, also located within the Amsterdam urban area. The following pollutants have been taken into account: carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone and lead

Heida, H.; Coolen, M.; Jong, A. de; Bank, K. [OMEGAM - Environmental Research Inst. Amsterdam (Netherlands)

1995-12-31

426

Adverse respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution in the elderly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compared to the rest of the population, the elderly are potentially highly susceptible to the effects of outdoor air pollution due to normal and pathological ageing. The purpose of the present review was to gather data on the effects on respiratory health of outdoor air pollution in the elderly, on whom data are scarce. These show statistically significant short-term and chronic adverse effects of various outdoor air pollutants on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the elderly. When exposed to air pollution, the elderly experience more hospital admissions for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and higher COPD mortality than others. Previous studies also indicate that research on the health effects of air pollution in the elderly has been affected by methodological problems in terms of exposure and health effect assessments. Few pollutants have been considered, and exposure assessment has been based mostly on background air pollution and more rarely on objective measurements and modelling. Significant progress needs to be made through the development of 'hybrid' models utilising the strengths of information on exposure in various environments to several air pollutants, coupled with daily activity exposure patterns. Investigations of chronic effects of air pollution and of multi-pollutant mixtures are needed to better understand the role of